Sample records for hemispheroidal dielectric resonator

  1. Optical response of gold hemispheroidal lattices on transparent substrates (United States)

    Kildemo, Morten; Banon, Jean-Philippe; Baron, Alexandre; Svendsen, Brage B.; Brakstad, Thomas; Simonsen, Ingve


    Square arrays of gold (Au) hemispheroids deposited on a UV-transparent glass substrate reveal a rich optical response when investigated by spectroscopic Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry. Two samples were studied; the first consisted of hemispheroids of parallel radius of 58 nm and height 30 nm with lattice constant 210 nm; the corresponding parameters for the second sample were 38 nm, 20 nm and 125 nm, respectively. By a full azimuthal rotation of the samples, we observe all the Rayleigh anomalies corresponding to grazing diffracted waves, with strong resonances for co-polarization scattered light near the high symmetry points and cross-polarization scattered light around the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance. Polarization-conversion becomes particularly important at grazing incidence, and the cross-polarization follows the Rayleigh lines. The optical response (neglecting polarization conversion) is modelled in the quasi-static approximation using the so-called Bedeaux-Vlieger formalism, and the Finite Element Method using COMSOL. The direct inversion of the effective (substrate dependent) dielectric function is discussed.

  2. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander


    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  3. Resonant dielectric metamaterials (United States)

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B


    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  4. Resonant behavior of dielectric objects (electrostatic resonances). (United States)

    Fredkin, D R; Mayergoyz, I D


    Resonant behavior of dielectric objects occurs at certain frequencies for which the object permittivity is negative and the free-space wavelength is large in comparison with the object dimensions. Unique physical features of these resonances are studied and a novel technique for the calculation of resonance values of permittivity, and hence resonance frequencies, is proposed. Scale invariance of resonance frequencies, unusually strong orthogonality properties of resonance modes, and a two-dimensional phenomenon of "twin" spectra are reported. The paper concludes with brief discussions of optical controllability of these resonances in semiconductor nanoparticles and a plausible, electrostatic resonance based, mechanism for nucleation and formation of ball lightning.

  5. Internal and external resonances of dielectric disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dettmann, C. P.; Morozov, G. V.; Sieber, M.; Waalkens, H.

    Circular microresonators (microdisks) are micron size dielectric disks embedded in a material of lower refractive index. They possess modes with complex eigenvalues (resonances) which are solutions of analytically given transcendental equations. The behavior of such eigenvalues in the small opening

  6. Plasma generation by dielectric resonator arrays (United States)

    Dennison, Stephen; Chapman, Adam; Luo, Wei; Lanagan, Michael; Hopwood, Jeffrey


    Arrays of dielectric resonators—illuminated by an antenna—are used to ignite and sustain multiple microwave plasmas in parallel. Calcium titanate cylindrical resonators were arranged in a linear array with separation distances between 0.5 and 5 mm. The operating frequency was near the HEM111 resonance of 1.1 GHz. Paschen curves of the breakdown field and voltage in argon atmosphere are consistent with parallel plate microwave breakdown except within discharge gaps of 1 mm or less. Sustaining of argon plasma between 0.5 Torr and 1 atm within the array is found to alter the electromagnetic scattering from the dielectric resonators, suggesting applications in plasma-reconfigurable metamaterials and photonic crystals.

  7. Modeling of dielectric elastomer as electromechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo, E-mail:; Liu, Lei; Chen, Hualing; Jia, Shuhai [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Junshi [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Dichen [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) feature nonlinear dynamics resulting from an electromechanical coupling. Under alternating voltage, the DE resonates with tunable performances. We present an analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a DE as electromechanical resonator (DEER) configured as a pure shear actuator. A theoretical model is developed to characterize the complex performance under different boundary conditions. Physical mechanisms are presented and discussed. Chaotic behavior is also predicted, illustrating instabilities in the dynamics. The results provide a guide to the design and application of DEER in haptic devices.

  8. High-Q Supercavity Modes in Subwavelength Dielectric Resonators. (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Koshelev, Kirill L; Sadrieva, Zarina F; Samusev, Kirill B; Bogdanov, Andrey A; Limonov, Mikhail F; Kivshar, Yuri S


    Recent progress in nanoscale optical physics is associated with the development of a new branch of nanophotonics exploring strong Mie resonances in dielectric nanoparticles with a high refractive index. The high-index resonant dielectric nanostructures form building blocks for novel photonic metadevices with low losses and advanced functionalities. However, unlike extensively studied cavities in photonic crystals, such dielectric resonators demonstrate low quality factors (Q factors). Here, we uncover a novel mechanism for achieving giant Q factors of subwavelength nanoscale resonators by realizing the regime of bound states in the continuum. In contrast to the previously suggested multilayer structures with zero permittivity, we reveal strong mode coupling and Fano resonances in homogeneous high-index dielectric finite-length nanorods resulting in high-Q factors at the nanoscale. Thus, high-index dielectric resonators represent the simplest example of nanophotonic supercavities, expanding substantially the range of applications of all-dielectric resonant nanophotonics and meta-optics.

  9. Effect of Parasitic Dielectric Resonators on CPW/Aperture-Coupled Dielectric Resonator Antennas (United States)

    Simons, R. N.; Lee, R. Q.


    The effects of parasitic dielectric resonators on the HE (sub 11 sigma) and HE (High Efficiency) (sub 13 sigma) modes of a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) have been studied. The DRA was excited electromagnetically with a grounded coplanar waveguide through an aperture in the common ground plane. Strong couplings were observed for the HE (sub 11 sigma) mode with the parasitic element superimposed on the driven DRA, and for the HE (sub 13 sigma) mode with parasitic elements placed on both sides of the driven DRA. Results indicate significant enhancement in bandwidth for both modes, and good radiation patterns for the HE (sub 11 sigma) mode.

  10. Analysis of a shielded TE011 mode composite dielectric resonator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Analysis of a TE011 mode composite sapphire–rutile dielectric resonator has been car- ried out to study the temperature variation of resonance frequency, close to the Cs atomic clock hyperfine frequency of 9.192 GHz. The complementary behavior of dielectric permittivity with tem- perature of the composite has ...

  11. Analysis of a shielded TE 011 mode composite dielectric resonator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of a TE011 mode composite sapphire–rutile dielectric resonator has been carried out to study the temperature variation of resonance frequency, close to the Cs atomic clock hyperfine frequency of 9.192 GHz. The complementary behavior of dielectric permittivity with temperature of the composite has been exploited ...

  12. Experimental evidence of resonant effective permittivity in a dielectric metamaterial (United States)

    Lepetit, T.; Akmansoy, É.; Ganne, J.-P.


    We designed and fabricated a dielectric metamaterial consisting of one set of high permittivity resonators. We experimentally showed that this metamaterial exhibits resonant effective permittivity, issued from the second mode of Mie resonances of these resonators. Therefore, metamaterials consisting of high permittivity resonators may provide either effective permeability or permittivity issued from the first two modes of Mie resonances, respectively. This ensures that all-dielectric metamaterials involving two sets of matched high permittivity resonators may exhibit negative index issued from these two modes, notably up to the terahertz domain.

  13. A Split Ring Resonator Dielectric Probe for Near-Field Dielectric Imaging. (United States)

    Isakov, Dmitry; Stevens, Chris J; Castles, Flynn; Grant, Patrick S


    A single split-ring resonator (SRR) probe for 2D surface mapping and imaging of relative dielectric permittivity for the characterisation of composite materials has been developed. The imaging principle, the analysis and the sensitivity of the SRR surface dielectric probe data is described. The surface dielectric properties of composite materials in the frequency range 1-3 GHz have been measured based on the magnetic resonance frequency of the transmission loss of the SRR dielectric probe when in contact with the surface. The SRR probe performance was analysed analytically and using full-wave simulation, and predictions showed close agreement with experiment for composite materials with spatially varying dielectric permittivity manufactured by 3D printing. The spatial and permittivity resolution of the SRR dielectric probe were controlled by the geometrical parameters of the SRR which provided flexibility to tune the SRR probe. The best accuracy of the dielectric permittivity measurements was within 5%.

  14. Determination of thickness and dielectric constant of thin transparent dielectric layers using Surface Plasmon Resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, H.E.; de Bruijn, Helene E.; Altenburg, Bert S.F.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan


    The determination of the thickness and dielectric constant of thin dielectric layers by means of surface plasmon resonance is discussed. It appears to be impossible to determine these parameters from one surface plasmon response experiment. This is illustrated theoretically. Variation of the

  15. Resonances and dipole moments in dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A.; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav


    An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis of metamat......An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis...

  16. Resonance continuum coupling in high-permittivity dielectric metamaterials (United States)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Akmansoy, Eric; Ganne, Jean-Pierre; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel


    A detailed investigation of resonance-continuum coupling is carried out both experimentally and theoretically in metamaterials based on high-permittivity dielectric subwavelength resonators. An original experimental scheme is designed at microwave frequencies, which mimics a periodic array of resonators. Fano resonances are discussed in the framework of temporal coupled mode theory for the cases where one or two resonator modes couples to the continuum. Fano lineshapes are unambiguously demonstrated experimentally for the single-mode case in agreement with theoretical modeling. Numerical evidence of resonance trapping is shown in the two-mode case when modes with the same symmetry coincide in frequency.

  17. Radiation Characteristics Enhancement of Dielectric Resonator Antenna Using Solid/Discrete Dielectric Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. E. Malhat


    Full Text Available The radiation characteristics of the dielectric resonator antennas (DRA is enhanced using different types of solid and discrete dielectric lenses. One of these approaches is by loading the DRA with planar superstrate, spherical lens, or by discrete lens (transmitarray. The dimensions and dielectric constant of each lens are optimized to maximize the gain of the DRA. A comparison between the radiations characteristics of the DRA loaded with different lenses are introduced. The design of the dielectric transmitarray depends on optimizing the heights of the dielectric material of the unit cell. The optimized transmitarray achieves 7 dBi extra gain over the single DRA with preserving the circular polarization. The proposed antenna is suitable for various applications that need high gain and focused antenna beam.

  18. Wireless power transfer based on dielectric resonators with colossal permittivity (United States)

    Song, Mingzhao; Belov, Pavel; Kapitanova, Polina


    Magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system based on dielectric disk resonators made of colossal permittivity (ɛ = 1000) and low loss (tan δ = 2.5 × 10-4) microwave ceramic is experimentally investigated. The system operates at the magnetic dipole mode excited in the resonators providing maximal power transfer efficiency of 90% at the frequency 232 MHz. By applying an impedance matching technique, the efficiency of 50% is achieved within the separation between the resonators d = 16 cm (3.8 radii of the resonator). The separation, misalignment and rotation dependencies of wireless power transfer efficiency are experimentally studied.

  19. Theoretical investigations on microwave Fano resonances in 3D-printable hollow dielectric resonators. (United States)

    Lee, Eunsongyi; Seo, In Cheol; Jeong, Hoon Yeub; An, Soo-Chan; Jun, Young Chul


    High-index dielectric structures have recently been studied intensively for Mie resonances at optical frequencies. These dielectric structures can enable extreme light manipulation, similar to that which has been achieved with plasmonic nanostructures. In the microwave region, dielectric resonators and metamaterials can be fabricated directly using 3D printing, which is advantageous for fabricating structurally complicated 3D geometries. It is therefore especially suitable for the fabrication of subwavelength structures. Here we report theoretical investigations on microwave Fano resonances in 3D-printable dielectric materials and structures. In particular, we propose and analyse 3D-printable, hollow, dielectric resonators with relatively low refractive indices, which exhibit sharp Fano resonances. We can control the interaction between bright and dark modes in a coupled dielectric particle pair by adjusting the inner-hole size, and thus we can increase the radiative Q factors further. We also find that Fano resonances in these hollow dielectric resonators are very sensitive to an index change in the surrounding medium, which could be useful for long-distance environmental sensing. New possibilities and opportunities are opening up with the rapid development of 3D-printing technologies. Our findings and the detailed investigations reported here can provide useful guidelines for future photonic devices based on 3D-printable materials and structures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.


    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  1. Normal modes and quality factors of spherical dielectric resonators: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameters suitable for their application in the optical and microwave frequency ranges have been used to compute the frequencies corresponding to the normal modes for the TE and TM modes. Expressions for the quality factors for realistic resonators, i.e., for a dielectric sphere with a non-zero conductivity and a metal ...

  2. Robust design of microlenses arrays employing dielectric resonators metasurfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Gerini, G.; Bäumer, S.M.B.


    In the last years, much interest has grown around the concept of optical surfaces employing high contrast dielectric resonators. However, a systematic approach for the design of this optical surfaces under particular requirements has never been proposed. In this contribution, we describe this

  3. Electromagnetic resonant modes of dielectric sphere bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andueza, A., E-mail:; Pérez-Conde, J.; Sevilla, J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)


    Sphere bilayers have been proposed as promising structures for electromagnetic management in photonic crystal devices. These arrangements are made of two intertwined subsets of spheres of different size and refractive index, one subset filling the interstitial sites of the other. We present a systematic study of the electromagnetic resonant modes of the bilayers, in comparison with those of the constituent subsets of spheres. Three samples were built with glass and Teflon spheres and their transmission spectra measured in the microwave range (10–25 GHz). Simulations with finite integration time-domain method are in good agreement with experiments. Results show that the bilayer presents the same resonances as one of the subsets but modified by the presence of the other in its resonant frequencies and in the electric field distributions. As this distortion is not very large, the number of resonances in a selected spectral region is determined by the dominant subset. The degree of freedom that offers the bilayer could be useful to fine tune the resonances of the structure for different applications. A map of modes useful to guide this design is also presented. Scale invariance of Maxwell equations allows the translation of these results in the microwave range to the visible region; hence, some possible applications are discussed in this framework.

  4. Manipulation of plasmonic resonances in graphene coated dielectric cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin


    Graphene sheets can support surface plasmon as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively with electromagnetic waves. Compared with the surface plasmon in conventional metal (e.g., Ag and Au), graphene plasmonic owns many remarkable merits especially in Terahertz and far infrared frequencies, such as deep sub-wavelength, low loss, and high tunability. For graphene coated dielectric nano-scatters, localized surface plasmon (LSP)exist and can be excited under specific conditions. The LSPs are associated with the Mie resonance modes, leading to extraordinary large scattering and absorption cross section. In this work, we study systematically the optical scattering properties for graphene coated dielectric cylinders. It is found that the LSP can be manipulated by geometrical parameters and external electric gating. Generally, the resonance frequencies for different resonance modes are not the same. However, under proper design, we show that different resonance modes (e.g., dipole mode, quadruple mode etc.) can be excited at the same frequency. Thus, the scattering and absorption by graphene coated dielectric cylinders can indeed overcome the single channel limit. Our finding may open up new avenues in applications for the graphene-based THz optoelectronic devices.

  5. Rectangular dielectric resonator antennas theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Yaduvanshi, Rajveer S


    This book covers resonating modes inside device and gives insights into antenna design, impedance and radiation patterns. It discusses how higher-order modes generation and control impact bandwidth and antenna gain. The text covers new approaches in antenna design by investigation hybrid modes, H_Z and E_Z fields available simultaneously, and analysis and modelling on modes with practical applications in antenna design. The book will be prove useful to students, researchers and professionals alike.

  6. Dielectric Resonator Nanoantenna Coupled To Metallic Coplanar Waveguide


    Malheiros-Silveira; Gilliard N.; Hernandez-Figueroa; Hugo E.


    A proposal about a dielectric resonator nanoantenna applied to couple optical beams to a surface plasmon coplanar waveguide (SP CPW), and vice versa, was theoretically investigated. The effects of this device operating in optical frequencies were studied, taking into account the central frequency of the conventional optical communication spectrum (C-band). Numerical results show that this proposal is interesting in that it couples an optical beam with an SP CPW with a good reflection coeffici...

  7. 16 GHz dielectric resonator oscillators with digital temperature compensation (United States)

    Slobodnik, A. J., Jr.; Stiglitz, M. R.; Roberts, G. A.


    A digital compensation technique for improving the temperature stability of dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) is described. Current results with a 16.1 GHz DRO show a reduction in the temperature sensitivity of frequency of almost two orders of magnitude from 309 ppm to 3.8 ppm over the range of 16 to 52 C. This is an average value of only 0.1 ppm/C.

  8. Multipolar modes in dielectric disk resonator for wireless power transfer (United States)

    Song, Mingzhao; Belov, Pavel; Kapitanova, Polina


    We demonstrate a magnetic resonant WPT system based on dielectric disk resonators and investigated the WPT efficiency as a function of separation. It has been demonstrated that the power transfer can be achieved at different multipolar modes. The numerical study shows that the highest WPT efficiency of 99% can be obtained for the MQ mode in an ideal case. However, the efficiency of MQ mode decays much faster than the MD mode which suggests that a trade-off has to be made in the practical WPT system design.

  9. All-Dielectric Colored Metasurfaces with Silicon Mie Resonators. (United States)

    Proust, Julien; Bedu, Frédéric; Gallas, Bruno; Ozerov, Igor; Bonod, Nicolas


    The photonic resonances hosted by nanostructures provide vivid colors that can be used as color filters instead of organic colors and pigments in photodetectors and printing technology. Metallic nanostructures have been widely studied due to their ability to sustain surface plasmons that resonantly interact with light. Most of the metallic nanoparticles behave as point-like electric multipoles. However, the needs of an another degree of freedom to tune the color of the photonic nanostructure together with the use of a reliable and cost-effective material are growing. Here, we report a technique to imprint colored images based on silicon nanoparticles that host low-order electric and magnetic Mie resonances. The interplay between the electric and magnetic resonances leads to a large palette of colors. This all-dielectric fabrication technique offers the advantage to use cost-effective, reliable, and sustainable materials to provide vivid color spanning the whole visible spectrum. The interest and potential of this all-dielectric printing technique are highlighted by reproducing at a micrometer scale a Mondrian painting.

  10. Radar resonance reflection from sets of plane dielectric layers (United States)

    Jackinsl, P. D.; Gaunaurd, G. C.


    The prediction of the Resonance Scattering Theory (RST) for the reflection coefficient from a set of two contiguous plane dielectric layers separating two semi-infinite dissimilar non-conducting media, is constructed and compared to the exact classical model solution. The comparsion serves to: (1) show the accuracy and simplicity of the RST prediction, and (2) to underline the usefulness of the RST to produce simple physical interpretations of generally complex phenomena. The analysis provides a systematic method for detecting the presence of a dielectric layer under another one covering it (possibly the situation caused by an oil spill in ice-covered Artic regions), by certain modulation effects present in the "response surface' of the returned echoes. This method also identifies the material composition of the lower or hidden layer in the bilaminar configuration. The process disentangles which resonance feature present in the radar reflection coefficient is caused by which of the two interacting layers. RST, therfore, solves the inverse scattering problem for the composition and thickness not only of the top visible (ice) layer, but also of the substance (oil) hidden under that upper layer.

  11. A New Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalily


    Full Text Available A wideband and compact circularly polarized (CP C-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA is presented. The proposed C-shaped DR is excited by a simple stripe line connected to a coplanar waveguide (CPW feeding line. The C-shaped DRA is circularly polarized with 19% axial ratio (AR bandwidth. It is found that the CP bandwidth can be expanded by using a narrow short circuit strip. The final design achieves CP with 50% AR bandwidth. The proposed circularly polarized DRA (CPDRA with good radiation characteristics offers an impedance bandwidth of 58% between 3.45 and 6.26 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2. The proposed DRA is fabricated and tested. Very good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained.

  12. Achieving a multi-band metamaterial perfect absorber via a hexagonal ring dielectric resonator (United States)

    Li, Li-Yang; Wang, Jun; Du, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jia-Fu; Qu, Shao-Bo


    A multi-band absorber composed of high-permittivity hexagonal ring dielectric resonators and a metallic ground plate is designed in the microwave band. Near-unity absorptions around 9.785 GHz, 11.525 GHz, and 12.37 GHz are observed for this metamaterial absorber. The dielectric hexagonal ring resonator is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. The mechanism for the near-unity absorption is investigated via the dielectric resonator theory. It is found that the absorption results from electric and magnetic resonances where enhanced electromagnetic fields are excited inside the dielectric resonator. In addition, the resonance modes of the hexagonal resonator are similar to those of standard rectangle resonators and can be used for analyzing hexagonal absorbers. Our work provides a new research method as well as a solid foundation for designing and analyzing dielectric metamaterial absorbers with complex shapes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331005, 11204378, 11274389, 11304393, and 61302023), the Aviation Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20132796018 and 20123196015), the Natural Science Foundation for Post-Doctoral Scientists of China (Grant Nos. 2013M532131 and 2013M532221), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JM6005), and the Special Funds for Authors of Annual Excellent Doctoral Degree Dissertations of China (Grant No. 201242).

  13. Modeling and simulations of the amplitude-frequency response of transmission line type resonators filled with lossy dielectric fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog-Antonyuk, N.A.; Mayer, M.J.J.; Miedema, H.; Olthuis, Wouter; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; van den Berg, Albert


    Stub resonators can be used to assess the dielectric properties of fluids. The resonance frequencies, determined from the amplitude versus frequency (AF) response of such resonators, are mainly determined by the permittivity of the fluid while damping arises from dielectric losses. Even though this

  14. Resonant microwave fields and negative magnetic response, induced by displacement currents in dielectric rings: theory and the first experiments. (United States)

    Shvartsburg, A B; Pecherkin, V Ya; Vasilyak, L M; Vetchinin, S P; Fortov, V E


    The theoretical basis and experimental verification of resonant phenomena in the electromagnetic fields generated by displacement current in the near zone of dielectric ring is presented. According to the traditional viewpoint, the dielectric has an influence on the electric field inside resonator. To the contrary, we demonstrate that the dielectric ring exhibits magnetic properties at resonance. The sliding incidence of plane microwave on this weakly absorbing ring is shown to provide the sharp and deep resonance in the components of generated field; this low loss circuit is operating as a resonant dielectric magnetic dipole. Splitting and broadening of resonance in the pair of these dipoles dependent upon their mutual arrangement is recorded. The phase shift equal to π between the magnetic components of incident and generated wave indicating the formation of negative magnetic response is demonstrated. Perspectives of using of this simple sub wavelength resonant magnetic dipoles in the all-dielectric circuitry are discussed.

  15. Wavelet analysis of hemispheroid flow separation toward understanding human vocal fold pathologies (United States)

    Plesniak, Daniel H.; Carr, Ian A.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps and nodules, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. The experimental investigation of flow separation over a surface-mounted hemispheroid was performed using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measurements of surface pressure in a low-speed wind tunnel. This study builds on the hypothesis that the signatures of vortical structures associated with flow separation are imprinted on the surface pressure distributions. Wavelet decomposition methods in one- and two-dimensions were utilized to elucidate the flow behavior. First, a complex Gaussian wavelet was used for the reconstruction of surface pressure time series from static pressure measurements acquired from ports upstream, downstream, and on the surface of the hemispheroid. This was followed by the application of a novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2) using a 2D-Ricker wavelet for coherent structure detection on instantaneous PIV-data. The goal of this study is to correlate phase shifts in surface pressure with Strouhal numbers associated with the vortex shedding. Ultimately, the wavelet-based analytical framework will be aimed at addressing pulsatile flows. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  16. III-V semiconductor nano-resonators-a new strategy for passive, active, and nonlinear all-dielectric metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sheng; Reno, John L; Sinclair, Michael B; Brener, Igal


    Metamaterials comprising assemblies of dielectric resonators have attracted much attention due to their low intrinsic loss and isotropic optical response. In particular, metasurfaces made from silicon dielectric resonators have shown desirable behaviors such as efficient nonlinear optical conversion, spectral filtering and advanced wave-front engineering. To further explore the potential of dielectric metamaterials, we present all-dielectric metamaterials fabricated from epitaxially grown III-V semiconductors that can exploit the high second-order optical susceptibilities of III-V semiconductors, as well as the ease of monolithically integrating active/gain media. Specifically, we create GaAs nano-resonators using a selective wet oxidation process that forms a low refractive index AlGaO (n~1.6) under layer similar to silicon dielectric resonators formed using silicon-on-insulator wafers. We further use the same fabrication processes to demonstrate multilayer III-V dielectric resonator arrays that provide us w...

  17. Simulation of resonance focusing of light by dielectric cylinder with a square section (United States)

    Kozlova, Elena S.; Kozlov, Dmitry A.; Kotlyar, Victor V.


    In this paper, a research on conditions for resonance excitation in a homogeneous dielectric cylinder with square crosssection is conducted using a FDTD-method. It is shown that in a cylinder with square cross-section resonant modes similar to whispering gallery modes can be excited, which helps in reducing the transverse dimensions of the focal spot. FDTD-method demonstrates an acceptable accuracy of the resonant mode detection.

  18. Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite (United States)

    Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao


    The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 108 Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 108 Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913

  19. Efficient polarization insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens' metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S


    Subwavelength-thin metasurfaces have shown great promises for the control of optical wavefronts, thus opening new pathways for the development of efficient flat optics. In particular, Huygens' metasurfaces based on all-dielectric resonant meta-atoms have already shown a huge potential for practical applications with their polarization insensitivity and high transmittance efficiency. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a polarization insensitive holographic Huygens' metasurface based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms capable of complex wavefront control at telecom wavelengths. Our metasurface produces a hologram image in the far-field with 82% transmittance efficiency and 40% imaging efficiency. Such efficient complex wavefront control shows that Huygens' metasurfaces based on resonant dielectric meta-atoms are a big step towards practical applications of metasurfaces in wavefront design related technologies, including computer-generated holograms, ultra-thin optics, security and data storage devices.

  20. Ka Band Phase Locked Loop Oscillator Dielectric Resonator Oscillator for Satellite EHF Band Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coco


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Ka Band PLL DRO having a fundamental oscillation frequency of 19.250 GHz, used as local oscillator in the low-noise block of a down converter (LNB for an EHF band receiver. Apposite circuital models have been created to describe the behaviour of the dielectric resonator and of the active component used in the oscillator core. The DRO characterization and measurements have shown very good agreement with simulation results. A good phase noise performance is obtained by using a very high Q dielectric resonator.

  1. Normal modes and quality factors of spherical dielectric resonators: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electromagnetic theoretic analysis of shielded homogeneous and isotropic di- electric spheres has been made. Characteristic equations for the TE and TM modes have been derived. Dielectric spheres of radii of the order of µm size are found suitable for the optical frequency region whereas for the microwave ...

  2. Viscoelastic effects on frequency tuning of a dielectric elastomer membrane resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying, E-mail:; Khayat, Roger E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)


    As a recent application of dielectric elastomers (DEs), DE resonators have become an alternative to conventional silicon-based resonators used in MEMS and have attracted much interest from the research community. However, most existing modeling works for the DE resonators ignore the intrinsic viscoelastic effect of the material that may strongly influence their dynamic performance. Based on the finite-deformation viscoelasticity theory for dielectrics, this paper theoretically examines the in-plane oscillation of a DE membrane resonator to demonstrate how the material viscoelasticity affects the actuation and frequency tuning processes of the resonator. From the simulation results, it is concluded that not only the applied voltage can change the natural frequency of the resonator, but also the inelastic deformation contributes to frequency tuning. Due to the viscoelasticity of the material, the electrical loading rate influences the actuation process of the DE resonator, while it has little effect on the final steady frequency tuned by the prescribed voltage within the safety range. With the consideration of the typical failure modes of the resonator and the evolution process of the material, the tunable frequency range and the safe range of the applied voltage of the DE membrane resonator with different dimension parameters are determined in this work, which are found to be dependent on the electrical loading rate. This work is expected to provide a better understanding on the frequency tuning of viscoelastic DE membrane resonators and a guideline for the design of DE devices.

  3. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanmu; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason


    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than 10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high Q-factor of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows th...

  4. Resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation using III-V semiconductor all-dielectric metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sheng; Keeler, Gordon A; Sinclair, Michael B; Yang, Yuanmu; Reno, John; Pertsch, Thomas; Brener, Igal


    Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanostructured materials have been challenging our perceptions of nonlinear optical processes that have been explored since the invention of lasers. For example, the ability to control optical field confinement, enhancement, and scattering almost independently, allows nonlinear frequency conversion efficiencies to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude compared to bulk materials. Also, the subwavelength length scales render phase matching issues irrelevant. Compared with plasmonic nanostructures, dielectric resonator metamaterials show great promise for enhanced nonlinear optical processes due to their larger mode volumes. Here, we present, for the first time, resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) using Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based dielectric metasurfaces. Using arrays of cylindrical resonators we observe SHG enhancement factors as large as 104 relative to unpatterned GaAs. At the magnetic dipole resonance we measure an absolute nonlinear conversion efficiency o...

  5. Experimental characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-racetrack resonators at near-infrared wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Cesar; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua


    Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-racetrack resonators (WRTRs) were designed and fabricated for operating at near-infrared wavelengths (750–850 nm) and characterized using leakage-radiation microscopy. The transmission spectra of the WRTRs are found experimentally and compared to the calculat...

  6. All-dielectric KTiOPO4 metasurfaces based on multipolar resonances in the terahertz region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jingyi; Yang, Yuanqing; Qiu, Min


    We employ ferroelectrics to study the multipolar scattering in all-dielectric metasurfaces based on KTiOPO4 (KTP) micro-disks for efficient manipulation of electromagnetic waves in the THz spectral region (0.6-1.5 THz). By adjusting the aspect ratio of the disks near the multipolar resonances, we...

  7. A band enhanced metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric resonators (United States)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Du, Hongliang; Wang, Jiafu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo


    In this paper, we propose a band enhanced metamaterial absorber in microwave band, which is composed of high-permittivity E-shaped dielectric resonators and metallic ground plate. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of high-temperature microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. An absorption band with 1 GHz bandwidth for both TE and TM polarizations are observed. Moreover, the absorption property is stable under different incident angles. The band enhanced absorption is caused by different resonant modes which lie closely in the absorption band. Due to the enhanced localized electric/magnetic fields at the resonant frequencies, strong absorptions are produced. Our work provides a new method of designing high-temperature and high-power microwave absorbers with band enhanced absorption.

  8. A band enhanced metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a band enhanced metamaterial absorber in microwave band, which is composed of high-permittivity E-shaped dielectric resonators and metallic ground plate. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of high-temperature microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. An absorption band with 1 GHz bandwidth for both TE and TM polarizations are observed. Moreover, the absorption property is stable under different incident angles. The band enhanced absorption is caused by different resonant modes which lie closely in the absorption band. Due to the enhanced localized electric/magnetic fields at the resonant frequencies, strong absorptions are produced. Our work provides a new method of designing high-temperature and high-power microwave absorbers with band enhanced absorption.

  9. Nanoscale Plasmonic Devices Based on Metal-Dielectric-Metal Stub Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Huang


    Full Text Available We review some of the recent research activities on plasmonic devices based on metal-dielectric-metal (MDM stub resonators for manipulating light at the nanoscale. We first introduce slow-light subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on plasmonic analogues of periodically loaded transmission lines and electromagnetically induced transparency. In both cases, the structures consist of a MDM waveguide side-coupled to periodic arrays of MDM stub resonators. We then introduce absorption switches consisting of a MDM plasmonic waveguide side-coupled to a MDM stub resonator filled with an active material.

  10. Compact on-Chip Temperature Sensors Based on Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic Waveguide-Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi


    Full Text Available The application of a waveguide-ring resonator based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides as a temperature sensor is demonstrated in this paper and the influence of temperature change to the transmission through the waveguide-ring resonator system is comprehensively analyzed. The results show that the roundtrip phase change in the ring resonator due to the temperature change is the major reason for the transmission variation. The performance of the temperature sensor is also discussed and it is shown that for a waveguide-ring resonator with the resonator radius around 5 mm and waveguide-ring gap of 500 nm which gives a footprint around 140 µm2, the temperature sensitivity at the order of 10−2 K can be achieved with the input power of 100 mW within the measurement sensitivity limit of a practical optical detector.

  11. Fano resonances in the optical scattering force upon a high-index dielectric nanoparticle (United States)

    Duan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Zhi-Guo


    Effects of Fano resonances on optical scattering force upon a high-index dielectric nanoparticle radiated by a plane wave are theoretically investigated. The results demonstrate that five different types of Fano resonances appear in the force and are expressed in a unified way. The magnetic (electric) -based cascades of Fano resonances dominate the peaks of the force. The magnetic (electric) -based conventional Fano resonances and the unconventional Fano resonances suppress the peaks of the force for particular large nanoparticles. All types of Fano resonances together cause broad dips of the force and even a near-zero force effect at particular radii. Finally, by investigating the effects of positive and negative indexes, loss, and gain of the particle on the force, it is shown that negative force arises only as the appropriate gain is introduced in the particle. Our results are important for not only deep understanding of electromagnetic interactions in the optical force but also stable optical manipulation of the dielectric nanoparticle.

  12. Double resonant excitation of the second harmonic of terahertz raditation in dielectric-graphene layered metamaterials (United States)

    Rapoport, Yu; Grimalsky, V.; Lavrinenko, A. V.; Boardman, A.


    Excitation of the second harmonic of THz radiation is investigated theoretically in the planar multilayered structure dielectric-graphene-dielectric-graphene-…. It is studied the case of the oblique incidence of the s-polarized fundamental wave, where the electric field is parallel to the interfaces, and generation of the p-type second harmonic wave occurs. The original concept is proposed to employ the double resonance arrangement for the effective generation of the second harmonic. The double resonant case can be realized when a high-permittivity dielectric is at the input of the structure and the vacuum is at the output. The high efficiency is demonstrated; the second harmonic reflectance coefficient is ≥0.01 under realistic values of the collision frequency in graphene >1012 s-1. Such a great efficiency, which is four-five orders of magnitude higher than reported for the graphene-dielectric structures previously, is proposed for the first time. To compute the nonlinear surface currents, two approaches were used, the kinetic and the hydrodynamic. A qualitative agreement between two approaches, proven in the present modeling, ensures an applicability of the results.

  13. All-dielectric resonant cavity-enabled metals with broadband optical transparency (United States)

    Liu, Zhengqi; Zhang, Houjiao; Liu, Xiaoshan; Pan, Pingping; Liu, Yi; Tang, Li; Liu, Guiqiang


    Metal films with broadband optical transparency are desirable in many optoelectronic devices, such as displays, smart windows, light-emitting diodes and infrared detectors. As bare metal is opaque to light, this issue of transparency attracts great scientific interest. In this work, we proposed and demonstrated a feasible and universal approach for achieving broadband optical transparent (BOT) metals by utilizing all-dielectric resonant cavities. Resonant dielectrics provide optical cavity modes and couple strongly with the surface plasmons of the metal film, and therefore produce a broadband near-unity optical transparent window. The relative enhancement factor (EF) of light transmission exceeds 3400% in comparison with that of pure metal film. Moreover, the transparent metal motif can be realized by other common metals including gold (Au), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu). These optical features together with the fully retained electric and mechanical properties of a natural metal suggest that it will have wide applications in optoelectronic devices.

  14. Planar dielectric resonator stabilized HEMT oscillator integrated with CPW/aperture coupled patch antenna (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.


    A design of an active antenna with a dielectric resonator stabilized high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) oscillator (DRO) and an aperture-coupled patch antenna is reported. The circuit is fabricated using coplanar waveguide (CPW) with the oscillator and the antenna on opposite sides of the substrate. The active antenna was demonstrated at 7.6 GHz; however, the design can be scaled to higher frequencies. Excellent oscillator characteristics and radiation patterns were obtained.

  15. An electromagnetic induced transparency-like scheme for wireless power transfer using dielectric resonators (United States)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.


    Similar to the hybridization of three atoms, three coupled resonators interact to form bonding, anti-bonding, and non-bonding modes. The non-bonding mode enables an electromagnetic induced transparency like transfer of energy. Here, the non-bonding mode, resulting from the strong electric coupling of two dielectric resonators and an enclosure, is exploited to show that it is feasible to transfer power over a distance comparable to the operating wavelength. In this scheme, the enclosure acts as a mediator. The strong coupling permits the excitation of the non-bonding mode with high purity. This approach is different from resonant inductive coupling, which works in the sub-wavelength regime. Optimal loads and the corresponding maximum efficiency are determined using two independent methods: Coupled Mode Theory and Circuit modelling. It is shown that, unlike resonant inductive coupling, the figure of merit depends on the enclosure quality and not on the load, which emphasizes the role of the enclosure as a mediator. Briefly after the input excitation is turned on, the energy in the receiver builds up via all coupled and spurious modes. As time elapses, all modes except the non-bonding cease to sustain. Due to the strong coupling between the dielectrics and the enclosure, such systems have unique properties such as high and uniform efficiency over large distances and minimal fringing fields. These properties suggest that electromagnetic induced transparency like schemes that rely on the use of dielectric resonators can be used to power autonomous systems inside an enclosure or find applications when exposure to the fields needs to be minimal. Finite Element computations are used to verify the theoretical predictions by determining the transfer efficiency, field profile, and coupling coefficients for two different systems. It is shown that the three resonators must be present for efficient power transfer; if one or more are removed, the transfer efficiency reduces

  16. Throughput Measurement of a Dual-Band MIMO Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Nasir


    Full Text Available An L-shaped dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA for long term evolution (LTE applications is proposed. The presented antenna can transmit and receive information independently using fundamental TE111 and higher order TE121 modes of the DRA. TE111 degenerate mode covers LTE band 2 (1.85–1.99 GHz, 3 (1.71–1.88 GHz, and 9 (1.7499–1.7849 GHz at fr = 1.8 GHz whereas TE121 covers LTE band 7 (2.5–2.69 GHz at fr = 2.6 GHz, respectively. An efficient design method has been used to reduce mutual coupling between ports by changing the effective permittivity values of DRA by introducing a cylindrical air-gap at an optimal position in the dielectric resonator. This air-gap along with matching strips at the corners of the dielectric resonator keeps the isolation at a value more than 17 dB at both the bands. The diversity performance has also been evaluated by calculating the envelope correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mean effective gain of the proposed design. MIMO performance has been evaluated by measuring the throughput of the proposed MIMO antenna. Experimental results successfully validate the presented design methodology in this work.

  17. Throughput Measurement of a Dual-Band MIMO Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for LTE Applications. (United States)

    Nasir, Jamal; Jamaluddin, Mohd Haizal; Ahmad Khan, Aftab; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee; Yen, Bruce Leow Chee; Owais, Owais


    An L-shaped dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) for long term evolution (LTE) applications is proposed. The presented antenna can transmit and receive information independently using fundamental TE 111 and higher order TE 121 modes of the DRA. TE 111 degenerate mode covers LTE band 2 (1.85-1.99 GHz), 3 (1.71-1.88 GHz), and 9 (1.7499-1.7849 GHz) at f r = 1.8 GHz whereas TE 121 covers LTE band 7 (2.5-2.69 GHz) at f r = 2.6 GHz, respectively. An efficient design method has been used to reduce mutual coupling between ports by changing the effective permittivity values of DRA by introducing a cylindrical air-gap at an optimal position in the dielectric resonator. This air-gap along with matching strips at the corners of the dielectric resonator keeps the isolation at a value more than 17 dB at both the bands. The diversity performance has also been evaluated by calculating the envelope correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mean effective gain of the proposed design. MIMO performance has been evaluated by measuring the throughput of the proposed MIMO antenna. Experimental results successfully validate the presented design methodology in this work.

  18. Investigation on Harmonic Tuning for Active Ku-Band Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Guraliuc


    Full Text Available A slot-coupled rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA operating in the 14–14.5 GHz frequency band is investigated as a possible radiating element for an active integrated antenna of a transmitting phased array. The effectiveness of the resonator shape factor on achieving harmonic tuning is addressed. Simulation results show that the DRA shape factor can be used to provide a fine tuning of the DRA input impedance both at the fundamental frequency and its first harmonics, so synthesizing the proper load for the optimization of the microwave amplifier power-added efficiency (PAE.

  19. Symposium KK, Resonant Optics in Dielectric and Metallic Structures: Fundamentals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larouche, Stephane [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caldwell, Joshua [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States)


    Symposium KK focused on the design, fabrication, characterization of novel nanoscale optical resonators and alternative materials for sub-diffraction scale resonant particles. Contributions discussed all aspects of this field, and the organizers had more than 130 contributing participants to this session alone, spanning North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Participants discussed cutting edge research results focused on the structure, physical and optical properties, and ultrafast dynamic response of nanoscale resonators such as plasmonic and dielectric nanoparticles. A strong focus on state-of-the-art characterization and fabrication approaches, as well as presentations on novel materials for sub-diffraction resonators took place. As expected, the sessions provided strong interdisciplinary interactions and lively debate among presenters and participants.

  20. Design of a Label-Free, Distributed Bragg Grating Resonator Based Dielectric Waveguide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kehl


    Full Text Available In this work, we present a resonant, dielectric waveguide device based on distributed Bragg gratings for label-free biosensing applications. The refractive index sensitive optical transducer aims at improving the performance of planar waveguide grating sensor systems with limited Q-factor and dynamic range by combing the advantages of resonant cavities, such as a multitude of resonance peaks with high finesse, with the manageable complexity of waveguide grating couplers. The general sensor concept is introduced and supported by theoretical considerations as well as numerical simulations based on Coupled Mode Theory. In contrast to a single Bragg grating reflector, the presented Fabry-Pérot type distributed Bragg resonator exhibits an extended measurement range as well as relaxed fabrication tolerances. The resulting, relatively simple sensor structure can be fabricated with standard lithographic means and is independent of expensive light-sources and/or detectors, making an affordable but sensitive device, potentially suitable for point-of-care applications.

  1. Resonant frequencies and Q factors of dielectric parallelepipeds by measurement and by FDTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueman, C.W. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Mishra, S.R.; Larose, C.L. [David Florida Lab., Ottawa (Canada)] [and others


    This paper describes the measurement and computation of the resonant frequencies and the associated Q factors of dielectric parallelepipeds made of high-permittivity, low-loss ceramic materials. Each resonance peak is measured separately with a fine frequency step. A curve-fitting method is used to accurately estimate the resonant frequency and 3 dB bandwidth from the somewhat noisy measured data. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to compute the initial portion of the backscattered field due to a Gaussian pulse plane wave. The time response is then extended to zero value by Prony`s method. The measured and computed data is compared for a parallelepiped resonator of permittivity 37.84.

  2. Resonant laser printing of structural colors on high-index dielectric metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Levy, Uriel


    Man-made structural colors, which originate from resonant interactions between visible light and manufactured nanostructures, are emerging as a solution for ink-free color printing. We show that non-iridescent structural colors can be conveniently produced by nanostructures made from high......-dependent resonances. Strong on-resonance energy absorption under pulsed laser irradiation locally elevates the lattice temperature (exceeding 1200 K) in an ultrashort time scale (1 ns). This forms the basis for resonant laser printing, where rapid melting allows for surface energy-driven morphology changes...... with associated modification of color appearance. Laser-printable high-index dielectric color metasurfaces are scalable to a large area and open a new paradigm for printing and decoration with nonfading and vibrant colors....

  3. Resonant frequency of microstrip antennas calculated from TE-excitation of an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab (United States)

    Bailey, M. C.


    The calculation of currents induced by a plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer the resonant width (or frequency) of rectangular microstrip antennas. By placing the strip inside the dielectric, the effect of a dielectric cover of the same material as the substrate can be included in the calculation of resonant frequency. A comparison with measured results indicated agreement of 1 percent or better for rectangular microstrip antennas constructed on Teflon-fiberglass substrate.

  4. Characterization of a dielectric phantom for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Qi, E-mail:; Duyn, Jeff H.; Gudino, Natalia; Zwart, Jacco A. de; Gelderen, Peter van [Advanced MRI Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Sodickson, Daniel K.; Brown, Ryan [The Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016 (United States)


    Purpose: In this work, a generic recipe for an inexpensive and nontoxic phantom was developed within a range of biologically relevant dielectric properties from 150 MHz to 4.5 GHz. Methods: The recipe includes deionized water as the solvent, NaCl to primarily control conductivity, sucrose to primarily control permittivity, agar–agar to gel the solution and reduce heat diffusivity, and benzoic acid to preserve the gel. Two hundred and seventeen samples were prepared to cover the feasible range of NaCl and sucrose concentrations. Their dielectric properties were measured using a commercial dielectric probe and were fitted to a 3D polynomial to generate a recipe describing the properties as a function of NaCl concentration, sucrose concentration, and frequency. Results: Results indicated that the intuitive linear and independent relationships between NaCl and conductivity and between sucrose and permittivity are not valid. A generic polynomial recipe was developed to characterize the complex relationship between the solutes and the resulting dielectric values and has been made publicly available as a web application. In representative mixtures developed to mimic brain and muscle tissue, less than 2% difference was observed between the predicted and measured conductivity and permittivity values. Conclusions: It is expected that the recipe will be useful for generating dielectric phantoms for general magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coil development at high magnetic field strength, including coil safety evaluation as well as pulse sequence evaluation (including B{sub 1}{sup +} mapping, B{sub 1}{sup +} shimming, and selective excitation pulse design), and other non-MRI applications which require biologically equivalent dielectric properties.

