WorldWideScience

Sample records for hemisphere 2008-2009 formulation

  1. NERSC Annual Report 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Vu, Linda; Wylie, Margie; Risbud, Aditi; Chen, Allen

    2010-05-28

    This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the years 2008-2009. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services as well as activities of NERSC staff.

  2. Biotecnologia agroalimentària. Curs 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2008-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Biotecnologia agroalimentària de l'Ensenyament de Ciència i Tecnologia dels Aliments. Curs acadèmic 2008-2009. Departament Productes Naturals,Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia.

  3. Ohio Department of Transportation : 2008-2009 Business Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    On behalf of the new Administration of Governor Ted Strickland and the more than 6,000 hard working men and women of the Ohio Department of Transportation, I am pleased to submit the Ohio Department of Transportation 2008-2009 Business Plan. : This b...

  4. Alcohol use during the great recession of 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob; Basu, Sanjay; Coutts, Adam; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in alcohol use in the USA during the Great Recession. Drinking participation, drinking frequency, drinking intensity, total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were assessed in a nationally representative sample of 2,050,431 US women and men aged 18 and older, interviewed between 2006 and 2010. The prevalence of any alcohol use significantly declined during the economic recession, from 52.0% in 2006-2007 to 51.6% in 2008-2009 (P Great Recession there was an increase in abstention from alcohol and a rise in frequent binging.

  5. Groundwater conditions and studies in Georgia, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects groundwater data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define groundwater resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. In Georgia, water levels were monitored continuously at 179 wells during 2008 and 181 wells during 2009. Because of missing data or short periods