  5. Bismuth germanate as a perspective material for dielectric resonators in EPR spectroscopy (United States)

    Ivanov, Mikhail Y.; Nadolinny, Vladimir A.; Bagryanskaya, Elena G.; Grishin, Yuriy A.; Fedin, Matvey V.; Veber, Sergey L.


    High purity bismuth germanate (Bi4(GeO4)3, BGO) is proposed and implemented as an alternative material for dielectric EPR resonators. A significant improvement of the absolute sensitivity can be readily achieved by substituting the alumina insert (ring) by BGO-made one in commercially available X-band EPR probeheads. Four BGO dielectric inserts of 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm inner diameter (ID) were made for comparison with standard 5 mm inner diameter alumina insert. All inserts were introduced into commercial Bruker EPR resonator ER 4118X-MD-5W1, and their performance was investigated. The Q-values of empty resonators, B1 saturation curves and continuous wave EPR spectra of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) were measured and analyzed in a temperature range 6-300 K. BGO-made resonators were found superior in several important aspects. The background signals arising from BGO are much weaker compared to those of alumina at B = 0-0.6 T and T = 6-300 K; this is especially useful for measuring weak signals in the half-field region, as well as those near the central field. Moreover, mechanical properties of BGO allow easy fabrication of dielectric bodies having various shapes and sizes; in particular, small BGO resonators (e.g. ID = 2 or 3 mm) strongly enhance sensitivity for small samples due to increase of the filling factor. All these advantages have been also inspected in the pulse mode, proving that higher B1 fields and better filling factors can be achieved, contributing to the overall enhancement of the performance.

  6. A Coplanar Waveguide Resonator Based In-Line Material Characterization Sensor for Bulk and Metallized Dielectrics (United States)

    Talai, Armin; Gold, Gerald; Frank, Martin; Mann, Sebastian; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander


    Microwave Materials such as Rogers RO3003 are subject to process-related fluctuations in terms of the relative permittivity and dielectric loss. The behavior of high frequency circuits like patch-antenna arrays and their distribution networks is dependent on the effective wavelength. Therefore, fluctuations of the complex permittivity will influence the resonance frequency and beam direction of the antennas. This paper presents a grounded coplanar waveguide based sensor, which can measure the complex permittivity at 77 GHz, as well as at other resonance frequencies, by applying it on top of the manufactured depaneling. The relative permittivity of the material under test (MUT) is a function of the resonance frequency shift and the dielectric loss of the MUT can be determined by transmission amplitude variations at the resonances. In addition, the sensor is robust against floating ground metallizations on inner printed circuit board layers, which are typically distributed over the entire surface below antennas. Furthermore, the impact from conductor surface roughness on the measured permittivity values is determined using the Gradient Model.

  7. Experimental Study on LTCC Glass-Ceramic Based Dual Segment Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Gangwar


    Full Text Available The measured characteristics in C/X bands, including material properties of a dual segment cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA fabricated from glass-ceramic material based on B2O3–La2O3–MgO glass and La(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3 ceramic, are reported. The sintering characteristic of the ceramic in presence of glass is determined from contact angle measurement and DTA. The return loss and input impedance versus frequency characteristics and radiation patterns of CDRA at its resonant frequency of 6.31 GHz are studied. The measured results for resonant frequency and return loss bandwidth of the CDRA are also compared with corresponding theoretical ones.

  8. Dielectric particle and void resonators for thin film solar cell textures. (United States)

    Mann, Sander A; Grote, Richard R; Osgood, Richard M; Schuller, Jon A


    Using Mie theory and Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) we compare the properties of dielectric particle and void resonators. We show that void resonators-low refractive index inclusions within a high index embedding medium-exhibit larger bandwidth resonances, reduced peak scattering intensity, different polarization anisotropies, and enhanced forward scattering when compared to their particle (high index inclusions in a low index medium) counterparts. We evaluate amorphous silicon solar cell textures comprising either arrays of voids or particles. Both designs support substantial absorption enhancements (up to 45%) relative to a flat cell with anti-reflection coating, over a large range of cell thicknesses. By leveraging void-based textures 90% of above-bandgap photons are absorbed in cells with maximal vertical dimension of 100 nm.

  9. A Compact Wide-Band Hybrid Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Enhanced Gain and Low Cross-Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Dong


    Full Text Available By loading two printed patches to the dielectric resonator antenna (DRA, a compact wide-band hybrid dielectric resonator antenna with enhanced gain and low cross-polarization is presented. The proposed antenna utilizes a combination of a rectangular dielectric resonator and two printed patches. Due to the hybrid design, multiple resonances were obtained. By adding two air layers between the dielectric resonator and the printed patches, the bandwidth has been significantly improved. Compared to the traditional hybrid dielectric resonator antenna, the proposed antenna can achieve wide bandwidth, high gain, low cross-polarization, and even small size simultaneously. The prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and tested. The measured −10 dB return loss bandwidth is 25.6% (1.7–2.2 GHz. The measured antenna gains are about 6.3 and 8.2 dBi in the operating frequency band. Low cross-polarization levels of less than −28.5 dB and −43 dB in the E-plane and H-plane are achieved. Moreover, the overall dimensions of the antenna are only 67 × 67 × 34 (mm3. The proposed antenna is especially attractive for small base antenna applications.

  10. A study of two-level system defects in dielectric films using superconducting resonators (United States)

    Khalil, Moe Shwan

    In this dissertation I describe measurements of dielectric loss at microwave frequencies due to two level systems (TLS) using superconducting resonators. Most measurements were performed in a dilution refrigerator at temperatures between 30 and 200 mK and all resonators discussed were fabricated with thin-film superconducting aluminum. I derive the transmission through a non-ideal (mismatched) resonant circuit and find that in general the resonance line-shape is asymmetric. I describe an analysis method for extracting the internal quality factor (Q i), the diameter correction method (DCM), and compare it to a commonly used phenomenological method, the phi rotation method (phiRM). I analytically find that the phiRM deterministically overestimates Qi when the asymmetry of the resonance line-shape is high. Four coplanar resonator geometries were studied, with frequencies spanning 5-7 GHz. They were all superconducting aluminum fabricated on sapphire and silicon substrates. These include a quasi-lumped element resonator, a coplanar strip transmission line resonator, and two hybrid designs that contain both a coplanar strip and a quasi-lumped element. Measured Qi's were as high as 2 x 105 for single photon excitations and there was no systematic variation in loss between quasi-lumped and coplanar strip resonance modes. I also measured the microwave loss tangent of several atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown dielectrics and obtained secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements of the same films. I found that hydrogen defect concentrations were correlated with low temperature microwave loss. In amorphous films that showed excess hydrogen defects on the surface, two independent TLS distributions were required to fit the loss tangent, one for the surface and one for the bulk. In crystalline dielectrics where hydrogen contamination was uniform throughout the bulk, a single bulk TLS distribution was sufficient. Finally, I measured the TLS loss in 250 nm thick HD

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of a W-Band Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna-Coupled Niobium Microbolometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdel-Rahman


    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication and characterization of a novel antenna-coupled detector configuration for detection at 94 GHz, a coplanar waveguide- (CPW- fed, slot-excited twin dielectric resonator antenna- (DRA- coupled niobium (Nb microbolometer. The antenna is based on two low permittivity cylindrical dielectric resonators (CDRs excited by rectangular slots placed below the CDRs. The antenna resonant currents are fed to an Nb microbolometer by the means of a CPW feed. The ceramic DRA structure is manufactured using a novel fabrication process that enables patterning an SU-8–Alumina (Al2O3 nanopowder composite using conventional photolithography. The detector measured a voltage responsivity of 0.181 V/W at a modulation frequency of 150 Hz. The detector measured a time constant of 1.94 μs. The antenna radiation pattern of the developed detector configuration was measured and shows a good agreement with the simulation.

  12. Broken symmetry dielectric resonators for high quality-factor Fano metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I; Warne, Larry K; Langston, William L; Luk, Ting S; Wendt, Joel R; Reno, John L; Keeler, Gordon A; Brener, Igal; Sinclair, Michael B


    We present a new approach to dielectric metasurface design that relies on a single resonator per unit cell and produces robust, high quality-factor Fano resonances. Our approach utilizes symmetry breaking of highly symmetric resonator geoemetries, such as cubes, to induce couplings between the otherwise orthogonal resonator modes. In particular, we design perturbations that couple "bright" dipole modes to "dark" dipole modes whose radiative decay is suppressed by local field effects in the array. Our approach is widely scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies. We first unravel the Fano resonance behavior through numerical simulations of a germanium resonator-based metasurface that achieved a quality-factor of ~1300 at ~10.8 um. Then, we present two experimental demonstrations operating in the near-infrared (~1 um): a silicon-based implementation that achieved a quality-factor of ~350; and a gallium arsenide-based structure that achieves a quality-factor of ~600 - the highest near-infrared quality-...

  13. Dielectric micro-resonator-based opto-mechanical systems for sensing applications (United States)

    Ali, Amir Roushdy

    In recent years, whispering gallery mode (WGM), or morphology dependent optical resonances (MDR) of dielectric micro-resonators have attracted interest with proposed applications in a wide range of areas due to the high optical quality factors, Q, they can exhibit (reaching ~ 10. 9 for silica spheres). Micro-resonator WGMs have been used in applications that include those in spectroscopy, micro-cavity laser technology, optical communications (switching, filtering and multiplexing), sensors technologies and even chemical and biological sensing. The WGM of these dielectric micro-resonators are highly sensitive to morphological changes (such as the size, shape, or refractive index) of the resonance cavity and hence, can be tuned by causing a minute change in the physical condition of the surrounding. In this dissertation, we have been creating opto-mechanical systems, which at their most basic, are extraordinarily sensitive sensors. One of the ultimate goals of this dissertation is to develop sensors capable of detecting the extremely small electric field changes. To improve the performance of the sensors, we couple a polymer cantilever beam to a dielectric micro-resonator. The eventual use of such ultra sensitive electric filed sensors could include neural-machine interfaces for advanced prosthetics devices. The work presented here includes a basic analysis and experimental investigations of the electric field sensitivity and range of micro-resonators of several different materials and geometries followed by the electric field sensor design, testing, and characterization. Also, the effects of angular velocity on the WGM shifts of spherical micro-resonators are also investigated. The elastic deformation that is induced on a spinning resonator due to the centrifugal force may lead to a sufficient shift in the optical resonances and therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Furthermore, this principle could be used for the development of

  14. Homogenization Near Resonances and Artificial Magnetism in Three Dimensional Dielectric Metamaterials (United States)

    Bouchitté, Guy; Bourel, Christophe; Felbacq, Didier


    It is now well established that the homogenization of a periodic array of parallel dielectric fibers with suitably scaled high permittivity can lead to a (possibly) negative frequency-dependent effective permeability. However this result based on a two-dimensional approach holds merely in the case of linearly polarized magnetic fields, reducing thus its applications to infinite cylindrical obstacles. In this paper we consider a dielectric structure placed in a bounded domain of R^3 and perform a full three dimensional asymptotic analysis. The main ingredient is a new averaging method for characterizing the bulk effective magnetic field in the vanishing-period limit. We give evidence of a vectorial spectral problem on the periodic cell which determines micro-resonances and encodes the oscillating behavior of the magnetic field from which artificial magnetism arises. At a macroscopic level we deduce an effective permeability tensor that we can make explicit as a function of the frequency. As far as sign-changing permeability is sought after, we may foresee that periodic bulk dielectric inclusions could be an efficient alternative to the very popular metallic split-ring structure proposed by Pendry. Part of these results have been announced in Bouchitté et al. (C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(9-10):571-576, 2009).

  15. Two-dimensional droplet-based surface plasmon resonance imaging using electrowetting-on-dielectric microfluidics. (United States)

    Malic, Lidija; Veres, Teodor; Tabrizian, Maryam


    This article presents a multichannel droplet-based surface plasmon resonance platform. The platform comprises a digital electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic device coupled to surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). SPRi is now a well-established detection technique that enables in-situ monitoring of multiple reactions occurring at the surface of the chip without the use of labels. Currently, the limiting factor in the application of SPRi for high-throughput applications is the flow-cell technology which relies on sequential sample processing within the continuous fluid flow. An original solution compared to the continuous flow-cell technology is proposed to increase the capability of existing SPRi technology. A parallel SPRi detection of different samples on the surface is achieved using the array-based digital microfluidic device.

  16. Dielectric Meta-Holograms Enabled with Dual Magnetic Resonances in Visible Light. (United States)

    Li, Zile; Kim, Inki; Zhang, Lei; Mehmood, Muhammad Q; Anwar, Muhammad S; Saleem, Murtaza; Lee, Dasol; Nam, Ki Tae; Zhang, Shuang; Luk'yanchuk, Boris; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Guoxing; Rho, Junsuk; Qiu, Cheng-Wei


    Efficient transmission-type meta-holograms have been demonstrated using high-index dielectric nanostructures based on Huygens' principle. It is crucial that the geometry size of building blocks be judiciously optimized individually for spectral overlap of electric and magnetic dipoles. In contrast, reflection-type meta-holograms using the metal/insulator/metal scheme and geometric phase can be readily achieved with high efficiency and small thickness. Here, we demonstrate a general platform for design of dual magnetic resonance based meta-holograms based on the geometric phase using silicon nanostructures that are quarter wavelength thick for visible light. Significantly, the projected holographic image can be unambiguously observed without a receiving screen even under the illumination of natural light. Within the well-developed semiconductor industry, our ultrathin magnetic resonance-based meta-holograms may have promising applications in anticounterfeiting and information security.

  17. Enhancement of magneto-optical effects by a single 1D all dielectric resonant grating (United States)

    Gamet, E.; Varghese, B.; Verrier, I.; Royer, F.


    We demonstrate theoretically the enhancement of the four first-order magneto-optical effects using an all-dielectric 1D resonant grating. The modeled structure was designed for the Faraday effect at normal incidence at a wavelength of 1.55 µm for which the calculated improvement is shown to be one hundred times the off-resonance values. At 1° incidence, polar and longitudinal Kerr effects were also improved, showing polarization rotations up to 14°. For the same incidence conditions, transverse magneto optical Kerr effect was also improved, leading to a reflectance difference of 12% for a reflectance intensity of 40%. These results are interesting for the development of magnetic-field sensors capable of detecting of several components of the field.

  18. Modeling of gas breakdown and early transients of plasma evolution in cylindrical all-dielectric resonators (United States)

    Panneer Chelvam, P.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.


    We report on the computational modeling of gas break down and evolution of plasma in an all-dielectric resonator structure. Two cylindrical dielectric resonators (DR) of diameter 25 mm with material relative permittivity of 172.5 separated by a 1 mm gap are observed to resonate in a strong constructive interference mode (CIM) at 1.47 GHz. The electric fields in the gap between the DRs are amplified to about 30 times the incident wave strength which leads to gas breakdown in argon at 10 Torr. The species densities in the bulk of plasma rise primarily due to the wave power addition into the plasma. As the species densities rise above 1017 m‑3, the bulk plasma acts as a lossy material and the wave experiences significant damping through collisional losses. As plasma densities in the bulk rise to around 1018 m‑3, the wave is damped significantly in the bulk, and a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave mode develops at the interface of plasma sheath and the DR surfaces. These surface waves are initiated due to a thin negative permittivity region of the plasma in the vicinity of the DR surface. The quasi-steady state operation of the resonator system depends on the propagation of the damped CIM in the bulk regions of the plasma, the SPP waves in the sheath region and the slower ambipolar diffusion process in plasma. Gas temperature rise in plasma is found to be small throughout the time scales considered and electrostatic fields are found to play an equally important role for large plasma densities in the sheath regions.

  19. Demonstration of surface resistance mapping of large-area HTS films using the dielectric resonator method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, M.; Takano, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Inadomaru, M.; Kosaka, D.; Nozaki, A.; Abe, S.; Yokoo, M.; Lorenz, M.; Hochmuth, H.; Mukaida, M.; Ohshima, S


    A scanning mapping technique of surface resistance (R{sub s}) using the sapphire dielectric resonator was developed and demonstrated for a 3-inch-diameter YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} film. The area of the 3-inch film was divided by 5x5 mm grid for scan, resulting in 101 measurement points. Values of R{sub s} in the film varied from 2.9 to 3.8 m{omega} at 22 GHz and 77 K. The distribution of R{sub s} corresponded to that of the critical current density. Sampling of quality factors at each point was performed using non-contact measurement between film and sapphire. Since the airtight chamber was filled with dry N{sub 2} gas to avoid film degradation by frost and water during the warming process, perfect non-destructive measurement is realized. Fluctuation of distance between the surface of film and dielectric rod was monitored by resonance frequency. Errors in R{sub s} caused by the fluctuation were calculated within {+-}0.01 m{omega}. Furthermore, the system could detect a small (0.3 mmx0.5 mm) scratch defect as well as the gradient of film thickness on Ag film. This technique is effective for inspection of large-area high temperature superconducting films for microwave applications.

  20. An X-band, high power dielectric resonator oscillator for future military systems. (United States)

    Mizan, M A; Sturzebecher, D; Higgins, T; Paolella, A


    A 9.0-GHz dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO), generating a CW output power of 2.5 W at room temperature, has been designed and fabricated using a high-power GaAs MESFET and a dielectric resonator (DR) in a parallel feedback configuration. The oscillator exhibited a frequency stability of better than 130 ppm, without any temperature compensation, over the range -50 degrees C to +50 degrees C. The output power varied from +35 dBm (3.2 W) at -50 degrees C to +33 dBm (2 W) at +50 degrees C. The single-sideband phase noise levels were measured and found to be -105 and -135 dBc/Hz, at 10- and 100-kHz carrier offset frequencies, respectively. The oscillator output was then fed into a single-stage high-power MESFET amplifier, resulting in a total RF power output of 6.5 W. The overall DC to RF conversion efficiency of the 6.5-W unit was approximately 15.3%

  1. An Electromagnetic Induced Transparency-like Scheme for Wireless Power Transfer Using Dielectric Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y


    Similar to the hybridization of three atoms, three coupled resonators interact to form bonding, anti-bonding and non-bonding modes. The non-bonding mode enables an electromagnetic induced transparency like transfer of energy. Here the non-bonding mode, resulting from the strong electric coupling of two dielectric resonators and an enclosure, is exploited to show that it is feasible to transfer power over a distance comparable to the operating wavelength. In this scheme, the enclosure acts as a mediator. The strong coupling permits the excitation of the non-bonding mode with high purity. This approach is different from resonant inductive coupling which works in the sub-wavelength regime. Optimal loads and the corresponding maximum efficiency are determined using two independent methods: Coupled Mode Theory and Circuit modelling. It is shown that, unlike resonant inductive coupling, the figure of merit depends on the enclosure quality and not on the load, which emphasizes the role of the enclosure as a mediator...

  2. Vibroacoustic modeling of an acoustic resonator tuned by dielectric elastomer membrane with voltage control (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Lu, Zhenbo; Cheng, Li; Cui, Fangsen


    This paper investigates the acoustic properties of a duct resonator tuned by an electro-active membrane. The resonator takes the form of a side-branch cavity which is attached to a rigid duct and covered by a pre-stretched Dielectric Elastomer (DE) in the neck area. A three-dimensional, analytical model based on the sub-structuring approach is developed to characterize the complex structure-acoustic coupling between the DE membrane and its surrounding acoustic media. We show that such resonator provides sound attenuation in the medium frequency range mainly by means of sound reflection, as a result of the membrane vibration. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model is validated against experimental test. The pre-stretched DE membrane with fixed edges responds to applied voltage change with a varying inner stress and, by the same token, its natural frequency and vibrational response can be tuned to suit particular frequencies of interest. The peaks in the transmission loss (TL) curves can be shifted towards lower frequencies when the voltage applied to the DE membrane is increased. Through simulations on the effect of increasing the voltage level, the TL shifting mechanism and its possible tuning range are analyzed. This paves the way for applying such resonator device for adaptive-passive noise control.

  3. Dielectrically-Loaded Cylindrical Resonator-Based Wireless Passive High-Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Xiong


    Full Text Available The temperature sensor presented in this paper is based on a microwave dielectric resonator, which uses alumina ceramic as a substrate to survive in harsh environments. The resonant frequency of the resonator is determined by the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic, which monotonically changes with temperature. A rectangular aperture etched on the surface of the resonator works as both an incentive and a coupling device. A broadband slot antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide is utilized as an interrogation antenna to wirelessly detect the sensor signal using a radio-frequency backscattering technique. Theoretical analysis, software simulation, and experiments verified the feasibility of this temperature-sensing system. The sensor was tested in a metal-enclosed environment, which severely interferes with the extraction of the sensor signal. Therefore, frequency-domain compensation was introduced to filter the background noise and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor signal. The extracted peak frequency was found to monotonically shift from 2.441 to 2.291 GHz when the temperature was varied from 27 to 800 °C, leading to an average absolute sensitivity of 0.19 MHz/°C.

  4. Modular transmit/receive arrays using very-high permittivity dielectric resonator antennas. (United States)

    O'Reilly, Thomas P A; Ruytenberg, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G


    Dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs) are compact structures that exhibit low coupling between adjacent elements and therefore can be used as MRI transmit arrays. In this study, we use very high permittivity materials to construct modular flexible transceive arrays of a variable numbers of elements for operation at 7T. DRAs were constructed using rectangular blocks of ceramic (lead zirconate titanate, εr  = 1070) with the transverse electric (TE)01 mode tuned to 298 MHz. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were used to determine the B1 and specific absorption rate distributions. B1+ maps were acquired in a phantom to validate the simulations. Performance was compared to an equally sized surface coil. In vivo images were acquired of the wrist (four elements), ankle (seven elements), and calf muscle (16 elements). Coupling between DRAs spaced 5 mm apart on a phantom was -18.2 dB compared to -9.1 dB for equivalently spaced surface coils. DRAs showed a higher B1+ intensity close to the antenna but a lower penetration depth compared to the surface coil. DRAs show very low coupling compared to equally sized surface coils and can be used in transceive arrays without requiring decoupling networks. The penetration depth of the current DRA geometry means they are ideally suited to imaging of extremities. Magn Reson Med 79:1781-1788, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Self Oscillating Mixer with Dielectric Resonator for Low Noise Block Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endon Bharata


    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of a self oscillating mixer (SOM as part of a low noise block (LNB for a satellite television receiver is investigated numerically and experimentally. In contrast to other mixers, the developed SOM requires no separate local oscillator as it generates own local oscillator signal. The SOM is developed using a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC comprised of two bipolar transistors coupled as a Darlington pair and a dielectric resonator to establish a local oscillator signal. The SOM is designed to oscillate at 3.62GHz driven from 50W signal generator. The prototype of SOM is fabricated on a dielectric substrate of glass-reinforced hydrocarbon/ceramic lamination (RO4350B board which has a thickness of 0.762mm and relative permittivity of 3.66. The prototype is then characterized experimentally and exhibits a conversion gain of 8dB with the input and output voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR less than 2 across the 2520MHz to 2670MHz operating frequency band.

  6. Micromachined On-Chip Dielectric Resonator Antenna Operating at 60 GHz

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai


    This paper presents a novel cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) suitable for millimeter-wave on-chip systems. The antenna was fabricated from a single high resistivity silicon wafer via micromachining technology. The new antenna was characterized using HFSS and experimentally with good agreement been found between the simulations and experiment. The proposed DRA has good radiation characteristics, where its gain and radiation efficiency are 7 dBi and 79.35%, respectively. These properties are reasonably constant over the working frequency bandwidth of the antenna. The return loss bandwidth was 2.23 GHz, which corresponds to 3.78% around 60 GHz. The antenna was primarily a broadside radiator with -15 dB cross polarization level.

  7. Hafnium dioxide as a dielectric for highly-sensitive waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Tiwari


    Full Text Available Hafnium dioxide has been recognized as an excellent dielectric for microelectronics. However, its usefulness for the surface plasmon based sensors has not yet been tested. Here we investigate its usefulness for waveguide-coupled bi-metallic surface plasmon resonance sensors. Several Ag/HfO2/Au multilayer structure sensors were fabricated and evaluated by optical measurements and computer simulations. The resulting data establish correlations between the growth parameters and sensor performance. The sensor sensitivity to refractive index of analytes is determined to be S n = ∂ θ SPR ∂ n ≥ 4 7 0 . The sensitivity data are supported by simulations, which also predict 314 nm for the evanescent field decay length in air.

  8. Directional Fano Resonances at Light Scattering by a High Refractive Index Dielectric Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tribelsky, Michael I; Litman, Amelie; Eyraud, Christelle; Moreno, Fernando


    In this research, we report the experimental evidence of the directional Fano resonances at the scattering of a plane, linearly polarized electromagnetic wave by a homogeneous dielectric sphere with high refractive index and low losses. We observe a typical asymmetric Fano profile for the intensity scattered in, practically, any given direction, while the overall extinction cross section remains Lorentzian. The phenomenon is originated in the interference of the selectively excited electric dipolar and quadrupolar modes. The selectivity of the excitation is achieved by the proper choice of the frequency of the incident wave. Thanks to the scaling invariance of the Maxwell equations, in these experiments we mimic the scattering of the visible and near IR radiation by a nanoparticle made of common superconductor materials (Si, Ge, GaAs, GaP) by the equivalent scattering of a spherical particle of 18 mm in diameter in the microwave range. The theory developed to explain the experiments extends the conventional F...

  9. High efficiency on-chip Dielectric Resonator Antennna using micromachining technology

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.


    In this paper, a novel cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) operating at 60 GHz is introduced. The antenna is fabricated using a high-resistivity silicon wafer. The DR is defined in the wafer using micromachining technology. The feeding network is located at the other side of the wafer. The proposed antenna is simulated using HFSS and the results are verified by measurements. The antenna radiation is mainly along the broadside direction. The measured gain, radiation efficiency, and bandwidth are 7 dBi, 74.65%, and 2.23 GHz respectively. The antenna is characterized by high polarization purity where the maximum cross-polarization is -15 dB. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Integrating Quantum Dots and Dielectric Mie Resonators: A Hierarchical Metamaterial Inheriting the Best of Both. (United States)

    Capretti, Antonio; Lesage, Arnon; Gregorkiewicz, Tom


    Nanoscale dielectric resonators and quantum-confined semiconductors have enabled unprecedented control over light absorption and excited charges, respectively. In this work, we embed luminescent silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) into a 2D array of SiO2 nanocylinders and experimentally prove a powerful concept: the resulting metamaterial preserves the radiative properties of the Si-NCs and inherits the spectrally selective absorption properties of the nanocylinders. This hierarchical approach provides increased photoluminescence (PL) intensity obtained without utilizing any lossy plasmonic components. We perform rigorous calculations and predict that a freestanding metamaterial enables tunable absorption peaks up to 50% in the visible spectrum, in correspondence with the nanocylinder Mie resonances and of the grating condition in the array. We experimentally detect extinction spectral peaks in the metamaterial, which drive enhanced absorption in the Si-NCs. Consequently, the metamaterial features increased PL intensity, obtained without affecting the PL lifetime, angular pattern, and extraction efficiency. Remarkably, our best-performing metamaterial shows +30% PL intensity achieved with a lower amount of Si-NCs, compared to an equivalent planar film without nanocylinders, resulting in a 3-fold average PL enhancement per Si-NC. The principle demonstrated here is general, and the Si-NCs can be replaced with other semiconductor quantum dots, rare-earth ions, or organic molecules. Similarly, the dielectric medium can be adjusted on purpose. This spectral selectivity of absorption paves the way for an effective light down-conversion scheme to increase the efficiency of solar cells. We envision the use of this hierarchical design for other efficient photovoltaic, photocatalytic, and artificial photosynthetic devices with spectrally selective absorption and enhanced efficiency.

  11. Identification and characterization of the out-of-plane resonance in a dielectric elastomer to drive an agile robotic cube (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Li, Bo; Sun, Wenjie; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hualing


    A dielectric elastomer (DE) vibrates and resonates mechanically under an alternating voltage and the vibrations undergo a transition from the in-plane to the out-of-plane state. In this study, a phase diagram was established experimentally to illustrate this transition and an electromechanical model was proposed to predict the transition using the boundary conditions. The resonance frequencies were calculated and were shown to be consistent with the experimentally obtained values. A novel vibration-driven robotic cube was then designed and powered by the dielectric elastomer at the 1st order out-of-plane resonance. The agile robotic cube is ultralight and demonstrated a speedy response of 125 mm/s (1.8 body length/s), which is superior to the locomotive dynamics of the existing DE-based robotic devices.

  12. An Aligned-Gap and Centered-Gap Rectangular Multiple Split Ring Resonator for Dielectric Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izyani Mat Rusni


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a planar Aligned-Gap and Centered-Gap Rectangular Multiple Split Ring Resonator (SRR for microwave sensors that operates at a resonance frequency around 5 GHz. The sensor consists of a microstrip transmission line loaded with two elements of rectangular SRR on both sides. The proposed metamaterial sensors were designed and fabricated on Rogers RT5880 substrate having dielectric constant of 2.2 and thickness of 0.787 mm. The final dimension of the proposed sensor was measured at 35 × 14 mm2. Measured results show good agreement with simulated ones as well as exhibiting high Q-factor for use in sensing application. A remarkably shift of resonance frequency is observed upon introduction of several sample with different dielectric value.

  13. An advanced EPR stopped-flow apparatus based on a dielectric ring resonator (United States)

    Lassmann, Günter; Schmidt, Peter Paul; Lubitz, Wolfgang


    A novel EPR stopped-flow accessory is described which allows time-dependent cw-EPR measurements of rate constants of reactions involving paramagnetic species after rapid mixing of two liquid reagents. The EPR stopped-flow design represents a state-of-the-art, computer controlled fluid driving system, a miniresonant EPR structure with an integrated small ball mixer, and a stopping valve. The X-band EPR detection system is an improved version of that reported by Sienkiewicz et al. [Rev. Sci. Instr. 65 (1994) 68], and utilizes a resonator with two stacked ceramic dielectric rings separated by a variable spacer. The resonator with the mode TE( H) 011 is tailored particularly for conditions of fast flowing and rapidly stopped aqueous solutions, and for a high time resolution. The short distance between the ball mixer and the small EPR active volume (1.8 μl) yields a measured dead time of 330 μs. A compact assembly of all parts results in minimization of disturbing microphonics. The computer controlled driving system from BioLogic with two independent stepping motors was optimized for EPR stopped-flow with a hard-stop valve. Performance tests on the EPR spectrometer ESP 300E from BRUKER using redox reactions of nitroxide radicals revealed the EPR stopped-flow accessory as an advanced, versatile, and reliable instrument with high reproducibility.

  14. Resonances of periodic metal-dielectric structures at the infrared wavelength region (United States)

    Sternberg, Oren


    Metal meshes have been used as reflectors in radar receivers for wavelength much longer than the periodic constant of the conducting wires and as optical reflectors in a Fabry-Perot in the far infrared. Cross shaped metal meshes can be used as band pass filters but the design theory and near field properties have not been known. Transmittance of thin, single-layer and multiplayer metal meshes has been investigated using Micro-Strips, yielding numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. The near field effect was studied for two alignment configurations of cross shaped metal meshes, both free standing and with dielectrics, and transmission line theory was applied for the interpretation as an oscillator mode model. The model for the interpretation of the mode of a single mesh uses a pair of coupled surface wave (that is one standing wave on each side). The transmittance of multi-layer metal meshes are interpreted as modes composed of resonance modes of the single mesh, the Fabry-Perot modes depending on the separation of the meshes, and their interaction. Experimental data for thick inductive cross shaped metal meshes agree very well with Micro-Strips calculations in the long wavelength region and with Fourier Modal method calculations in the short wavelength. The transmittances of all these meshes show similar resonance peaks and the same dependence on thickness of the short wavelength peaks, suggesting that the interpretation using the oscillator mode model is valid in the short and long wavelength region. Stacks of thin metal meshes have been studied with Micro-Strips and transmission line theory. Narrow transmission regions for inductive meshes and narrow bandgap regions for capacitive meshes may be obtained from layered structures for the aligned configuration and spacing of 1/4 resonance wavelength of a single layer.

  15. Dynamics of asymmetric binary glass formers. I. A dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Kahlau, R; Bock, D; Schmidtke, B; Rössler, E A


    Dielectric spectroscopy as well as (2)H and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene (PS/PS-d3) in the full concentration (cTPP) range. In addition, depolarized light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry experiments are performed. Two glass transition temperatures are found: Tg 1(cTPP) reflects PS dynamics and shows a monotonic plasticizer effect, while the lower Tg 2(cTPP) exhibits a maximum and is attributed to (faster) TPP dynamics, occurring in a slowly moving or immobilized PS matrix. Dielectric spectroscopy probing solely TPP identifies two different time scales, which are attributed to two sub-ensembles. One of them, again, shows fast TPP dynamics (α2-process), the other (α1-process) displays time constants identical with those of the slow PS matrix. Upon heating the α1-fraction of TPP decreases until above some temperature Tc only a single α2-population exists. Inversely, below Tc a fraction of the TPP molecules is trapped by the PS matrix. At low cTPP the α2-relaxation does not follow frequency-temperature superposition (FTS), instead it is governed by a temperature independent distribution of activation energies leading to correlation times which follow Arrhenius laws, i.e., the α2-relaxation resembles a secondary process. Yet, (31)P NMR demonstrates that it involves isotropic reorientations of TPP molecules within a slowly moving or rigid matrix of PS. At high cTPP the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of τ2(T), as well as FTS are recovered, known as typical of the glass transition in neat systems.

  16. A low-cost dielectric spectroscopic system using metamaterial open horn-ring resonator-inspired BSF and detection circuitry (United States)

    Kumari, Ratnesh; Patel, Piyush N.


    The sensitivity in a lower microwave band dielectric spectroscopic system is relatively less compared to that of millimeter wave and terahertz system. This work reports modeling and development of an epsilon-negative metamaterial resonator-inspired microwave band-stop filter as a prototype device and its detection circuitry for the spectroscopic analysis of dielectric samples in S-band. The device structure consists of a diamond-shaped patch with a complementary open split horn-ring resonator, fabricated on a Neltech substrate of relative permittivity ( ɛ r = 3.2). The measured transmission coefficient at 2.2 GHz and simulated result at 2.24 GHz demonstrate an excellent accuracy in the device fabrication. A low-cost connector-type microwave signal detection system was assembled for the real-time transduction of device signal into an equivalent DC voltage. Further, a single channel cavity developed using polydimethylsiloxane was placed over the resonator gap for analyzing the perturbation effect of electric field intensity on the resonance and circuit output DC level for different dielectric samples under test. The performed calibrations show linearity up to 82.5 % in the device response.

  17. Particle acceleration by wave scattering off dielectric spheres at whispering-gallery-mode resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Żakowicz


    Full Text Available The large electromagnetic fields, created in wave scattering near a perfect dielectric sphere at the condition of whispering-gallery-mode resonances, are investigated as driving units for high energy charged particle accelerators. For optimal trajectories passing near the scattering sphere, particle coupling with the field reduces to very short intervals, of the order of the wave period. Interacting fields can be almost 1000 times stronger than that in the incident wave. An example considered indicates that the instantaneous energy yield during this strong coupling interval is equivalent to ∼30  GeV/m, assuming the incident electric field E_{0}=100  MV/m. It was shown that the particle transverse deflection is negligible if the phase of the particle is optimal for acceleration. Hence, the acceleration process can be repeated many times. A rough estimate of the energy gain in a periodic chain of such elementary accelerating unit cells gives ΔEnergy/m≈5  GeV/m, which is several hundred times more than in contemporary operating and projected accelerators. Preliminary estimates of absorption losses in the scheme are given.

  18. Equilateral Triangular Dielectric Resonator Nantenna at Optical Frequencies for Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Tariq Sethi


    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a remarkable growth in the telecommunication industry. With the introduction of smart gadgets, the demand for high data rate and bandwidth for wireless applications have increased exponentially at the cost of exponential consumption of energy. The latter is pushing the research and industry communities to devise green communication solutions that require the design of energy saving devices and techniques in one part and ambient energy harvesting techniques in the other part. With the advent of nanocomponents fabrication technology, researchers are now able to tap into the THz frequency regime and fabricate optical low profile antennas at a nanoscale. Optical antennas have proved their potential and are revolutionizing a class of novel optical detectors, interconnectors, sensors, and energy harvesting related fields. Authors in this paper propose an equilateral triangular dielectric resonator nantenna (ETDRNA working at 193.5 THz standard optical frequency. The simulated antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth from 192.3 THz to 197.3 THz with an end-fire directivity of 8.6 dBi, covering the entire standard optical window of C-band. Numerical demonstrations prove the efficiency of the nantenna at the frequencies of interest, making it a viable candidate for future green energy harvesting and high speed optical applications.

  19. Enhancing the Performance of the Microwave Absorbing Materials by Using Dielectric Resonator Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar H. Al-Zoubi


    Full Text Available We present a technique for enhancing the performance of microwave absorbing materials in terms of weight, thickness, and bandwidth. The introduced technique is based on fabricating the microwave absorbing (MA material in a structure comprised of an array of circular cylinder dielectric resonators (CDR backed by a perfect electric conductor (PEC ground plane. Numerical electromagnetic methods are employed to study the properties of the proposed MA array structures, where 3D full wave simulation using finite-element method is implemented. The obtained results show that the performance of the MA-CDR arrays significantly outperforms that of a flat layer composed of the same material and having equivalent thickness. A flat layer of MA material with thickness of 5 mm backed by perfect electric conductor (PEC shows as low as -50 dB reflection loss (RL peak and ~3 GHz 10-dB bandwidth, whereas an MA-CDR array, composed of the same MA material, of height of 4 mm can achieve as low as ~−50 dB RL peak and ~12 GHz 10-dB RL bandwidth.

  20. Polarization-independent beam deflection and focusing with dielectric non-resonant metasurfaces (United States)

    Su, Xiaofang; Li, Guanhai; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zengyue; Yu, Feilong; Chen, Xiaoshuang


    Metasurfaces, constructed from function-driven artificial meta-cells, possess great flexibility in tuning effective electric permittivity and magnetic permeability, leading to excellent performance on the manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Here, polarization-independent dielectric metasurfaces are presented as beam deflectors and meta-lenses working on telecommunication wavelength based on non-resonant metamolecules. A conversion efficiency as high as 70.5% is achieved when beam deflection angle θ  =  18.45°. With precisely designed parameters, a planar lens with the focal length of 30.85 µm shows that focusing efficiency as high as 47.3% is realized. The meta-lens yields a NA  =  0.63 and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)  =  1.64 µm at 1.55 µm. With broadband and wide-angle focusing properties, the polarization-insensitive metasurfaces promise great applications in high sensitivity single photon detector and other opto-electronic integrated devices.

  1. Quantum-Coherence-Assisted Tunable On- and Off-Resonance Tunneling through a Quantum-Dot-Molecule Dielectric Film (United States)

    Shen, Jian Qi; Zeng, Rui Xi


    Quantum-dot-molecular phase coherence (and the relevant quantum-interference-switchable optical response) can be utilized to control electromagnetic wave propagation via a gate voltage, since quantum-dot molecules can exhibit an effect of quantum coherence (phase coherence) when quantum-dot-molecular discrete multilevel transitions are driven by an electromagnetic wave. Interdot tunneling of carriers (electrons and holes) controlled by the gate voltage can lead to destructive quantum interference in a quantum-dot molecule that is coupled to an incident electromagnetic wave, and gives rise to a quantum coherence effect (e.g., electromagnetically induced transparency, EIT) in a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film. The tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling effect of an incident electromagnetic wave (probe field) through such a quantum-coherent quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film is investigated. It is found that a high gate voltage can lead to the EIT phenomenon of the quantum-dot-molecular systems. Under the condition of on-resonance light tunneling through the present quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film, the probe field should propagate without loss if the probe frequency detuning is zero. Such an effect caused by both EIT and resonant tunneling, which is sensitive to the gate voltage, can be utilized for designing devices such as photonic switching, transistors, and logic gates.

  2. Biotin-Streptavidin Binding Interactions of Dielectric Filled Silicon Bulk Acoustic Resonators for Smart Label-Free Biochemical Sensor Applications (United States)

    Heidari, Amir; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Park, Woo-Tae; Su, Pei-Chen; Miao, Jianmin; Lin, Julius Tsai Ming; Park, Mi Kyoung


    Sensor performance of a dielectric filled silicon bulk acoustic resonator type label-free biosensor is verified with biotin-streptavidin binding interactions as a model system. The mass sensor is a micromachined silicon square plate with a dielectric filled capacitive excitation mechanism. The resonance frequency of the biotin modified resonator decreased 315 ppm when exposed to streptavidin solution for 15 min with a concentration of 10−7 M, corresponding to an added mass of 3.43 ng on the resonator surface. An additional control is added by exposing a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-covered device to streptavidin in the absence of the attached biotin. No resonance frequency shift was observed in the control experiment, which confirms the specificity of the detection. The sensor-to-sensor variability is also measured to be 4.3%. Consequently, the developed sensor can be used to observe in biotin-streptavidin interaction without the use of labelling or molecular tags. In addition, biosensor can be used in a variety of different immunoassay tests. PMID:24608003

  3. Structure, crystallization and dielectric resonances in 2-13 GHz of waste-derived glass-ceramic (United States)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Chen, XiaoYu; Wang, GuangRong; Zheng, Feng


    Structure, kinetics of crystallization, and dielectric resonances of waste-derived glass-ceramic prepared via quench-heating route were studied as a function of dosage of iron ore tailing (IOT) within 20-40 wt% using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements. The glass-ceramic mainly consisted of ferrite crystals embedded in borosilicate glass matrix. Crystallization kinetics and morphologies of ferrite crystals as well as coordination transformation of boron between [BO4] and [BO3] in glass network were adjustable by changing the amount of IOT. Dielectric resonances in 6-13 GHz were found to be dominated by oscillations of Ca2+ cations in glass network with [SiO4] units on their neighboring sites. Ni2+ ions made a small contribution to those resonances. Diopside formed when IOT exceeded 35 wt%, which led to weakening of the resonances.

  4. Wideband rhombic dielectric resonator antenna with CPW slot excitation for IEEE 802.11a/HiperLAN application (United States)

    Dhar, Sayantan; Ghatak, Rowdra; Gupta, Bhaskar; Poddar, Dipak R.


    A wideband dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) using a CPW-fed inductive slot is proposed in this article. The DRA provides a simple design that exhibits a wide impedance bandwidth of about 26.8% (5.18-6.68 GHz). This is achieved by gradually rotating a square DRA by 45° to generate a rhombic DRA of dimensions 25 × 25 × 5 mm3. DRA structures with different rotation angles have also been studied to provide a comparative study into which orientation offers the best bandwidth. This structure results in the splitting up of the ? mode, and with suitable selection of the resonator dimensions, these modes can be brought close enough to yield wideband resonance characteristic. The proposed antenna has a realised gain of about 5.5 dBi over the entire band. The antenna covers the IEEE 802.11a, HiperLAN and UNII bands.

  5. Surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles sandwiched between dielectric layers: theoretical modelling. (United States)

    Protopapa, Maria L


    Composite films consisting of a ceramic matrix with embedded metal nanoparticles have received increased interest due to their numerous potential applications in the field of optics and optoelectronics. Numerous studies have been dedicated to the fabrication of these composite materials and it has been shown that nanocermet films can be obtained by successive deposition of alternate dielectric and metal films of thicknesses opportunely chosen. In this case, stacks of dielectric layers alternated with layers of metal nanoclusters (NCs) are obtained. However, until now, optical characterization of these kinds of multilayer stack has been used to retrieve mainly qualitative information on the dimension, shape, and geometric distribution of nanoparticles inside the dielectric matrix. An easy-to-handle model that quantitatively links the optical properties to the main features of the NCs embedded in the matrix is presented. This model can be applied to multilayer stacks of dielectric layers alternated with metal NC layers and is shown to be a valid alternative to a recently published model [Nanotechnology 19, 125709 (2008)NNOTER0957-448410.1088/0957-4484/19/22/225302] that was applied to the case of a three-layer structure (dielectric/metal:dielectric/dielectric).

  6. Multifunctional all-dielectric nano-optical systems using collective multipole Mie resonances: Towards on-chip integrated nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Chattaraj, Swarnabha


    We present an analysis of the optical response of a class of on-chip integrated nano-photonic systems comprising all-dielectric building block based multifunctional light manipulating units (LMU) integrated with quantum dot (QD) light sources. The multiple functions (such as focusing excitation light, QD emission rate enhancement, photon guidance, and lossless propagation) are simultaneously realized using the collective Mie resonances of dipole and higher order multipole modes of the dielectric building blocks (DBBs) constituting a single structural unit, the LMU. Using analytical formulation based on Mie theory we demonstrate enhancement of the excitation light simultaneously with the guiding and propagation of the emitted light from a QD emitter integrated with the DBB based LMU. The QD-DBB integrated structures can serve as the basic element for building nano-optical active circuits for optical information processing in both classical and quantum realms.

  7. Resonant Excitation of Selected Modes by a Train of Electron Bunches in a Rectangular Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Onishchenko, Ivan N; Onishchenko, Nikolay; Sotnikov, Gennadiy


    The dielectric wake field accelerator is based on particle acceleration by wake fields excited in a dielectric waveguide by a regular sequence of electron bunches. Enhancement of the accelerating field can be achieved using two phenomena: coherent excitation by many bunches (multibunch effect) and constructive interference of many excited eigenmodes (multimode effect). It was believed that the latter is possible only for planar slab geometry in which the excited modes are equally spaced in frequency. By analysis and simulation, in this presentation the effect of wake field superposition to high amplitude is demonstrated for arbitrary rectangular geometry that is more realizable in experiment. We find this result using simultaneous multibunch and multimode operation providing the repetition frequency of the bunch sequence is equal to the frequency difference between selected modes, whereupon resonant oscillation takes place. Moreover, it is shown that for an appropriate choice of selected modes and bunch repet...

  8. Study on Fano resonance regulating mechanism of Si contained metal-dielectric-metal waveguide coupled rectangular cavity (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Zhao, Zhi-yong; He, Lei; Cui, Xing-ning


    Based on the transmission properties and the photon location characteristics of the Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) sub-wavelength structure, a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide coupled rectangular cavity structure is proposed. Dielectric material silicon (Si) is introduced in the structure to overcome the high loss of the metal materials. Due to the large refractive index difference between silicon and air, the reflections of SPPs and the incident light at the two ends of the Si-air-Si cavity in the sub-wavelength structure are small meanwhile the transmissions are high, which leads to a wider continuous spectrum. And when the SPPs enter the rectangular cavity in the metal and the phase matching condition is satisfied, the resonance will occur and a narrow transmission spectrum peak will be generated. Through the coupling of the wider continuous state and the narrower isolated state, the Fano resonance will occur. According to the phase-matching condition of resonance, the relationship model between the effective refractive index of the waveguide and the wavelength shift of the resonant peak is established. And with the increase of the length L of the rectangular cavity, the red shift of the resonant peak will occur, which can improve the sensitivity of the sensing structure. The influences of structural parameters L, W and g on Fano resonance are analyzed respectively to optimize the structural parameters by the finite element methods. The Figure of merit (FOM) value can be adjusted and controlled with the change of the structural parameters L, W and g. The FOM value of the optimized structure parameters can attain to 1.19 ×104. The optimized structure parameters are adopted to discuss the sensing performances of the structure. The results show that the sensitivity of the sensor is about 1612 nm/RIU. The waveguide structure mentioned above can provide effective theoretical references for the miniaturization and high integration of photonic devices and

  9. Electromagnetic resonant properties of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) cylindrical microcavities (United States)

    Heng, Hang; Wang, Rong


    Optical metamaterials can concentrate light into extremely tiny volumes to enhance their interaction with quantum objects. In this paper, a cylindrical microcavity based on the Au-dielectric-Au sandwiched structure is proposed. Numerical study shows that the cylindrical microcavity has the strong ability of localizing light and confining 103- - 104-fold enhancement of the electromagnetic energy density, which contains the most energy of the incoming light. The enhancement factor of energy density G inside the cavity shows the regularities as the change in the thickness of the dielectric slab, dielectric constant, and the radius of gold disk. At the normal incidence of electromagnetic radiation, the obtained reflection spectra operate in the range from 4.8 μm to 6 μm and with the absorption efficiency C ( C=1- R min), which can reach 99% by optimizing the structure's geometry parameters, and the dielectric constant. Due to the symmetry of the cylindrical microcavities, this structure is insensitive to the polarization of the incident wave. The proposed optical metamaterials will have potential applications in the surface enhanced spectroscopy, new plasmonic detectors, bio-sensing, solar cells, etc.

  10. Monolithic integrated system with an electrowetting-on-dielectric actuator and a film-bulk-acoustic-resonator sensor (United States)

    Zhang, Menglun; Cui, Weiwei; Chen, Xuejiao; Wang, Chao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao


    Although digital microfluidics has shown great potential in a wide range of applications, a lab-on-a-chip with integrated digital droplet actuators and powerful biochemical sensors is still lacking. To address the demand, a fully integrated chip with electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) and a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) sensor is introduced, where an EWOD actuator manipulates digital droplets and the FBAR sensor detects the presence of substances in the droplets, respectively. The piezoelectric layer of the FBAR sensor and the dielectric layer of the EWOD share the same aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film, which is a key factor to achieve the full integration of the two completely different devices. The liquid droplets are reliably managed by the EWOD actuator to sit on or move off the FBAR sensor precisely. Sessile drop experiments and limit of detection (LOD) experiments are carried out to characterize the EWOD actuator and the FBAR sensor, respectively. Taking advantage of the digital droplet operation, a ‘dry sensing mode’ of the FBAR sensor in the lab-on-a-chip microsystem is proposed, which has a much higher signal to noise ratio than the conventional ‘wet sensing mode’. Hg2+ droplets with various concentrations are transported and sensed to demonstrate the capability of the integrated system. The EWOD-FBAR chip is expected to play an important role in many complex lab-on-a-chip applications.

  11. Influence of thermal annealing and radiation enhanced diffusion processes on surface plasmon resonance of gold implanted dielectric matrices (United States)

    Devi, Ksh. Devarani; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran


    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in fused silica and sapphire dielectric matrices were synthesized by Au ion implantation. Systematic investigations were carried out to study the influence of implantation dose, post annealing temperature, swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation and radiation enhanced diffusion (RED). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measurements were carried out to quantify concentration and depth profile of Au present in the host matrices. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize AuNPs formation. As-implanted and post-annealed films were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions to investigate the effect of electronic energy deposition on size and shape of NPs, which is estimated indirectly by the peak shape analysis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The effect of volume fraction of Au and their redistribution is also reported. A strong absorption in near infra red region is also noticed and understood by the formation of percolated NPs in dielectric matrices. It is quite clear from these results that the effect of RED assisted Oswald ripening is much more pronounced than the conventional Oswald ripening for the growth of NPs in the case of silica host matrices. However for sapphire matrices, it seems that growth of NPs already completed during implantation and it may be attributed to the high diffusivity of Au in sapphire matrices during implantation process.

  12. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD. (United States)

    Fagge, Timothy J; Barclay, G Robin; Stove, G Colin; Stove, Gordon; Robinson, Michael J; Head, Mark W; Ironside, James W; Turner, Marc L


    Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS), which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  13. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside James W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc, although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS, which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  14. Point-Wise Phase Matching for Nonlinear Frequency Generation in Dielectric Resonators (United States)

    Yu, Nan (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Lin, Guoping (Inventor)


    An optical resonator fabricated from a uniaxial birefringent crystal, such as beta barium borate. The crystal is cut with the optical axis not perpendicular to a face of the cut crystal. In some cases the optical axis lies in the plane of the cut crystal face. An incident (input) electromagnetic signal (which can range from the infrared through the visible to the ultraviolet) is applied to the resonator. An output signal is recovered which has a frequency that is an integer multiple of the frequency of the input signal. In some cases a prism is used to evanescently couple the input and the output signals to the resonator.

  15. Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes based on dielectric passive cavity structures (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Zschiedrich, L.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.


    A novel design for high brightness planar technology light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and LED on-wafer arrays on absorbing substrates is proposed. The design integrates features of passive dielectric cavity deposited on top of an oxide- semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the p-n junction with a light emitting region is introduced into the top semiconductor λ/4 DBR period. A multilayer dielectric structure containing a cavity layer and dielectric DBRs is further processed by etching into a micrometer-scale pattern. An oxide-confined aperture is further amended for current and light confinement. We study the impact of the placement of the active region into the maximum or minimum of the optical field intensity and study an impact of the active region positioning on light extraction efficiency. We also study an etching profile composed of symmetric rings in the etched passive cavity over the light emitting area. The bottom semiconductor is an AlGaAs-AlAs multilayer DBR selectively oxidized with the conversion of the AlAs layers into AlOx to increase the stopband width preventing the light from entering the semiconductor substrate. The approach allows to achieve very high light extraction efficiency in a narrow vertical angle keeping the reasonable thermal and current conductivity properties. As an example, a micro-LED structure has been modeled with AlGaAs-AlAs or AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs and an active region based on InGaAlP quantum well(s) emitting in the orange spectral range at 610 nm. A passive dielectric SiO2 cavity is confined by dielectric Ta2O5/SiO2 and AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs. Cylindrically-symmetric structures with multiple ring patterns are modeled. It is demonstrated that the extraction coefficient of light to the air can be increased from 1.3% up to above 90% in a narrow vertical angle (full width at half maximum (FWHM) below 20°). For very small oxide-confined apertures 100nm the narrowing of the FWHM for light extraction can be reduced down to 5

  16. Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization. (United States)

    Malic, Lidija; Veres, Teodor; Tabrizian, Maryam


    This work reports on a dynamically configurable micro-array surface plasmon resonance biochip platform. The platform comprises a digital electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic device tailored to surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). We demonstrate its application for simultaneous immobilization of different DNA probes at the designated detection sites on-chip from sub-microL volume solutions in combination with multichannel label-free real-time detection of subsequent hybridization reactions. Successful on-chip DNA probe dilution and immobilization is also demonstrated using SPRi hybridization detection. Furthermore, active control of the immobilized probe density and orientation is achieved under an applied potential using the electric interface of the EWOD device. For low probe densities, under negative applied potential, the DNA hybridization efficiency is enhanced compared to passive probe immobilization, yielding a two-fold SPR signal increase within only 8min of hybridization. EWOD microfluidic platform coupled with SPRi promises to dramatically increase the speed of detection and quantification of biomolecular interactions while reducing reagent consumption. The proposed system would enable the development of high-throughput, rapid and ultrasensitive detection of biomolecules beyond DNA microarray applications.

  17. Dielectric measurements of nanoliter liquids with a photonic crystal resonator at terahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanham, S. M., E-mail:; Watts, C.; Klein, N. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Centre for Terahertz Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Otter, W. J.; Lucyszyn, S. [Centre for Terahertz Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom)


    We present a highly sensitive technique for determining the complex permittivity of nanoliter liquid samples in the terahertz band based on a photonic crystal resonator and microcapillary. Liquids are characterized by using a capillary tube to introduce a ∼4 nl liquid sample into the electromagnetic field of a resonant mode confined by an L3 resonant cavity in a high-resistivity silicon photonic crystal slab. Monitoring the perturbation of the resonant frequency and unloaded Q-factor of the resonant mode at 100 GHz and ∼5800, respectively, allows a sample's permittivity to be calculated. An analytical model describing the system response based on perturbation theory and quasi-static analysis of the electric field within the capillary is also presented and found to agree well with FEM simulations and experimental measurements of ethanol-water mixtures of various concentrations for low to moderate loss tangents of the liquid samples. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by measuring the complex permittivity of several bioliquids, including suspensions of red and white blood cells. These results represent a step towards a lab-on-a-chip device for the analysis of extremely small quantities of biological, toxic, explosive, and other liquid types at terahertz frequencies.

  18. Near-field distribution and propagation of scattering resonances in Vogel spiral arrays of dielectric nanopillars (United States)

    Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lawrence, N.; Trevino, J.; Wiersma, D. S.; Dal Negro, L.


    In this work, we employ scanning near-field optical microscopy, full-vector finite difference time domain numerical simulations and fractional Fourier transformation to investigate the near-field and propagation behavior of the electromagnetic energy scattered at 1.56 μm by dielectric arrays of silicon nitride nanopillars with chiral α1-Vogel spiral geometry. In particular, we experimentally study the spatial evolution of scattered radiation and demonstrate near-field coupling between adjacent nanopillars along the parastichies arms. Moreover, by measuring the spatial distribution of the scattered radiation at different heights from the array plane, we demonstrate a characteristic rotation of the scattered field pattern consistent with net transfer of orbital angular momentum in the Fresnel zone, within a few micrometers from the plane of the array. Our experimental results agree with the simulations we performed and may be of interest to nanophotonics applications.

  19. Unusually Sharp Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Supported Silver Nanocrystals with a Thin Dielectric Coating. (United States)

    Prezgot, Daniel; Bottomley, Adam; Coyle, Jason P; Ianoul, Anatoli


    An unusually sharp localized surface plasmon resonance (sLSPR) is observed for a monolayer of glass-supported silver nanocubes coated with a thin, 5-20 nm, Al2O3 film. The resonance becomes significantly narrower and stronger while losing optical anisotropy and sensitivity to the surroundings with increasing overlayer thickness. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering excitation profiles indicate an additional enhancement to the electric field brought in by the sLSPR. The resonance is thought to originate from a Fano-like constructive interference between the quadrupolar and dipolar LSPR modes in supported silver nanocubes leading to enhanced light extinction. This phenomenon is of significance for plasmon-induced charge-transfer processes in photovoltaics and catalysis.

  20. An Efficient Methodology for the Analysis of Dielectric Shimming Materials in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.H.F.; Brink, Wyger M.; Webb, Andrew G.; Remis, R.F.


    Interference effects in the transmit $B_{1}^{+}$ field can severely degrade the image quality in high-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). High-permittivity pads are increasingly used to counteract these effects, but designing such pads is not trivial. In this paper, we present an efficient

  1. Demonstration of Magnetic Dipole Resonances of Dielectric Nanospheres in the Visible Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Novikov, S. M.; Zywietz, U.


    dipole excitation. Due to high permittivity, the magnetic dipole resonance is observed in the visible spectral range for Si nanoparticles with diameters of similar to 200 nm, thereby opening a way to the realization of isotropic optical metamaterials with strong magnetic responses in the visible region....

  2. Förster resonance energy transfer rate in any dielectric nanophotonic medium with weak dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, M.; Vos, Willem L.


    Motivated by the ongoing debate about nanophotonic control of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), notably by the local density of optical states (LDOS), we study FRET and spontaneous emission in arbitrary nanophotonic media with weak dispersion and weak absorption in the frequency overlap

  3. The relationship between resonance scattering and the formation of an acoustojet under the interaction of ultrasound with a dielectric sphere immersed in water (United States)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.; Tseplyaev, I. S.


    We demonstrated for the first time the influence of the main parameters of dielectric spherical cavity, immersed in water, to transformation of whispering gallery mode into acoustojet (acoustic jets) by interaction of acoustic plane wave scatterer. It has been shown that the relative speed of sound in the material, the relative density of the material and the radius of particle significantly affect the condition for the formation of WGM resonance. However, the "more sensitive" parameter is the relative speed of sound.

  4. Resonance excitation and light concentration in sets of dielectric nanocylinders in front of a subwavelength aperture. Effects on extraordinary transmission. (United States)

    Valdivia-Valero, F J; Nieto-Vesperinas, M


    We study the excitation of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in dielectric nanocylinders by light transmitted through a subwavelength slit in a metallic slab. Calculations are done both by the finite elements method and using FDTD simulations. We discuss the effect of that excitation on extraordinary transmission by the slit. In this way, we show the dominant role of the WGMs over the aperture enhanced transmission as regards the resulting transmitted intensity and its concentration inside the cylinders. When sets of these particles are placed in front of the slit, like linear or bifurcated chains, with or without bends, the concentration of WGMs is controlled by designing the geometry parameters, so that these surface waves are coupled by both waveguiding of the nanocylinder eigenmodes and by scattered propagating waves. Also, the choice of the wavelength and polarization of the illumination, allows to select the excitation of either bonding or antibonding states of the field transmitted through the aperture into the particles. These resonances are further enhanced when a beam emerges from the slit due to adding a periodic corrugation in the slab.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint at 7.0 T Using High-Permittivity Dielectric Pads: A Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Manoliu, Andrei; Spinner, Georg; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Nanz, Daniel; Kuhn, Felix P; Gallo, Luigi M; Andreisek, Gustav


    The aims of this study were to show feasibility and to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the use of high-permittivity dielectric pads for imaging the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) at 7.0 T. This study is an institutional review board-approved study with written informed consent. Ten asymptomatic volunteers (20 TMJs) were magnetic resonance imaged using a 32-channel head coil at 7.0 T (Achieva; Philips Healthcare, the Netherlands) with and without high-permittivity dielectric pads consisting of barium titanate in deuterated suspension. Imaging protocol consisted of an oblique sagittal proton density-weighted turbo-spin echo sequence. For quantitative evaluation, B1 maps and voxelwise signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) maps were calculated. For qualitative evaluation, 2 readers assessed the visibility of anatomical structures of the TMJ and overall image quality on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (excellent visibility) to 5 (not visible) in consensus. Quantitative and qualitative measurements were compared between images acquired with and without pads. Imaging the TMJ using dielectric pads was feasible in all volunteers. The quantitative analysis showed locally higher B1+ and higher SNR in the area covering the TMJ for the scans performed with dielectric pads compared with those without pads (SNR: mean [SD] pads, 12.38 [3.18]; mean [SD] no pads, 6.60 [0.72]). The qualitative analysis showed significantly better visibility and delineation of clinically relevant anatomical structures of the TMJ, including temporomandibular disc, bilaminar zone, mandibular fossa, mandibular condyle, and pterygoid muscle. In addition, observers judged overall image quality as better for images taken with pads compared with those taken without pads (mean [SD] pads, 1.40 [0.50]; mean [SD] no pads, 4.25 [0.78]). The application of high-permittivity dielectric pads improves the local B1+ field and thus the SNR, optimizing TMJ magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 T.

  6. Dielectric resonance effect with negative permittivity in a La1.5Sr0.5NiO4+ δ ceramic (United States)

    Thanh, Tran Dang; Van Dang, Nguyen; Van Hong, Le; Phan, The-Long; Yu, Seong-Cho


    A polycrystalline sample of La1.5Sr0.5NiO4+ δ was prepared by using a solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction proved the sample to be a single phase with a tetragonal structure (space group: I4/mmm). By using an iodometric titration method to determine the non-stoichiometric oxygen concentration ( δ) in La1.5Sr0.5NiO4+ δ , we found δ = -0.017, which corresponds to a doping level of n h = x + 2 δ = 0.466. Also, a strong increase of the magnetization in the M( T) curve at temperatures below the spin-ordering temperature ( T SO ~ 100 K) was observed. The M( H) curves show very small magnetic moments, which proves the weak ferromagnetic nature of La1.5Sr0.5NiO4+ δ . The dependences of the dielectric constant on the frequency and the temperature, ɛ( ω, T) = ɛ'( ω, T) + iɛ″( ω, T), was investigated in the frequency range of 1-13 MHz. At temperatures around room temperature, the maximum of the real part ( ɛ') was higher than 105. Particularly, an abnormal dependence of the permittivity on frequency was observed. Depending on temperature, a dielectric resonance was observed at about 500 kHz or 8 MHz. Interestingly, we observed the dielectric-resonance effect with a negative permittivity. Such a feature is very similar to that observed in left-handed materials. The fitting of the experimental data for the dielectric constant at frequencies around the resonance frequency to the equations associated with an equivalent RLC series circuit proves that La1.5Sr0.5NiO4+ δ belongs to the class of multiferroic materials.

  7. Method proposing a slow light ring resonator structure coupled with a metal-dielectric-metal waveguide system based on plasmonic induced transparency. (United States)

    Keleshtery, Mehdi Hassani; Kaatuzian, Hassan; Mir, Ali; Zandi, Ashkan


    We demonstrate the analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) plasmonic waveguide. Plasmonic induced transparency is a method similar to EIT. In this paper, a plasmonic MDM waveguide is proposed by using an ellipse shaped side-coupled ring resonator and simulated by finite difference time domain. Plasmonics as a new field of chip-scale technology is an interesting substrate, which is used to propose and numerically investigate a novel MDM structure. The aforementioned framework is a 2×2 plasmonic ring resonator, employing gold as a metal and polymethyl methacrylate as a dielectric. Simulations show that a transparent window is located at 1550 nm and signal wavelength is assumed to be 860 nm, which is the phenomenon of plasmonic induced transparency. The velocity of the plasmonic mode can be considerably slowed while propagating along the MDM bends. Our proposed configuration may thus be applied to storing and stopping light in plasmonic waveguide bends. This plasmonic waveguide system may find important applications for multichannel plasmonic filters, nano-scale optical switching, delay time devices, and slow-light devices in highly integrated optical circuits and networks. In comparison with our previous theoretical work based on circular shaped ring resonators, it is shown that ellipse shaped ring resonators demonstrate better specifications with a slow down factor estimated to be more than 30.

  8. Electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidic platform with nanostructured biosensor interface for enhanced two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance imaging detection (United States)

    Malic, Lidija

    The sensitive and specific detection of biomolecular interactions is at the heart of many routine analyses in fundamental research, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. In contrast to laborious and costly multiwell plate assays, recent years have witnessed a significant progress in miniaturized and integrated biosensors, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), tailored to these applications. While the design of various SPR biosensors has been described in literature, a robust, multichannel, low-cost and highly sensitive solution has not yet been presented. Specifically, an integrated system that can allow surface functionalization in array format, low-volume multichannel fluidic interfacing, and increased sensitivity is sought. This thesis describes a novel electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidic device with integrated nanostructured biosensor interface that addresses the aforementioned issues for enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) detection. We have taken the opportunity of the most recent advances in microfabrication, nanotechnology and SPR technique to develop this integrated platform. EWOD device is employed for the dynamic immobilization of bioreceptors on SPRi biosensor surface in an array fashion from sub-muL volume solutions. Programmable EWOD electric interface allows the application of an electric field at the biosensor surface for active control of the immobilized probe density and orientation, enhancing SPRi detection. Two-dimensional SPRi detection is achieved by coupling the EWOD device to SPRi instrumentation. Parallel manipulation of individual droplets allows more efficient exploitation of the biosensor surface by separating different samples for simultaneous and selective SPRi detection. Periodic gold structures (nanoposts, nanogratings and nanogrooves) residing on a surface of glass and plastic substrates are investigated to improve the SPRi sensitivity. The corresponding electromagnetic field

  9. Fano-like resonance and scattering in dielectric(core)–metal(shell) composites embedded in active host matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jule, L


    Full Text Available We investigate light scattering by core–shell consisting of metal/dielectric composites considering spherical and cylindrical nanoinclusions, within the framework of the conventional Rayleigh approximation. By writing the electric potential...

  10. Resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere illuminated by electromagnetic Bessel non-diffracting (vortex) beams with arbitrary incidence and selective polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F.G., E-mail: [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, 5 Bisbee Ct., Santa Fe, NM 87508 (United States); Li, R.X., E-mail: [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Guo, L.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Ding, C.Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China)


    A complete description of vector Bessel (vortex) beams in the context of the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory (GLMT) for the electromagnetic (EM) resonance scattering by a dielectric sphere is presented, using the method of separation of variables and the subtraction of a non-resonant background (corresponding to a perfectly conducting sphere of the same size) from the standard Mie scattering coefficients. Unlike the conventional results of standard optical radiation, the resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere in air in the field of EM Bessel beams is examined and demonstrated with particular emphasis on the EM field’s polarization and beam order (or topological charge). Linear, circular, radial, azimuthal polarizations as well as unpolarized Bessel vortex beams are considered. The conditions required for the resonance scattering are analyzed, stemming from the vectorial description of the EM field using the angular spectrum decomposition, the derivation of the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) using the integral localized approximation (ILA) and Neumann–Graf’s addition theorem, and the determination of the scattering coefficients of the sphere using Debye series. In contrast with the standard scattering theory, the resonance method presented here allows the quantitative description of the scattering using Debye series by separating diffraction effects from the external and internal reflections from the sphere. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to include rainbow formation in Bessel beams and the derivation of a generalized formula for the deviation angle of high-order rainbows. Potential applications for this analysis include Bessel beam-based laser imaging spectroscopy, atom cooling and quantum optics, electromagnetic instrumentation and profilometry, optical tweezers and tractor beams, to name a few emerging areas of research.

  11. Dynamics of asymmetric non-polymeric binary glass formers-A nuclear magnetic resonance and dielectric spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Pötzschner, B; Mohamed, F; Lichtinger, A; Bock, D; Rössler, E A


    We study a dynamically asymmetric binary glass former with the low-Tg component m-tri-cresyl phosphate (m-TCP: Tg = 206 K) and a spirobichroman derivative as a non-polymeric high-Tg component (Tg = 382 K) by means of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (31)P NMR, and dielectric spectroscopy which allow component-selectively probing the dynamics. The entire concentration range is covered, and two main relaxation processes with two Tg are identified, Tg 1 and Tg 2. The slower one is attributed to the high-Tg component (α1-process), and the faster one is related to the m-TCP molecules (α2-process). Yet, there are indications that a small fraction of m-TCP is associated also with the α1-process. While the α1-relaxation only weakly broadens upon adding m-TCP, the α2-relaxation becomes extremely stretched leading to quasi-logarithmic correlation functions at low m-TCP concentrations-as probed by (31)P NMR stimulated echo experiments. Frequency-temperature superposition does not apply for the α2-process and it reflects an isotropic, liquid-like motion which is observed even below Tg 1, i.e., in the matrix of the arrested high-Tg molecules. As proven by 2D (31)P NMR, the corresponding dynamic heterogeneities are of transient nature, i.e., exchange occurs within the distribution G(lnτα 2). At Tg 1 a crossover is found for the temperature dependence of (mean) τα 2(T) from non-Arrhenius above to Arrhenius below Tg 1 which is attributed to intrinsic confinement effects. This "fragile-to-strong" transition also leads to a re-decrease of Tg 2(cm - TCP) at low concentration cm - TCP, i.e., a maximum is observed in Tg 2(cm - TCP) while Tg 1(cm - TCP) displays the well-known plasticizer effect. Although only non-polymeric components are involved, we re-discover essentially all features previously reported for polymer-plasticizer systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rudakov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Objective is to create a moisture meter for non-polar liquid dielectrics with low volumetric moisture content of more than 10‑3 %. Methodology. Moisture measuring is based on dielcometric method. It is implemented as a resonant method of determining a capacitance measuring transducer. Measuring transducer capacitive type has a working and parasitic capacitance. It was suggested the definition of moisture on four of resonance frequencies: when the measuring transducer is turned off, one by one filled with air, «dry» and investigated liquid, to determine the parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and the parasitic capacitance of the measuring transducer and humidity. Measurement frequency was increased up to microwave range to increase the sensitivity. Measuring transducer with distributed parameters representing a step heterogeneous coaxial resonator is used by. This measuring transducer has a zero stray capacitance, because the potential electrode has a galvanic connection with an external coaxial electrode. Inductive ties loop is used to neglect parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and to increase the quality factor of the system. Measuring moisture is reduced to measuring the two frequencies of resonance frequency and «dry» and investigated liquid. Resonant characteristics transducer in a step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator have been investigated to determine the quality factor of filled with air and transformer oil, and experiments to measure the moisture content in transformer oil have been conducted. Results. Measuring transducer of distributed type is developed and researched – it is step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator. It has a smaller geometric length and larger scatter of the first and second resonant frequencies. Expression is obtained for determination of moisture on the basis of two resonant frequencies. The formula of the two frequencies to determine the moisture is correct. Resonant

  13. Temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties of biological tissues within the temperature and frequency ranges typically used for magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. (United States)

    Fu, Fanrui; Xin, Sherman Xuegang; Chen, Wufan


    This study aimed to obtain the temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties of tissues subjected to magnetic resonance (MR) scanning for MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS). These variables are necessary to calculate radio frequency electromagnetic fields distribution and specific radio frequency energy absorption rate (SAR) in the healthy tissues surrounding the target tumours, and their variation may affect the efficacy of advanced RF pulses. The dielectric properties of porcine uterus, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, skeletal muscle, and fat were determined using an open-ended coaxial probe method. The temperature range was set from 36 °C to 60 °C; and the frequencies were set at 42.58 (1 T), 64 (1.5 T), 128 (3 T), 170 (4 T), 298 (7 T), 400 (9 T), and 468 MHz (11 T). Within the temperature and frequency ranges, the dielectric constants were listed as follows: uterus 49.6-121.64, liver 44.81-127.68, kidney 37.3-169.26, bladder 42.43-125.95, muscle 58.62-171.7, and fat 9.2327-20.2295. The following conductivities were obtained at the same temperature and frequency ranges: uterus 0.5506-1.4419, liver 0.5174-0.9709, kidney 0.8061-1.3625, bladder 0.6766-1.1817, muscle 0.8983-1.3083, and fat 0.1552-0.2316. The obtained data are consistent with the temperature and frequency ranges typically used in MRgFUS and thus can be used as reference to calculate radio frequency electromagnetic fields and SAR distribution inside the healthy tissues subjected to MR scanning for MRgFUS.

  14. Droplet-based label-free detection system based on guided-mode resonance and electrowetting-on-dielectric for concentration measurement (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Bin; Su, Lin-Yun; Fu, Ching-Shu; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Hsu, Wensyang


    We demonstrate a digital microfluidic system with an on-chip detection capability that is based on a guided-mode resonance filter (GMRF). Versatile droplet manipulation was achieved through the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technique. GMRF was fabricated through replica molding and soft lithography, and the EWOD chip was fabricated through a typical photolithography process. Droplets measuring 1.125 µL were used to demonstrate merging, mixing, and cutting, and to achieve twofold and Threefold dilutions, and were then transported to the GMRF region for concentration measurement. The bulk sensitivity of GMRF is approximately 90 nm RIU-1 [17494 nm/(g/L)], resulting in a minimum detectable concentration of 4.66 × 10-5 g/L for a sucrose solution.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance and dielectric noise study of spectral densities and correlation functions in the glass forming monoalcohol 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. (United States)

    Schildmann, S; Reiser, A; Gainaru, R; Gainaru, C; Böhmer, R


    The spectral densities related to various relaxation processes of the glass former 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H), a monohydroxy alcohol, are probed using several nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments as well as via dielectric noise spectroscopy (DNS). On the basis of the spectral density relating to voltage fluctuations, i.e., without the application of external electrical fields, DNS enables the detection of the structural relaxation and of the prominent, about two decades slower Debye process. The NMR-detected spectral density, sensitive to the orientational fluctuations of the hydroxyl deuteron, also reveals dynamics slower than the structural relaxation, but not as slow as the Debye process. Rotational and translational correlation functions of 2E1H are probed using stimulated-echo NMR techniques which could only resolve the structural dynamics or faster processes. The experimental results are discussed with reference to models that were suggested to describe the dynamics in supercooled alcohols.

  16. Internal dielectric transduction: optimal position and frequency scaling. (United States)

    Weinstein, Dana; Bhave, Sunil A


    We propose the optimal design for "internal dielectric transduction" of longitudinal bulk mode resonators. This transduction increases in efficiency as the dielectric thickness approaches half the acoustic wavelength. With dielectric films at positions of maximum strain (minimum displacement) in the resonator, 60 GHz resonators are proposed with 50 Omega motional impedance.

  17. Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki


    The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing rock properties at the relevant length scales. This project brings together several advanced technologies to characterize pore structure and wettability. Grain-scale models are developed that help to better interpret the electric and dielectric response of rocks. These studies allow the computation of realistic configurations of two immiscible fluids as a function of wettability and geologic characteristics. These fluid configurations form a basis for predicting and explaining macroscopic behavior, including the relationship between relative permeability, wettability and laboratory and wireline log measurements of NMR and dielectric response. Dielectric and NMR measurements have been made show that the response of the rocks depends on the wetting and flow properties of the rock. The theoretical models can be used for a better interpretation and inversion of standard well logs to obtain accurate and reliable estimates of fluid saturation and of their producibility. The ultimate benefit of this combined theoretical/empirical approach for reservoir characterization is that rather than reproducing the behavior of any particular sample or set of samples, it can explain and predict trends in behavior that can be applied at a range of length scales, including correlation with wireline logs, seismic, and geologic units and strata. This approach can substantially enhance wireline log interpretation for reservoir characterization and provide better descriptions, at several scales, of crucial reservoir flow properties that govern oil

  18. Dielectric resonance effect with negative permittivity in a La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4+δ} ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Dang [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dang, Nguyen Van [Thai Nguyen University of Science, Thai Nguyen (Viet Nam); Hong, Le Van [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phan, The Long; Yu, Seong Cho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)


    A polycrystalline sample of La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4+}δ was prepared by using a solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction proved the sample to be a single phase with a tetragonal structure (space group: I4/mmm). By using an iodometric titration method to determine the non-stoichiometric oxygen concentration (δ) in La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4+δ}, we found δ = -0.017, which corresponds to a doping level of n{sub h} = x + 2δ = 0.466. Also, a strong increase of the magnetization in the M(T) curve at temperatures below the spin-ordering temperature (T{sub SO} ∼ 100 K) was observed. The M(H) curves show very small magnetic moments, which proves the weak ferromagnetic nature of La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4+δ}. The dependences of the dielectric constant on the frequency and the temperature, ε(ω, T) = ε' (ω, T) + iε''(ω, T), was investigated in the frequency range of 1 - 13 MHz. At temperatures around room temperature, the maximum of the real part (ε') was higher than 10{sup 5}. Particularly, an abnormal dependence of the permittivity on frequency was observed. Depending on temperature, a dielectric resonance was observed at about 500 kHz or 8 MHz. Interestingly, we observed the dielectricresonance effect with a negative permittivity. Such a feature is very similar to that observed in left-handed materials. The fitting of the experimental data for the dielectric constant at frequencies around the resonance frequency to the equations associated with an equivalent RLC series circuit proves that La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4+δ} belongs to the class of multiferroic materials.

  19. Resonant coupling in the Van der Waals interaction between an excited alkali atom and a dielectric surface: an experimental study via stepwise selective reflection spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failache, H.; Saltiel, S.; Fichet, M.; Bloch, D.; Ducloy, M. [Paris-13 Univ., Lab. de Physique des Lasers, UMR 7538 du CNRS, 93 - Villetaneuse (France)


    We present a detailed experimental study of the evaluation of the van der Waals (vW) atom-surface interaction for high-lying excited states of alkali-metal atoms (Cs and Rb), notably R-hen they couple resonantly with a surface-polariton mode of the neighbouring dielectric surface. This report extends our initial observation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5467 (1999)) of a vW repulsion between Cs(6D{sub 3/2}) and a sapphire surface. The experiment is based upon FM selective reflection spectroscopy, on a transition reaching a high-lying state from a resonance level, that has been thermally pumped by an initial one-photon step. Along with a strong vW repulsion fitted with a blue line-shift, -160 {+-} 25 kHz {mu}m{sup 3} for Cs(6D{sub 3/2}) in front of a sapphire surface (with a perpendicular c-axis), we demonstrate a weaker vW repulsion (-32{+-}5 kHz {mu}m{sup 3}) for Cs(6D{sub 3/2}) in front of a YAG surface, as due to a similar resonant coupling at 12 {mu}m between a virtual atomic emission (6D{sub 3/2}-7P{sub 1/2}) and the surface polariton modes. A resonant behaviour of Rb(6D{sub 5/2}) in front of a sapphire surface exists also because of analogous decay channels in the 12 {mu}m range. Finally. one demonstrates that fused silica. nonresonant for a virtual transition in the 12 {mu}m range and hence weakly attracting for Cs(6D{sub 3/2}), exhibits a resonant behaviour for Cs(9S{sub 1/2}) as due to its surface polariton resonance in the 8-9 {mu}m range. The limiting factors that affect both the accuracy of the theoretical prediction, and that of the fitting method applied to the experimental data. are discussed in the conclusion. (authors)

  20. On the cooperative nature of the β-process in neat and binary glasses: a dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Bock, D; Kahlau, R; Micko, B; Pötzschner, B; Schneider, G J; Rössler, E A


    By means of dielectric as well as (2)H and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) the component dynamics of the binary glass tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene (PS/PS-d3) is selectively investigated for concentrations distributed over the full range. We study the secondary (β-) relaxation below T(g), which is found in all investigated samples containing TPP, but not in neat polystyrene. The dielectric spectrum of the β-process is described by an asymmetric distribution of activation energies, essentially not changing in the entire concentration regime; its most probable value is E/k ≅ 24 T(g). Persistence of the β-process is confirmed by (31)P NMR Hahn-echo and spin-lattice relaxation experiments on TPP, which identify the nature of the β-process as being highly spatially hindered as found for other (neat) glasses studied previously, or re-investigated within this work. The corresponding (2)H NMR experiments on PS-d3 confirm the absence of a β-process in neat PS-d3, but reveal a clear signature of a β-process in the mixture, i.e., polystyrene monomers perform essentially the same type of secondary relaxation as the TPP molecules. Yet, there are indications that some fractions of PS-d3 as well as TPP molecules become immobilized in the mixture in contrast to the case of neat glasses. We conclude that in a binary glass the β-process introduced by one component induces a highly similar motion in the second component, and this may be taken as an indication of its cooperative nature.

  1. Realizing Optical Magnetism from Dielectric Metamaterials (United States)

    Ginn, James C.; Brener, Igal; Peters, David W.; Wendt, Joel R.; Stevens, Jeffrey O.; Hines, Paul F.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.


    We demonstrate, for the first time, an all-dielectric metamaterial composite in the midinfrared based on micron-sized, high-index tellurium dielectric resonators. Dielectric resonators are desirable compared to conventional metallodielectric metamaterials at optical frequencies as they are largely angular invariant, free of Ohmic loss, and easily integrated into three-dimensional volumes. Measurements and simulation provide evidence of optical magnetism, which could be used for infrared magnetic mirrors, hard or soft surfaces, and subwavelength cavities.

  2. Dynamic behaviour of a ferro-electric liquid crystal by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and dielectric spectroscopy (United States)

    Domenici, Valentina; Marini, Alberto; Menicagli, Rita; Veracini, Carlo Alberto; Bubnov, Aleksej M.; Glogarova, Milada


    The field of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) is one of the most fascinating aspects of the Science of Materials for their interesting electro-optic applications. Among different chemical and physical properties those related to the molecular dynamics are very stimulating due to the relationship between molecular motions and macroscopic response to external fields, such as electric and magnetic ones. In this work, the molecular dynamics of a ferroelectric smectogen, namely the (S)-2-methylbutyl-[4'-(4"-heptyloxyphenyl)-benzoyl-4-oxy-(S)-2-((S)-2')-benzoyl)-propionyl)]-propionate (ZLL 7/*) has been investigated by means of 2H NMR and dielectric relaxation techniques. The first method allows us to get information on the molecular motions in the fast motion regime, in particular the diffusion reorientational motions of the whole molecule, as well as of the internal motions affecting the phenyl and biphenyl fragments. The second technique, which covers the slow motion regime, has been used to detect collective motions and fluctuation modes. This study allows us to have a complete idea of molecular motions in the different smectic phases formed by the ZLL 7/* mesogens, in particular the paraelectric smectic A (SmA), the ferroelectric smectic C* (SmC*), the antiferroelectric smectic C* A (SmC* A) and the re-entrant ferroelectric smectic C* (SmC* r) phases. This last phase has been investigated for the first time in this work, from the point of view of the dynamic behaviour. All results will be discussed in the framework of the molecular dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals, reported in the literature so far.

  3. Design of four-pole chebyshev and quasi-elliptic Ka band dielectric resonator filter using higher order mode TE01(δ+1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Sujesh


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of 4-Pole Chebyshev and Quasi-Elliptic Ka Band Dielectric Resonator Filter using Higher Order Mode TE01δ+1. A microwave filter is a two port network used to control the frequency response at a certain point in a microwave system by providing transmission at frequencies within the passband of the filter and attenuation in the stop-band of the filter. The satellite communication industry created demand for low-mass narrow-band low-loss filters with severe specification on amplitude selectivity and phase linearity. The microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum has certain unique properties. This enable microwave signals to propagate over long distances through the atmosphere under all the most severe weather conditions. These have both military and civilian applications, including Radar, Navigation and Wireless Communication. Microwave Filters are vital components in a huge variety of electronic systems, including cellular radio, satellite communications and radar. The design of filters uses network synthesis, with which it is possible to apply systematic procedures to work forward from specification to a final theoretical design.

  4. Acoustic, piezoelectric, and dielectric nonlinearities of AlN in coupled resonator filters for high RF power levels. (United States)

    Sahyoun, Walaa; Duchamp, Jean-Marc; Benech, Philippe


    Coupled resonator filters (CRFs) are the new generation of BAW filters recently designed for the front-end modules of mobile transmission systems. Looking for designers' requirements, CRF devices have been characterized and modeled. The model based on equivalent circuits relies on material constants such as stiffness and electro-coupling coefficients, and works only for linear-mode propagation. Because of their positions between antennas and power amplifiers, they often work under high RF power, inducing nonlinear response in the AlN piezoelectric layer. In this work, we analyze for the first time the nonlinear behavior of AlN material particularly for coupled BAW resonators. To characterize the nonlinear effects in CRFs, we measure the 1-dB gain compression point (P1dB) and the intercept point (IP(3)). Then, we develop a nonlinear model of CRFs using harmonic balance (HB) simulation in commercially available software. The HB environment allows fitting simulations to measurements in terms of P(1dB) and IP(3). We find that a high RF power induces nonlinear changes in the material constants' real parts: elastic stiffness c(33) (4.9%), piezoelectric e(33) (17.4%), and permittivity ϵ(33) (5.2%). These nonlinear variations of material constants describe the nonlinear behavior of CRF devices using the same deposit process for AlN material.

  5. Dielectric siphons. (United States)

    Jones, T. B.; Perry, M. P.; Melcher, J. R.


    The normally weak polarization force density, exerted on insulating dielectric liquids by a nonuniform electric field, is enhanced if high pressures are used. The nonuniform electric field acts as an elastic ?wall' to contain and guide the dielectric fluid. A general theory for these electrohydrodynamic (EHD) conduits has been developed. An illustrative example of the EHD conduits is the dielectric siphon consisting of two U-shaped electrodes held adjacent to each other by insulating nylon screws.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of dielectric resonator antenna based on the BiFeO{sub 3} ceramic matrix added with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} or PbO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, H.O., E-mail: [Departamento de Engenharia de Teleinformática, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6007, CEP 60755-640, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Laboratório de Telecomunicações e Ciência e Engenharia dos Materiais (LOCEM), Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Sales, A.J.M.; Pires Junior, G.F.M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Teleinformática, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6007, CEP 60755-640, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Laboratório de Telecomunicações e Ciência e Engenharia dos Materiais (LOCEM), Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Almeida, J.S.; Silva, M.A.S.; Sombra, A.S.B. [Laboratório de Telecomunicações e Ciência e Engenharia dos Materiais (LOCEM), Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)


    Highlights: •We make an experimental and numerical study of the MW properties of BiFeO{sub 3} matrix. •The materials were obtained in a known route in the solid state procedure. •The experimental and theoretical results of the resonators are in good agreement. •The addition of lead oxide deteriorated the thermal stability of the ceramic. •The results confirm the potential use of these materials for small DRAs. -- Abstract: In this paper is reported an experimental and numerical investigation of the microwave dielectric properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) ceramic matrix added with 3 and 10 wt% of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} or PbO, obtained through a new procedure based on the solid-state method. The experimental and theoretical characteristics of the resonator like return loss, bandwidth, input impedance are in good agreement. The simulations of radiation patterns are presented. For BFO reference sample, frequency response bandwidth is of 6.40% (simulated) and 7.18% (experimental) for frequency operation around 2.94 GHz. The BFO reference sample showed a dielectric permittivity around 25, with loss around 10{sup −2}. The adding of bismuth oxide (3 and 10 wt%) reduced the value of the dielectric permittivity as well as lead oxide 3 wt%, otherwise only the adding of 10 wt% increases its value. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ{sub f}) was also measured for all dielectric samples. The values obtained were in the range of −517 ppm °C{sup −1} to −222 ppm °C{sup −1}. With the addition of lead oxide was observed a deterioration of the thermal stability of the ceramic, with respect to the central frequency of resonance. The results obtained confirm the necessity of producing composites of this material with others positive τ{sub f} materials for obtaining dielectric resonator antennas with τ{sub f} ∼ 0.

  7. Tunable dielectric properties of ferrite-dielectric based metamaterial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bi

    Full Text Available A ferrite-dielectric metamaterial composed of dielectric and ferrite cuboids has been investigated by experiments and simulations. By interacting with the electromagnetic wave, the Mie resonance can take place in the dielectric cuboids and the ferromagnetic precession will appear in the ferrite cuboids. The magnetic field distributions show the electric Mie resonance of the dielectric cuboids can be influenced by the ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboids when a certain magnetic field is applied. The effective permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results is demonstrated, which confirms that these metamaterials can be used for tunable microwave devices.

  8. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed


    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  9. Dielectric Metamaterials (United States)


    Final Report  29 May 2015 Dielectric Metamaterials SRI Project P21340 ONR Contract N00014-12-1-0722 Prepared by: Srini Krishnamurthy...2 2. Theory of Metamaterials ....................................................................................................... 2 2.1...accurately assess the impact of various forms of disorder on metamaterials (MMs) (both dielectric and metal inclusions); and (5) identify designs

  10. Glass transition-related changes in molecular mobility below glass transition temperature of freeze-dried formulations, as measured by dielectric spectroscopy and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. (United States)

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Aso, Yukio


    The purpose of this study was to explore why changes in the molecular mobility associated with glass transition, the timescale of which is on the order of 100 s, can be detected by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times that reflect molecular motions on the order of 10 kHz and 1 MHz. The molecular motions in freeze-dried dextran 40k, dextran 1k, isomaltotriose (IMT), and alpha-glucose comprising a common unit but with different glass transition temperatures, were investigated by dielectric spectroscopy (DES) in the frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 100 kHz and in the temperature range of -20 degrees to 200 degrees C, in order to compare with the molecular motions reflected in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times. The alpha-relaxation process for freeze-dried alpha-glucose was visualized by DES, whereas those for freeze-dried dextran 40k, dextran 1k, and IMT were too slow to be visualized by DES. The latter freeze-dried cakes exhibited quasi-dc polarization because of proton-hopping-like motion rather than alpha-relaxation process. The correlation time (tau(c)) for the backbone carbon of dextran 40k and IMT, calculated from the measured value of spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame, was found to be close to the relaxation time of proton-hopping-like motion determined by DES (tau(DES)) at temperatures around glass transition temperature. The timescales of molecular motions reflected in the tau(c) and tau(DES) were significantly smaller than that of motions leading to molecular rearrangement (molecular rearrangement motions), which correspond to alpha-relaxation. However, the shapes of temperature dependence for the tau(c) and tau(DES) were similar to that of the calorimetrically determined relaxation time of molecular rearrangement motions. Results suggest that the molecular motions reflected in the tau(c) and tau(DES) are linked to molecular rearrangement motions, such that enhancement of molecular rearrangement motions enhances

  11. Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger


    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  12. Fluorescence Spectroscopy with Metal-Dielectric Waveguides. (United States)

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Szmacinski, Henryk; Ray, Krishanu; Descrovi, Emiliano; Ricciardi, Serena; Zhang, Douguo; Chen, Junxue; Huo, Yiping; Lakowicz, Joseph R


    We describe a hybrid metal-dielectric waveguide structures (MDWs) with numerous potential applications in the biosciences. These structures consist of a thin metal film coated with a dielectric layer. Depending on the thickness of the dielectric layer, the modes can be localized near the metal, within the dielectric, or at the top surface of the dielectric. The optical modes in a metal-dielectric waveguide can have either S (TE) or P (TM) polarization. The dielectric spacer avoids the quenching, which usually occurs for fluorophores within about 5 nm from the metal. Additionally, the resonances display a sharp angular dependence and can exhibit several hundred-fold increases in intensity (E2) at the silica-air interface relative to the incident intensity. Fluorophores placed on top of the silica layer couple efficiently with the metal, resulting in a sharp angular distribution of emission through the metal and down from the bottom of the structure. This coupling occurs over large distances to several hundred nm away from the metal and was found to be consistent with simulations of the reflectivity of the metal-dielectric waveguides. Remarkably, for some silica thicknesses, the emission is almost completely coupled through the structure with little free-space emission away from the metal-dielectric waveguide. The efficiency of fluorophore coupling is related to the quality of the resonant modes sustained by the metal-dielectric waveguide, resulting in coupling of most of the emission through the metal into the underlying glass substrates. Metal-dielectric waveguides also provide a method to resolve the emission from surface-bound fluorophores from the bulk-phase fluorophores. Metal-dielectric waveguides are simple to fabricate for large surface areas, the resonance wavelength can be adjusted by the dielectric thickness, and the silica surface is suitable for coupling to biomolecules. Metal-dielectric waveguides can have numerous applications in diagnostics and high

  13. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...... theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall perspective...... of the book: how connotations of past meanings may resonate through time, in new contexts, assuming new meanings without surrendering the old....

  14. Triple plasmon resonance of bimetal nanoshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saliminasab, Maryam, E-mail: [Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arghavani Nia, Borhan [Department of Physics, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, light absorption spectra properties of a bimetal multilayer nanoshell based on quasi-static approach are investigated. Comparing with silver-dielectric-silver and silver-dielectric-gold nanoshells, gold-dielectric-silver nanoshells have three intense and separated plasmon peaks which are more suitable for multiplex biosensing. Calculations show that relatively small thickness of outer silver shell and large dielectric constant of middle dielectric layer of gold-dielectric-silver nanoshell are suitable to obtain the triple plasmon resonance.

  15. RF cavity using liquid dielectric for tuning and cooling (United States)

    Popovic, Milorad [Warrenville, IL; Johnson, Rolland P [Newport News, VA


    A system for accelerating particles includes an RF cavity that contains a ferrite core and a liquid dielectric. Characteristics of the ferrite core and the liquid dielectric, among other factors, determine the resonant frequency of the RF cavity. The liquid dielectric is circulated to cool the ferrite core during the operation of the system.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a mani- festation of an intrinsic property of the nucleus, i.e. nuclear spin angular momen- tum. Spin angular momentum gives rise to magnetic moments. Thus, nuclei that pos- sess net magnetic moments behave like very small bar magnets. NMR spectroscopy in- volves the study of the ...

  17. New multipactor dynamics in presence of dielectrics (United States)

    Sorolla, E.; Belhaj, M.; Sombrin, J.; Puech, J.


    A new multipactor saturation mechanism is presented for high power microwave devices in the presence of dielectrics. Recent measures have shown that the positive charge deposited on a dielectric as a consequence of the secondary electron emission causes the reduction of its secondary electron yield. This work shows a new multipactor dynamics within a partially filled parallel-plate waveguide where both the decrease of the secondary electron yield with the charge on the dielectric and the subsequent electrostatic field produced are taken into account. The results obtained show that these two mechanisms predict the multipactor saturation as well as some differences with the classical resonance theory when charged dielectrics come into play.

  18. Applicability of point-dipoles approximation to all-dielectric metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, S. M.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    All-dielectric metamaterials consisting of high-dielectric inclusions in a low-dielectric matrix are considered as a low-loss alternative to resonant metal-based metamaterials. In this paper we investigate the applicability of the point electric and magnetic dipoles approximation to dielectric meta...

  19. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah 67144-15111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell.

  20. Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)


    Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly (benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.

  1. Classification of the micro and nanoparticles and biological agents by neural network analysis of the parameters of optical resonance of whispering gallery mode in dielectric microspheres (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas


    A novel technique for the label-free analysis of micro and nanoparticles including biomolecules using optical micro cavity resonance of whispering-gallery-type modes is being developed. Various schemes of the method using both standard and specially produced microspheres have been investigated to make further development for microbial application. It was demonstrated that optical resonance under optimal geometry could be detected under the laser power of less 1 microwatt. The sensitivity of developed schemes has been tested by monitoring the spectral shift of the whispering gallery modes. Water solutions of ethanol, ascorbic acid, blood phantoms including albumin and HCl, glucose, biotin, biomarker like C reactive protein so as bacteria and virus phantoms (gels of silica micro and nanoparticles) have been used. Structure of resonance spectra of the solutions was a specific subject of investigation. Probabilistic neural network classifier for biological agents and micro/nano particles classification has been developed. Several parameters of resonance spectra as spectral shift, broadening, diffuseness and others have been used as input parameters to develop a network classifier for micro and nanoparticles and biological agents in solution. Classification probability of approximately 98% for probes under investigation have been achieved. Developed approach have been demonstrated to be a promising technology platform for sensitive, lab-on-chip type sensor which can be used for development of diagnostic tools for different biological molecules, e.g. proteins, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides, lipids, small molecules, viral particles, cells as well as in different experimental contexts e.g. proteomics, genomics, drug discovery, and membrane studies.

  2. Synthesis and microwave dielectric properties of Ca substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Extensive research has been carried out in the last three decades on dielectric ceramics due to their unique electri- cal properties which make them suitable candidates as dielectric resonators for microwave based wireless tele- communication industry by reducing the size and cost of filters and antennas in the circuit.

  3. Dielectric Constants of Irradiated and Carbonated Polymers | Okeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the LC resonance circuit, changes in dielectric constants of irradiated and carbonated polymers as a function of carbon concentration are investigated. Both low and high density polymers are used. Results predict a quadratic increase in the dielectric constant of specimen as the percentage concentration of carbon is ...

  4. Millimeter-wave sensor based on a λ/2-line resonator for identification and dielectric characterization of non-ionic surfactants. (United States)

    Rodilla, H; Kim, A A; Jeffries, G D M; Vukusic, J; Jesorka, A; Stake, J


    Studies of biological and artificial membrane systems, such as niosomes, currently rely on the use of fluorescent tags, which can influence the system under investigation. For this reason, the development of label-free, non-invasive detection techniques is of great interest. We demonstrate an open-volume label-free millimeter-wave sensing platform based on a coplanar waveguide, developed for identification and characterization of niosome constituents. A design based on a λ/2-line resonator was used and on-wafer measurements of transmission and reflection parameters were performed up to 110 GHz. Our sensor was able to clearly distinguish between common niosome constituents, non-ionic surfactants Tween 20 and Span 80, measuring a resonance shift of 3 GHz between them. The complex permittivities of the molecular compounds have been extracted. Our results indicate insignificant frequency dependence in the investigated frequency range (3 GHz - 110 GHz). Values of permittivity around 3.0 + 0.7i and 2.2 + 0.4i were obtained for Tween 20 and Span 80, respectively.

  5. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial (United States)

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.


    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  6. Dielectric optical invisibility cloaks (United States)

    Blair, J.; Tamma, V. A.; Park, W.; Summers, C. J.


    Recently, metamaterial cloaks for the microwave frequency range have been designed using transformative optics design techniques and experimentally demonstrated. The design of these structures requires extreme values of permittivity and permeability within the device, which has been accomplished by the use of resonating metal elements. However, these elements severely limit the operating frequency range of the cloak due to their non-ideal dispersion properties at optical frequencies. In this paper we present designs to implement a simpler demonstration of cloaking, the carpet cloak, in which a curved reflective surface is compressed into a flat reflective surface, effectively shielding objects behind the curve from view with respect to the incoming radiation source. This approach eliminates the need for metallic resonant elements. These structures can now be fabricated using only high index dielectric materials by the use of electron beam lithography and standard cleanroom technologies. The design method, simulation analysis, device fabrication, and near field optical microscopy (NSOM) characterization results are presented for devices designed to operate in the 1400-1600nm wavelength range. Improvements to device performance by the deposition/infiltration of linear, and potentially non-linear optical materials, were investigated.

  7. Dielectric characterisation of soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.


    The potential of dielectric measuring techniques for soil characterisation has not been fully explored. This is attributed to the complex and incomplete theory on dielectrics, as well as to the lack of sensors suited for practical applications.

    The theory on dielectric properties of soils is

  8. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G


    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  9. Experimental realization of a terahertz all-dielectric metasurface absorber. (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Fan, Kebin; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Padilla, Willie J


    Metamaterial absorbers consisting of metal, metal-dielectric, or dielectric materials have been realized across much of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated novel properties and applications. However, most absorbers utilize metals and thus are limited in applicability due to their low melting point, high Ohmic loss and high thermal conductivity. Other approaches rely on large dielectric structures and / or a supporting dielectric substrate as a loss mechanism, thereby realizing large absorption volumes. Here we present a terahertz (THz) all dielectric metasurface absorber based on hybrid dielectric waveguide resonances. We tune the metasurface geometry in order to overlap electric and magnetic dipole resonances at the same frequency, thus achieving an experimental absorption of 97.5%. A simulated dielectric metasurface achieves a total absorption coefficient enhancement factor of FT=140, with a small absorption volume. Our experimental results are well described by theory and simulations and not limited to the THz range, but may be extended to microwave, infrared and optical frequencies. The concept of an all-dielectric metasurface absorber offers a new route for control of the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation from surfaces with potential applications in energy harvesting, imaging, and sensing.

  10. Characterization of dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Danny J.; Babinec, Susan; Hagans, Patrick L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Payzant, Edward A.; Daniel, Claus; Sabau, Adrian S.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wood, III, David L.; Nembhard, Nicole S.


    A system and a method for characterizing a dielectric material are provided. The system and method generally include applying an excitation signal to electrodes on opposing sides of the dielectric material to evaluate a property of the dielectric material. The method can further include measuring the capacitive impedance across the dielectric material, and determining a variation in the capacitive impedance with respect to either or both of a time domain and a frequency domain. The measured property can include pore size and surface imperfections. The method can still further include modifying a processing parameter as the dielectric material is formed in response to the detected variations in the capacitive impedance, which can correspond to a non-uniformity in the dielectric material.

  11. Enhanced transmission through arrays of subwavelength holes in gold films coated by a finite dielectric layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Qiu, M.


    resonances attributing to the enhanced transmission: the localized waveguide resonance and periodic surface plasmon resonances. For the film coated with dielectric layers, calculated results show that in the wavelength region of interest the localized waveguide resonant mode attributes to sensing rather than...

  12. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook


    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  13. Inductive dielectric analyzer (United States)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Polygalov, Eugene; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri


    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions.

  14. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan


    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.


    Hyde, James S; Mett, Richard R


    The dielectric tube resonator (DTR) for EPR spectroscopy is introduced. It is defined as a metallic cylindrical TE011 microwave cavity that contains a dielectric tube centered on the axis of the cylinder. Contour plots of dimensions of the metallic cylinder to achieve resonance at 9.5 GHz are shown for quartz, sapphire, and rutile tubes as a function of wall thickness and average radius. These contour plots were developed using analytical equations and confirmed by finite element modeling. They can be used in two ways: design of the metallic cylinder for use at 9.5 GHz that incorporates a readily available tube such as a sapphire tube intended for NMR, or design of a custom procured tube for optimized performance for specific sample-size constraints. The charts extend to the limiting condition where the dielectric fills the tube. However, the structure at this limit is not a dielectric resonator due to the metal wall and does not radiate. In addition, the uniform field (UF) DTR is introduced. Development of the UF resonator starting with a dielectric tube resonator is shown. The diameter of the tube remains constant along the cavity axis, and the diameter of the cylindrical metallic enclosure increases at the ends of the cavity to satisfy the uniform field condition. This structure has advantages over the previously developed UF TE011 resonators: higher resonator efficiency parameter Λ, convenient overall size when using sapphire tubes, and higher quality data for small samples. The DTR and UF DTR structures fill the gap between free space and dielectric resonator limits in a continuous manner.

  16. Influence of woven fabric specification and yarn constitutions on the dielectric properties at ultrahigh frequency (United States)

    Jiyong, Hu; Hongyan, Jiang; Huating, Tu; Huan, Bai; Hong, Hong; Yaya, Zhang; Xudong, Yang


    With the development of off-the-shelf fabrics commonly adopted as electronic substrates, the knowledge of their electrical properties over the frequency band of interest is fundamental to correctly design the circuits. In this paper, the split post dielectric resonator is used to test the dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss tangent of woven fabrics at ultra-high frequency (UHF). The experiment uses the control variable method, and the influence of the yarn constitutions and the typical specifications of woven fabric on their dielectric properties was studied. The experimental results show that both warp yarn density and warp yarn count of these parameters have no significant effect on the permittivity and the dielectric loss tangent, and that both weft yarn density and count have nonlinear relationship with the dielectric constants. Meanwhile, fabrics with compact structure and low-crystallinity fibers have high dielectric properties. Generally, these results provide a guideline for designing the dielectric properties of woven fabric at the interested frequency.

  17. Three-dimensional Negative-Refractive-Index Metamaterials Based on All-Dielectric Coated Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Na; Luo, Hailu; Tang, Zhixiang; Zou, Yanhong; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan


    A type of 3-dimensional optical negative-refractive-index metamaterials composed of all dielectric nanospheres is proposed and demonstrated theoretically. The metamaterials are constructeded by pairing together two kinds of dielectric nanospheres as concentric shells embedded in a host medium. Mie-based extended effective theory shows that the dielectric core and the dielectric shell provide the negative permeability and the negative permittivity, respectively, both due to the strong Mie resonances. Within the coupled resonant frequency region, the negative index of refraction can be achieved.

  18. Optics of dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas


    From the work carried out within the ph.d. project two topics have been selected for this thesis, namely emission of radiation by sources in dielectric microstructures, and planar photonic crystal waveguides. The work done within the first topic, emission of radiation by sources in dielectric mic...

  19. Contemporary dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R


    This book deals with experimental results of the physical characterization of several important, dielectric materials of great current interest. The experimental tools used for the analysis of these materials include X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, magnetic measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer, optical measurements using a UV-Visible spectrometer etc.

  20. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric ?molecules?


    Xiaoming Liu; Chuwen Lan; Bo Li; Qian Zhao; Ji Zhou


    Dual band metamaterial perfect absorbers with two absorption bands are highly desirable because of their potential application areas such as detectors, transceiver system, and spectroscopic imagers. However, most of these dual band metamaterial absorbers proposed were based on resonances of metal patterns. Here, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a dual band metamaterial perfect absorber composed of artificial dielectric ?molecules? with high symmetry. The artificial dielectric ?mo...

  1. Metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "atoms". (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Bi, Ke; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji


    In this work, we numerically designed and then experimentally verified a metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "atoms". This metamaterial absorber is composed of dielectric ceramic material (SrTiO3) "atoms" embedded in a background matrix on a metal plate. The dielectric "atoms" couple strongly to the incident electric and magnetic fields at the Mie resonance mode, leading to the narrow perfect absorption band with simulated and experimental absorptivities of 99% and 98.5% at 8.96 GHz, respectively. The designed metamaterial perfect absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide angle incidence.

  2. Technique for Performing Dielectric Property Measurements at Microwave Frequencies (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)


    A method, system, apparatus, and computer readable medium has been provided with the ability to obtain a complex permittivity dielectric or a complex permeability micron of a sample in a cavity. One or more complex-valued resonance frequencies f(sub m) of the cavity, wherein each f(sub m) is a measurement, are obtained. Maxwell's equations are solved exactly for dielectric, and/or micron, using the f(sub m) as known quantities, thereby obtaining the dielectric and/or micron of the sample.

  3. Dielectric Nanorod Scattering and its Influence on Material Interfaces. (United States)

    Mangalgiri, Gauri M; Manley, Phillip; Riedel, Wiebke; Schmid, Martina


    This work elaborates on the high scattering which dielectric nanorods exhibit and how it can be exploited to control light propagation across material interfaces. A detailed overview of how dielectric nanorods interact with light through a combination of dipolar scattering and leaky modes is performed via outward power flux calculations. We establish and account for design parameters that best result in light magnification owing to resonant behavior of nanorods. Impact of material parameters on scattering and their dispersion have been calculated to establish that low loss dielectric oxides like ZnO when nanostructured show excellent antenna like resonances which can be used to control light coupling and propagation. Interfacial scattering calculations demonstrate the high forward directivity of nanorods for various dielectric interfaces. A systematic analysis for different configurations of single and periodic nanorods on air dielectric interface emphasizes the light coupling tendencies exhibited by nanorods to and from a dielectric. Spatial characteristics of the localized field enhancement of the nanorod array on an air dielectric interface show focusing attributes of the nanorod array. We give a detailed account to tailor and selectively increase light propagation across an interface with good spectral and spatial control.

  4. Nano-optomechanical Nonlinear Dielectric Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Karvounis, Artemios; MacDonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I


    By harnessing the resonant nature of localized electromagnetic modes in a nanostructured silicon membrane, an all-dielectric metamaterial can act as nonlinear medium at optical telecommunications wavelengths. We show that such metamaterials provide extremely large optomechanical nonlinearities, operating at intensities of only a few {\\mu}W per unit cell and modulation frequencies as high as 152 MHz, thereby offering a path to fast, lossless, compact and energy efficient all-optical metadevices.

  5. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM


    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  6. Dielectric materials for electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Vega, Juan


    Part 1 is particularly concerned with physical properties, electrical ageing and modeling with topics such as the physics of charged dielectric materials, conduction mechanisms, dielectric relaxation, space charge, electric ageing and life end models and dielectric experimental characterization. Part 2 concerns some applications specific to dielectric materials: insulating oils for transformers, electrorheological fluids, electrolytic capacitors, ionic membranes, photovoltaic conversion, dielectric thermal control coatings for geostationary satellites, plastics recycling and piezoelectric poly

  7. Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric structure (United States)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Du, Hongliang; Qu, Shaobo


    In this paper, we designed a metamaterial absorber performed in microwave frequency band. This absorber is composed of E-shaped dielectrics which are arranged along different directions. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. Within about 1 GHz frequency band, more than 86% absorption efficiency was observed for this metamaterial absorber. This absorber is polarization insensitive and is stable for incident angles. It is figured out that the polarization insensitive absorption is caused by the nearly located varied resonant modes which are excited by the E-shaped all-dielectric resonators with the same size but in the different direction. The E-shaped dielectric absorber contains intensive resonant points. Our research work paves a way for designing all-dielectric absorber.

  8. Center for Dielectric Studies, (United States)


    desired dielectric formulation into thin sheets, then laminating and firing the shoots to form a monolithic structure with the noble metal probes internal...of the pyre-signaL of she disordered PST ceramicas under DC bias.The dmini e of miroaemem La reliaxr ferrol.,crIcs La che tperacure region lower chin...increase the dielectric constant. ....... .. Itoci Many of today’s multilayer ceramic capacitors employ costly precious metal internal electrodes. In some

  9. Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenplas, Paul E


    General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.

  10. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of acrylic dielectric elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Junjie; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; Chang, Longfei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an (China)


    The dielectric constant is an essential electrical parameter to the achievable voltage-induced deformation of the dielectric elastomer. This paper primarily focuses on the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (within the range of 173 K to 373 K) for the most widely used acrylic dielectric elastomer (VHB 4910). First the dielectric constant was investigated experimentally with the broadband dielectric spectrometer (BDS). Results showed that the dielectric constant first increased with temperature up to a peak value and then dropped to a relative small value. Then by analyzing the fitted curves, the Cole-Cole dispersion equation was found better to characterize the rising process before the peak values than the Debye dispersion equation, while the decrease process afterward can be well described by the simple Debye model. Finally, a mathematical model of dielectric constant of VHB 4910 was obtained from the fitted results which can be used to further probe the electromechanical stability of the dielectric elastomers. (orig.)

  11. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of acrylic dielectric elastomer (United States)

    Sheng, Junjie; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; Chang, Longfei


    The dielectric constant is an essential electrical parameter to the achievable voltage-induced deformation of the dielectric elastomer. This paper primarily focuses on the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (within the range of 173 K to 373 K) for the most widely used acrylic dielectric elastomer (VHB 4910). First the dielectric constant was investigated experimentally with the broadband dielectric spectrometer (BDS). Results showed that the dielectric constant first increased with temperature up to a peak value and then dropped to a relative small value. Then by analyzing the fitted curves, the Cole-Cole dispersion equation was found better to characterize the rising process before the peak values than the Debye dispersion equation, while the decrease process afterward can be well described by the simple Debye model. Finally, a mathematical model of dielectric constant of VHB 4910 was obtained from the fitted results which can be used to further probe the electromechanical stability of the dielectric elastomers.

  12. Dielectric spectroscopy in agrophysics (United States)

    Skierucha, W.; Wilczek, A.; Szypłowska, A.


    The paper presents scientific foundation and some examples of agrophysical applications of dielectric spectroscopy techniques. The aim of agrophysics is to apply physical methods and techniques for studies of materials and processes which occur in agriculture. Dielectric spectroscopy, which describes the dielectric properties of a sample as a function of frequency, may be successfully used for examinations of properties of various materials. Possible test materials may include agrophysical objects such as soil, fruit, vegetables, intermediate and final products of the food industry, grain, oils, etc. Dielectric spectroscopy techniques enable non-destructive and non-invasive measurements of the agricultural materials, therefore providing tools for rapid evaluation of their water content and quality. There is a limited number of research in the field of dielectric spectroscopy of agricultural objects, which is caused by the relatively high cost of the respective measurement equipment. With the fast development of modern technology, especially in high frequency applications, dielectric spectroscopy has great potential of expansion in agrophysics, both in cognitive and utilitarian aspects.

  13. Experimental measurement of negative index in an all-dielectric metamaterial (United States)

    Lepetit, T.; Akmansoy, É.; Ganne, J.-P.


    We designed and fabricated an all-dielectric metamaterial which exhibits negative index of refraction. This metamaterial consists of one layer made up of two sets of high permittivity resonators. We experimentally showed that this metamaterial exhibits resonant effective permeability and permittivity issued from the first two modes of Mie resonances, respectively, and that matching both these parameters results in negative effective index.

  14. Resonant halide perovskite nanoparticles (United States)

    Tiguntseva, Ekaterina Y.; Ishteev, Arthur R.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Makarov, Sergey V.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.


    The hybrid halide perovskites is a prospective material for fabrication of cost-effective optical devices. Unique perovskites properties are used for solar cells and different photonic applications. Recently, perovskite-based nanophotonics has emerged. Here, we consider perovskite like a high-refractive index dielectric material, which can be considered to be a basis for nanoparticles fabrication with Mie resonances. As a result, we fabricate and study resonant perovskite nanoparticles with different sizes. We reveal, that spherical nanoparticles show enhanced photoluminescence signal. The achieved results lay a cornerstone in the field of novel types of organic-inorganic nanophotonics devices with optical properties improved by Mie resonances.

  15. Experimental study on the dielectric properties of polyacrylate dielectric elastomer (United States)

    Qiang, Junhua; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo


    The dielectric constant of elastomeric dielectric material is an essential physical parameter, whose value may affect the electromechanical deformation of a dielectric elastomer actuator. Since the dielectric constant is influenced by several external factors as reported before, and no certain value has been confirmed to our knowledge, in the present paper, on the basis of systematical comparison of recent past literature, we conducted extensive works on the measurement of dielectric properties of VHB films, involving five influencing factors: prestretch (both equal and unequal biaxial), electrical frequency, electrode material, stress relaxation time and temperature. Experimental results directly show that the dielectric response changes according to these factors, based on which we investigate the significance of each factor, especially the interaction of two external conditions on the dielectric constant of deformable dielectric, by presenting a physical picture of the mechanism of polarization.

  16. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Siddiqui


    Full Text Available We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide.

  17. Plasmonic and Dielectric Metasurfaces: Design, Fabrication and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional metasurfaces are widely focused on for their ability for flexible light manipulation (phase, amplitude, polarization over sub-wavelength propagation distances. Most of the metasurfaces can be divided into two categories by the material type of unit structure, i.e., plasmonic metasurfaces and dielectric metasurfaces. For plasmonic metasurfaces, they are made on the basis of metallic meta-atoms whose optical responses are driven by the plasmon resonances supported by metallic particles. For dielectric metasurfaces, the unit structure is constructed with high refractive index dielectric resonators, such as silicon, germanium or tellurium, which can support electric and magnetic dipole responses based on Mie resonances. The responses of plasmonic and dielectric metasurfaces are all relevant to the characteristics of unit structure, such as dimensions and materials. One can manipulate the electromagnetic field of light wave scattered by the metasurfaces through designing the dimension parameters of each unit structure in the metasurfaces. In this review article, we give a brief overview of our recent progress in plasmonic and dielectric metasurface-assisted nanophotonic devices and their design, fabrication and applications, including the metasurface-based broadband and the selective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM carrying vector beams, N-fold OAM multicasting using a V-shaped antenna array, a metasurface on conventional optical fiber facet for linearly-polarized mode (LP11 generation, graphene split-ring metasurface-assisted terahertz coherent perfect absorption, OAM beam generation using a nanophotonic dielectric metasurface array, as well as Bessel beam generation and OAM multicasting using a dielectric metasurface array. It is believed that metasurface-based nanophotonic devices are one of the devices with the most potential applied in various fields, such as beam steering, spatial light modulator, nanoscale

  18. Determining the Quality Factor of Dielectric Ceramic Mixtures with Dielectric Constants in the Microwave Frequency Range. (United States)

    Chen, Hetuo; Fu, Xuewen; An, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zhang, Shuren; Yang, Hao; Long, Yin; Harfouche, Mark; Wang, Huolei; Li, Yingxiang


    Microwave dielectric ceramic materials are extensively utilized in microwave applications because of their high dielectric constants and quality factors. These applications also require ceramics of zero temperature coefficients at the resonant frequency (τ f ), which can be realized through mixing a ceramic that one is interested in with another ceramic with -τ f , or by performing the ionic substitution. With the mixing/ionic substitution, it is indispensable to compute the quality factors precisely. Previous study indicates that the quality factor depends on the grain size, porosity, internal strain, structure, phase evolution, and conductivity etc. Here we derive a quality factor formula based on the definition, which works very well for multiphase composites, single phase solid solutions, and equivalent ionic substituted single phase materials. Our formula calculation and fits to the previous experimental results demonstrate that the quality factor of the ceramic mixtures strongly depend on the dielectric constants and the dielectric constant variation index. Our results suggest that the impacts from grain size, porosity, and internal strain etc. can be summarized to the dielectric constant or dielectric constant variation index, which is of great importance for future design of high performance microwave dielectric ceramics.

  19. Evanescent escape from the dielectric ellipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creagh, Stephen C; White, Michael M, E-mail: [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)


    The evanescent wave outside a whispering gallery mode of an elliptic dielectric cavity is described using the extension to complex phase space of the underlying family of rays. Evanescent waves outside dielectric cavities supporting whispering gallery modes are of practical importance in applications such as microlasers, wavelength filters and sensors. The elliptical case is interesting because it shares key topological features with generically deformed nonintegrable resonators but allows all the required ray data to be computed explicitly. This is in contrast to generic perturbations where natural boundaries can prevent direct computation of the required ray data for arbitrarily small deformations. It is found that while natural boundaries do intervene in the elliptical case, they do so at higher order in the short-wavelength approximations and only for sufficiently large deformations. Before natural boundaries intervene, complex WKB methods provide a good description of emission patterns.

  20. The dielectric response to the magnetic field of electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shouvik; Mukhopadhyay, Sourabh; Datta, Prasanta Kumar


    Light-matter interaction in transparent dielectrics is revisited, including the magnetic force on bound charges in the Lorentz oscillator model. The parameter ranges of incident radiation and the medium on which the magnetic field of the electromagnetic radiation will have a significant effect are traced using Floquet theory. The analysis reveals that the threshold intensity for a significant response of the magnetic field of the radiation at the second harmonic of the incident radiation can be reduced to {10}12 {{W}}{{cm}}-2 for off resonant and even lower for resonant interaction. This phenomenon has already been observed indirectly in experiments [1, 2]. Induced magnetizing current due to the magnetic force is shown to originate from a modified dielectric response, which may be useful in future magneto-optic devices, solar energy harvesting, and studying the ultrafast dynamics in doped dielectrics.

  1. Thickness and dielectric constant determination of thin dielectric layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, H.E.; de Bruijn, Helene E.; Minor, Marcel; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan


    We derive a method for the determination of the dielectric constant and thickness of a thin dielectric layer, deposited on top of a thick dielectric layer which is in turn present on a metal film. Reflection of p- and s-polarized light from the metal layer yields minima for certain angles of

  2. Super Dielectric Materials (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan


    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc.), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density. PMID:28788298

  3. Superluminal pulse reflection from a weakly absorbing dielectric slab. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Gang; Zhu, Shi-Yao


    Group delay for a reflected light pulse from a weakly absorbing dielectric slab is theoretically investigated, and large negative group delay is found for weak absorption near a resonance of the slab [Re(kd)=mpi]. The group delay for both the reflected and transmitted pulses will be saturated with an increase of the absorption.

  4. Absorption in dielectric models

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J


    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  5. All-dielectric metasurface realizing giant asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized wave (United States)

    Pan, Weikang; Kang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chuan; Tang, Dengfei; Dong, Jianfeng


    In this paper, a kind of chiral all-dielectric metasurface is demonstrated numerically to achieve giant asymmetric transmission (AT) in fiber communication region. The incoming polarized electromagnetic wave excites magnetic and electric resonances and the resonances in AT spectrum coincide with eigen frequencies of this structure. The all dielectric metasurface shows more excellent properties compared with its metal counterpart. AT is influenced significantly by material permittivity as well as unit cell period. The concept of all-dielectric metasurface offers a new way to manipulate electromagnetic waves and the phenomenon remains effective in other frequencies.

  6. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range.

  7. Experimental Investigation of an X-Band Tunable Dielectric Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, Alex; Karmanenko, Sergei F; Nenasheva, Elisaveta; Power, John G; Schoessow, Paul; Semenov, Alexei


    Experimental study of a new scheme to tune the resonant frequency for dielectric based accelerating structure (driven either by the wakefield of a beam or an external rf source) is underway. The structure consists of a single layer of conventional dielectric surrounded by a very thin layer of ferroelectric material situated on the outside. Carefully designed electrodes are attached to a thin layer of ferroelectric material. A DC bias can be applied to the electrodes to change the permittivity of the ferroelectric layer and therefore, the dielectric overall resonant frequency can be tuned. In this paper, we present the test results for an 11.424 GHz rectangular DLA prototype structure that the ferroelectric material's dielectric constant of 500 and show that a frequency tuning range of 2% can be achieved. If successful, this scheme would compensate for structure errors caused by ceramic waveguide machining tolerances and dielectric constant heterogeneity.

  8. Strong Photoluminescence Enhancement in All-Dielectric Fano Metasurface with High Quality Factor. (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Qiu, Xingzhi; Cui, Chengcong; Zhu, Liangqiu; Wang, Yuxi; Li, Yi; Song, Jinwen; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong


    All-dielectric metamaterials offer great flexibility for controlling light-matter interaction, owing to their strong electric and magnetic resonances with negligible loss at wavelengths above the material bandgap. Here, we propose an all-dielectric asymmetric metasurface structure exhibiting high quality factor and prominent Fano line shape. Over three-orders photoluminescence enhancement is demonstrated in the fabricated all-dielectric metasurface with record-high quality factor of 1011. We find this strong emission enhancement is attributed to the coherent Fano resonances, which originate from the destructive interferences of antisymmetric displacement currents in the asymmetric all-dielectric metasurface. Our observations show a promising approach to realize light emitters based on all-dielectric metasurfaces.

  9. All-dielectric metamaterial: a ferroelectric-based scheme in the microwave range (United States)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Akmansoy, Eric; Ganne, Jean-Pierre


    Dielectric metamaterials are an attractive alternative to metallic metamaterials in order to reduce losses. Mie resonances in dielectric resonators can give rise to a resonant effective permeability or permittivity at resonance frequencies. When resonances are sufficiently enhanced permeability or permittivity can become negative. In the microwave range 2D rodshaped or 3D cylinder-shaped resonators made of high-permittivity ferroelectric material can be used to demonstrate such phenomena. In the first part we present experimental proof for TE-modes in rod resonators in the X-band (8.20- 12.40GHz) using barium strontium titanate (Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3, ɛ=575). In the second part we present experimental proof for modes in cylinder resonators in both the X and S-band (2.60-3.95GHz) using a commercial ceramic (ɛ=78). A negative index of refraction is shown in both cases.

  10. Molds for cable dielectrics (United States)

    Roose, L.D.


    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  11. Dielectric Waveguide lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Orlovic, V.A.; Pachenko, V.; Scherbakov, I.A.


    Our recent results on planar and channel waveguide fabrication and lasers in the dielectric oxide materials Ti:sapphire and rare-earth-ion-doped potassium yttrium double tungstate (KYW) are reviewed. We have employed waveguide fabrication methods such as liquid phase epitaxy and reactive ion etching

  12. Ultracompact all-dielectric superdirective antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Simovski, Constantin R; Kivshar, Yuri S


    We demonstrate a simple way to achieve superdirectivity of electrically small antennas based on a spherical dielectric particle with a notch. We predict this effect theoretically for nanoantennas excited by a point-like emitter located in the notch, and then confirm it experimentally at microwaves for a ceramic sphere excited by a small wire dipole. We explain the effect of superdirectivity by the resonant excitation of high-order multipole modes of electric and magnetic fields which are usually negligible for small perfect spherical particles.

  13. Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)


    An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.

  14. Fifth International Conference on Dielectric and Realted Phenomena

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...: relaxation theory, characterized of dielectric responses, molecular dynamics, "smart" dielectric, polymer-ceramic structures, nonlinear optical materials, space charges in dielectric, dielectric...

  15. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "molecules". (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji


    Dual band metamaterial perfect absorbers with two absorption bands are highly desirable because of their potential application areas such as detectors, transceiver system, and spectroscopic imagers. However, most of these dual band metamaterial absorbers proposed were based on resonances of metal patterns. Here, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a dual band metamaterial perfect absorber composed of artificial dielectric "molecules" with high symmetry. The artificial dielectric "molecule" consists of four "atoms" of two different sizes corresponding to two absorption bands with near unity absorptivity. Numerical and experimental absorptivity verify that the dual-band metamaterial absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide-angle incidence.

  16. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.


    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  17. Dielectric tuning and coupling of whispering gallery modes using an anisotropic prism

    CERN Document Server

    Foreman, Matthew R; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd


    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are a powerful and versatile tool used in many branches of science. Fine tuning of the central frequency and line width of individual resonances is however desirable in a number of applications including frequency conversion, optical communications and efficient light-matter coupling. To this end we present a detailed theoretical analysis of dielectric tuning of WGMs supported in axisymmetric resonators. Using the Bethe-Schwinger equation and adopting an angular spectrum field representation we study the resonance shift and mode broadening of high $Q$ WGMs when a planar dielectric substrate is brought close to the resonator. Particular focus is given to use of a uniaxial substrate with an arbitrarily aligned optic axis. Competing red and blue resonance shifts ($\\sim 30$ MHz), deriving from generation of a near field material polarisation and back action from the radiation continuum respectively, are found. Anomalous resonance shifts can hence be observed depend...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J


    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  19. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on Mie resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bi, Ke [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhao, Qian [State Key Lab of Tribology, Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    We numerically and experimentally demonstrated a polarization insensitive dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber working in wide incident angles based on the two magnetic Mie resonances of a single dielectric “atom” with simple structure. Two absorption bands with simulated absorptivity of 99% and 96%, experimental absorptivity of 97% and 94% at 8.45 and 11.97 GHz were achieved due to the simultaneous magnetic and electric resonances in dielectric “atom” and copper plate. Mie resonances of dielectric “atom” provide a simple way to design metamaterial perfect absorbers with high symmetry.

  20. A Comparison of Exact Versus Perturbed Pole Locations of Dielectric Objects in Dielectric Medium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worthy, Mark


    The dielectric properties of soils and plastic targets are given. The approach for finding exact pole locations from a dielectric infinite slab, a dielectric sphere, and a dielectric infinite cylinder is presented (and applied...

  1. The dielectric breakdown limit of silicone dielectric elastomer actuators (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Haus, Henry; Matysek, Marc; Frohnapfel, Bettina; Tropea, Cameron; Schlaak, Helmut F.


    Soft silicone elastomers are used in a generation of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) with improved actuation speed and durability compared to the commonly used, highly viscoelastic polyacrylate 3M VHB™ films. The maximum voltage-induced stretch of DEAs is ultimately limited by their dielectric breakdown field strength. We measure the dependence of dielectric breakdown field strength on thickness and stretch for a silicone elastomer, when voltage-induced deformation is prevented. The experimental results are combined with an analytic model of equi-biaxial actuation to show that accounting for variable dielectric field strength results in different values of optimal pre-stretch and thickness that maximize the DEA actuation.

  2. Extremely Thin Dielectric Metasurface for Carpet Cloaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, LiYi; Kanté, Boubacar


    We demonstrate a novel and simple approach to cloaking a scatterer on a ground plane. We use an extremely thin dielectric metasurface ({\\lambda}/12) to reshape the wavefronts distorted by a scatterer in order to mimic the reflection pattern of a flat ground plane. To achieve such carpet cloaking, the reflection angle has to be equal to the incident angle everywhere on the scatterer. We use a graded metasurface and calculate the required phase gradient to achieve cloaking. Our metasurface locally provides additional phase to the wavefronts to compensate for the phase difference amongst light paths induced by the geometrical distortion. We design our metasurface in the microwave range using highly sub-wavelength dielectric resonators. We verify our design by full-wave time-domain simulations using micro-structured resonators and show that results match theory very well. This approach can be applied to hide any scatterer on a ground plane not only at microwave frequencies, but also at higher frequencies up to th...

  3. Very high dielectric strength for dielectric elastomer actuators in liquid dielectric immersion (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong


    This letter reported that a dielectric elastomer actuator (3M VHB), which is immersed in a liquid dielectric bath, is enhanced tremendously in dielectric strength up to 800 MV/m, as compared to 450 MV/m for the actuator operated in air. The bath consists of silicone oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt), which is 6.5 times more thermally conductive than air, and it is found able to maintain the actuator at a stable temperature. As a result, the oil-immersed dielectric elastomer actuator is prevented from local thermal runaway, which causes loss of electrical insulation, and consequently avoids the damage by electromechanical instability.

  4. Dielectric materials and electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallot-Lavalle, Olivier


    An introduction to the physics of electrical insulation, this book presents the physical foundations of this discipline and the resulting applications. It is structured in two parts. The first part presents a mathematical and intuitive approach to dielectrics; various concepts, including polarization, induction, forces and losses are discussed. The second part provides readers with the keys to understanding the physics of solid, liquid and gas insulation. It comprises a phenomenological description of discharges in gas and its resulting applications. Finally, the main electrical properties

  5. Reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surface based on high-permittivity ceramics (United States)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Du, Hongliang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo


    Based on effective medium theory and dielectric resonator theory, we propose the design of reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) using high-permittivity ceramics. The FSS is composed of ceramic resonators with different band stop responses under front and side incidences. By mechanically tuning the orientation of the ceramic resonators, reconfigurable electromagnetic (EM) responses between two adjacent stopbands can be achieved. The two broad stopbands originate from the first two resonant modes of the ceramic resonators. As an example, a reconfigurable FSS composed of cross-shaped ceramic resonators is demonstrated. Both numerical and experimental results show that the FSS can switch between two consecutive stopbands in 3.55–4.60 GHz and 4.54–4.94 GHz. The design method can be readily extended to the design of FSSs in other frequencies for high-power applications. PMID:27052098

  6. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in hybrid graphene/all-dielectric metamaterial (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Dong, Liang; Guo, Jing; Meng, Fan-Yi; Wu, Qun


    We proposed a hybrid graphene/dielectric structure to achieve tunable electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect. Unit cell of hybrid structure consists of a graphene strip as bright element and a dielectric split ring resonator (DSRR) as quasi-dark element. The destructive inference between dipolar plasmon resonance induced by graphene strip and Mie resonance induced by DSRR leads to famous EIT effect. By altering physical sizes of two resonant elements and their couplings, EIT resonance can be effectively controlled. In particular, EIT window and effective group index can be dynamically dominated by varying graphene strip's Fermi level. This active manipulation is also confirmed using "two-particle" model. More interestingly, EIT resonance can be also effectively modulated through controlling incident angles for electromagnetic (EM) waves. These results would have promising applications in areas of tunable slow light devices and new filters.

  7. Optical and microwave dielectric properties of pulsed laser deposited Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Andrews; Goud, J. Pundareekam; Raju, K. C. James [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India); Emani, Sivanagi Reddy [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India)


    Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) sodium bismuth titanate thin films (NBT), are investigated at wavelengths of 190-2500 nm. Microwave dielectric properties were investigated using the Split Post Dielectric Resonator (SPDR) technique. At 10 GHz, the NBT films have a dielectric constant of 205 and loss tangent of 0.0373 at room temperature. The optical spectra analysis reveals that NBT thin films have an optical band gap E{sub g}=3.55 eV and it has a dielectric constant of 3.37 at 1000 nm with dielectric loss of 0.299. Hence, NBT is a promising candidate for photonic device applications.

  8. Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas. (United States)

    Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Grinblat, Gustavo; Albella, Pablo; Maier, Stefan A


    High refractive index dielectric nanoantennas are expected to become key elements for nonlinear nano-optics applications due to their large nonlinearities, low energy losses, and ability to produce high electric field enhancements in relatively large nanoscale volumes. In this work, we show that the nonlinear response from a high-index dielectric nanoantenna can be significantly improved by adding a metallic component to build a metal-dielectric hybrid nanostructure. We demonstrate that the plasmonic resonance of a Au nanoring can boost the anapole mode supported by a Si nanodisk, strongly enhancing the electric field inside the large third-order susceptibility dielectric. As a result, a high third harmonic conversion efficiency, which reaches 0.007% at a third harmonic wavelength of 440 nm, is obtained. In addition, by suitably modifying geometrical parameters of the hybrid nanoantenna, we tune the enhanced third harmonic emission throughout the optical regime. Coupling metallic and dielectric nanoantennas to expand the potential of subwavelength structures opens new paths for efficient nonlinear optical effects in the visible range on the nanoscale.

  9. Fabrication and cold test of dielectric assist accelerating structure (United States)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.


    We present the detailed description of a successful design and cold testing of the dielectric assist accelerating (DAA) structure. The DAA structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. The advantage of the DAA structure is that it has an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature since the electromagnetic field distribution of accelerating mode can be controlled by dielectric parts so that the wall loss on the metallic surface is greatly reduced. A prototype of the five-cell DAA structure was designed and built at C-band (5.712 GHz), and cold tested. Three types of dielectric cell structure, "regular," "end," and "hybrid" dielectric cells, are fabricated by sintering high-purity magnesia. The prototype was assembled by stacking these cells in the hollow copper cylinder, whose two ends are closed by copper plates. The resonant frequency of the prototype was tuned to the desired frequency by machining only end copper plates. The unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode was measured at 119,314 and the shunt impedance per unit length of the prototype was estimated from the experimental results of the bead pull measurement as Zsh=617 M Ω /m , which were within 2 percent of the design values. The field distribution of accelerating mode was also measured by the bead pull method, and its results agreed well with simulation results.

  10. Image potential in lossy dielectrics (United States)

    Lenac, Z.


    The interaction of a point charge with surrounding media ( the image potential) is analyzed using the quantum-mechanical description of dielectrics that consistently takes losses in media into account. We have derived a real dielectric function (without an imaginary part) appropriate for lossy dielectrics which, compared to the lossless one, significantly changes the image potential in the standard (first-order) calculations. However, when one adds to the Hamiltonian all higher-order terms caused by the losses, one finds that the image potential remains the same, as if there were no losses in media. Our calculations are approximative when analyzing complicated systems with various lossy dielectrics, but in some simple and essential cases ( e.g., a dielectric plate) we are able to give the exact proof.

  11. Modeling multipole dielectric spherical nanoantenna for optical and THz range (United States)

    Storozhenko, Dmitry; Dzyuba, Vladimir; Kulchin, Yuri


    The paper gives the result of a numerical calculation of the Maxwell equation by the finite element method for a dielectric particle of spherical shape in the optical and THz ranges with a size 0.375÷0.75 of wavelength. The nature of the electric field distribution inside the sphere is shown in the case of high-order resonance for the optical range. The idea was put forward to use the resonance feature of the dielectric sphere to amplify the current in the conductor whip antenna. It is shown, that the use of such an antenna makes it possible to achieve amplification in the conductor up to 30 dB.

  12. Investigation on the role of the dielectric loss in metamaterial absorber. (United States)

    Hu, ChengGang; Li, Xiong; Feng, Qin; Chen, Xu'Nan; Luo, XianGang


    The authors report a metamaterial (MM) consisting of cut-wire structures which shows near-perfect absorption at microwave frequencies. Experimental results show slight lower performance than simulation. The analysis of the spectra and retrieved electromagnetic parameters demonstrate that the mismatch is attributed to the considerable influence of the dielectric loss on the strength of the electric and magnetic resonances, which largely determines the ability of the MM absorber. Such dependence on dielectric loss provides an important clue for the design of MM absorber aiming at specific applications where high efficiency energy collection in dielectric is needed.

  13. A lightweight push-pull acoustic transducer composed of a pair of dielectric elastomer films. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takehiro; Ando, Akio; Ono, Kazuho; Morita, Yuichi; Hosoda, Kosuke; Ishii, Daisaku; Nakamura, Kentaro


    A lightweight push-pull acoustic transducer using dielectric elastomer films was proposed for use in advanced audio systems in homes. The push-pull structure consists of two dielectric elastomer films developed to serve as an electroactive polymer. The transducer utilizes the change in the surface area of the dielectric elastomer film, induced by an electric-field-induced change in the thickness, for sound generation. The resonance frequency of the transducer was derived from modeling the push-pull configuration to estimate the lower limit of the frequency range. Measurement results presented an advantage of push-pull driving in the suppression of harmonic distortion.

  14. The electromagnetic radiation from simple sources in the presence of a homogeneous dielectric sphere (United States)

    Mason, V. B.


    In this research, the effect of a homogeneous dielectric sphere on the electromagnetic radiation from simple sources is treated as a boundary value problem, and the solution is obtained by the technique of dyadic Green's functions. Exact representations of the electric fields in the various regions due to a source located inside, outside, or on the surface of a dielectric sphere are formulated. Particular attention is given to the effect of sphere size, source location, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss on the radiation patterns and directivity of small spheres (less than 5 wavelengths in diameter) using the Huygens' source excitation. The computed results are found to closely agree with those measured for waveguide-excited plexiglas spheres. Radiation patterns for an extended Huygens' source and for curved electric dipoles located on the sphere's surface are also presented. The resonance phenomenon associated with the dielectric sphere is studied in terms of the modal representation of the radiated fields. It is found that when the sphere is excited at certain frequencies, much of the energy is radiated into the sidelobes. The addition of a moderate amount of dielectric loss, however, quickly attenuates this resonance effect. A computer program which may be used to calculate the directivity and radiation pattern of a Huygens' source located inside or on the surface of a lossy dielectric sphere is listed.

  15. Efective infrared reflectivity and dielectric function of polycrystalline alumina ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Petzelt, Jan; Borodavka, Fedir; Vaněk, Přemysl; Šimek, Daniel; Trunec, D.; Maca, K.


    Roč. 254, č. 5 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 1600607. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-08389S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alumina * ceramics * effective dielectric function * effective medium approximation * geometrical resonances * infrared reflectivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2016

  16. Dielectric Constant Measurements on Poly Iron-Nickel Acrylate (United States)

    Chohan, M. H.; Khwaja, F. A.; Bukhari, A. H. S.

    Measurements of the impedance (z) and the dielectric constant (ɛ) on poly acrylates have been made as a function of temperature and frequency by employing a parallel RLC circuit arrangement and using standard formula. The values of ɛ have been determined after identifying the resonance frequencies of the circuit at different temperatures. Variation of ‘z’ with frequency and ɛ as a function of temperature are presented in the graphs.

  17. Water: Promising Opportunities For Tunable All-dielectric Electromagnetic Metamaterials. (United States)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Kuznetsova, Svetlana M; Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Kivshar, Yuri S; Lavrinenko, Andrei V


    We reveal an outstanding potential of water as an inexpensive, abundant and bio-friendly high-refractive-index material for creating tunable all-dielectric photonic structures and metamaterials. Specifically, we demonstrate thermal, mechanical and gravitational tunability of magnetic and electric resonances in a metamaterial consisting of periodically positioned water-filled reservoirs. The proposed water-based metamaterials can find applications not only as cheap and ecological microwave devices, but also in optical and terahertz metamaterials prototyping and educational lab equipment.

  18. Investigation of beta dielectric dispersion in Bovine yellow bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative permitivity or dielectric constant, ε΄ of bovine yellow bone marrow tissue has been investigated in this study at an average room temperature of 27.5 ± 0.5oC over a frequency range of 0.15MHz to 20MHz for ß-dispersion using a resonance technique. This technique makes use of a marconi magnification meter ...

  19. Geometrical parameters effects on local electric field enhancement of silver-dielectric-silver multilayer nanoshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah 67144-15111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The local electric field enhancement at different points of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell is investigated using quasi-static theory. Because of the symmetric and anti-symmetric coupling between surface plasmon of inner silver core and outer silver shell, the local electric field spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver has two distinct peaks at resonance wavelengths. The silver core size and middle dielectric thickness affect the local electric field enhancement at different points of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. Increasing the silver core radius always leads to blue shift of shorter resonance wavelength and red shift of longer resonance wavelength. We observed two distinct local electric field peaks, which are corresponded to the symmetric and anti-symmetric coupling between inner and outer surface plasmons. In a system with thick silver shell, local electric field enhancement is greater than a system with thin silver shell. However, the local electric field variations as a function of silver core radius in both systems are different at different points of nanoshell. The effects of the dielectric thickness variations on local electric field are different from those from silver core size variations. As the dielectric thickness is about 3 nm, the highest local electric field enhancement occurs at the surface of the inner silver core, where the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are mixed together.

  20. Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on Mie-Resonance Extraordinary Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Pan

    Full Text Available Microwave bandpass filter structure has been designed and fabricated by filling the periodically metallic apertures with dielectric particles. The microwave cannot transmit through the metallic subwavelength apertures. By filling the metallic apertures with dielectric particles, a transmission passband with insertion loss 2 dB appears at the frequency of 10-12 GHz. Both simulated and experimental results show that the passband is induced by the Mie resonance of the dielectric particles. In addition, the passband frequency can be tuned by the size and the permittivity of the dielectric particles. This approach is suitable to fabricate the microwave bandpass filters.

  1. Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on Mie-Resonance Extraordinary Transmission. (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolong; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Dezhao; Xun, Shuang; Ouyang, Mengzhu; Fan, Wentao; Guo, Yunsheng; Wu, Ye; Huang, Shanguo; Bi, Ke; Lei, Ming


    Microwave bandpass filter structure has been designed and fabricated by filling the periodically metallic apertures with dielectric particles. The microwave cannot transmit through the metallic subwavelength apertures. By filling the metallic apertures with dielectric particles, a transmission passband with insertion loss 2 dB appears at the frequency of 10-12 GHz. Both simulated and experimental results show that the passband is induced by the Mie resonance of the dielectric particles. In addition, the passband frequency can be tuned by the size and the permittivity of the dielectric particles. This approach is suitable to fabricate the microwave bandpass filters.

  2. Dielectric metasurfaces solve differential and integro-differential equations. (United States)

    Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Chizari, Ata; Dorche, Ali Eshaghian; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A


    Leveraging subwavelength resonant nanostructures, plasmonic metasurfaces have recently attracted much attention as a breakthrough concept for engineering optical waves both spatially and spectrally. However, inherent ohmic losses concomitant with low coupling efficiencies pose fundamental impediments over their practical applications. Not only can all-dielectric metasurfaces tackle such substantial drawbacks, but also their CMOS-compatible configurations support both Mie resonances that are invariant to the incident angle. Here, we report on a transmittive metasurface comprising arrayed silicon nanodisks embedded in a homogeneous dielectric medium to manipulate phase and amplitude of incident light locally and almost independently. By taking advantage of the interplay between the electric/magnetic resonances and employing general concepts of spatial Fourier transformation, a highly efficient metadevice is proposed to perform mathematical operations including solution of ordinary differential and integro-differential equations with constant coefficients. Our findings further substantiate dielectric metasurfaces as promising candidates for miniaturized, two-dimensional, and planar optical analog computing systems that are much thinner than their conventional lens-based counterparts.

  3. Dielectric Properties of Zinc Sulfide Concentrate during the Roasting at Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun He


    Full Text Available Microwave technology has a potential application in the extraction of zinc from sulphide ores, knowledge of the dielectric properties of these ores plays a major role in the microwave design and simulation for any process. The dielectric properties of zinc sulfide concentrate for two different apparent densities-1.54 and 1.63 g/cm3-have been measured by using the resonance cavity perturbation technique at 915 and 2450 MHz during the roasting process for the temperature ranging from room temperature to 850 °C. The variations of dielectric constant, the dielectric loss factor, the dielectric loss tangent and the penetration depth with the temperature, frequency and apparent density have been investigated numerically. The results indicate that the dielectric constant increases as the temperature increases and temperature has a pivotal effect on the dielectric constant, while the dielectric loss factor has a complicated change and all of the temperature, frequency and apparent density have a significant impact to dielectric loss factor. Zinc sulfide concentrate is high loss material from 450 to 800 °C on the basis of theoretical analyses of dielectric loss tangent and penetration depth, its ability of absorbing microwave energy would be enhanced by increasing the apparent density as well. The experimental results also have proved that zinc sulfide concentrate is easy to be heated by microwave energy from 450 to 800 °C. In addition, the experimental date of dielectric constant and loss factor can be fitted perfectly by Boltzmann model and Gauss model, respectively

  4. Microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy aiming at novel dosimetry using DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichirou [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)


    We are developing L-band and S-band microwave dielectric absorption systems aiming novel dosimetry using DNAs, such as plasmid DNA and genomic DNA, and microwave technology. Each system is composed of a cavity resonator, analog signal generator, circulator, power meter, and oscilloscope. Since the cavity resonator is sensitive to temperature change, we have made great efforts to prevent the fluctuation of temperature. We have developed software for controlling and measurement. By using this system, we can measure the resonance frequency, f, and ΔQ (Q is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator’s bandwidth relative to its center frequency) within about 3 minutes with high accuracy. This system will be expected to be applicable to DNAs evaluations and to novel dosimetric system.

  5. Surface plasmon-polariton resonance at diffraction of THz radiation on semiconductor gratings (United States)

    Spevak, I. S.; Kuzmenko, A. A.; Tymchenko, M.; Gavrikov, V. K.; Shulga, V. M.; Feng, J.; Sun, H. B.; Kamenev, Yu. E.; Kats, A. V.


    Resonance diffraction of THz hidrogen cyanide laser radiation on a semiconductor (InSb) grating is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The specular reflectivity suppression due to the resonance excitation of the THz surface plasmon-polariton is observed on a pure semiconductor grating and on semiconductor gratings covered with a thin dielectric layer. The dielectric coating of the grating results in the resonance shift and widening depending both on the layer thickness and dielectric properties. A simple analytical theory of the resonance diffraction on rather shallow gratings covered with a dielectric layer is presented, and the results are in a good accordance with the experimental data. Analytical expressions for the resonance shift and broadening are essential for the resonance properties understanding and useful for sensing data interpretation of the agents deposited on the grating surface.

  6. Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biomaterials: Agrophysics (United States)

    El Khaled, Dalia; Castellano, Nuria N.; Gázquez, Jose A.; Perea-Moreno, Alberto-Jesus; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco


    Being dependent on temperature and frequency, dielectric properties are related to various types of food. Predicting multiple physical characteristics of agri-food products has been the main objective of non-destructive assessment possibilities executed in many studies on horticultural products and food materials. This review manipulates the basic fundamentals of dielectric properties with their concepts and principles. The different factors affecting the behavior of dielectric properties have been dissected, and applications executed on different products seeking the characterization of a diversity of chemical and physical properties are all pointed out and referenced with their conclusions. Throughout the review, a detailed description of the various adopted measurement techniques and the mostly popular equipment are presented. This compiled review serves in coming out with an updated reference for the dielectric properties of spectroscopy that are applied in the agrophysics field. PMID:28773438

  7. Ion implanted dielectric elastomer circuits


    O’Brien, Benjamin M.; Rosset, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A.; Shea, Herbert R.


    Starfish and octopuses control their infinite degree of- freedom arms with panache—capabilities typical of nature where the distribution of reflex-like intelligence throughout soft muscular networks greatly outperforms anything hard, heavy, and man-made. Dielectric elastomer actuators show great promise for soft artificial muscle networks. One way to make them smart is with piezo-resistive Dielectric Elastomer Switches (DES) that can be combined with artificial muscles to create arbitrary dig...

  8. Interconnect Between a Waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide Comprising an Impedance Matched Dielectric Lens (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Chahat, Nacer (Inventor); Tang, Adrian J. (Inventor)


    A lens for interconnecting a metallic waveguide with a dielectric waveguide is provided. The lens may be coupled a metallic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide, and minimize a signal loss between the metallic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide.

  9. Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Chen


    Full Text Available We investigate the resonant properties of high quality-factor membrane-based metamaterial resonators functioning in the terahertz regime. A number of factors, including the resonator geometry, dielectric loss, and most importantly the membrane thickness are found to extensively influence the resonance strength and quality factor of the sharp resonance. Further studies on the membrane thickness-dependent-sensitivity for sensing applications reveal that high quality-factor membrane metamaterials with a moderate thickness ranging from 10 to 50 μm are the most promising option towards developing realistic integrated terahertz filters and sensors.

  10. Realization of tellurium-based all dielectric optical metamaterials using a multi-cycle deposition-etch process (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Dominguez, Jason; Gonzales, Edward F.; Eric Bower, John; Bruce Burckel, D.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal


    Tellurium (Te) dielectric resonator metamaterials for thermal infrared applications were fabricated using a multi-cycle deposition-etch process that circumvents pinch-off issues during deposition. Deposition and etching of Te were studied in detail. Metamaterial samples with varying resonator dimensions were fabricated using this technique. All the samples showed two transmission minima corresponding to magnetic and electric dipole resonances. Longer resonant wavelengths were observed as the resonator dimension was increased. Observation of spectral overlap between magnetic and electric resonances gives us the potential opportunity to realize a negative refractive index material.

  11. Dual-band absorption of mid-infrared metamaterial absorber based on distinct dielectric spacing layers. (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Peiheng; Cheng, Dengmu; Weng, Xiaolong; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang


    We present the simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a dual-band metamaterial absorber in the mid-infrared regime. Two pairs of circular-patterned metal-dielectric stacks are employed to excite the dual-band absorption peaks. Dielectric characteristics of the dielectric spacing layer determine energy dissipation in each resonant stack, i.e., dielectric or ohmic loss. By controlling material parameters, both two mechanisms are introduced into our structure. Up to 98% absorption is obtained at 9.03 and 13.32 μm in the simulation, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The proposed structure holds promise for various applications, e.g., thermal radiation modulators and multicolor infrared focal plane arrays.

  12. Quantum paraelectricity probed by superconducting resonators (United States)

    Davidovikj, D.; Manca, N.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Caviglia, A. D.; Steele, G. A.


    Superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators are powerful and versatile tools used in areas ranging from radiation detection to circuit quantum electrodynamics. Their potential for low intrinsic losses makes them attractive as sensitive probes of electronic properties of bulk materials and thin films. Here we use superconducting MoRe CPW resonators to investigate the high-frequency (up to 0.3 GHz) and low-temperature (down to 3.5 K) permittivity of SrTiO3 , a nonlinear dielectric on the verge of a ferroelectric transition (quantum paraelectricity). We perform a quantitative analysis of its dielectric properties as a function of external dc bias (up to ±15 V ), rf power, and mode number and discuss our results within the framework of the most recent theoretical models. We also discuss the origin of a fatigue effect that reduces the tunability of the dielectric constant of SrTiO3 , which we relate to the presence of oxygen vacancies.

  13. Evaluating the blue-shift behaviors of the surface plasmon coupling of an embedded light emitter with a surface Ag nanoparticle by adding a dielectric interlayer or coating. (United States)

    Kuo, Yang; Chang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Chun-Han; Yang, C C; Kiang, Yean-Woei


    The surface plasmon (SP) coupling behaviors of an embedded light emitter or radiating dipole in GaN with a surface Ag nanoparticle (NP) in four structures of different added dielectric geometries, including an extended dielectric interlayer (DI) and a DI of a finite width between the Ag NP and GaN, a dielectric coating on the Ag NP, and no dielectric addition, are numerically compared. Either an added DI or dielectric coating can lead to the blue shift of localized surface plasmon (LSP) dipole resonance peak or the spectral peak of radiated power enhancement ratio with respect to that of the structure without dielectric addition. A smaller dielectric refractive-index or a larger dielectric thickness results in a larger blue-shift range. Under the condition of the same dielectric refractive-index and thickness, the structure of a DI with a finite width leads to the largest blue-shift range, followed by the structure of an extended DI and then the structure of a dielectric coating. In a practical application, for a given emission wavelength of a blue-emitting quantum well, the emission enhancement effect through SP coupling depends on the LSP resonance strength at this wavelength. Our study also shows that although the LSP resonance peak can be blue-shifted by reducing the size of a surface Ag NP, its SP coupling strength is dramatically reduced. Adding a DI or dielectric coating is a more practical approach for shifting the major LSP resonance mode of a surface Ag NP from the green into blue range.

  14. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, M; Bond, T; Behymer, E; Chang, A


    We investigate tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides. Resonances are observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors over 103 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  15. A bounds on the resonant frequency of rectangular microstrip antennas (United States)

    Bailey, M. C.


    The calculation of currents induced by a transverse electric plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer a lower bound on the resonant frequency (or resonant-E-plane dimension) for rectangular microstrip antennas. An upper bound is provided by the frequency for which the E-plane dimension is a half-wavelength.

  16. Nanometrology using localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Lindstedt, Daniel N.; Laurberg, Asger V.


    A novel optical characterization technique called localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy is presented. LSPR spectroscopy exploits light excited surface plasmons, which are collective coherent electron oscillations at a metal/dielectric interface. The LSPR can be observed in a tra...

  17. Broadband highly-efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control

    CERN Document Server

    Kruk, Sergey; Kravchenko, Ivan; Miroshnichenko, Andrey; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S


    Metadevices based on dielectric nanostructured surfaces with both electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances have resulted in the best efficiency to date for functional flat optics with only one disadvantage: narrow operational bandwidth. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband transparent all-dielectric metasurfaces for highly efficient polarization manipulation. We utilize the generalized Huygens principle with a superposition of the scattering contributions from several electric and magnetic multipolar modes of the constituent meta-atoms to achieve destructive interference in reflection over a large spectral bandwidth. By employing this novel concept, we demonstrate reflectionless (~90% transmission) half-wave plates, quarter-wave plates, and vector beam q-plates that can operate across multiple telecom bands with ~99% polarization conversion efficiency.

  18. Analog Optical Computing Based on Dielectric Meta-reflect-array

    CERN Document Server

    Chizari, Ata; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A


    In this paper, we realize the concept of analog computing using an array of engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks in combination with fused silica spacer and silver ground plane realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage $2\\pi$ degrees as well as amplitude range $0$ to $1$. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems which circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properti...

  19. 40 GHz RF biosensor based on microwave coplanar waveguide transmission line for cancer cells (HepG2) dielectric characterization. (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fu; Wu, Hung-Wei; Hong, Yong-Han; Lee, Hsin-Ying


    This paper presents a 40-GHz RF biosensor that involves using a microwave coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line for the dielectric characterization of cancer cells (Hepatoma G2, HepG2). In the past, conventional resonator-based biosensors were designed to operate at a specific resonant peak; however, the dielectric sensitivity of the cells was restricted to a narrow bandwidth. To provide a very wide bandwidth (1-40 GHz), biosensors were based on a microwave CPW transmission line. The proposed biosensor can rapidly measure two frequency-dependent cell-based dielectric parameters of HepG2 cells, microwave attenuation (α(f)cell) and the dielectric constant (εr(f)cell), while removing the microwave parasitic effects (including the cultured medium and substrate materials). The proposed biosensor can be applied in postoperative cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A


    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  1. High permittivity gate dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server


    "The book comprehensively covers all the current and the emerging areas of the physics and the technology of high permittivity gate dielectric materials, including, topics such as MOSFET basics and characteristics, hafnium-based gate dielectric materials, Hf-based gate dielectric processing, metal gate electrodes, flat-band and threshold voltage tuning, channel mobility, high-k gate stack degradation and reliability, lanthanide-based high-k gate stack materials, ternary hafnia and lanthania based high-k gate stack films, crystalline high-k oxides, high mobility substrates, and parameter extraction. Each chapter begins with the basics necessary for understanding the topic, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature, and ultimately graduating to the current status of the technology and our scientific understanding and the future prospects."

  2. Silicone-based Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    energy efficient solutions are highly sought. These properties allow for interesting products ranging very broadly, e.g. from eye implants over artificial skins over soft robotics to huge wave energy harvesting plants. All these products utilize the inherent softness and compliance of the dielectric...... investigated but rarely discussed in the context of mechani-cal integrity and thus product reliability. Focus here is on long-term reliability of the dielectric elastomers and how to achieve this by means of careful elastomer design. This thesis presents methods and results of analyses acquired in the cross......-disciplinary, collaborative effort on dielectric elastomers funded by Innovationsfonden Denmark (formerly Advanced Technology Foundation) with the materials workgroup headed by the author. Main contributors to the work have been research scientists at Danfoss PolyPower, colleagues from the Danish Polymer Centre, as well as 7...

  3. Race for novel high-index all-dielectric and hybrid metal-dielectric nanophotonic materials: Pit-stop optical tests (United States)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Ivanova, A. K.; Kudryavtseva, A. D.; Tchiernega, N. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kuchmizhak, A. A.; Zayarny, D. A.


    Magnetic dipolar Mie-resonance of nanodiamonds supports their highly-efficient stimulated low-frequency Raman scattering via nanosecond laser excitation of their fundamental breathing mode, with strong additional plasmonic enhancement of the Raman conversion efficiency upon ablative capping of the resonant nanodiamond core by a silver nanoshell with a broad overlapping electrical dipolar Mie-resonance. Also, crystalline selenium nanoparticles, exhibiting the high refractive index in the visible/near-IR ranges, were demonstrated as promising all-dielectric sensing building nanoblocks in nanophotonics.

  4. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco


    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  5. USDA/ARS and dielectric properties research (United States)

    An overview of the research is presented, including RF dielectric heating for seed treatment, insect control, product conditioning, and moisture and quality sensing applications, equipment used, dielectric properties measurement techniques, broad- frequency- range data obtained, and research results...

  6. Fabrication and cold test of dielectric assist accelerating structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Satoh


    Full Text Available We present the detailed description of a successful design and cold testing of the dielectric assist accelerating (DAA structure. The DAA structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. The advantage of the DAA structure is that it has an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature since the electromagnetic field distribution of accelerating mode can be controlled by dielectric parts so that the wall loss on the metallic surface is greatly reduced. A prototype of the five-cell DAA structure was designed and built at C-band (5.712 GHz, and cold tested. Three types of dielectric cell structure, “regular,” “end,” and “hybrid” dielectric cells, are fabricated by sintering high-purity magnesia. The prototype was assembled by stacking these cells in the hollow copper cylinder, whose two ends are closed by copper plates. The resonant frequency of the prototype was tuned to the desired frequency by machining only end copper plates. The unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode was measured at 119,314 and the shunt impedance per unit length of the prototype was estimated from the experimental results of the bead pull measurement as Z_{sh}=617  MΩ/m, which were within 2 percent of the design values. The field distribution of accelerating mode was also measured by the bead pull method, and its results agreed well with simulation results.

  7. Extinction by the long dielectric needles

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkas, Nadejda L


    Electromagnetic wave extinction by the very long but finite dielectric needle is compared with that by the infinite dielectric cylinder for an oblique incidence of the electromagnetic wave. It is shown that the renormalized Hankel functions without the logarithmic terms should be used for the calculation of the extinction per unit length of the infinite dielectric cylinder to apply it for extinction calculations by the finite dielectric cylinder.

  8. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine (United States)

    Leskovec, J.; Filipič, C.; Levstik, A.


    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters ɛ and σv, indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy.

  9. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovec, J. [Dental Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Hrvatski trg 6, 1104 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Filipic, C. [Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Levstik, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail:


    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters -bar {sub v0} and {sigma}{sub v}, indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy.

  10. Dielectric parameter estimation of novel magneto-dielectric substrate based microstrip antenna (United States)

    Saini, Ashish; Kumar, P.; Ravelo, B.; Thakur, Atul; Thakur, Preeti


    The effective relative permittivity and effective relative permeability of magneto-dielectric materials when used as substrate for microstrip antenna shows interdependency. This dependency was analyzed through simulation and verified by synthesizing nano composite ferrite. The 40nm nano crystallite size particles were synthesized using a co- precipitation method. Matching values of complex permittivity (ɛ* = 4.2-0.1j) and complex permeability (μ* = 4.3-0.2j) at 1 GHz were obtained from the electromagnetic characterization. The microstrip antenna with coaxial feed was fabricated and the interdependence of relative permittivity and relative permeability was verified. An error of 7% in the drawn length was observed for ɛr and μr of the order of 4. The magneto-dielectric material with composition Mn0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4+BaFe12O19 proposed in this paper definitely can be proposed as a substrate material for miniaturized antenna. The antenna with desired resonant frequency can be fabricated by calculating the effective medium parameters as discussed in the paper.

  11. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas (United States)

    Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)


    An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.

  12. Dielectric shimming : exploiting dielectric interactions in High Field MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Wyger Maurits


    This thesis reports on the utility of high permittivity dielectric materials for adjusting the radiofrequency (RF) field in high field MR. The performance-driven trend towards higher static magnetic field strengths drives MR operation into the regime where the dimensions of the body section being

  13. Artificial Dielectric Shields for Integrated Transmission Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.; Rejaei, B.; Zhuang, Y.


    We present a novel shielding method for on-chip transmission lines built on conductive silicon substrates. The shield consists of an artificial dielectric with a very high in-plane dielectric constant, built from two patterned metal layers isolated by a very thin dielectric film. Inserted below an

  14. Equations of electrodynamics in a rotating solid dielectric (United States)

    Milovskii, N. D.


    The equations of electrodynamics in a rotating isotropic homogeneous dielectric are obtained in a covariant form in coordinates of a reference frame that accompanies the rotation of the dielectric. It is found from these equations, which have variable coefficients, that the medium of the rotating dielectric is anisotropic and inhomogeneous. To derive tensors of the electromagnetic field in a rotating reference frame (RRF), the fields and inductions of a virtual inertial reference frame (IRF) that instantaneously accompanies the motion of one of the points of the dielectric are used twice. Initially, using instantaneous local relations, they are expressed in terms of real fields and inductions of the rotating medium, and then they are transformed into fields and inductions of a stationary IRF, in which they are used as components of the tensors of the electromagnetic field. Thus, the electromagnetic field tensors in the IRF are determined taking into account a priori unknown real inhomogeneous permittivity \\bar ɛ and permeability \\bar ɛ of the rotating medium. At the final stage, the tensors in the RRF are obtained by transformation rules for covariant and contravariant tensor components in accordance with known analytical relationships of fixed and rotating coordinates. The properties of modes of a rotating ring resonator in the form of homogeneous TE waves that travel along and against the direction of rotation and, in particular, their normal frequencies are examined. The contribution of inhomogeneous properties of the medium of a rotating dielectric to the difference between the normal frequencies of the counterpropagating waves (to the Sagnac effect) is determined. In a solid material with known elastic and striction characteristics, its density and dielectric permittivity depend on the radial coordinate. These dependences are caused by the action of the centrifugal force and changes in the polarization and magnetization of the medium because of the

  15. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede


    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric......-4-nitrobenzene. Here, a high increase in dielectric permittivity (similar to 70%) was obtained without compromising other favourable DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric loss and electrical breakdown strength. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Tuning Fano resonance by plasmonic core-shell nanostructure (United States)

    Zhang, Luoning; Liu, Xuan; Zhou, Jing


    The scattering property of core-shell subwavelength structure is analyzed. It is found that this structure could generate Fano resonance when its aspect ratio η approaches zero or one. The specific conditions of forming Fano resonance for η → 0 and η → 1 are derived. Based on these conditions, we propose to generate tunable Fano resonance using the nanostructure with dielectric-core and graphene-shell. The resonance wavelength can be tuned by changing the chemical potential of graphene. Besides, the structure made of anisotropic dielectric and plasmonic materials is also proposed to adjust the Fano resonance, which could adjust the resonance wavelength in wider spectrum than traditional core-shell structure.

  17. Counteracting Gravitation In Dielectric Liquids (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf E.; Jackson, Henry W.; Strayer, Donald M.


    Force of gravity in variety of dielectric liquids counteracted by imposing suitably contoured electric fields. Technique makes possible to perform, on Earth, variety of experiments previously performed only in outer space and at great cost. Also used similarly in outer space to generate sort of artificial gravitation.

  18. Entirely soft dielectric elastomer robots (United States)

    Henke, E.-F. Markus; Wilson, Katherine E.; Anderson, Iain A.


    Multifunctional Dielectric Elastomer (DE) devices are well established as actuators, sensors and energy har- vesters. Since the invention of the Dielectric Elastomer Switch (DES), a piezoresistive electrode that can directly switch charge on and off, it has become possible to expand the wide functionality of DE structures even more. We show the application of fully soft DE subcomponents in biomimetic robotic structures. It is now possible to couple arrays of actuator/switch units together so that they switch charge between them- selves on and off. One can then build DE devices that operate as self-controlled oscillators. With an oscillator one can produce a periodic signal that controls a soft DE robot - a DE device with its own DE nervous system. DESs were fabricated using a special electrode mixture, and imprinting technology at an exact pre-strain. We have demonstrated six orders of magnitude change in conductivity within the DES over 50% strain. The control signal can either be a mechanical deformation from another DE or an electrical input to a connected dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We have demonstrated a variety of fully soft multifunctional subcomponents that enable the design of autonomous soft robots without conventional electronics. The combination of digital logic structures for basic signal processing, data storage in dielectric elastomer flip-flops and digital and analogue clocks with adjustable frequencies, made of dielectric elastomer oscillators (DEOs), enables fully soft, self-controlled and electronics-free robotic structures. DE robotic structures to date include stiff frames to maintain necessary pre-strains enabling sufficient actuation of DEAs. Here we present a design and production technology for a first robotic structure consisting only of soft silicones and carbon black.

  19. Evaluation of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichrou; Izumi, Yoshinobu [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)


    Evaluation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-strand break is important to elucidate the biological effect of ionizing radiations. The conventional methods for DNA-strand break evaluation have been achieved by Agarose gel electrophoresis and others using an electrical property of DNAs. Such kinds of DNA-strand break evaluation systems can estimate DNA-strand break, according to a molecular weight of DNAs. However, the conventional method needs pre-treatment of the sample and a relatively long period for analysis. They do not have enough sensitivity to detect the strand break products in the low-dose region. The sample is water, methanol and plasmid DNA solution. The plasmid DNA pUC118 was multiplied by using Escherichia coli JM109 competent cells. The resonance frequency and Q-value were measured by means of microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy. When a sample is located at a center of the electric field, resonance curve of the frequency that existed as a standing wave is disturbed. As a result, the perturbation effect to perform a resonance with different frequency is adopted. The resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in a concentration of methanol as the model of the biological material, and the Q-value decreased. The absorption peak in microwave power spectrum of the double-strand break plasmid DNA shifted from the non-damaged plasmid DNA. Moreover, the sharpness of absorption peak changed resulting in change in Q-value. We confirmed that a resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in concentration of the plasmid DNA. We developed a new technique for an evaluation of DNA damage. In this paper, we report the evaluation method of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy.

  20. Design and analysis of stepped impedance transformer from air filled waveguide to dielectric filled waveguide for high power microwave window applications (United States)

    Sindam, Bashaiah; Sharma, P. K.; Raju, K. C. James


    This paper describes a design to achieve good microwave power transmission from an air filled rectangular waveguide to a narrow dielectric filled waveguide using a stepped impedance transformer. A novel material Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BZT) having high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss has been proposed as a microwave window. The advantages of using such dielectric resonator materials for these applications is that they make the size reduction of such microwave components possible without unleashing microwave dissipation. A high density (more than 97%) and good microwave dielectric properties are obtained for BZT samples through the solid state reaction method. The obtained dielectric parameters are used to calculate the dimensions of the narrow dielectric window section in waveguide geometry and the resulting dielectric window structure is simulated using the IMST Empire simulator. The maximum power transmission is obtained by the simulated structure with a dielectric filled waveguide window of thickness 7.4 mm at 3.7 GHz with bandwidth of 780 MHz, which corresponds to an insertion loss (S21) magnitude of 0.008 dB, and the return loss (S11) obtained at the same frequency is -43 dB. The microwave dielectric properties of the material used as well as the simulated results for the BZT based window are studied and compared with those of a conventional window.

  1. EDITORIAL: Special cluster on Dielectrics for Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Clarke, R.; Youngs, I.; Stevens, G.


    The 2003 Conference on Dielectrics for Emerging Technologies was organised by the Institute of Physics Dielectrics Group as one of the participating conferences at the IOP Physics Congress held at Heriot-Watt University between 23 and 27 March 2003. This was the second annual conference of the new Dielectrics Group, which was formed from the former Dielectrics Society in October 2001. The conference policy remains unchanged, with the Group adopting an interdisciplinary and broadband approach to studies of the interaction of electromagnetic fields with materials. This policy is well exemplified by the papers that were delivered at this conference. The aims of the conference were three-fold: to provide a forum for the presentation of leading-edge research on emerging electromagnetic materials, to present developments on the use of dielectrics in emerging technologies and to broaden the debate on metamaterials in the UK, especially in relation to their potential applications. The metamaterials of interest here are macro- or meso-scopically structured materials that offer novel modes of electromagnetic field interaction, thereby widening the range of effective dielectric properties available to us for novel technological applications. They include `negative refractive index materials', `left handed materials', `photonic' or `electromagnetic band-gap materials' and actively-controlled or `smart' electromagnetic materials. Significant metamaterial applications are anticipated in the development of `perfect' lenses, filters, wavefront-conditioning layers and in improved metrology. The conference focussed additionally on dielectrics in support of electronics, photonics and optics, nano-materials, composites and structures, and the development of tuneable dielectrics and resonators for future applications in telecommunications. We are pleased to report that the conference was successful in achieving its objectives, thirty-four oral papers were delivered and twenty

  2. Enhancement of the dielectric response in polymer nanocomposites with low dielectric constant fillers. (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Zhang, Tian; Iacob, C; Yang, Tiannan; Bernholc, J; Chen, L Q; Runt, J; Zhang, Q M


    In order to increase the dielectric constants of polymer-based dielectrics, composite approaches, in which inorganic fillers with much higher dielectric constants are added to the polar polymer matrix, have been investigated. However, high dielectric constant fillers cause high local electric fields in the polymer, resulting in a large reduction of the electric breakdown strength. We show that a significant increase in the dielectric constant can be achieved in polyetherimide nanocomposites with nanofillers whose dielectric constant can be similar to that of the matrix. The presence of nanofillers reduces the constraints on the dipole response to the applied electric field, thus enhancing the dielectric constant. Our results demonstrate that through nanostructure engineering, the dielectric constant of nanocomposites can be enhanced markedly without using high dielectric constant nanofillers.

  3. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary


    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  4. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ming Zhang


    Full Text Available Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators.

  5. Exploiting dimensionality and defect mitigation to create tunable microwave dielectrics. (United States)

    Lee, Che-Hui; Orloff, Nathan D; Birol, Turan; Zhu, Ye; Goian, Veronica; Rocas, Eduard; Haislmaier, Ryan; Vlahos, Eftihia; Mundy, Julia A; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Nie, Yuefeng; Biegalski, Michael D; Zhang, Jingshu; Bernhagen, Margitta; Benedek, Nicole A; Kim, Yongsam; Brock, Joel D; Uecker, Reinhard; Xi, X X; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kamba, Stanislav; Muller, David A; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Booth, James C; Fennie, Craig J; Schlom, Darrell G


    The miniaturization and integration of frequency-agile microwave circuits--relevant to electronically tunable filters, antennas, resonators and phase shifters--with microelectronics offers tantalizing device possibilities, yet requires thin films whose dielectric constant at gigahertz frequencies can be tuned by applying a quasi-static electric field. Appropriate systems such as BaxSr1-xTiO3 have a paraelectric-ferroelectric transition just below ambient temperature, providing high tunability. Unfortunately, such films suffer significant losses arising from defects. Recognizing that progress is stymied by dielectric loss, we start with a system with exceptionally low loss--Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases--in which (SrO)2 crystallographic shear planes provide an alternative to the formation of point defects for accommodating non-stoichiometry. Here we report the experimental realization of a highly tunable ground state arising from the emergence of a local ferroelectric instability in biaxially strained Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases with n ≥ 3 at frequencies up to 125 GHz. In contrast to traditional methods of modifying ferroelectrics-doping or strain-in this unique system an increase in the separation between the (SrO)2 planes, which can be achieved by changing n, bolsters the local ferroelectric instability. This new control parameter, n, can be exploited to achieve a figure of merit at room temperature that rivals all known tunable microwave dielectrics.

  6. Transmission phase control by stacked metal-dielectric hole array with two-dimensional geometric design. (United States)

    Matsui, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Hideki T; Miura, Atsushi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujikawa, Hisayoshi; Sato, Kazuo; Ikeda, Naoki; Tsuya, Daiju; Ochiai, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Ozaki, Masanori; Hangyo, Masanori; Asakawa, Kiyoshi


    Transmission phase control is experimentally demonstrated using stacked metal-dielectric hole arrays with a two-dimensional geometric design. The transmission phase varies drastically with small frequency shifts due to structural resonances. Laterally propagating surface plasmon polaritons excited by the periodic hole array roughly determine the resonance frequency, whereas localized resonances in each hole determine the dispersion. The transmission phase at various frequencies is directly evaluated using interferometric microscopy, and the formation of an inclined wavefront is demonstrated using a beam steering element in which the hole shapes gradually change in-plane from square to circular.

  7. Simple model dielectric functions for insulators (United States)

    Vos, Maarten; Grande, Pedro L.


    The Drude dielectric function is a simple way of describing the dielectric function of free electron materials, which have an uniform electron density, in a classical way. The Mermin dielectric function describes a free electron gas, but is based on quantum physics. More complex metals have varying electron densities and are often described by a sum of Drude dielectric functions, the weight of each function being taken proportional to the volume with the corresponding density. Here we describe a slight variation on the Drude dielectric functions that describes insulators in a semi-classical way and a form of the Levine-Louie dielectric function including a relaxation time that does the same within the framework of quantum physics. In the optical limit the semi-classical description of an insulator and the quantum physics description coincide, in the same way as the Drude and Mermin dielectric function coincide in the optical limit for metals. There is a simple relation between the coefficients used in the classical and quantum approaches, a relation that ensures that the obtained dielectric function corresponds to the right static refractive index. For water we give a comparison of the model dielectric function at non-zero momentum with inelastic X-ray measurements, both at relative small momenta and in the Compton limit. The Levine-Louie dielectric function including a relaxation time describes the spectra at small momentum quite well, but in the Compton limit there are significant deviations.

  8. Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Nöckel, J U; Noeckel, Jens U.


    Optical resonators are essential components of lasers and other wavelength-sensitive optical devices. A resonator is characterized by a set of modes, each with a resonant frequency omega and resonance width Delta omega=1/tau, where tau is the lifetime of a photon in the mode. In a cylindrical or spherical dielectric resonator, extremely long-lived resonances are due to `whispering gallery' modes in which light circulates around the perimeter trapped by total internal reflection. These resonators emit light isotropically. Recently, a new category of asymmetric resonant cavities (ARCs) has been proposed in which substantial shape deformation leads to partially chaotic ray dynamics. This has been predicted to give rise to a universal, frequency-independent broadening of the whispering-gallery resonances, and highly anisotropic emission. Here we present solutions of the wave equation for ARCs which confirm many aspects of the earlier ray-optics model, but also reveal interesting frequency-dependent effects charac...

  9. A combination dielectric and acoustic laboratory instrument for petrophysics (United States)

    Josh, Matthew


    Laboratory testing of rock samples is the primary method for establishing the physics models which relate the rock properties (i.e. porosity, fluid permeability, pore-fluid and saturation) essential to evaluating a hydrocarbon reservoir, to the physical properties (resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, dielectric permittivity and acoustic properties) which can be measured with borehole logging instrumentation. Rock samples usually require machining to produce a suitable geometry for each test as well as specific sample preparation, e.g. multiple levels of saturation and chemical treatments, and this leads to discrepancies in the condition of the sample between different tests. Ideally, multiphysics testing should occur on one sample simultaneously so that useful correlations between data sets can be more firmly established. The world’s first dielectric and acoustic combination cell has been developed at CSIRO, so that a sample may be machined and prepared, then measured to determine the dielectric and acoustic properties simultaneously before atmospheric conditions in the laboratory affect the level of hydration in the sample. The dielectric measurement is performed using a conventional three-terminal parallel plate capacitor which can operate from 40 Hz up to 110 MHz, with modified electrodes incorporating a 4 MHz P-wave piezo crystal. Approximately 10 (acoustic P-) wavelengths interact with a typical (10 mm thick) sample so that the user may reliably ‘pick’ the P-wave arrival times with acceptable resolution. Experimental evidence indicates that the instrument is able to resolve 0.25 mm thickness in a Teflon sample test piece. For a number of engineering materials including Teflon and glass and also for a geological samples (Donnybrook sandstone from Western Australia) there is a perfectly linear relationship between both capacitance and P-wave arrival time with sample thickness. Donnybrook sandstone has a consistently linear increase in dielectric

  10. Nonlinear Dynamical Model of a Soft Viscoelastic Dielectric Elastomer (United States)

    Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen


    Actuated by alternating stimulation, dielectric elastomers (DEs) show a behavior of complicated nonlinear vibration, implying a potential application as dynamic electromechanical actuators. As is well known, for a vibrational system, including the DE system, the dynamic properties are significantly affected by the geometrical sizes. In this article, a nonlinear dynamical model is deduced to investigate the geometrical effects on dynamic properties of viscoelastic DEs. The DEs with square and arbitrary rectangular geometries are considered, respectively. Besides, the effects of tensile forces on dynamic performances of rectangular DEs with comparably small and large geometrical sizes are explored. Phase paths and Poincaré maps are utilized to detect the periodicity of the nonlinear vibrations of DEs. The resonance characteristics of DEs incorporating geometrical effects are also investigated. The results indicate that the dynamic properties of DEs, including deformation response, vibrational periodicity, and resonance, are tuned when the geometrical sizes vary.

  11. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)


    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  12. Dielectric Elastomer Actuators for Microfluidics


    Maffli, Luc; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert


    One of the goals of microfluidics is to bring a whole laboratory processing chain on a few square centimeters, Lab-On-Chips (LOC). But current LOCs require many heavy and power-consuming off-chip controls like pneumatics, pumps and valves, which keep the small chip bound to the lab. Miniaturized Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEA) are excellent candidates to make LOC truly portable, since they combine electrical actuation, large stroke volumes and high output forces. We report on the use of ...

  13. Surface Plasmon Resonance Evaluation of Colloidal Metal Aerogel Filters (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.


    Surface plasmon resonance imaging has in the past been applied to the characterization of thin films. In this study we apply the surface plasmon technique not to determine macroscopic spatial variations but rather to determine average microscopic information. Specifically, we deduce the dielectric properties of the surrounding gel matrix and information concerning the dynamics of the gelation process from the visible absorption characteristics of colloidal metal nanoparticles contained in aerogel pores. We have fabricated aerogels containing gold and silver nanoparticles. Because the dielectric constant of the metal particles is linked to that of the host matrix at the surface plasmon resonance, any change 'in the dielectric constant of the material surrounding the metal nanoparticles results in a shift in the surface plasmon wavelength. During gelation the surface plasmon resonance shifts to the red as the average or effective dielectric constant of the matrix increases. Conversely, formation of an aerogel or xerogel through supercritical extraction or evaporation of the solvent produces a blue shift in the resonance indicating a decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix. From the magnitude of this shift we deduce the average fraction of air and of silica in contact with the metal particles. The surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction may thus be determined.

  14. Dielectric decrement effects in electrokinetics (United States)

    Figliuzzi, Bruno; Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Buie, Cullen; Moran, Jeffrey


    Understanding the nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces is a key issue in electrokinetics. In recent studies, Nakayama and Andelman [J. Chem. Physics 2015] Hatlo et al. [EPL 2012], and Zhao and Zhai [JFM 2013] demonstrated that dielectric decrement significantly influences the ionic concentration in the electric double layer (EDL) at high zeta potential, leading to the formation of a condensed layer near the particle's surface. In this presentation, we apply the dielectric decrement model to study two archetypal problems in electrokinetics, namely the electrophoresis of particles with fixed surface charges and the electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles. Our aim is to rely on numerical simulations to incorporate nonlinear effects including crowding effects due to the finite size of ions, dielectric decrement in the EDL, surface conduction, concentration polarization and advection in the bulk solution. In parallel, we derive a simplified composite layer model that enables us to obtain analytical estimates of the physical quantities involved in the physical description of the problem.

  15. Dielectric fluctuations in force microscopy: noncontact friction and frequency jitter. (United States)

    Yazdanian, Showkat M; Marohn, John A; Loring, Roger F


    Electric force microscopy, in which a charged probe oscillates tens to hundreds of nanometers above a sample surface, provides direct mechanical detection of relaxation in molecular materials. Noncontact friction, the damping of the probe's motions, reflects the dielectric function at the resonant frequency of the probe, while fluctuations in the probe frequency are induced by slower molecular motions. We present a unified theoretical picture of both measurements, which relates the noncontact friction and the power spectrum of the frequency jitter to dielectric properties of the sample and to experimental geometry. Each observable is related to an equilibrium correlation function associated with electric field fluctuations, which is determined by two alternative, complementary strategies for a dielectric continuum model of the sample. The first method is based on the calculation of a response function associated with the polarization of the dielectric by a time-varying external charge distribution. The second approach employs a stochastic form of Maxwell's equations, which incorporate a fluctuating electric polarization, to compute directly the equilibrium correlation function in the absence of an external charge distribution. This approach includes effects associated with the propagation of radiation. In the experimentally relevant limit that the tip-sample distance is small compared to pertinent wavelengths of radiation, the two methods yield identical results. Measurements of the power spectrum of frequency fluctuations of an ultrasensitive cantilever together with measurements of the noncontact friction over a poly(methylmethacrylate) film are used to estimate the minimum experimentally detectable frequency jitter. The predicted jitter for this polymer is shown to exceed this threshold, demonstrating the feasibility of the measurement.

  16. Topology-optimized multiple-disk resonators obtained using level set expression incorporating surface effects. (United States)

    Fujii, Garuda; Ueta, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Mamoru; Nakamura, Masayuki


    Topology-optimized designs of multiple-disk resonators are presented using level-set expression that incorporates surface effects. Effects from total internal reflection at the surfaces of the dielectric disks are precisely simulated by modeling clearly defined dielectric boundaries during topology optimization. The electric field intensity in optimal resonators increases to more than four and a half times the initial intensity in a resonant state, whereas in some cases the Q factor increases by three and a half times that for the initial state. Wavelength-scale link structures between neighboring disks improve the performance of the multiple-disk resonators.

  17. Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David

    -induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric...... function of liquids at terahertz frequencies. We will review the current understanding of the high-frequency dielectric spectrum of water, and discuss the relation between the dielectric spectrum and the thermodynamic properties of certain aqueous solutions.......The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision...

  18. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer (United States)

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D


    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0dielectric layer is disposed on the back surface of the portion of the substrate. A semiconductor layer is disposed on the silicon oxynitride dielectric layer.

  19. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede


    High driving voltages currently limit the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers (DEs). One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the synthesis...

  20. Polarization control of high transmission/reflection switching by all-dielectric metasurfaces (United States)

    Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Maier, Stefan A.; Albella, Pablo


    Metasurfaces built of high refractive dielectric nanostructures could play a key role in controlling the electromagnetic wave propagation, due to their low energy losses and their ability to excite not only electric but also magnetic resonances. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an array of high-index dielectric nanodimers can perform as tuneable metasurfaces that can be switched from a high transmitter to a high reflector, by just changing the linear polarization of excitation. The incident polarization alters the hybridization mode of the excited electric and magnetic dipoles in the dimer, and this leads to either spectral overlap or separation of the two dipoles. The hybridization of the electric and magnetic modes modifies the effective permittivity and permeability of the tuneable dielectric metasurface, exhibiting the high transmission and reflection that can be easily switched by simply changing the linear polarization.

  1. Estimation of Relative Permittivity of Printed Circuit Board with Fiber Glass Epoxy as Dielectric for UHF Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronal D. Montoya-Montoya


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measuring relative permittivity of fiber glass printed circuit board (PCB’s, using a rectangular resonant cavity. The relative permittivity is presented as function of frequency. To obtain resonant frequencies, the return loss was measured using a network analyzer. Relative permittivity was calculated by finding frequencies of resonant cavity modes. The results are presented in a frequency span of 1 to 3.5GHz. It was clearly shown the nonlinear behavior of the relative permittivity for the dielectric laminate evaluated, even what happens respect to the frequency of the resonant modes below and above to frequency of 2 GHz.

  2. Water-injected all-dielectric ultra-wideband and prominent oblique incidence metamaterial absorber in microwave regime (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin; Shen, Zhaoyang; Chen, Jiao; Lin, Hail; Yu, Zetai


    We present a water-injected all-dielectric metamaterial that can offer an extremely wide bandwidth of electromagnetic absorption and prominent wide incident angle range. Different from conventional metal-dielectric based metamaterial absorbers, the absorption mechanism of the proposed all-dielectric metamaterial absorber is to take advantage of the dispersion of water, rather than electric or/and magnetic resonance, which thoroughly overcomes the defects of narrow bandwidth and oblique incidence from metal-dielectric based metamaterial absorber. The simulated absorption was over 90% in 8.1-22.9 GHz with the relative bandwidth of 95.5% when the incident angle reaches 60°, and the corresponding microwave experiment is performed to support the simulations. The obtained excellent absorption performance reveals a possible application of the proposed absorber, which can be exploited for electromagnetic stealth purposes, especially for electromagnetic stealth of sea targets.

  3. 849 RESONANCE | September 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    849. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 2. 850. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 3. 851. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 4. 852. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 5. 853. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 6. 854. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 7. 855. RESONANCE | September 2013.

  4. Micro-optomechanical trampoline resonators (United States)

    Pepper, Brian; Kleckner, Dustin; Sonin, Petro; Jeffrey, Evan; Bouwmeester, Dirk


    Recently, micro-optomechanical devices have been proposed for implementation of experiments ranging from non-demolition measurements of phonon number to creation of macroscopic quantum superpositions. All have strenuous requirements on optical finesse, mechanical quality factor, and temperature. We present a set of devices composed of dielectric mirrors on Si 3 N4 trampoline resonators. We describe the fabrication process and present data on finesse and quality factor. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF PHY-0804177 and Marie Curie EXT-CT-2006-042580.

  5. High-permittivity thin dielectric padding improves fresh blood imaging of femoral arteries at 3 T. (United States)

    Lindley, Marc D; Kim, Daniel; Morrell, Glen; Heilbrun, Marta E; Storey, Pippa; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Lee, Vivian S


    Fresh blood imaging (FBI) is a useful noncontrast magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) method for the assessment of peripheral arterial disease, particularly for imaging patients with poor renal function. Compared with 1.5 T, 3 T enables higher signal-to-noise ratio and/or spatiotemporal resolution in FBI. Indeed, previous studies have reported successful FBI of the calf station at 3 T. However, FBI of the thigh station at 3 T has been reported to suffer from signal void in the common femoral artery of 1 thigh only because of the radial symmetry in transmit radiofrequency field (B1+) variation. We sought to increase the signal of femoral artery in FBI at 3 T using high-permittivity dielectric padding. We performed FBI and B1+ mapping of the thigh station at 3 T in 13 human subjects to compare the following 3 dielectric padding settings: no padding, commercially available thick (approximately 5 cm) dielectric padding, and high-permittivity thin (approximately 2 cm) dielectric padding. We characterized the radial symmetry in B1+ variation as well as its impact on the FBI signal at baseline and how dielectric padding improves B1+ and FBI. We evaluated the quality of 3 FBI MRA acquisitions using quantitative (ie, contrast-to-noise ratio of femoral arteries) and qualitative (ie, conspicuity of femoral arteries) analyses. With the subjects positioned on the magnetic resonance table in feet-first, supine orientation, the radial symmetry in B1+ variation attenuates the signal in the right common femoral artery. The signal void can be improved partially with commercial padding and improved further with high-permittivity padding. Averaging the results over the 13 subjects, the mean B1+, contrast-to-noise ratio, and conspicuity scores for the right common femoral artery were significantly higher with high-permittivity padding than with commercial padding and baseline (P permittivity dielectric padding can be used to increase the signal of femoral artery in FBI at 3 T.

  6. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran, E-mail:; Sanath Kumar, R.; Elizabeth, Suja [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); Raghavendra Rao, K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); PES University, 100 Feet Ring Road,Banashankari Stage III, Banashankari, Bengaluru-560085 (India); Bhat, H. L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Professor UR Rao Road, Jalahalli, Bengaluru-560013 (India)


    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 31}, elastic coefficient (S{sub 11}) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k{sub 31}) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  7. High frequency magneto-dielectric effects in self-assembled ferrite-ferroelectric core-shell nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Popov


    Full Text Available Magneto-dielectric effects in self-assembled core-shell nanoparticles of nickel ferrite (NFO and barium titanate (BTO have been investigated in the millimeter wave frequencies. The core-shell nano-composites were synthesized by coating 100 nm nickel ferrite and 50 nm barium titanate nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst forming heterogeneous nanocomposites. Magneto-electric (ME characterization of as-assembled particles has been carried out by measurements of the relative permittivity ɛr as a function of frequency f under an applied static magnetic field H over 16–24 GHz. Measurements show an H-induced decrease in ɛr of 1 to 1.5%. But a giant magneto-dielectric effect with an H-induced change in permittivity as high as 28% is measured under dielectric resonance in the samples. A strong ME coupling was also evident from H-tuning of dielectric resonance in the composites. A theory for the high frequency magneto-dielectric effect has been developed and consists of the following steps. First the Bruggeman model is used to estimate the effective dielectric constant for the shell consisting of the BTO particles and voids considered as spherical air-pores. Then the permittivity for the core and shell is estimated taking into consideration the sample porosity. Finally the H-dependence of the permittivity due to ME interactions is calculated from the free energy considerations. Estimated ɛr vs. H and dielectric resonance frequency vs. H characteristics are in general agreement with the data.

  8. Inhibiting electro-thermal breakdown of acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators by dielectric gel coating (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong


    Electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) is very localized; a spark and a pinhole (puncture) in dielectric ends up with short-circuit. This letter shows that prevention of electrothermal breakdown helps defer failure of DEAs even with conductive-grease electrodes. Dielectric gel encapsulation or coating (Dow Corning 3-4170) helps protect acrylic elastomer (VHB 4905), making it thermally more stable and delaying its thermal oxidation (burn) from 218 °C to 300 °C. Dielectric-gel-coated acrylic DEAs can withstand higher local leak-induced heating and thus achieve higher dielectric strengths than non-coated DEAs do.

  9. Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kang, Wenyu; Lu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Yudong; Jin, Yinzhe


    The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs) was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3-10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω), the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss), according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω) at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L). The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L). The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Kang


    Full Text Available The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3–10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω, the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss, according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L. The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L. The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs.

  11. Crosslinked polymeric dielectric materials and electronic devices incorporating same (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J. (Inventor); Facchetti, Antonio (Inventor); Wang, Zhiming (Inventor); Choi, Hyuk-Jin (Inventor); Suh, legal representative, Nae-Jeong (Inventor)


    Solution-processable dielectric materials are provided, along with precursor compositions and processes for preparing the same. Composites and electronic devices including the dielectric materials also are provided.

  12. Optimal-permittivity Dielectric Liners for a 4.7T Transceiver Array. (United States)

    Kordzadeh, Atefeh; De Zanche, Nicola


    Placing dielectric pads adjacent to the imaging region is an effective method to increase the signal locally and also increase the radio frequency magnetic field homogeneity in magnetic resonance imaging. The use of local high permittivity pads is becoming more common, and this work focuses on the effect of larger dielectric pads on the transmit/receive performance of an array (e.g., coupling, efficiency and safety) having 8 channels, used to image a cylindrical phantom at 4.7T (200MHz). We investigate the effects of a dielectric liner surrounding the whole volume of interest both with and without an air gap. The simulations reveal that high permittivities are not recommended because they substantially degrade the longitudinal homogeneity, resulting in hot spots of specific absorption rate at the driven end of the array. Furthermore, high permittivities lead to dielectric resonances in the liner at frequencies close to the Larmor frequency, potentially degrading the performance of the array. Indeed, simulations and measurements confirm that a compromise must be made between improvements in field homogeneity and transmit performance, and that an optimal permittivity exists which is much lower than those commonly used in the literature. The optimal permittivity achieves minimal coupling (permittivity the performance with an air gap of thickness equal to that of the liner is equivalent to that without the air gap. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of the analysis and measurements of three dimensional arbitrarily-shaped dielectric scatterers (United States)

    Wang, J. J. H.; Papanicolopulos, C.


    The objective of this program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research to determine the electromagnetic scattering from heterogeneous dielectric bodies as individual bodies and as a cluster of bodies. The discrepancies in the literature regarding the singularity of the electric dyadic Green's functions were resolved and a unified and consistent view is presented. Compact range scattering measurements at 1 GHz were successfully performed to obtain measured data to validate the numerical analyses. Extensive computations were made for a variety of dielectric scatterers, including a one-foot bird at 1 GHz. The agreements between measurement and computation were good except for the resonant sphere, for which the calculated resonant frequencies were shifted by about 20 percent. Various numerical techniques were investigated successfully for implementation in the volume methods to treat symmetrical scatterers through use of symmetric matrices, the use of banded matrices, and virtual memory. A new local-file manipulation technique for handling large matrices has been explored and found to be potentially useful. There has been very little research into the problem of scattering by dielectric objects of complex permittivity. Future research in this area should include the investigation of the surface integral equation technique and the exact solution for the dielectric prolate spheroid.

  14. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites (United States)

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.


    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  15. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites. (United States)

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S


    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  16. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon partial discharge transients effect of heterogeneous dielectric geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C.


    in the polarization of the bulk dielectric. These changes are brought about by the field produced by the space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge and its components are examined for several heterogeneous dielectric systems. It is demonstrated that, in relation to a homogeneous dielectric system......, the magnitude of the induced charge either increases or decreases depending on the ratio of the dielectric permittivities and within which dielectric the void is located. It is shown that this behavior is directly related to the magnitude and polarity of the polarization component of the induced charge....... Furthermore, we demonstrate that the geometry of the dielectric system and the physical dimensions of the different dielectrics influence in a similar manner the magnitude of the induced charge, although to a lesser degree....

  17. Stretch dependence of the electrical breakdown strength and dielectric constant of dielectric elastomers (United States)

    Tröls, Andreas; Kogler, Alexander; Baumgartner, Richard; Kaltseis, Rainer; Keplinger, Christoph; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Graz, Ingrid; Bauer, Siegfried


    Dielectric elastomers are used for electromechanical energy conversion in actuators and in harvesting mechanical energy from renewable sources. The electrical breakdown strength determines the limit of a dielectric elastomer for its use in actuators and energy harvesters. We report two experimental configurations for the measurement of the stretch dependence of the electrical breakdown strength of dielectric elastomers, and compare the electrical breakdown fields for compliant and rigid electrodes on the elastomer. We show that the electrode configuration strongly influences the electrical breakdown field strength. Further, we compare the stretch dependent dielectric function and breakdown of the acrylic elastomer VHB 4910™ from 3M™, and of the natural rubber ZruElast™ A1040™ from Zrunek rubber technology. While the dielectric permittivity of VHB decreases with increasing stretch ratio, the dielectric constant of rubber is insensitive to stretch. Our results suggest natural rubber as a versatile material for dielectric elastomer energy harvesting.

  18. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... dielectric loss (tan ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type polarization is seen in the temperature range 75–180°C, and above 180°C, there is interfacial polarization for relatively lower frequency range. One observes dielectric dispersion at lower frequency presumably due to domain wall relaxation.

  19. Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C


    The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing

  20. Aging of Dielectric Properties below Tg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    The dielectric loss at 1Hz in TPP is studied during a temperature step from one equilibrium state to another. In the applied cryostate the temperature can be equilibrated on a timescale of 1 second. The aging time dependence of the dielectric loss is studied below Tg applying temperature steps...

  1. Preparation, characterization and dielectric behaviour of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 5. Preparation, characterization and dielectric behaviour of some yttrium doped strontium stannates. P K Bajpai Kuldeep Ratre Mukul Pastor T P Sinha. Sensor Materials Volume ... Keywords. Electronic ceramics; sensors; dielectric constant; strontium stannate.

  2. Liquid crystal infiltration of complex dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardo, Stefano; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Vos, W.L


    Liquid crystal infiltration is becoming an important tool to control the optical properties of complex dielectric systems like photonic crystals and disordered dielectrics. We discuss the technical aspects of liquid crystal infiltration in meso-porous structures, give some details of the sample preparation process, and discuss possibilities for tuning the optical properties of both ordered and disordered systems.

  3. Achieving ultranarrow graphene perfect absorbers by exciting guided-mode resonance of one-dimensional photonic crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Yongbing; Shen, Liang; Xu, Haitao; Deng, Haidong; Li, Yuanxing


    Graphene perfect absorbers with ultranarrow bandwidth are numerically proposed by employing a subwavelength dielectric grating to excite the guided-mode resonance of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs...

  4. Dielectric relaxation in dipolar mixtures (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Agarwal, Vinod K.; Mansingh, Abhai


    Dielectric constants and losses have been measured at several microwave frequencies in the range 2.4-25 GHz for two binary mixtures: bromoform +1-bromonaphthalene (dipole moment ratio is about 1:1), and nitrobenzene +1-bromonaphthalene (dipole moment ratio is about 4:1). The dielectric data of each binary system have been analyzed in terms of two superimposed Debye regions. This analysis has been carried out to study the effect of internal field on the numerical values of the relative weights or amplitudes C1 and C2 in the dipolar mixtures. It is observed that the discrepancy between the numerical values of weight factors obtained from relaxation data and dipole moment and mole fractions of the binary mixture cannot be attributed to the internal field. For the bromoform +1-bromonaphthalene system, it has been found that both the Budo and Cole-Cole equation represent the system equally well, but for nitrobenzene +1-bromonaphthalene system the Cole distribution fits better than Budo's equation.

  5. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment


    Shlafman, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Salzman, Joseph


    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are...

  6. Mie resonances and bonding in photonic crystals


    Antonoyiannakis, M. I.; Pendry, J. B.


    Isolated dielectric spheres support resonant electromagnetic modes which are analogous to electronic orbitals and, like their electronic counterparts, can form bonding or anti-bonding interactions between neighbouring spheres. By irradiating the system with light at the bonding frequency an attractive interaction is induced between the spheres. We suggest that by judicious selection of bonding states we can drive a system towards a desired structure, rather than rely on the structure dictated...

  7. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Shlafman, Michael; Salzman, Joseph


    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  8. Strong 4-mode coupling of nanomechanical string resonators (United States)

    Gajo, Katrin; Schüz, Simon; Weig, Eva M.


    We investigate mechanical mode coupling between the four fundamental flexural modes of two doubly clamped, high-Q silicon-nitride nanomechanical string resonators. Strong mechanical coupling between the strings is induced by the strain mediated via a shared clamping point, engineered to increase the exchange of oscillatory energy. One of the resonators is controlled dielectrically, which results in strong coupling between its out-of-plane and in-plane flexural modes. We show both inter-string out-of-plane-in-plane and 3-mode resonances of the four coupled fundamental vibrational modes of a resonator pair, giving rise to a simple and a multimode avoided crossing, respectively.

  9. Dielectric breakdown of fast switching LCD shutters (United States)

    Mozolevskis, Gatis; Sekacis, Ilmars; Nitiss, Edgars; Medvids, Arturs; Rutkis, Martins


    Fast liquid crystal optical shutters due to fast switching, vibrationless control and optical properties have found various applications: substitutes for mechanical shutters, 3D active shutter glasses, 3D volumetric displays and more. Switching speed depends not only on properties of liquid crystal, but also on applied electric field intensity. Applied field in the shutters can exceed >10 V/micron which may lead to dielectric breakdown. Therefore, a dielectric thin film is needed between transparent conductive electrodes in order to reduce breakdown probability. In this work we have compared electrical and optical properties of liquid crystal displays with dielectric thin films with thicknesses up to few hundred nanometers coated by flexo printing method and magnetron sputtering. Dielectric breakdown values show flexographic thin films to have higher resistance to dielectric breakdown, although sputtered coatings have better optical properties, such as higher transmission and no coloration.

  10. Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities (United States)

    Fattal, David; Li, Jingjing; Peng, Zhen; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.


    Sub-wavelength dielectric gratings have emerged recently as a promising alternative to distributed Bragg reflection dielectric stacks for broadband, high-reflectivity filtering applications. Such a grating structure composed of a single dielectric layer with the appropriate patterning can sometimes perform as well as 30 or 40 dielectric distributed Bragg reflection layers, while providing new functionalities such as polarization control and near-field amplification. In this Letter, we introduce an interesting property of grating mirrors that cannot be realized by their distributed Bragg reflection counterpart: we show that a non-periodic patterning of the grating surface can give full control over the phase front of reflected light while maintaining a high reflectivity. This new feature of dielectric gratings allows the creation of miniature planar focusing elements that could have a substantial impact on a number of applications that depend on low-cost, compact optical components, from laser cavities to CD/DVD read/write heads.

  11. Polarization independent high transmission large numerical aperture laser beam focusing and deflection by dielectric Huygens' metasurfaces (United States)

    Özdemir, Aytekin; Hayran, Zeki; Takashima, Yuzuru; Kurt, Hamza


    In this letter, we propose all-dielectric Huygens' metasurface structures to construct high numerical aperture flat lenses and beam deflecting devices. The designed metasurface consists of two-dimensional array of all-dielectric nanodisk resonators with spatially varying radii, thereby introducing judiciously designed phase shift to the propagating light. Owing to the overlap of Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances, high transmission was achieved with rigorous design analysis. The designed flat lenses have numerical aperture value of 0.85 and transmission values around 80%. It also offers easy fabrication and compatibility with available semiconductor technology. This spectrally and physically scalable, versatile design could implement efficient wavefront manipulation or beam shaping for high power laser beams, as well as various optical microscopy applications without requiring plasmonic structures that are susceptible to ohmic loss of metals and sensitive to the polarization of light.

  12. High Frequency Magneto Dielectric Effects In Self Assembled Ferrite Ferroelectric Core Shell Nanoparticles (United States)


    estimate the magneto-capacitance effect in BTO or PZT films on substrates of ferromagnetic alloys.25 This work is on the observation and theory of MDE...The sample shows ferromagnetic behavior with hysteresis and remnance and the magnetization compared favorably with reported value for...samples. A strong ME coupling was also evident from H-tuning of dielectric resonance in the composites. A theory for the high frequency magneto

  13. High-T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch covered with a dielectric layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedra, Sami, E-mail: [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Khenchela, 40004 Khenchela (Algeria); Fortaki, Tarek [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)


    Highlights: • We model a microstrip antenna with a dielectric cover and superconductor patch. • The extended full-wave analysis is used to solve for the antenna characteristics • The accuracy of the method is checked by comparing our results with published data • The superconducting patch affects the resonant characteristics of the antenna • Patch on substrate–superstrate configuration is more advantageous than the one on single layer. - Abstract: This paper presents a full-wave method to calculate the resonant characteristics of rectangular microstrip antenna with and without dielectric cover, to explain the difference of performance with temperature between superconducting and normal conducting antenna. Especially the characteristics of high temperature superconducting (HTS) antenna were almost ideal around the critical temperature (T{sub c}). The dyadic Green's functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The computed results are found to be in good agreement with results obtained using other methods. Also, the effects of the superstrate on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of rectangular microstrip patch in a substrate–superstrate configuration are investigated. This type of configuration can be used for wider bandwidth by proper selection of superstrate thickness and its dielectric constants.

  14. Photothermal resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates...

  15. On-line fingerprinting of fluids using coaxial stub resonator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog-Antonyuk, N.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Mayer, M.J.J.; Yntema, D.; Miedema, H.; van den Berg, Albert


    Here we demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a coaxial stub resonator to assess the dielectric properties of fluids. This radio-frequency spectroscopy method is based on coaxial stub technology and comprises quarter wave length open-ended resonators that are filled with a liquid sample as

  16. Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas


    We demonstrate a light-extraction approach using a whispering gallery resonators array. The wavelength-scale resonant dielectric nanospheres support whispering gallery modes, which can be coupled with the confined waveguide modes inside the bulk material, thus dramatically improving light...

  17. Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates. (United States)

    Mirin, Nikolay A; Bao, Kui; Nordlander, Peter


    We investigate the plasmonic properties of a symmetric silver sphere septamer and show that the extinction spectrum exhibits a narrow Fano resonance. Using the plasmon hybridization approach and group theory we show that this Fano resonance is caused by the interference of two bonding dipolar subradiant and superradiant plasmon modes of E(1u) symmetry. We investigate the effect of structural symmetry breaking and show that the energy and shape of the Fano resonance can be tuned over a broad wavelength range. We show that the wavelength of the Fano resonance depends very sensitively on the dielectric permittivity of the surrounding media with one of the highest LSPR sensitivities reported for a finite nanostructure.

  18. Adaptive absorber based on dielectric elastomer stack actuator with variable stiffness (United States)

    Karsten, Roman; Schlaak, Helmut F.


    This paper describes the theoretical analysis for changing the stiffness in dielectric elastomer stack actuators (DESA) by electric voltage and investigates the influence of the mounting of DESA. The theoretical calculations are validated by the experimental measurements. The tuning of the stiffness by electrical voltage can be used for small adaptive absorbers to attenuate varying resonance frequencies of a system for example caused by the temperature variations. The best experimental results were reached for the structure with unbonded DESA between stiff plates. The resonance frequency was shifted from 129 Hz to 108 Hz. Besides, the selective mounting of DESA is a promising approach for the adaptive absorber applications.

  19. Analysis of slotted cylindrical ring resonators | Letsididi | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the Transmission Line Modeling method is used to determine the effects of using a high dielectric constant material on the size and coupling constant of the resonator. Modeling and simulations are done using Microstripes, a commercial TLM field solver from Flomerics. The paper shows that by placing a high ...

  20. The oscillator model for dissipative QED in an inhomogeneous dielectric (United States)

    van Wonderen, A. J.; Suttorp, L. G.


    The Ullersma model for the damped harmonic oscillator is coupled to the quantized electromagnetic field. All material parameters and interaction strengths are allowed to depend on position. The ensuing Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of canonical fields, and diagonalized by performing a normal-mode expansion. The commutation relations of the diagonalizing operators are in agreement with the canonical commutation relations. For the proof we replace all sums of normal modes by complex integrals with the help of the residue theorem. The same technique helps us to explicitly calculate the quantum evolution of all canonical and electromagnetic fields. We identify the dielectric constant and the Green function of the wave equation for the electric field. Both functions are meromorphic in the complex frequency plane. The solution of the extended Ullersma model is in keeping with well-known phenomenological rules for setting up quantum electrodynamics in an absorptive and spatially inhomogeneous dielectric. To establish this fundamental justification, we subject the reservoir of independent harmonic oscillators to a continuum limit. The resonant frequencies of the reservoir are smeared out over the real axis. Consequently, the poles of both the dielectric constant and the Green function unite to form a branch cut. Performing an analytic continuation beyond this branch cut, we find that the long-time behaviour of the quantized electric field is completely determined by the sources of the reservoir. Through a Riemann-Lebesgue argument we demonstrate that the field itself tends to zero, whereas its quantum fluctuations stay alive. We argue that the last feature may have important consequences for application of entanglement and related processes in quantum devices.

  1. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan


    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  2. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A


    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  3. Femtosecond optomagnetism in dielectric antiferromagnets (United States)

    Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th


    Optical femtosecond manipulation of magnetic order is attractive for the development of new concepts for ultrafast magnetic recording. Theoretical and experimental investigations in this research area aim at establishing a physical understanding of magnetic media in light-induced non-equilibrium states. Such a quest requires one to adjust the theory of magnetism, since the thermodynamical concepts of elementary excitations and spin alignment determined by the exchange interaction are not applicable on the femtosecond time-scale after the photo-excitation. Here we report some key milestones concerning the femtosecond optical control of spins in dielectric antiferromagnets, whose spin dynamics is by nature faster than that of ferromagnets and can be triggered even without any laser heating. The recent progress of the opto-magnetic effect in the sub-wavelength regime makes this exciting research area even more promising, in terms of both fundamental breakthroughs and technological perspectives.

  4. Tuning sound with soft dielectrics (United States)

    Bortot, Eliana; Shmuel, Gal


    Soft dielectric tubes undergo large deformations when subjected to radial voltage. Using the theory of nonlinear electroelasticity, we investigate how voltage-controlled deformations of these tubes in an array alter acoustic wave propagation through it. We show that the propagation is annihilated across a certain audible frequency range, referred to as a sonic band gap. We carry out a numerical study, to find that the band gap depends nonlinearly on the voltage, owing to geometrical and material nonlinearities. By analyzing different mechanical constraints, we demonstrate that snap-through instabilities resulting from these nonlinearities can be harnessed to achieve sharp transitions in the gap width. Our conclusions hint at a new strategy to adaptively filter sound using a simple control parameter—an applied voltage.

  5. Interaction of slow highly charged ions with a metal surface covered with a thin dielectric film. The role of the neutralization energy in the nanostructures formation (United States)

    Majkić, M. D.; Nedeljković, N. N.; Dojčilović, R. J.


    We consider the slow highly charged ions impinging upon a metal surface covered with a thin dielectric film, and formation of the surface nanostructures (craters) from the standpoint of the required energy. For the moderate ionic velocities, the size of the surface features depends on the deposited kinetic energy of the projectile and the ionic neutralization energy. The neutralization energy is calculated by employing the recently developed quasi-resonant two-state vector model for the intermediate Rydberg state population and the micro-staircase model for the cascade neutralization. The electron interactions with the ionic core, polarized dielectric and charge induced on the metal surface are modelled by the appropriate asymptotic expressions and the method for calculation of the effective ionic charges in the dielectric is proposed. The results are presented for the interaction of \\text{X}{{\\text{e}}Z+} ions (velocity v=0.25 a.u.; 25) with the metal surface (Co) covered with a thin dielectric film, for model values of dielectric constant inside the interaction region. In the absence of dielectric film, the neutralization energy is lower than the potential (ionization) energy due to the incomplete neutralization. The presence of dielectric film additionally decreases the neutralization energy. We calculate the projectile neutralization energy in the perturbed dielectric (perturbation is caused by the ionic motion and the surface structure formation). We correlate the neutralization energy added to the deposited kinetic energy with the experimentally obtained energy necessary for the formation of the nano-crater of a given depth.

  6. Characterization of nonlinear dielectric films for the tuning of microwave cavities for axion searches (United States)

    Salemi, Chiara; Bowring, Daniel; Sonnenschein, Andrew


    The axion is a hypothetical particle that can solve the strong CP problem and that may be the primary component of dark matter in the universe. Experiments such as the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) hope to find the axion through its coupling to photons in the presence of a strong magnetic field. This coupling can be detected using a microwave cavity whose fundamental resonance frequency is matched to that of the photons. By tuning the cavity resonance frequency, the corresponding axion mass range can be scanned. For axion searches above 1GHz, future generations of ADMX may use an array of small cavities locked to the same frequency. These cavities will be coarsely tuned using a tuning rod as is done in the current generation of ADMX, but fine tuning of individual resonators will be necessary for multi-cavity arrays. A candidate fine tuning method uses nonlinear dielectric films inside the cavities. DC-biasing the films changes their dielectric constant, affecting the frequencies of the cavity modes. This method makes frequency-matched resonator arrays more practical by saving space and minimizing heat load inside the cryostat. This poster presents RF design and simulation and preliminary measurements on the coplanar waveguide resonators used to test the films.

  7. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter


    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  8. Modeling of a Dielectric Elastomer Bender Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White


    Full Text Available The current smallest self-contained modular robot uses a shape memory alloy, which is inherently inefficient, slow and difficult to control. We present the design, fabrication and demonstration of a module based on dielectric elastomer actuation. The module uses a pair of bowtie dielectric elastomer actuators in an agonist-antagonist configuration and is seven times smaller than previously demonstrated. In addition, we present an intuitive model for the bowtie configuration that predicts the performance with experimental verification. Based on this model and the experimental analysis, we address the theoretical limitations and advantages of this antagonistic bender design relative to other dielectric elastomer actuators.

  9. Broadband Asymmetric Light Transmission at Metal/Dielectric Composite Grating. (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Wu, Xuannan; Hou, Yidong; Zheng, Gaige; Zhu, Jianhua; Gao, Fuhua


    Optical diode-like effect has sparked growing interest in recent years due to its potential applications in integrated photonic systems. In this paper, we propose and numerically demonstrate a new type of easy-processing metal/dielectric cylinder composite grating on semi-sphere substrate, which can achieve high-contrast asymmetric transmission of unpolarized light for the sum of all diffraction modes in the entire visible region, and effectively guide the diffraction light transmitting out the substrate. The asymmetric light transmission (ALT) ratio is larger than 2 dB in the waveband from 380 nm to 780 nm and the maximum ALT ratio can reach to 13 dB at specified wavelengths. The thorough theoretical research reveals that the proposed metal/dielectric pillar composite grating structure, together with the substrate, can effectively excite localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) effect and waveguide mode (WGM), and enlarge the diffraction difference between forward and backward transmission spaces, including both number of diffraction orders and diffraction efficiency, thus resulting in high-contrast broadband ALT phenomenon. In particular, lowering the symmetry of the grating can achieve polarization-dependent ALT. Such a type of easy-processing ALT device with high performance for both polarized and unpolarized light can be regarded as suitable candidates in practical applications.

  10. A simple method for reducing inevitable dielectric loss in high-permittivity dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw


    elastomer matrix, with high dielectric permittivity and a low Young's modulus, aligned with no loss of mechanical stability, was prepared through the use of commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil mixed into a tough commercial liquid silicone rubber silicone elastomer. The addition......Commercial viability of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is currently limited by a few obstacles, including high driving voltages (in the kV range). Driving voltage can be lowered by either decreasing the Young's modulus or increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers, or a combination...... of chloropropyl-functional silicone oil in concentrations up to 30 phr was found to improve the properties of the silicone elastomer significantly, as dielectric permittivity increased to 4.4, dielectric breakdown increased up to 25% and dielectric losses were reduced. The chloropropyl-functional silicone oil...

  11. Dielectric behaviour of Ni substituted Cu nano-ferrite (United States)

    Parashar, Jyoti; Saxena, V. K.; Jyoti, Bhatnagar, Deepak; Sharma, K. B.


    Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor tan δ are reported for Ni substituted Cu ferrite having formula Cu1-xNixFe2O4 prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method. The variation of real part of dielectric constant and dielectric loss tan δ with frequency are measured in the frequency range 1000 Hz to 120 MHz at room temperature. The real part of dielectric constant (ɛ') decreases with the increase in frequency. The relation of tan δ with frequency shows relaxation spectra. Dielectric constant as a function of temperature is studied at different temperatures ranging from 303 K to 623 K.

  12. Dielectric Properties and Oxidation Roasting of Molybdenite Concentrate by Using Microwave Energy at 2.45 GHz Frequency (United States)

    Yonglin, Jiang; Bingguo, Liu; Peng, Liu; Jinhui, Peng; Libo, Zhang


    Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat depends largely on the dielectric properties of the material being treated. Therefore, determining the dielectric properties of molybdenite concentrate and its microwave power penetration depth in relation to a temperature increment at the commercial frequency of 2.45 GHz is necessary to design industrial microwave processing units. In this study, the dielectric constants increased as the temperature increased in the entire experimental range. The loss factor presented an opposite trend, except for 298 K to 373 K (25 °C to 100 °C) in which a cavity perturbation resonator was used. The plots of nonlinear surface fitting indicate that the increase in dielectric loss causes a considerable decrease in penetration depth, but the dielectric constants exert a small positive effect. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DSC) of the molybdenite concentrate was carried out to track its thermal decomposition process, aim to a dielectric analysis during the microwave heating. MoO3 was prepared from molybdenite concentrate through oxidation roasting in a microwave heating system and a resistance furnace, respectively. The phase transitions and morphology evolutions during oxidation roasting were characterized through X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that microwave thermal technique can produce high-purity molybdenum trioxide.

  13. Dynamic dielectric and magnetic properties of a spontaneously polarized single layer of the polar dielectric (United States)

    Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Badalyan, Hamlet G.


    In the framework of the Debye-Smoluchowski theory and in local electric field approximation, an expression of the dielectric susceptibility tensor is derived for a single layer of spontaneously polarized polar dielectric in the field of a monochromatic radiation. It is shown that the AC radiation also generates or induces magnetic moments with a density that is expressed by the components of the dielectric susceptibility tensor of the layer.

  14. High-transmittance all-dielectric Huygens' metasurfaces (presentation video) (United States)

    Staude, Isabelle; Decker, Manuel; Falkner, Matthias; Dominguez, Jason; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Pertsch, Thomas; Kivshar, Yuri S.


    We demonstrate a metamaterial Huygens' surfaces for near-infrared frequencies using high-permittivity all-dielectric nanoparticles with tailored Mie-type resonances as meta-atoms. We experimentally measure 360 degrees phase variation of the transmitted light in combination with high transmittance values for light passing through a fabricated metasurface exhibiting spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole-type modes in the near-infrared spectral range. Our experimental measurements are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations and analytical calculations. High transmittance in combination with the simultaneously observed complete phase coverage is key for the realization of a wide range of applications including efficient wavefront shaping, dispersion control devices, and holograms.

  15. Electronic excited states at ultrathin dielectric-metal interfaces (United States)

    Sementa, L.; Marini, A.; Barcaro, G.; Negreiros, F. R.; Fortunelli, A.


    Electronic excited states at a bcc(110) lithium surface, both bare and covered by ionic ultrathin (1-2 monolayers) LiF epitaxial films, are investigated via many-body perturbation theory calculations achieving an atomistic level of detail. The full self-consistent solution of the GW equations is used to account for correlation effects and to properly describe the screened potential in the vacuum. In addition to the correct prediction of image-potential states, we find that the mixing between resonances and image states and the charge compression due to the dielectric ultrathin overlayer give rise to excitations with a hybrid localized but low-lying character whose accurate description cannot intrinsically be achieved via simple models or low-level calculations, but which are expected to play a crucial role in determining the electronic response and transport properties of these systems.

  16. Dynamic performance of dielectric elastomers utilized as acoustic actuators (United States)

    Hochradel, K.; Rupitsch, S. J.; Sutor, A.; Lerch, R.; Vu, D. K.; Steinmann, P.


    We report on the frequency dependent behavior of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA). The introduced smart material actuators consist of 3M™'s elastomer VHB™4905 (9469) and a compliant, sputtered copper electrode on each side. The presented experiments on these compounds contain the active tuning of their resonance frequency and their application as acoustic actuators. We are able to decrease the membranes' eigenfrequency by 30% with an electrical offset potential. Alternatively, if an alternating signal is applied, sound pressure levels up to 130 dB in an enclosed volume of 28 ccm are achieved. In order to verify the results, a numerical simulation is introduced incorporating the two physical fields involved: electrical and mechanical.

  17. Distributed Bragg Coupler for Optical All-dielectric Electron Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Tantawi, S.G.; Ruth, R.D.; /SLAC


    A Bragg waveguide consisting of multiple dielectric layers with alternating index of refraction provides confinement of a synchronous speed-of-light mode with extremely low loss. There are three requirements in designing input coupler for a Bragg electron accelerator: side-coupling, selective mode excitation, and high coupling efficiency. We present a side coupling scheme using a Bragg-grating-assisted input coupler to address these three requirements. Side coupling is achieved by a second order Bragg grating with a period on the order of an optical wavelength. The phase matching condition results in resonance coupling thus providing selective mode excitation capability. We demonstrate a non-uniform distributed grating structure generating an outgoing beam with a Gaussian profile, therefore, increasing the coupling efficiency.

  18. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis


    Neuroaesthetic Resonance emerged from a mature body of patient- centered gesture-control research investigating non-formal rehabilitation via ICT-enhanced-Art to question ‘Aesthetic Resonance’. Motivating participation, ludic engagement, and augmenting physical motion in non-formal (fun) treatment...... the unencumbered motion-to-computer-generated activities - ‘Music Making’, ‘Painting’, ‘Robotic’ and ‘Video Game’ control. A focus of this position paper is to highlight how Aesthetic Resonance, in this context, relates to the growing body of research on Neuroaesthetics to evolve Neuroaesthetic Resonance....

  19. Identification of structural relaxation in the dielectric response of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Kisliuk, Alexander; Solokov, Alexei P.


    One century ago pioneering dielectric results obtained for water and n-alcohols triggered the advent of molecular rotation diffusion theory considered by Debye to describe the primary dielectric absorption in these liquids. Comparing dielectric, viscoelastic, and light scattering results, we...... unambiguously demonstrate that the structural relaxation appears only as a high-frequency shoulder in the dielectric spectra of water. In contrast, the main dielectric peak is related to a supramolecular structure, analogous to the Debye-like peak observed in monoalcohols....

  20. Infrared and THz spectroscopy of nanostructured dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Petzelt


    Full Text Available Results achieved using the infrared/THz spectroscopy of various inhomogeneous dielectrics in the Department of Dielectrics, Institute of Physics, Prague, during the last decade are briefly reviewed. The discussion concerns high-permittivity ceramics with inevitable low-permittivity dead layers along the grain boundaries, relaxor ferroelectrics with highly anisotropic polar nano-regions, classical matrix-type composites, core-shell composites, filled nanoporous glasses, polycrystalline and epitaxial thin films, heterostructures and superlattices on dielectric substrates. The analysis using models based on the effective medium approach is discussed. The importance of depolarizing field and of the percolation of components on the effective ac dielectric response and the excitations contributing to it are emphasized.

  1. Chemically prepared lead magnesium niobate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.


    A chemical solution powder synthesis technique has been developed that produces first, uniform powders of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) with 60 to 80 nm crystallite size. The synthesis technique was based on the dissolution of lead acetate and alkoxide precursors in acetic acid followed by precipitation with oxalic acid/propanol solutions. Lead magnesium niobate ceramics fabricated from these chemically derived powders had smaller, more uniform grain size and higher dielectric constants than ceramics fabricated from mixed oxide powders that were processed under similar thermal conditions. Chem-prep PMN dielectrics with peak dielectric constants greater than 22,000 and polarizations in excess of 29 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} were obtained for 1,100 C firing treatments. Substantial decreases in dielectric constant and polarization were measured for chemically prepared PMN ceramics fired at lower temperatures, consistent with previous work on mixed oxide materials.

  2. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed


    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  3. Deformation and instabilities in dielectric elastomer composites (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Landis, Chad M.


    The deformation behavior in dielectric elastomer composites due to applied mechanical and electrical loadings is investigated using finite element methods. The composite structure consists of a dielectric elastomer matrix with a regular square array of cylindrical holes or rigid conducting inclusions. The dielectric elastomer material is represented with either a compressible Neo-Hookean model for the elasticity or a compressible Gent model. Following previous work, the dielectric constant relating the true electric displacement to the true electric field is taken to be independent of the deformation. The finite element method is used to analyze the electromechanical behavior of representative unit cells of the composite material structure. Results are presented for the stress-strain, electric field-electric displacement and coupled electromechanical responses of the different composite types.

  4. Enhancement of dielectric strength in nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncer, Enis [Applied Superconductivity Group, Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Sauers, Isidor [Applied Superconductivity Group, Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); James, D Randy [Applied Superconductivity Group, Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ellis, Alvin R [Applied Superconductivity Group, Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Paranthaman, M Parans [Materials Chemistry Group, Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Goyal, Amit [Superconductive and Energy Efficient Materials Group, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); More, Karren L [Microscopy Microanalysis and Microstructures Group, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)


    In this paper, we report the dielectric breakdown properties of a nanocomposite, a potential electrical insulation material for cryogenic high voltage applications. The material is composed of a high molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol and nanosized in situ synthesized titanate particles. The dielectric breakdown strengths of the filled material samples, measured in liquid nitrogen, indicate a significant increase in their strengths as compared to unfilled polyvinyl alcohol. We conclude that nanometre-sized particles can be adopted as a voltage stabilization additive.

  5. In-beam dielectric properties of alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Basica; Ibarra, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Basica; Hodgson, E.R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Basica


    The dielectric properties (permittivity and loss tangent) of a 99.7% purity alumina grade have been measured over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 GHz) before and after 2 MeV electron irradiation at different temperatures. The dielectric properties at 15 GHz were measured during irradiation. Both prompt and fluence effects are observed together with permanent changes which continue to evolve following irradiation. The behaviour is complex, consistent with both radiation induced electronic effects and aggregation processes. ((orig.)).

  6. Impedance Spectroscopy of Dielectrics and Electronic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Pissis, Polycarpos; Macdonald, J. Ross


    Impedance spectroscopy is used for the characterization of materials, such as electroceramics, solid and liquid electrochemical cells, dielectrics and also fully integrated devices, such as fuel cells. It consists of measuring the electrical impedance - or a closely related property, such as admi......Impedance spectroscopy is used for the characterization of materials, such as electroceramics, solid and liquid electrochemical cells, dielectrics and also fully integrated devices, such as fuel cells. It consists of measuring the electrical impedance - or a closely related property...

  7. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications (United States)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham


    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  8. New Dielectric Measurement Data to Determine the Permittivity of Seawater at 1.4313 Hz (United States)

    Lang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Utku, C.; Levine, D.


    This paper describes the new measurements - made in 2010-2011 - of the dielectric constant of seawater at 1.413 GHz using a resonant cavity technique. The purpose of these measurements is to develop an accurate relationship concerning the dependence of the dielectric constant of seawater on temperature and salinity for use by the Aquarius inversion algorithm. Aquarius is a NASA/CONAE satellite mission launched in June of 2011 with the primary mission of measuring global sea surface salinity with a 1.413 GHz radiometer to an accuracy of 0.2 psu. A brass microwave cavity resonant at 1.413 GHz has been used to measure the dielectric constant of seawater. The seawater is introduced into the cavity through a capillary glass tube having an inner diameter of 0.1 mm. The change of resonant frequency and the cavity Q value are used to determine the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of seawater. Measurements are automated with Visual Basic software developed at the George Washington University. In this paper, new results from measurements made since September 2010 will be presented for salinities of 30, 35 and 38 psu with a temperature range of 0 C to 35 C in intervals of 5 C. These measurements are more accurate than earlier measurements made in 2008. The new results will be compared to the Klein-Swift (KS) and Meissner-Wentz (MW) model functions. The importance of an accurate model function will be illustrated by using these model functions to invert the Aquarius brightness temperature to retrieve the salinity values. The salinity values will be compared to co-located in situ data collected by Argo buoys.

  9. Thin film dielectric composite materials (United States)

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho


    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  10. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiubianu, George, E-mail: [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Ignat, Mircea [National R& D Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA Bucharest, Splaiul Unirii 313, District 3, Bucharest 030138 (Romania)


    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles.

  11. Characteristics of mechanically tunable superconductive resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Shigenobu; Terakago, Masafumi; Sakatani, Tomotaka; Hontsu, Shigeki; Nishikawa, Hiroaki [Department of Electronic System and Information Engineering, Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University, Naga-gun, Wakayama (Japan); Fujimaki, Akira [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Nakamori, Masaya [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Kinki University Technical College, Kumano, Mie (Japan); Tabata, Hitoshi; Kawai, Tomoji [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)


    In order to realize superconductive microwave devices with large tuning characteristics, we have studied a mechanically tunable superconductive resonator beneath a dielectric and/or magnetic floating plate (FP) as a first step. The resonator consists of a half-wavelength coplanar waveguide (CPW). The principle of the mechanically tunable method is that variations of the effective permittivity and/or the effective permeability for the microwave waveguide line can be obtained by changing the distance between the resonator and the FP. In computer simulations of electromagnetic fields for the mechanically tunable half-wavelength CPW resonator, we have obtained a large shift of the resonant frequency with a band of 1.75 GHz to 7 GHz (tunability is approximately 25%) using the (La{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 0.7})(Al{sub 0.65}Ta{sub 0.35})O{sub 3} (LSAT) single crystal (dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r})=22.8, loss tangent (tan{delta})=1.7x10{sup -4}) as the FP. Based on the results, we have performed an experiment using a half-wavelength CPW resonator made from YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin film and the LSAT FP. The result shows a drastic resonant frequency shift of approximately 1.36 GHz (tunability is approximately 20%) when the LSAT FP is moved, using an electromagnetic actuator. In this experiment, it is also noted that the insertion loss is quite low, less than 0.8 dB, compared to previous reports for various tunable filters. Moreover, we have also measured the tuning characteristics with a TiO{sub 2} single crystal ({epsilon}{sub r}=85.4, tan{delta}=2.5x10{sup -4}) as the FP. As a result, we have obtained quite large tuning characteristics of approximately 2 GHz (tunability is approximately 28%). (author)

  12. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. As an introduction of this type of gas discharge, the main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidal-driven DBDs (transient, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) will be described, and plasmachemical reaction pathways for the generation of ozone will be briefly discussed. The generation of atomic oxygen for ozone synthesis leads inevitably to the second application of DBDs, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in dry and humid air. Another application of DBDs is the generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent (V)UV/visible light. The last and latest application of DBDs is the surface processing near atmospheric pressures. As an example, results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers in an oxygen plasma will be shown as function of gas pressure, gap spacing, and applied frequency. The surface of the etched photoresist is characterized by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possibility of material deposition with DBDs will also be presented, where DBDs in acetylene lead to fast substrate deposition. Here, only the effects of the gas pressure and gap distance are explored.

  13. Piezoelectric thin films for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications: from processing to microwave filters


    Lanz, Roman; Setter, Nava


    Bandpass filters for microwave frequencies realized with thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR) are a promising alternative to current dielectric or surface acoustic wave filters for use in mobile telecommunication applications. With equivalent performance, FBAR filters are significantly smaller than dielectric filters and allow for a larger power operation than SAW filters. In addition, FBARs offer the possibility of on-chip integration, which will result in substantial volume and co...

  14. Performance of electro-optical plasmonic ring resonators at telecom wavelengths. (United States)

    Randhawa, Sukanya; Lachèze, Sébastien; Renger, Jan; Bouhelier, Alexandre; de Lamaestre, Roch Espiau; Dereux, Alain; Quidant, Romain


    In this work we report on the characteristics of an electro-optical dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide ring resonator. By doping the dielectric host matrix with an electro-optical material and designing an appropriate set of planar electrodes, we measured a 16% relative change of transmission upon application of a controlled electric field. We have analyzed the temporal response of the device and conclude that electrostriction of the host matrix is playing a dominating role in the transmission response.

  15. Accurate Measurements of the Dielectric Constant of Seawater at L Band (United States)

    Lang, Roger; Zhou, Yiwen; Utku, Cuneyt; Le Vine, David


    This paper describes measurements of the dielectric constant of seawater at a frequency of 1.413 GHz, the center of the protected band (i.e., passive use only) used in the measurement of sea surface salinity from space. The objective of the measurements is to accurately determine the complex dielectric constant of seawater as a function of salinity and temperature. A resonant cylindrical microwave cavity in transmission mode has been employed to make the measurements. The measurements are made using standard seawater at salinities of 30, 33, 35, and 38 practical salinity units over a range of temperatures from 0 degree C to 35 degree C in 5 degree C intervals. Repeated measurements have been made at each temperature and salinity. Mean values and standard deviations are then computed. The total error budget indicates that the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant have a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.3 over the range of salinities and temperatures considered. The measurements are compared with the dielectric constants obtained from the model functions of Klein and Swift and those of Meissner and Wentz. The biggest differences occur at low and high temperatures.

  16. Cascaded plasmon-plasmon coupling mediated energy transfer across stratified metal-dielectric nanostructures. (United States)

    Golmakaniyoon, Sepideh; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Xiao Wei


    Surface plasmon (SP) coupling has been successfully applied to nonradiative energy transfer via exciton-plasmon-exciton coupling in conventionally sandwiched donor-metal film-acceptor configurations. However, these structures lack the desired efficiency and suffer poor photoemission due to the high energy loss. Here, we show that the cascaded exciton-plasmon-plasmon-exciton coupling in stratified architecture enables an efficient energy transfer mechanism. The overlaps of the surface plasmon modes at the metal-dielectric and dielectric-metal interfaces allow for strong cross-coupling in comparison with the single metal film configuration. The proposed architecture has been demonstrated through the analytical modeling and numerical simulation of an oscillating dipole near the stratified nanostructure of metal-dielectric-metal-acceptor. Consistent with theoretical and numerical results, experimental measurements confirm at least 50% plasmon resonance energy transfer enhancement in the donor-metal-dielectric-metal-acceptor compared to the donor-metal-acceptor structure. Cascaded plasmon-plasmon coupling enables record high efficiency for exciton transfer through metallic structures.

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Quality Assessment via Dielectric Sensing. (United States)

    El Khaled, Dalia; Novas, Nuria; Gazquez, Jose A; Garcia, Rosa M; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco


    The demand for improved food quality has been accompanied by a technological boost. This fact enhances the possibility of improving the quality of horticultural products, leading towards healthier consumption of fruits and vegetables. A better electrical characterization of the dielectric properties of fruits and vegetables is required for this purpose. Moreover, a focused study of dielectric spectroscopy and advanced dielectric sensing is a highly interesting topic. This review explains the dielectric property basics and classifies the dielectric spectroscopy measurement techniques. It comprehensively and chronologically covers the dielectric experiments explored for fruits and vegetables, along with their appropriate sensing instrumentation, analytical modelling methods and conclusions. An in-depth definition of dielectric spectroscopy and its usefulness in the electric characterization of food materials is presented, along with the various sensor techniques used for dielectric measurements. The collective data are tabulated in a summary of the dielectric findings in horticultural field investigations, which will facilitate more advanced and focused explorations in the future.

  18. Graphene encapsulated rubber latex composites with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and low percolation threshold. (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Liqun; Liu, Suting; Zan, Xiaoqing; Nishi, Toshio; Ning, Nanying


    A dielectric composite with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and low percolation threshold was prepared by using the combined strategy of encapsulating of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONS) on carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) latex particles and the in situ thermal reduction in GONS at a moderate temperature. The encapsulation of GONS on XNBR latex particles was mainly realized via the hydrogen bonding interactions between GONS and XNBR during latex mixing. A segregated graphene network was obtained at a low content of thermally reduced graphene (TRG), resulting in a low percolation threshold (0.25 vol.%). The dielectric constant at 100 Hz obviously increased from 23 for pure XNBR to 2211 and 5542 for the composite with 0.5 vol.% and 0.75 vol.% of TRG, respectively. The dielectric loss of the composites retained at a low value (less than 1.5). Meanwhile, the elastic modulus only slightly increased with the presence of 0.1-0.5 vol.% of TRG, keeping the good flexibility of the dielectric composites. This study provides a simple, low-cost and effective method to prepare high performance dielectric composites, facilitating the wide application of dielectric materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators : Influence of dielectric material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.


    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study

  20. Reversible dielectric property degradation in moisture-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis A.; García, Carla; Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R.


    The potential for recovery of dielectric properties of three water-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates is investigated using a split-post dielectric resonant technique at X-band (10 GHz). The three material systems investigated are bismaleimide (BMI) reinforced with an eight-harness satin weave quartz fabric, an epoxy resin reinforced with an eight- harness satin weave glass fabric (style 7781), and the same epoxy reinforced with a four-harness woven glass fabric (style 4180). A direct correlation between moisture content, dielectric constant, and loss tangent was observed during moisture absorption by immersion in distilled water at 25 °C for five equivalent samples of each material system. This trend is observed through at least 0.72% water content by weight for all three systems. The absorption of water into the BMI, 7781 epoxy, and 4180 epoxy laminates resulted in a 4.66%, 3.35%, and 4.01% increase in dielectric constant for a 0.679%, 0.608%, and 0.719% increase in water content by weight, respectively. Likewise, a significant increase was noticed in loss tangent for each material. The same water content is responsible for a 228%, 71.4%, and 64.1% increase in loss tangent, respectively. Subsequent to full desorption through drying at elevated temperature, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of each laminate exhibited minimal change from the dry, pre-absorption state. The dielectric constant and loss tangent change after the absorption and desorption cycle, relative to the initial state, was 0.144 % and 2.63% in the BMI, 0.084% and 1.71% in the style 7781 epoxy, and 0.003% and 4.51% in the style 4180 epoxy at near-zero moisture content. The similarity of dielectric constant and loss tangent in samples prior to absorption and after desorption suggests that any chemical or morphological changes induced by the presence of water have not caused irreversible changes in the dielectric properties of the laminates.

  1. Dielectric Scattering Patterns for Efficient Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells. (United States)

    van Lare, Claire; Lenzmann, Frank; Verschuuren, Marc A; Polman, Albert


    We demonstrate an effective light trapping geometry for thin-film solar cells that is composed of dielectric light scattering nanocavities at the interface between the metal back contact and the semiconductor absorber layer. The geometry is based on resonant Mie scattering. It avoids the Ohmic losses found in metallic (plasmonic) nanopatterns, and the dielectric scatterers are well compatible with nearly all types of thin-film solar cells, including cells produced using high temperature processes. The external quantum efficiency of thin-film a-Si:H solar cells grown on top of a nanopatterned Al-doped ZnO, made using soft imprint lithography, is strongly enhanced in the 550-800 nm spectral band by the dielectric nanoscatterers. Numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data and show that resonant light scattering from both the AZO nanostructures and the embedded Si nanostructures are important. The results are generic and can be applied on nearly all thin-film solar cells.

  2. Magnetic and dielectric properties of quasi-two-dimensional manganese oxide Sr7Mn4O15 (United States)

    Gao, S.; Lv, Y. D.; Wang, X. X.; Yang, H. S.; Ruan, K. Q.; Li, X. G.


    Using dc magnetic susceptibility, electron spin resonance (ESR) and dielectric spectroscopy techniques, we investigate the magnetic and dielectric properties of Sr7Mn4O15, which has a layered structure with pairs of face-sharing octahedra Mn2O9. Magnetic susceptibility reveals the Néel temperature TN˜70.5 K, above which Sr7Mn4O15 manifests intense short range order. ESR spectra indicate the existence of a transition at about 370 K, confirming the suggested spin pairing in the Mn2O9 units. In the dielectric spectra, a sudden drop of permittivity is observed at TN, revealing the existence of strong spin-lattice coupling in Sr7Mn4O15.

  3. Parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton add-drop filters for hybrid silicon/plasmonic optical circuitry (United States)

    Dereux, A.; Hassan, K.; Weeber, J.-C.; Djellali, N.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Tsilipakos, O.; Pitilakis, A.; Kriezis, E.; Papaioannou, S.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.; Tekin, T.; Baus, M.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Giannoulis, G.; Avramopoulos, H.


    Surface plasmons polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating along the surface of a conductor. Surface plasmons photonics is a promising candidate to satisfy the constraints of miniaturization of optical interconnects. This contribution reviews an experimental parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides ring resonators and add-drop filters within the perspective of the recently suggested hybrid technology merging plasmonic and silicon photonics on a single board (European FP7 project PLATON "Merging Plasmonic and Silicon Photonics Technology towards Tb/s routing in optical interconnects"). Conclusions relevant for dielectric loaded surface plasmon switches to be integrated in silicon photonic circuitry will be drawn. They rely on the opportunity offered by plasmonic circuitry to carry optical signals and electric currents through the same thin metal circuitry. The heating of the dielectric loading by the electric current enables to design low foot-print thermo-optical switches driving the optical signal flow.

  4. Multiband perfect absorbers using metal-dielectric films with optically dense medium for angle and polarization insensitive operation. (United States)

    You, Jong-Bum; Lee, Wook-Jae; Won, Dongshik; Yu, Kyoungsik


    The cavity resonant properties of planar metal-dielectric layered structures with optically dense dielectric media are studied with the aim of realizing omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive operation. The angle-dependent coupling between free-space and cavity modes are revealed to be a key leverage factor in realizing nearly perfect absorbers well-matched to a wide range of incidence angles. We establish comprehensive analyses of the relationship between the structural and optical properties by means of theoretical modeling with numerical simulation results. The presented work is expected to provide a simple and cost-effective solution for light absorption and detection applications that exploit planar metal-dielectric optical devices.

  5. Dielectric properties of binary solutions a data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Akhadov, Y Y


    Dielectric Properties of Binary Solutions focuses on the investigation of the dielectric properties of solutions, as well as the molecular interactions and mechanisms of molecular processes that occur in liquids. The book first discusses the fundamental formulas describing the dielectric properties of liquids and dielectric data for binary systems of non-aqueous solutions. Topics include permittivity and dielectric dispersion parameters of non-aqueous solutions of organic and inorganic compounds. The text also tackles dielectric data for binary systems of aqueous solutions, including permittiv

  6. The Theory of SERS on Dielectrics and Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Polubotko, V P Chelibanov A M


    It is demonstrated that the reason of SERS on dielectric and semiconductor substrates is the enhancement of the electric field in the regions of the tops of the surface roughness with very small radius, or a very large curvature. The enhancement depends on the dielectric constant of the substrate and is stronger for a larger dielectric constant. It is indicated that the enhancement on dielectrics and semiconductors is stronger than on metals with the same modulus of the dielectric constant. The result obtained is confirmed by experimental data on the enhancement coefficients obtained for various semiconductor and dielectric substrates.

  7. Multiquark Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.


    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties has been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  8. Temperature Sensors Based on WGM Optical Resonators (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry


    A proposed technique for measuring temperature would exploit differences between the temperature dependences of the frequencies of two different electromagnetic modes of a whispering gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator. An apparatus based on this technique was originally intended to be part of a control system for stabilizing a laser frequency in the face of temperature fluctuations. When suitably calibrated, apparatuses based on this technique could also serve as precise temperature sensors for purposes other than stabilization of lasers. A sensor according to the proposal would include (1) a transparent WGM dielectric resonator having at least two different sets of modes characterized by different thermo-optical constants and (2) optoelectronic instrumentation for measuring the difference between the temperature-dependent shifts of the resonance frequencies of the two sets of modes.

  9. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng


    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  10. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. Here, the application of DBDs for ozone synthesis, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, the generation of incoherent (V)UV radiation and surface processing (etching, ashing) is presented. The main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidally-driven DBDs (transient, filamented, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) are described, and a simple plasmachemical reaction pathway for ozone synthesis are give. Experimental results on the degradation of VOCs (2-propanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride), as well as byproduct formation is presented for stand-alone DBD treatment, as well as for simultaneous (V)UV illumination of the discharge. Illumination of the discharge with (V)UV can change the plasmachemistry by enhanced formation of certain species of radicals--and thereby change byproduct formation--but also can change the discharge physics, known as the Joshi effect. As an example for generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent UV light, experimental results on a XeBr* excimer UV light source are presented. Effects of the total and partial pressure of a Xe/Br{sub 2} system, the gap spacing and the applied driving frequency on the UV radiant efficiency are shown. For the application of DBDs for surface processing, experimental results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers using DBDs in oxygen are shown function of gas pressure, gap spacing and applied frequency.

  11. Monochromatic filter with multiple manipulation approaches by the layered all-dielectric patch array (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Guiqiang; Fu, Guolan; Liu, Mulin; Liu, Zhengqi


    Monochromatic filtering with ultra-narrowband and high spectral contrast is desirable for wide applications in display, image, and other optoelectronics. However, owing to the inherent omhic losses in the metallic materials, a broadband spectrum with a low Q-factor down to 10 inevitably limits the device performance. Herein, we for the first time theoretically propose and demonstrate an ultra-narrowband color-filtering platform based on the layered all-dielectric meta-material (LADM), which consists of a triple-layer high/low/high-index dielectrics cavity structure. Owing to the lossless dielectric materials used, sharp resonances with the bandwidth down to sub-10 nm are observed in the sub-wavelength LADM-based filters. A spectral Q-factor of 361.6 is achieved, which is orders of magnitude larger than that of the plasmonic resonators. Moreover, for the other significant factor for evaluation of filtering performance, the spectral contrast reaches 94.5%. These optical properties are the main results of the excitation of the resonant modes in the LADMs. Furthermore, polarization-manipulated light filtering is realized in this LADM. The classical Malus law is also confirmed in the reflective spectrum by tuning the polarization state. More interestingly and importantly, the filtering phenomenon shows novel features of the wavelength-independent and tunable resonant intensity for the reflective spectrum when the LADM-based filter is illuminated under an oblique state. High scalability of the sharp reflective spectrum is obtained by tuning the structural parameters. A single-wavelength reflective filtering window is also achieved in the visible frequencies. These features hold promise for the LADM-based filter with wide applications in color engineering, displaying, imaging, etc.

  12. Accelerating Dielectrics Design Using Thinking Machines (United States)

    Ramprasad, R.


    High energy density capacitors are required for several pulsed power and energy storage applications, including food preservation, nuclear test simulations, electric propulsion of ships and hybrid electric vehicles. The maximum electrostatic energy that can be stored in a capacitor dielectric is proportional to its dielectric constant and the square of its breakdown field. The current standard material for capacitive energy storage is polypropylene which has a large breakdown field but low dielectric constant. We are involved in a search for new classes of polymers superior to polypropylene using first principles computations combined with statistical and machine learning methods. Essential to this search are schemes to efficiently compute the dielectric constant of polymers and the intrinsic dielectric breakdown field, as well as methods to determine the stable structures of new classes of polymers and strategies to efficiently navigate through the polymer chemical space offered by the periodic table. These methodologies have been combined with statistical learning paradigms in order to make property predictions rapidly, and promising classes of polymeric systems for energy storage applications have been identified. This work is being supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  13. Harnessing Quantum Interference in Molecular Dielectric Materials. (United States)

    Bergfield, Justin P; Heitzer, Henry M; Van Dyck, Colin; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A


    We investigate the relationship between dielectric response and charge transport in molecule-based materials operating in the quantum coherent regime. We find that quantum interference affects these observables differently, for instance, allowing current passing through certain materials to be reduced by orders of magnitude without affecting dielectric behavior (or band gap). As an example, we utilize ab initio electronic structure theory to calculate conductance and dielectric constants of cross-conjugated anthraquinone (AQ)-based and linearly conjugated anthracene (AC)-based materials. In spite of having nearly equal fundamental gaps, electrode bonding configurations, and molecular dimensions, we find a ∼1.7 order of magnitude (∼50-fold) reduction in the conductance of the AQ-based material relative to the AC-based material, a value in close agreement with recent measurements, while the calculated dielectric constants of both materials are nearly identical. From these findings, we propose two molecular materials in which quantum interference is used to reduce leakage currents across a ∼25 Å monolayer gap with dielectric constants larger than 4.5.

  14. Microwave dielectric properties of plant materials (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Jedlicka, R. P.


    Three waveguide transmission systems covering the 1-2, 3.5-6.5, and 7.5-8.5 GHZ bands were used to measure the dielectric properties of vegetation material as a function of moisture content and microwave frequency. The materials measured included, primarily, the leaves and stalks of corn and wheat. Dielectric measurements also were made of the liquid included in the vegetation material after it was extracted from the vegetation by mechanical means. The extracted liquids were found to have an equivalent NaCl salinity of about 10 per mil, which can have a significant effect on the dielectric loss at frequencies below 5 GHz. The results of attempts to model the dielectric constant of the vegetatioon-water mixture in terms of the dielectric constants and volume fractions of its constituent parts (i.e., bulk vegetation, air, bound water, and free water) are discussed. Additionally, measurements of the temporal variations in the total attenuation at 10.2 GHz are presented for a corn canopy and a soybean canopy.

  15. 996 RESONANCE November 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    996. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 2. 997. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 3. 998. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 4. 999. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 5. 1000. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 6. 1001. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 7. 1002. RESONANCE. November 2013 ...

  16. 817 RESONANCE September 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    817. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 2. 818. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 3. 819. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 4. 820. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 5. 821. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 6. 822. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 7. 823. RESONANCE ⎜ September ...

  17. 369 RESONANCE April 2016

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    369. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 2. 370. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 3. 371. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 4. 372. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 5. 373. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 6. 374. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 7. 375. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016.

  18. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko


    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  19. EM design and analysis of dipole arrays on non-planar dielectric substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    This book presents a simple and systematic description of EM design of antenna arrays. Printed dipole antennas are known to be simple yet more efficient than wire antennas. The dielectric substrate and the presence of ground plane affect the antenna performance and the resonant frequency is shifted. This book includes the EM design and performance analysis of printed dipole arrays on planar and cylindrical substrates. The antenna element is taken as half-wave centre-fed dipole. The substrate is taken as low-loss dielectric. The effect of substrate material, ground plane, and the curvature effect is discussed. Results are presented for both the linear and planar dipole arrays. The performance of dipole array is analyzed in terms of input impedance, return loss, and radiation pattern for different configurations. The effect of curved platform (substrate and ground plane) on the radiation behaviour of dipole array is analyzed. The book explains fundamentals of EM design and analysis of dipole antenna array throu...

  20. High-gradient Millimeter-wave Accelerator on a Planar Dielectric Substrate/011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Marc E


    We report the first high gradient studies of a millimeter-wave accelerator, employing for the first time a planar dielectric accelerator, powered by means of a 0.5-A, 300-MeV, 11.424-GHz drive electron beam, synchronous at the 8-th harmonic, 91.392 GHz. Embedded in a ring-resonator circuit within the electron beamline vacuum, this structure was operated at 20 MeV/m, with a circulating power of 200 kW, for 2 x 10{sup 5} pulses, with no sign of breakdown, dielectric charging or other deleterious high-gradient phenomena. We also present the first measurement of the quadrupolar content of an accelerating mode.

  1. Dark modes and field enhancements in dielectric dimers illuminated by cylindrical vector beams (United States)

    Das, Tanya; Schuller, Jon A.


    The scattering response of high refractive index particles enables a rich variety of electromagnetic phenomena that are inaccessible with plasmonic particles. Here we investigate the response of dielectric dimer structures illuminated by radially and azimuthally polarized cylindrical vector beams. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we demonstrate significant modification of the scattering spectra of dimer antennas and reveal how the illumination condition gives rise to these spectra through manipulation of electric and magnetic mode hybridization. By appropriately combining dimer geometries and beam symmetries, we demonstrate coupling to high-Q dark quadrupole modes with exceptional magnetic intensity enhancements. This work exploits structured light as a powerful framework for manipulating multipolar phenomena in multiparticle dielectric resonators.

  2. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules” (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji


    Dual band metamaterial perfect absorbers with two absorption bands are highly desirable because of their potential application areas such as detectors, transceiver system, and spectroscopic imagers. However, most of these dual band metamaterial absorbers proposed were based on resonances of metal patterns. Here, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a dual band metamaterial perfect absorber composed of artificial dielectric “molecules” with high symmetry. The artificial dielectric “molecule” consists of four “atoms” of two different sizes corresponding to two absorption bands with near unity absorptivity. Numerical and experimental absorptivity verify that the dual-band metamaterial absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide-angle incidence. PMID:27406699

  3. Influence of the dielectric surrounding of plasma on the electron density measurement by microwave interferometer (United States)

    Andrasch, M.; Ehlbeck, J.; Weltmann, K.-D.


    Using a vector network analyzer a frequency resolved microwave interferometer is built up in the range of 42.5-50 GHz. Due to the frequency resolved measurement technique it is possible to investigate the influence of the surrounding dielectric material on the transmission. The experiments are performed on a fluorescent lamp, which is enclosed by a glass tube. Furthermore, a dielectric resonator is built up by two plane silica windows, placed perpendicular to the beam. It was found that the influence can be described by a one-dimensional model using equivalent circuits, which is in very good agreement with experimental results. In addition, the common technique of rotating the windows to reduce their influence is investigated.

  4. Low-temperature sintering of silica-boric acid-doped willemite and microwave dielectric properties (United States)

    Ando, Minato; Ohsato, Hitoshi; Igimi, Daisuke; Higashida, Yutaka; Kan, Akinori; Suzuki, Sadahiko; Yasufuku, Yoshitoyo; Kagomiya, Isao


    Millimeter-wave wireless communications in a high-level information society have been expanding in terms of high-density data transfer and radar for pre-crash safety systems. For these communications, millimeter-wave dielectrics have been expected for the development of substrates with high quality factor (Qf), low dielectric constant (ɛr), and near-zero temperature coefficient of resonance frequency (TCf). We have been studying several silicates such as forsterite, willemite, diopside, wollastonite, and cordierite/indialite glass ceramics. In this study, the synthesis of willemite and low-temperature-sintered willemite for low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is examined. The raw materials used for preparing slurries in doctor blade tape casting are also analyzed.

  5. Autostereogram resonators (United States)

    Leavey, Sean; Rae, Katherine; Murray, Adam; Courtial, Johannes


    Autostereograms, or "Magic Eye" pictures, are repeating patterns designed to give the illusion of depth. Here we discuss optical resonators that create light patterns which, when viewed from a suitable position by a monocular observer, are autostereograms of the three-dimensional shape of one of the mirror surfaces.

  6. A new dielectric metamaterial building block with a strong magnetic response in the sub-1.5-micrometer region: silicon colloid nanocavities. (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Tuzer, T Umut; Fenollosa, Roberto; Meseguer, Francisco


    A new dielectric metamaterial building block based on high refractive index silicon spherical nanocavities with Mie resonances appearing in the near infrared optical region is prepared and characterized. It is demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically that a single silicon nanocavity supports well-defined and robust magnetic resonances, even in a liquid medium environment, at wavelength values up to six times larger than the cavity radius. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of random surface inhomogeneities on spectral properties of dielectric-disk microresonators: theory and modeling at millimeter wave range. (United States)

    Ganapolskii, E M; Eremenko, Z E; Tarasov, Yu V


    The influence of random axially homogeneous surface roughness on spectral properties of dielectric resonators of circular disk form is studied both theoretically and experimentally. To solve the equations governing the dynamics of electromagnetic fields, the method of eigenmode separation is applied previously developed with reference to inhomogeneous systems subject to arbitrary external static potential. We prove theoretically that it is the gradient mechanism of wave-surface scattering that is highly responsible for nondissipative loss in the resonator. The influence of side-boundary inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum is shown to be described in terms of effective renormalization of mode wave numbers jointly with azimuth indices in the characteristic equation. To study experimentally the effect of inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum, the method of modeling in the millimeter wave range is applied. As a model object, we use a dielectric disk resonator (DDR) fitted with external inhomogeneities randomly arranged at its side boundary. Experimental results show good agreement with theoretical predictions as regards the predominance of the gradient scattering mechanism. It is shown theoretically and confirmed in the experiment that TM oscillations in the DDR are less affected by surface inhomogeneities than TE oscillations with the same azimuth indices. The DDR model chosen for our study as well as characteristic equations obtained thereupon enable one to calculate both the eigenfrequencies and the Q factors of resonance spectral lines to fairly good accuracy. The results of calculations agree well with obtained experimental data.

  8. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko


    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  9. Tailorable Dielectric Material with Complex Permittivity Characteristics (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon Mark (Inventor)


    A dielectric material includes a network of nanosubstrates, such as but not limited to nanotubes, nanosheets, or other nanomaterials or nanostructures, a polymer base material or matrix, and nanoparticles constructed at least partially of an elemental metal. The network has a predetermined nanosubstrate loading percentage by weight with respect to a total weight of the dielectric material, and a preferential or predetermined longitudinal alignment with respect to an orientation of an incident electrical field. A method of forming the dielectric material includes depositing the metal-based nanoparticles onto the nanosubstrates and subsequently mixing these with a polymer matrix. Once mixed, alignment can be achieved by melt extrusion or a similar mechanical shearing process. Alignment of the nanosubstrate may be in horizontal or vertical direction with respect to the orientation of an incident electrical field.

  10. High Performance Composite Dielectric Ink for Ultracapacitors (United States)

    Rolin, Terry D. (Inventor); Hill, Curtis W. (Inventor)


    The present invention is a dielectric ink and means for printing using said ink. Approximately 10-20% of the ink is a custom organic vehicle made of a polar solvent and a binder. Approximately 30-70% of the ink is a dielectric powder having an average particle diameter of approximately 10-750 nm. Approximately 5-15% of the ink is a dielectric constant glass. Approximately 10-35% of the ink is an additional amount of solvent. The ink is deposited on a printing substrate to form at least one printed product, which is then dried and cured to remove the solvent and binder, respectively. The printed product then undergoes sintering in an inert gas atmosphere.

  11. High efficiency dielectric metasurfaces at visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Robert C; Chen, Wei-Ting; Oh, Jaewon; Capasso, Federico


    Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics1-3. Dielectric metasurfaces demonstrated thus far4-10 are limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. It is critical that new materials and fabrication techniques be developed for dielectric metasurfaces at visible wavelengths to enable applications such as three-dimensional displays, wearable optics and planar optical systems11. Here, we demonstrate high performance titanium dioxide dielectric metasurfaces in the form of holograms for red, green and blue wavelengths with record absolute efficiency (>78%). We use atomic layer deposition of amorphous titanium dioxide that exhibits low surface roughness of 0.738 nm and ideal optical properties. To fabricate the metasurfaces we use a lift-off-like process that allows us to produce highly anisotropic nanofins with shape birefringence. This ...

  12. Studies on metal-dielectric plasmonic structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chettiar, Uday K. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Liu, Zhengtong (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Thoreson, Mark D. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Shalaev, Vladimir M. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Drachev, Vladimir P. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Pack, Michael Vern; Kildishev, Alexander V. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nyga, Piotr (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)


    The interaction of light with nanostructured metal leads to a number of fascinating phenomena, including plasmon oscillations that can be harnessed for a variety of cutting-edge applications. Plasmon oscillation modes are the collective oscillation of free electrons in metals under incident light. Previously, surface plasmon modes have been used for communication, sensing, nonlinear optics and novel physics studies. In this report, we describe the scientific research completed on metal-dielectric plasmonic films accomplished during a multi-year Purdue Excellence in Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories. A variety of plasmonic structures, from random 2D metal-dielectric films to 3D composite metal-dielectric films, have been studied in this research for applications such as surface-enhanced Raman sensing, tunable superlenses with resolutions beyond the diffraction limit, enhanced molecular absorption, infrared obscurants, and other real-world applications.

  13. Low-temperature phase transition in γ-glycine single crystal. Pyroelectric, piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczyński, Zbigniew, E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Busz, Piotr [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)


    Temperature changes in the pyroelectric, piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric properties of γ-glycine crystals were studied in the range 100 ÷ 385 K. The pyroelectric coefficient increases monotonically in this temperature range and its value at RT was compared with that of other crystals having glycine molecules. A big maximum in the d14 component of piezoelectric tensor compared by maximum in attenuation of the resonant face-shear mode were observed at 189 K. The components of the elastic stiffness tensor and other components of the piezoelectric tensor show anomalies at this temperature. The components of electromechanical coupling coefficient determined indicate that γ-glycine is a weak piezoelectric. The real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant measured in the direction perpendicular to the trigonal axis show the relaxation anomalies much before 198 K and the activation energies were calculated. These anomalies were interpreted as a result of changes in the NH{sub 3}{sup +} vibrations through electron-phonon coupling of the so called “dynamical transition”. The anomalies of dielectric constant ε*{sub 11} and piezoelectric tensor component d{sub 14} taking place at 335 K are associated with an increase in ac conductivity caused by charge transfer of protons. - Graphical abstract: Imaginary part of dielectric constant in [100] direction. - Highlights: • Piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric constants anomalies were discovered at 189 K. • These anomalies were interpreted as a result of so called “dynamical transition”. • Relaxational dielectric anomaly was explained by the dynamics of glycine molecules. • Pyroelectric coefficient of γ-glycine was determined in a wide temperature range. • Complex dielectric & piezoelectric anomalies at 335 K were caused by protons hopping.

  14. Dielectric dispersion, relaxation dynamics and thermodynamic studies of Beta-Alanine in aqueous solutions using picoseconds time domain reflectometry (United States)

    Vinoth, K.; Ganesh, T.; Senthilkumar, P.; Sylvester, M. Maria; Karunakaran, D. J. S. Anand; Hudge, Praveen; Kumbharkhane, A. C.


    The aqueous solution of beta-alanine characterised and studied by their dispersive dielectric properties and relaxation process in the frequency domain of 10×106 Hz to 30×109 Hz with varying concentration in mole fractions and temperatures. The molecular interaction and dielectric parameters are discussed in terms of counter-ion concentration theory. The static permittivity (ε0), high frequency dielectric permittivity (ε∞) and excess dielectric parameters are accomplished by frequency depended physical properties and relaxation time (τ). Molecular orientation, ordering and correlation factors are reported as confirmation of intermolecular interactions. Ionic conductivity and thermo dynamical properties are concluded with the behaviour of the mixture constituents. Solute-solvent, solute-solute interaction, structure making and breaking abilities of the solute in aqueous medium are interpreted. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of beta- alanine single crystal and liquid state have been studied. The 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral studies give the signature for resonating frequencies and chemical shifts of beta-alanine.

  15. Method for fabrication of crack-free ceramic dielectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Beihai; Narayanan, Manoj; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Chao, Sheng; Liu, Shanshan


    The invention provides a process for forming crack-free dielectric films on a substrate. The process comprises the application of a dielectric precursor layer of a thickness from about 0.3 .mu.m to about 1.0 .mu.m to a substrate. The deposition is followed by low temperature heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization step for each layer. The deposition, heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization are repeated until the dielectric film forms an overall thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m and providing a final crystallization treatment to form a thick dielectric film. The process provides a thick crack-free dielectric film on a substrate, the dielectric forming a dense thick crack-free dielectric having an overall dielectric thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m.

  16. Dielectric and thermal studies on gel grown strontium tartrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/boms/033/04/0377-0382. Keywords. Permittivity; polarization effects; strontium tartrate; thermal properties; dielectric properties. Abstract. Results of dielectric and thermal studies on strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals are described.

  17. Method for fabrication of crack-free ceramic dielectric films (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Chao, Sheng; Liu, Shanshan; Narayanan, Manoj


    The invention provides a process for forming crack-free dielectric films on a substrate. The process comprise the application of a dielectric precursor layer of a thickness from about 0.3 .mu.m to about 1.0 .mu.m to a substrate. The deposition is followed by low temperature heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization step for each layer. The deposition, heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization are repeated until the dielectric film forms an overall thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m and providing a final crystallization treatment to form a thick dielectric film. Also provided was a thick crack-free dielectric film on a substrate, the dielectric forming a dense thick crack-free dielectric having an overall dielectric thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m.

  18. New calibration algorithms for dielectric-based microwave moisture sensors (United States)

    New calibration algorithms for determining moisture content in granular and particulate materials from measurement of the dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency are proposed. The algorithms are based on identifying empirically correlations between the dielectric properties and the par...

  19. Data Transmission and Thermo-Optic Tuning Performance of Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic Structures Hetero-Integrated on a Silicon Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannoulis, G.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Apostolopoulos, D.


    We demonstrate experimental evidence of the data capture and the low-energy thermo-optic tuning credentials of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures integrated on a silicon chip. We show 7-nm thermo-optical tuning of a plasmonic racetrack-resonator with less than 3.3 mW required electrical power...

  20. Theory of the dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mtingwa, S.K.


    The general theory for all angular modes m of the dielectric wakefield accelerator is reformulated. The expressions for the accelerating electric fields and transverse wake forces are written in terms of matrices, the zeros of one of which determine the excitation frequencies of the dielectric structure. In this scheme it is possible to obtain a maximum accelerating gradient of 2.0 megavolts per meter per nanoCoulomb of driver beam charge, for a driver beam of 0.7 millimeters rms bunch length. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  1. FDTD Method for Piecewise Homogeneous Dielectric Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. O. Dombrovskaya


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a numerical solution of Maxwell’s curl equations for piecewise uniform dielectric medium by the example of a one-dimensional problem. For obtaining the second order accuracy, the electric field grid node is placed into the permittivity discontinuity point of the medium. If the dielectric permittivity is large, the problem becomes singularly perturbed and a contrast structure appears. We propose a piecewise quasi-uniform mesh which resolves all characteristic solution parts of the problem (regular part, boundary layer and transition zone placed between them in detail. The features of the mesh are discussed. 

  2. Spontaneous emission from active dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Tromborg, Bjarne


    Spontaneous emission is one of the key factors that determine the noise properties of photonic devices and the pump power threshold of lasers. The spontaneous emission in dielectric microstructures (micro-cavities, photonic crystals, optical waveguides, etc.) can to some extend be controlled...... and engineered due to the dependence of the emission rate on the location and polarisation of the emitters in the structure. This paper addresses the methods of quantum electrodynamics of dielectric media which enable calculation of the local rate of spontaneous emission in active microstructures....

  3. Dielectric insulation and high-voltage issues

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D


    Electrical faults are in most cases dramatic events for magnets, due to the large stored energy which is potentially available to be dissipated at the fault location. After a reminder of the principles of electrostatics in Section 1, the basic mechanisms of conduction and breakdown in dielectrics are summarized in Section 2. Section 3 introduces the types and function of the electrical insulation in magnets, and Section 4 its relevant failure mechanisms. Section 5 deals with ageing and, finally, Section 6 gives some principles for testing. Though the School specifically dealt with warm magnets, for completeness some principles of dielectric insulation for superconducting accelerator magnets are briefly summarized in a dedicated appendix.

  4. The dielectric function of condensed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Keldysh, LV; Kirzhnitz, DA


    Much progress has been made in the understanding of the general properties of the dielectric function and in the calculation of this quantity for many classes of media. This volume gathers together the considerable information available and presents a detailed overview of the present status of the theory of electromagnetic response functions, whilst simultaneously covering a wide range of problems in its application to condensed matter physics.The following subjects are covered:- the dielectric function of the homogeneous electron gas, of crystalline systems, and of inh

  5. Dielectric measurements on PWB materials at microwave frequencies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In quest of finding new substrate for printed wiring board (PWB) having low dielectric constant, we have made PSF/PMMA blends and evaluated the dielectric parameters at 8.92 GHz frequency and at 35°C temperature. Incorporating PMMA in PSF matrix results in reduced dielectric constant than that of pure PSF.

  6. Elaboration and dielectric characterization of a doped ferroelectric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1150,1180 and 1200 °C successively to optimize the sintering temperature optimal where the density of the sample is maximum (near theoretical density) and therefore the product has better physical quality. The study of dielectric properties of all samples showed a high permittivity dielectric εr = 18018, low dielectric loss: ...

  7. Norbornylene-based polymer systems for dielectric applications (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M [Albuquerque, NM; Wheeler, David R [Albuquerque, NM


    A capacitor having at least one electrode pair being separated by a dielectric component, with the dielectric component being made of a polymer such as a norbornylene-containing polymer with a dielectric constant greater than 3 and a dissipation factor less than 0.1 where the capacitor has an operating temperature greater than C. and less than C.

  8. Use of material dielectric properties for agricultural applications (United States)

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  9. Use of material dielectric properties in agricultural applications (United States)

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  10. Dielectric properties of Al-substituted Co ferrite nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The low dielectric behaviour makes ferrite materials useful in high frequency applications. Keywords. Co-Al-ferrites; sol–gel; nanoparticles; dielectric constant; dielectric loss tangent. 1. Introduction. Spinel ferrites are an important class of compounds hav- ing large variety of electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties as ...

  11. Temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of rubber wood (United States)

    Mohammed Firoz Kabir; Wan M. Daud; Kaida B. Khalid; Haji A.A. Sidek


    The effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of rubber wood was investigated in three anisotropic directions—longitudinal, radial, and tangential, and at different measurement frequencies. Low frequency measurements were conducted with a dielectric spectrometer, and high frequencies used microwave applied with open-ended coaxial probe sensors. Dielectric...

  12. Neuroaesthetic Resonance


    Brooks, Anthony Lewis


    Neuroaesthetic Resonance emerged from a mature body of patient- centered gesture-control research investigating non-formal rehabilitation via ICT-enhanced-Art to question ‘Aesthetic Resonance’. Motivating participation, ludic engagement, and augmenting physical motion in non-formal (fun) treatment sessions are achieved via adaptive action-analyzed activities. These interactive virtual environments are designed to empower patients’ creative and/or playful expressions via digital feedback stimu...

  13. Fano-type spectra and other interference effects in an all-dielectric nanoshell (United States)

    Garg, Srishti; Venkatapathi, Murugesan


    Large spectral variations in the extinction of nanostructures are important for many applications like optical antennas, cloaking materials, optical circuits and others. Such features in extinction spectra are typically attained using plasmonic particles and high-index or complex nanostructures. In this work, we show that large interference structures can manifest even in the extinction spectra of a single dielectric particle with a low relative refractive index (particle have overlaps with each other in the energy spectrum. Interference between the core and shell modes results in larger spectral features in magnitudes of the scattering constants a n , b n i.e. a strong enhancement of what is traditionally called the ripple structure in the extinction spectra of a dielectric particle. This effect is in addition to any possible overlap of electric resonances of two different mode numbers or the overlap of an electric and magnetic resonance, which have been shown to result in sharp asymmetric (Fano) resonances in the forward or backscattering spectra of a high-index or metallic particle.

  14. Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography Magnetic resonance (MR) defecography is a ... the limitations of MRI defecography? What is magnetic resonance (MR) defecography? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ...

  15. Ceramic-polymer nanocomposites with increased dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Sumit; Paul, Joginder; Raina, K. K.; Thakur, N. S.; Kumar, Ravi


    The use of lead free materials in device fabrication is very essential from environmental point of view. We have synthesized the lead free ferroelectric polymer nanocomposite films with increased dielectric properties. Lead free bismuth titanate has been used as active ceramic nanofillers having crystallite size 24nm and PVDF as the polymer matrix. Ferroelectric β-phase of the polymer composite films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Mapping data confirms the homogeneous dispersion of ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Frequency dependent dielectric constant increases up to 43.4 at 100Hz, whereas dielectric loss decreases with 7 wt% bismuth titanate loading. This high dielectric constant lead free ferroelectric polymer films can be used for energy density applications.

  16. Dielectric elastomers, with very high dielectric permittivity, based on silicone and ionic interpenetrating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren


    permittivity and the Young's modulus of the elastomer. One system that potentially achieves this involves interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs), based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks from amino- and carboxylic acid-functional silicones. The applicability of these materials as DEs...... is demonstrated herein, and a number of many and important parameters, such as dielectric permittivity/loss, viscoelastic properties and dielectric breakdown strength, are investigated. Ionic and silicone elastomer IPNs are promising prospects for dielectric elastomer actuators, since very high permittivities...... are obtained while dielectric breakdown strength and Young's modulus are not compromised. These good overall properties stem from the softening effect and very high permittivity of ionic networks – as high as ε′ = 7500 at 0.1 Hz – while the silicone elastomer part of the IPN provides mechanical integrity...

  17. Very high breakdown field strength for dielectric elastomer actuators quenched in dielectric liquid bath (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong


    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are prone to failure by pull-in instability. However, this work showed that DEAs, which were immersed in a silicone oil bath (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt), can survive the pull-instability and operates beyond the pull-in voltage. Membrane DEAs (VHB 4905), which were pre-stretched bi-axially at 200% strain and immersed in the oil bath, survived a very high eld strength (>800 MV/m) and demonstrated areal strains up to 140%. The dielectric strength, achieved in the immersion, is approximately two times larger than that in the air (450 MV/m). This is achieved because the dielectric liquid bath helps to quench the localized electrical breakdown, which would have discharged sparks and burnt the dielectric lm in the air.

  18. Refractive Index Sensor Based on Fano Resonances in Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguides Coupled with Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Tang


    Full Text Available A surface plasmon polariton refractive index sensor based on Fano resonances in metal–insulator–metal (MIM waveguides coupled with rectangular and ring resonators is proposed and numerically investigated using a finite element method. Fano resonances are observed in the transmission spectra, which result from the coupling between the narrow-band spectral response in the ring resonator and the broadband spectral response in the rectangular resonator. Results are analyzed using coupled-mode theory based on transmission line theory. The coupled mode theory is employed to explain the Fano resonance effect, and the analytical result is in good agreement with the simulation result. The results show that with an increase in the refractive index of the fill dielectric material in the slot of the system, the Fano resonance peak exhibits a remarkable red shift, and the highest value of sensitivity (S is 1125 nm/RIU, RIU means refractive index unit. Furthermore, the coupled MIM waveguide structure can be integrated with other photonic devices at the chip scale. The results can provide a guide for future applications of this structure.

  19. Research on High-Specific-Heat Dielectrics. (United States)


    parameter A was set to 10. Circles denote the same data (Cm ) with a different A and after renormalizing Cp and Cm at (T/T N ) = 0.8. inversely as the...P 2 - ,7- is the dielectric V larization energy including the coupling to the externa . electric field 1, and finally the coupling terms, .J h~7 P2 2

  20. Photoconductivity and dielectric studies of potassium pentaborate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal of potassium pentaborate (KB5) has been grown by solution growth technique. FTIR and laser Raman measurements are carried out to make a qualitative analysis on KB5 crystal. Dielectric behaviour of the KB5 crystal has been studied in the microwave region using K-band microwave bench equipped with ...

  1. Structural, optical spectroscopy, optical conductivity and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 7 ... Spectral dependence of optical parameters; real and imaginaryparts of the dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient and absorption coefficient were carried out in the range between 1.4 and 4.96 eV by using the ellipsometry experiments.

  2. Spectroscopic, morphological, thermal and dielectrical analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 27, 2017 ... thesis of composite is evident from FTIR, XRD and SEM characterization techniques. The composite shows improved thermal stability as compared with pure PTh, which opens the gate for the material to be used for high-temperature appli- cation purposes. Dielectric study shows that the presence of.

  3. Conductivity, dielectric behaviour and magnetoelectric effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    intensity of the magnetic field. The maximum value of ME coefficient was observed for 75% ferroelectric phase composite. Keywords. Conductivity; dielectric behaviour; magnetoelectric effect; CuFe2O4; BaTiO3. 1. Introduction. Magnetoelectric composites consist of two phases viz. piezoelectric and piezomagnetic. The ME ...

  4. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben


    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial...

  5. Effects of Radiation on Capacitor Dielectrics (United States)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Somoano, R. B.; Frickland, P. O.


    Data gathered on key design parameters. Report discusses study of electrical and mechanical properties of irradiated polymer dielectric materials. Data compiled for use by designers of high-energy-density capacitors that operate in presence of ionizing radiation. Study focused on polycarbonates, polyetheretherketones, polymethylpentenes, polyimides (including polyetherimide), polyolefins, polysulfones (including polyethersulfone and polyphenylsulfone), and polyvinylidene fluorides.

  6. Large scale processing of dielectric electroactive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu

    Efficient processing techniques are vital to the success of any manufacturing industry. The processing techniques determine the quality of the products and thus to a large extent the performance and reliability of the products that are manufactured. The dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP...

  7. Femtosecond laser excitation of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Balling, Peter; Frislev, Martin Thomas


    We report an approach to modeling the interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and dielectric materials. The model includes the excitation of carriers by the laser through strongfield excitation, collisional excitation, and absorption in the plasma consisting of conduction-band electrons formed...

  8. Characterization of Dielectric Electroactive Polymer transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Møller, Martin B.; Sarban, Rahimullah


    This paper analysis the small-signal model of the Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) transducer. The DEAP transducer have been proposed as an alternative to the electrodynamic transducer in sound reproduction systems. In order to understand how the DEAP transducer works, and provide...

  9. Development of dielectric window to conductor assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, L.; Nuutinen, S.; Taehtinen, S. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity


    The report summarises the work done by Association Euratom-Tekes in developing manufacturing procedures for vacuum tight ceramic to metal joints and in manufacturing full scale components for the ICRF vacuum window construction. The development started at VTT Manufacturing Technology in 1996 under the Task T238.2 and continued in 1997 under the Underlying Technology tasks. In the design of the components, the following issues were addressed and resolved: (1) The choice of dielectric material; The choice is made as the best compromise among nuclear, mechanical, and thermal properties, but in due consideration of material availability, fabrication issues and response to cyclic loads, (2) Layout and detailed design. The shape of the dielectric window is optimized to minimize electric fields in the dielectric materials; The optimised field distribution is computed in a 2D geometry; The design includes thermal calculation and the cooling layout and includes provision for remote handling replacement in one block, (3) Metal/dielectric joining. The joining technology is selected and justified. Joining tests on material selections to verify the applicability has been done, the validation of the design pre-prototype tests have been carried out selectively. The steps for the manufacture of these full scale components are described in the report with the appropriate concluding remarks and suggestions for the further actions. (orig.)

  10. imide, crystal structure, thermal and dielectric studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IR and Raman spectroscopies and its crystal structure is confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The X-ray studies on ... Di-cationic ionic liquids; crystal structure; dielectric; thermal properties. 1. Introduction. The chemistry of ionic ... exposed in various emerging areas as solvents of high tem- perature organic ...

  11. Dielectric characterisation of human tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Nennie, F.; Deiana, D.; Veen, A.J. van der; Monni, S.


    The electrical properties of tissues samples are required for investigation and simulation purposes in biomedical applications of EM sensors. While available open literature mostly deals with ex-vivo characterization of isolated tissues, knowledge on dielectric properties of these tissues in their

  12. Actuation response of polyacrylate dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, G.; Kornbluh, R.; Pelrine, R.


    Polyacrylate dielectric elastomers have yielded extremely large strain and elastic energy density suggesting that they are useful for many actuator applications. A thorough understanding of the physics underlying the mechanism of the observed response to an electric field can help develop improve...

  13. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard


    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...

  14. 7th International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    James, David


    The Seventh International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, U. S. A. , on April 24-28, 1994. The symposium continued the interdisciplinary character and comprehensive approach of the preceding six symposia. Gaseous DielecIries VII is a detailed record of the symposium proceedings. It covers recent advances and developments in a wide range of basic, applied and industrial areas of gaseous dielectrics. It is hoped that Gaseous DielecIries VII will aid future research and development in, and encourage wider industrial use of, gaseous dielectrics. The Organizing Committee of the Seventh International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics consisted of G. Addis (U. S. A. ), L. G. Christophorou (U. S. A. ), F. Y. Chu (Canada), A. H. Cookson (U. S. A. ), O. Farish (U. K. ), I. Gallimberti (Italy) , A. Garscadden (U. S. A. ), D. R. James (U. S. A. ), E. Marode (France), T. Nitta (Japan), W. Pfeiffer (Germany), Y. Qiu (China), I. Sauers (U. S. A. ), R. J. Van Brunt (U. S. A. ), and W. Zaengl...

  15. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chetty


    Full Text Available Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor oil, the DC conduction current increased approximately linearly with the applied DC voltage. In nanomodified linseed oil, the characteristic curve showed two distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage and a saturation region (at slightly higher voltage. Conversely, in nanomodified castor oil, the characteristic curve showed three distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage, a saturation region (at intermediate applied voltage and an exponential growth region (at higher applied voltage. The nanomodified linseed oil exhibited a better dielectric performance than the nanomodified castor oil. Overall, the addition of nanodielectrics to vegetable oils decreased the dielectric performance of the vegetable oils. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the pre-breakdown phenomenon in liquid nanocomposite dielectrics.

  16. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ... microwave dielectric; co-precipitation. 1. Introduction. Ferrites find wide technological applications in making cores of audio frequency and high frequency transformers, coils (inductors), chokes, permanent magnets, magneto- optical displays, microwave absorbers, wave guides in the. GHz region and chlorine gas sensors ...

  17. Transformation Optics in Nonvacuum Initial Dielectric Media


    Thompson, Robert T.


    Previous formulations of transformation optics have generally been restricted to transformations from relatively simple initial media, such as the vacuum, because of limitations due to their non-covariance. I show that a completely covariant approach enables arbitrary transformations from arbitrarily complex initial linear dielectrics.

  18. Spontaneous emission in nanoscopic dielectric particles. (United States)

    Rogobete, Lavinia; Schniepp, Hannes; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Henkel, Carsten


    We report on theoretical studies of the inhibition of the spontaneous emission process in subwavelength dielectric media. We discuss the modification of the spontaneous emission rate as a function of the size and shape of the medium as well as the position of the emitter in it.

  19. Vectorial analysis of dielectric photonic crystal VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper


    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a dielectric photonic crystal mirror has been suggested and been numerically investigated. The new structure has a smaller threshold gain, a moderate strength of single-transverse-mode operation, a high quality of emission beam free...

  20. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness. +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is ...

  1. Dihyperons in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mass of the dibaryon having spin, parity =0+, isospin = 0 and strangeness -2 is computed using chiral color dielectric model. The bare wave function is constructed as a product of two color-singlet three-quark clusters and then it is properly antisymmetrized by considering appropriate exchange operators for spin, ...

  2. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is about 30 MeV.

  3. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of TSDC and dielectric constant, ε ′ , have been carried out in the temperature range 30–300°C. The thermoelectrets were prepared at different polarizing fields. The various observed peaks in the thermograms are discussed on the basis of space charge polarization. The trap energy is evaluated from the ...

  4. Dielectric properties of nanosilica filled epoxy nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Veena

    Greensboro, NC 27411, USA. 3 Materials Technology Division, Central Power Research Institute, Bengaluru 560080, India ... Keywords. AC conductivity; sea water aging; dielectric properties; dispersion; epoxy nanocomposites. 1. Introduction ..... The weight gain after sea water treatment for epoxy- silica nanocomposites ...

  5. Transparent Conveyor of Dielectric Liquids or Particles (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mantovani, James G.


    The concept of a transparent conveyor of small loose dielectric parti cles or small amounts of dielectric liquids has emerged as an outgro wth of an effort to develop efficient, reliable means of automated re moval of dust from solar cells and from windows of optical instrumen ts. This concept is based on the previously reported concept of an e lectrodynamic screen, according to which a grid-like electric field is established on and near a surface and is moved along the surface p erpendicularly to the grid lines. The resulting electrodynamic force s on loose dielectric particles or dielectric liquid drops in the vic inity would move the particles or drops along the surface. In the or iginal dust-removal application, dust particles would thus be swept out of the affected window area. Other potential applications may occ ur in nanotechnology -- for example, involving mixing of two or more fluids and/or nanoscale particles under optical illumination and/or optical observation.

  6. Characterization of dielectric charging in RF MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Huizing, H.G.A.; Steeneken, P.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    Capacitive RF MEMS switches show great promise for use in wireless communication devices such as mobile phones, but the successful application of these switches is hindered by the reliability of the devices: charge injection in the dielectric layer (SiN) can cause irreversible stiction of the moving

  7. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric (United States)

    Dematos, H. V.


    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  8. dielectric constants of irradiated and carbonated polymers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 1985 ... irradiated and carbonated polymers as a function of carbon concentration are investigated. Both low and high density polymers are used. Results predict a quadratic increase in the dielectric constant of specimen as the percentage concentration of carbon is increased. This may be due to the formation of ...

  9. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, optical dispersion and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 1. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, optical dispersion and dielectric ... In UV spectrum, the transmittance increases followed by a sharp decrease at wavelength 700–750 nm within visible range. The results of the absorption coefficient were determined to find the ...

  10. Structural, optical, photoluminescence, dielectric and electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 2. Structural, optical, photoluminescence, dielectric and ... At the room temperature, photoluminescence spectra of the films on both the substrates showed sharp peaks with a maximum at 805 nm. This band showed significant narrowing suggesting that it ...

  11. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon PD transients: Effect of multiple dielectric layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton - Fratrådt, George C


    with the actual space charge in the void and one related to changes in the polarization δP&oarr; of the bulk dielectric. These changes are brought about by changes in the field external to the void, which in turn are due to the void space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge component due to δ......P&oarr; is discussed in relation to a three-layer bulk dielectric....

  12. Are the triple surface plasmon resonances in Zn nanoparticles true? (United States)

    Amekura, H.; Shinotsuka, H.; Yoshikawa, H.


    It has been experimentally and numerically confirmed that zinc (Zn) nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in silica exhibit two optical extinction peaks around ∼250 nm (1st peak) and ∼1050 nm (2nd peak), both of which were ascribed to surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in the broad sense, i.e., the dual SPRs. Recently, Kuiri and Majhi (KM) observed the 3rd peak around ∼900 nm by calculations, and proposed the triple SPRs for Zn NPs without any experimental confirmation. This paper claims that the 3rd peak has never been observed in any experiments nor in any calculations except given by KM. They justified the triple resonances from an approximated SPR criterion, ε 1 Zn(ω) + 2ε 1 SiO2 (ω) = 0, which is not valid for non-idealized metals like Zn, because the imaginary part of the dielectric function ε 2 Zn(ω) is not negligible. Instead, a rigorous SPR criterion predicts the dual resonances only. From comparisons with ab initio band calculations, the 1st and 2nd extinction peak are ascribed to resonantly enhanced inter-band transitions (so-called electronic resonance) and intra-band transitions (SPR in the narrow sense), respectively. Since either of the peaks arises from the resonant enhancement due to the dielectric function, both the peaks are regarded as SPRs in the broad sense, i.e. the dual SPRs.

  13. Numerical analysis of complex impedance and microwave absorption of metamaterials composed of split cut wires on grounded dielectric substrate (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Hee; Liu, Tian; Kim, Sung-Soo


    The microwave absorption of metamaterials composed of split cut wire (SCW) on grounded dielectric substrate has been investigated on the basis of equivalent transmission line circuit. S-parameters (S 11 and S 21) and input impedance are numerically simulated with variations of the thickness and dielectric loss of the substrate and the geometry of the SCW. Magnetic resonance resulting from antiparallel currents between SCW and ground plane was observed at the frequency of minimum reflection loss. The simulated resonance frequency and reflection loss can be explained well on the basis of the circuit theory of an LC resonator. Analysis of the input impedance of the high impedance surface has shown that perfect absorption can be obtained at the optimized impedance-matching condition, which is dependent on SCW width, thickness and the dielectric loss of the substrate. Better insight into the absorption mechanism of metamaterial absorbers can be attained through the parametric analysis on complex impedance of SCW and its relationship with reflection loss.

  14. Fundamental and high-order anapoles in all-dielectric metamaterials via Fano–Feshbach modes competition

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero


    One of the most fascinating possibilities enabled by metamaterials is the strong reduction of the electromagnetic scattering from nanostructures. In dielectric nanoparticles, the formation of a minimal scattering state at specific wavelengths is associated with the excitation of photonic anapoles, which represent a peculiar type of radiationless state and whose existence has been demonstrated experimentally. In this work, we investigate the formation of anapole states in generic dielectric structures by applying a Fano-Feshbach projection scheme, a general technique widely used in the study of quantum mechanical open systems. By expressing the total scattering from the structure in terms of an orthogonal set of internal and external modes, defined in the interior and in the exterior of the dielectric structure, respectively, we show how anapole states are the result of a complex interaction among the resonances of the system and the surrounding environment. We apply our approach to a circular resonator, where we observe the formation of higher-order anapole states, which are originated by the superposition of several internal resonances of the system.

  15. 1004 RESONANCE November 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    1004. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 2. 1005. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 3. 1006. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 4. 1007. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 5. 1008. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 6. 1009. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 7. 1010. RESONANCE ...

  16. Glass tube of high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss for external electrode fluorescent lamps (United States)

    Cho, Guangsup; Shin, Myeong-Ju; Jeong, Jong-Mun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Hong, Byoung-Hee; Koo, Je-Huan; Kim, YunKi; Choi, Eun-Ha; Fechner, Joerg; Letz, Martin; Ott, Franz


    A glass tube of aluminosilicate glass, with high dielectric constant K ˜6.0 and low dielectric loss tan δ˜8.0×10-4, was investigated for the external electrode fluorescent lamps (EEFLs) of a dielectric barrier discharge. Compared with conventional EEFLs made out of borosilicate glass tubes with K˜(4.9-5.3) and tan δ˜(2.3-2.4)×10-3, the efficiency of the aluminosilicate EEFL increases by 15%-25% even at high luminance above 20 000 cd/m2 and the pinhole stability of the aluminosilicate EEFL also improves remarkably. In a soda-lime glass EEFL with a high dielectric loss tan δ˜7.0×10-3, the luminance and pinhole stability deteriorate even with a high dielectric constant K ˜7.2 at room temperature, because the value of tan δ escalates as the temperature on the external electrode increases due to the dielectric heat dissipation.

  17. Identification of structural relaxation in the dielectric response of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Kisliuk, Alexander; Solokov, Alexei P.


    unambiguously demonstrate that the structural relaxation appears only as a high-frequency shoulder in the dielectric spectra of water. In contrast, the main dielectric peak is related to a supramolecular structure, analogous to the Debye-like peak observed in monoalcohols.......One century ago pioneering dielectric results obtained for water and n-alcohols triggered the advent of molecular rotation diffusion theory considered by Debye to describe the primary dielectric absorption in these liquids. Comparing dielectric, viscoelastic, and light scattering results, we...

  18. Effect of temperature on electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomers (United States)

    Sheng, Junjie; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; Wang, Yongquan; Qiang, Junhua


    The electromechanical behavior of dielectric elastomer is strongly affected by the temperature. Very few models accounting for the effects of temperature exist in the literature. A recent experiment showed that the variation of dielectric constant of the most widely used dielectric elastomer (VHB 4910, 3M) according to temperature is relatively significant. In this paper, we develop a thermodynamic model to study the influence of temperature on the instability in dielectric elastomer by involving deformation and temperature-dependent dielectric constant. The results indicate that the increase of temperature could improve the actuation stress and the electromechanical instability of the elastomer.

  19. Dielectric analysis of heterogeneous biological tissues based on mixing rule. (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Peiguo; Dong, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Dongming; Shi, Xuetao


    Thus far, the measurement of dielectric properties of biological tissues has been achieved on the assumption that the biological tissues are homogeneous. In fact, most tissues should be heterogeneous because there are many small structures included in these tissues, such as blood vessel, nerve fiber and so on. When the dielectric properties of these tissues are measured by conventional sensor, the results are not the dielectric properties of tissues but the effective dielectric properties of the mixture. In this paper, the influence of the inclusion in tissues on the measurement of dielectric properties of heterogeneous biological tissues is studied and the analysis of the effective dielectric properties of heterogeneous tissues based on the mixing rule is proposed. When the coaxial probe is used to measure the dielectric properties of tissue, the results are relative to the dielectric properties of inclusion, dielectric properties of background tissue and the effective volume fraction of inclusion. Therefore, the dielectric properties of inclusion could be calculated according to mixing rule, after the effective dielectric properties are measured and the effective volume fraction of inclusion is estimated.

  20. Unravelling the anomalous dielectric permittivity of nanoconfined electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Renou, Richard; Szymczyk, Anthony; Ghoufi, Aziz


    The dielectric properties of sodium chloride solutions confined in a hydrophilic nanocavity were investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Unlike what is observed in the bulk phase, three dielectric regimes were evidenced, namely an anomalous increase in the dielectric permittivity at low concentrations (with respect to confined pure water), a dielectric plateau at intermediate concentrations and finally a bulk-like behavior for salt concentrations higher than a critical value. It was shown that this peculiar behavior results from the competition between dielectric saturation due to the electric field generated by ions (which tends to lower the dielectric permittivity) and the ion-induced perturbation of pre-oriented water molecules inside the nanocavity which gain some rotational degrees of freedom (entropic contribution) leading to an increase in dipolar fluctuations responsible for the increase in the dielectric permittivity.

  1. Laser fabrication of crystalline silicon nanoresonators from an amorphous film for low-loss all-dielectric nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, P A; Milichko, V A; Mukhin, I S; Gudovskikh, A S; Sitnikova, A A; Samusev, A K; Krasnok, A E; Belov, P A


    The concept of high refractive index subwavelength dielectric nanoresonators, supporting electric and magnetic optical resonances, is a promising platform for waveguiding, sensing, and nonlinear nanophotonic devices. However, high concentration of defects in the nanoresonators diminishes their resonant properties, which are crucially dependent on their internal losses. Therefore, it seems to be inevitable to use initially crystalline materials for fabrication of the nanoresonators. Here, we show that the fabrication of crystalline (low-loss) resonant silicon nanoparticles by femtosecond laser ablation of amorphous (high-loss) silicon thin films is possible. We apply two conceptually different approaches: recently proposed laser-induced transfer and a novel laser writing technique for large-scale fabrication of the crystalline nanoparticles. The crystallinity of the fabricated nanoparticles is proven by Raman spectroscopy and electron transmission microscopy, whereas optical resonant properties of the nanopart...

  2. Resonant optical propulsion of a particle inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. (United States)

    Maslov, A V


    Resonant propulsion of small nonresonant particles inside metal waveguides due to the formation of resonant states by the guided modes below their cutoffs has been predicted in the past. Here it is shown that stable resonant propulsion exists in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, which are all-dielectric structures and are a major platform for various photonic applications. Specific features of the resonant propulsion are discussed together with the fiber design issues. The results may enable power-efficient transport of particles over long distances, particle sorting, and sensitive detection.

  3. Electroless Deposited Gold Nanoparticles on Glass Plates as Sensors for Measuring the Dielectric Constant of Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kobayashi


    Full Text Available This work describes a method for the deposition of Au nanoparticles on glass plates (Au-glass. An electroless metal plating technique was extended to the Au nanoparticle deposition. The technique consisted of three steps that took place on the glass plate: (1 adsorption of Sn2+ ions, (2 deposition of metallic Ag nuclei generated by reducing Ag+ ions with Sn2+ ions on the Sn-adsorbed sites, and (3 deposition of Au nanoparticles by reducing Au+ ions on the Ag surface. TEM observation revealed that metallic Au nanoparticles with a size of  nm were formed on the glass surface. A surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed, and its peak wavelength redshifted by immersing the Au-glass into a solution with a large dielectric constant. The redshift corresponded qualitatively to the calculation by the Mie theory accompanying the Drude expression, which was based on the change of the dielectric constant of the solution. The obtained results indicated that the Au-glass functioned as a sensor for measuring the dielectric constant of the solution.

  4. Graphene Oxide Dielectric Permittivity at GHz and Its Applications for Wireless Humidity Sensing. (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Georgiou, Thanasis; Abraham, Jijo; Raveendran Nair, Rahul; Novoselov, Kostya S; Hu, Zhirun


    In this work, the relative dielectric permittivity of graphene oxide (GO), both its real and imaginary parts, have been measured under various humidity conditions at GHz. It is demonstrated that the relative dielectric permittivity increases with increasing humidity due to water uptake. This finding is very different to that at a couple of MHz or lower frequency, where the relative dielectric permittivity increases with decreasing humidity. This GO electrical property was used to create a battery-free wireless radio-frequency identification (RFID) humidity sensor by coating printed graphene antenna with the GO layer. The resonance frequency as well as the backscattering phase of such GO/graphene antenna become sensitive to the surrounding humidity and can be detected by the RFID reader. This enables battery-free wireless monitoring of the local humidity with digital identification attached to any location or item and paves the way for low-cost efficient sensors for Internet of Things (IoTs) applications.

  5. Dielectric properties of highly resistive GaN crystals grown by ammonothermal method at microwave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Krupka


    Full Text Available Permittivity, the dielectric loss tangent and conductivity of semi-insulating Gallium Nitride crystals have been measured as functions of frequency from 10 GHz to 50 GHz and temperature from 295 to 560 K employing quasi TE0np mode dielectric resonator technique. Crystals were grown using ammonothermal method. Two kinds of doping were used to obtain high resistivity crystals; one with deep acceptors in form of transition metal ions, and the other with shallow Mg acceptors. The sample compensated with transition metal ions exhibited semi-insulating behavior in the whole temperature range. The sample doped with Mg acceptors remained semi-insulating up to 390 K. At temperatures exceeding 390 K the conductivity term in the total dielectric loss tangent of Mg compensated sample becomes dominant and it increases exponentially with activation energy of 1.14 eV. It has been proved that ammonothermal method with appropriate doping allows growth of high quality, temperature stable semi-insulating GaN crystals.

  6. Analysis of Dielectric Properties On Agricultural Waste for Microwave Communication Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Nurul Ain


    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of dielectric properties of agricultural waste for microwave communication application such as microwave absorber and antenna. The residues products – rice straw, rice husk, banana leaves and sugar cane bagasse were studied in the range between 1-20GHz. Firstly, the 2 types of resins namely Epoxy der 331 and Polyamine clear hardener were mixed with the agricultural waste materials to produce the small size of agricultural waste sample. Then, the sample were measured using PNA network analyzer. The permittivity and tangent loss of different agricultural waste samples have been measured using dielectric probe technique. Besides, other objectives of this paper is to replace the conventional printed circuit board (PCB using FR4, Taconic, and Roger material with the agricultural waste material. Besides that, the different percentage of filer for each agricultural waste materials were also investigated to specify the best material to be used as the substrate board and as the resonant material. the result shows the average of dielectric constants and the average of the tangent loss of agricultural waste materials.

  7. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications (United States)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  8. Resonator graphene microfluidic antenna (RGMA) for blood glucose detection (United States)

    Jizat, Noorlindawaty Md.; Mohamad, Su Natasha; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman


    Graphene is capable of highly sensitive analyte detection due to its nanoscale nature. Here we show a resonator graphene microfluidic antenna (RGMA) is used to detect the dielectric properties of aqueous glucose solution which represent the glucose level in blood. Simulation verified the high sensitivity of proposed RGMA made with aqueous glucose solutions at different concentrations. The RGMA yielded a sensor sensitivity of 0.1882GHz/mgml-1 as plotted from the slope of the linear fit from the result averages in S11 and S21 parameter, respectively. This results indicate that the proposed resonator antenna achieves high sensitivity and linear to the changes of glucose concentration.

  9. Optimal width of quasicrystalline slabs of dielectric cylinders to microwave radiation transmission contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andueza, Ángel; Sevilla, Joaquín [Dpto. Ing. Eléctrica y Electrónica Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Smart Cities Institute, Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Wang, Kang [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR CNRS/Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Pérez-Conde, Jesús [Dpto. de Física Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)


    Light confinement induced by resonant states in aperiodic photonic structures is interesting for many applications. A particular case of these resonances can be found in 2D quasicrystalline arrangements of dielectric cylinders. These systems present a rather isotropic band gap as well as isolated in-gap photonic states (as a result of spatially localized resonances). These states are built by high symmetry polygonal clusters that can be regarded as photonic molecules. In this paper, we study the transmission properties of a slab of glass cylinders arranged in approximants of the decagonal quasicrystalline structure. In particular, we investigate the influence of the slab width in the transmission contrast between the states and the gap. The study is both experimental and numerical in the microwave regime. We find that the best transmission contrast is found for a width of around three times the radiation wavelength. The transmission in the band gap region is mediated by the resonances of the photonic molecules. If the samples are thin enough, they become transparent except around a resonance of the photonic molecule which reflects the incoming light.

  10. All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces. (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Zhou, Zhenxing; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Yisheng; Duan, Zonghui; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai


    Recently, color generation in resonant nanostructures have been intensively studied. Despite of their exciting progresses, the structural colors are usually generated by the plasmonic resonances of metallic nanoparticles. Due to the inherent plasmon damping, such plasmonic nanostructures are usually hard to create very distinct color impressions. Here we utilize the concept of metasurfaces to produce all-dielectric, low-loss, and high-resolution structural colors. We have fabricated TiO2 metasurfaces with electron-beam lithography and a very simple lift-off process. The optical characterizations showed that the TiO2 metasurfaces with different unit sizes could generate high reflection peaks at designed wavelengths. The maximal reflectance was as high as 64% with full width at half-maximum (fwhm) around 30 nm. Consequently, distinct colors have been observed in bright field and the generated colors covered the entire visible spectral range. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the distinct colors were generated by the electric resonance and magnetic resonances in TiO2 metasurfaces. Based on the unique properties of magnetic resonances, distinct colors have been observed in bright field when the metasurfaces were reduced to a 4 × 4 array, giving a spatial resolution around 16000 dpi. Considering the cost, stability, and CMOS-compatibility, this research will be important for the structural colors to reach real-world industrial applications.

  11. Dielectric anisotropy in polar solvents under external fields (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin


    We investigate dielectric saturation and increment in polar liquids under external fields. We couple a previously introduced dipolar solvent model to a uniform electric field and derive the electrostatic kernel of interacting dipoles. This procedure allows an unambiguous definition of the liquid dielectric permittivity embodying non-linear dielectric response and correlation effects. We find that the presence of the external field results in a dielectric anisotropy characterized by a two-component dielectric permittivity tensor. The increase of the electric field amplifies the permittivity component parallel to the field direction, i.e. dielectric increment is observed along the field. However, the perpendicular component is lowered below the physiological permittivity {{\\varepsilon}w}≈ 77 , indicating dielectric saturation perpendicular to the field. By comparison with Molecular Dynamics simulations from the literature, we show that the mean-field level dielectric response theory underestimates dielectric saturation. The inclusion of dipolar correlations at the weak-coupling level intensify the mean-field level dielectric saturation and improves the agreement with simulation data at weak electric fields. The correlation-corrected theory predicts as well the presence of a metastable configuration corresponding to the antiparallel alignment of dipoles with the field. This prediction can be verified by solvent-explicit simulations where solvent molecules are expected to be trapped transiently in this metastable state.

  12. Dielectric Properties of Flocculated Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, T.


    When an offshore oil field is near completion, water occupies a large fraction of the available pore volume. Thus, in collecting the oil and gas reserves, one has to deal with a high co-production of either formation- or injected water. This doctoral thesis focuses on the effect of water-in-oil emulsions on the dielectric properties, in particular the effect of flocculation. Various dielectric models are applied to obtain methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the flocculated state. Permittivity and measurement of dielectric properties are discussed as a basis for the interpretation of the dielectric properties of the emulsions. Various flocculation models are presented. It is concluded that the dielectric properties of water-in-oil emulsions are strongly influenced by continuously ongoing processes in the system. Because of flocculation and sedimentation the traditional dielectric mixture models cannot satisfactorily predict the dielectric behaviour. The experimentally obtained permittivities for the emulsions can be reproduced by including flocculation in the models and treating the floc aggregates as spheroids or subsystems with dielectric properties given by the degree of flocculation. The models discussed have difficulties reproducing the complete frequency behaviour found experimentally. This is probably because the dielectric relaxation may be influenced by processes not included in the models, such as the effects of dipolar or multipolar interactions between the droplets. For further research it is recommended that rheological and dielectric measurements be combined. 227 refs., 61 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Dielectric response of branched copper phthalocyanine (United States)

    Hamam, Khalil J.; Al-Amar, Mohammad M.; Mezei, Gellert; Guda, Ramakrishna; Burns, Clement A.


    The dielectric constant of pressed pellets and thin films of branched copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was investigated as a function of frequency from 0.1 kHz to 1 MHz and temperature from 20 °C to 100 °C. Surface morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The high-frequency values of the dielectric constant of pellets and thin films are ~3.5 and ~5.8, respectively. The response was only weakly dependent on frequency and temperature. The branched structure of the CuPc molecules helped to cancel out the effects of low-frequency polarization mechanisms. A planar delocalized charge system with two-dimensional localization was found using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  14. Electrowetting on dielectric experiments using graphene (United States)

    Tan, Xuebin; Zhou, Zhixian; Ming-Cheng Cheng, Mark


    We report electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) experiments using graphene; a transparent, flexible and stretchable nanomaterial. Graphene sheets were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, and transferred to various substrates (including glass slides and PET films). Reversible contact angle changes were observed on the Teflon-coated graphene electrode with both AC and DC voltages. Nyquist plots of the EWOD reveal that the graphene electrode has higher capacitive impedance than gold electrodes under otherwise identical conditions, suggesting a lower density of pin-holes and defects in the Teflon/graphene electrode than in the Teflon/gold electrode. Furthermore, we have observed reduced electrolysis of the electrolyte and smaller leakage current in the dielectric layer (Teflon) on graphene electrodes than on Au electrodes at the same Teflon thickness and applied voltage. We expect that the improved EWOD properties using graphene as an electrode material will open the door to various applications, including flexible displays and droplet manipulation in three-dimensional microfluidics.

  15. Information authentication using an optical dielectric metasurface (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Mei, Shengtao


    Metasurfaces that consist of a monolayer of photonic artificial atoms are emerging as attractive materials for optical wavefront-shaping and polarization-control devices. By integrating nanophotonics with a phase-encoding technique, we demonstrate theoretically an information authentication method using dielectric metasurfaces that can be verified without information disclosure at visible wavelengths. The required secured diffraction pattern can be simply achieved by a metasurface hologram with a small number of pixels, which means increased efficiency and lower costs of production. Although the decrypted image is noisy, it can be authenticated by recognition algorithms where the primary image is used as a reference. The results show that the dielectric metasurface approach, providing great flexibility in the design of the wavefront of light and compatible with the CMOS technology, can be potentially applied in optical information security.

  16. Photonic nanojet properties of dielectric microcylinders (United States)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Bollinger, Douglas


    In recent years, it has been demonstrated that micron-scale dielectric spheres and cylinders can form an intense sharply focused photon beam, termed a photonic nanojet. The photonic nanojet effect can be used in a broad range of biomedical and photonics applications, including super-resolution microscopy, optical endoscopy, spectroscopy, and nanolithography. In this work, by means of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulation, we studied the nanojet properties of dielectric microcylinders over a wide range of diameters (4λ-20λ) and refractive indices (1.5-2.0), where λ is the wavelength of light. We studied how the nanojet beam size, intensity, and focal distance vary as a function of size and refractive index of the microcylinders, and refractive index contrast between the microcylinders and the background medium surrounding them.

  17. Microfabrication of stacked dielectric elastomer actuator fibers (United States)

    Corbaci, Mert; Walter, Wayne; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen


    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are one of the best candidate materials for next generation of robotic actuators, soft sensors and artificial muscles due to their fast response, mechanical robustness and compliance. However, high voltage requirements of DEAs have impeded their potential to become widely used in such applications. In this study, we propose a method for fabrication of silicon based multilayer DEA fibers composed of microlevel dielectric layers to improve the actuation ratios of DEAs at lower voltages. A multi-walled carbon nanotube - polydimethylsiloxane (MWCNT/PDMS) composite was used to fabricate mechanically compliant, conductive parallel plates and electrode connections for the DEA actuators. Active surface area and layer thickness were varied to study the effects of these parameters on actuation ratio as a function of applied voltage. Different structures were fabricated to assess the flexibility of the fabrication method for specific user-end applications.

  18. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt


    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...... the cross coupling between the electric field fluctuations and dipole moment fluctuations can be ignored. The peak frequencies in the spectra of the autocorrelation functions are also derived. They depend on the wave vector squared which is a fingerprint of the underlying dipole diffusion mechanism....... The theoretical predictions are compared with molecular dynamics simulation results for a model dielectric material and liquid water. For the transverse dipole autocorrelation function the agreement is excellent in the limit of small wave vectors and the presence of a diffusion mechanism is confirmed...

  19. BOREAS RSS-17 Dielectric Constant Profile Measurements (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); McDonald, Kyle C.; Zimmerman, Reiner; Way, JoBea


    The BOREAS RSS-17 team acquired and analyzed imaging radar data from the ESA's ERS-1 over a complete annual cycle at the BOREAS sites in Canada in 1994 to detect shifts in radar backscatter related to varying environmental conditions. This data set consists of dielectric constant profile measurements from selected trees at various BOREAS flux tower sites. The relative dielectric constant was measured at C-band (frequency = 5 GHz) as a function of depth into the trunk of three trees at each site, Measurements were made during April 1994 with an Applied Microwave Corporation field PDP fitted with a 0.358-cm (0.141-inch) diameter coaxial probe tip. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  20. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo


    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.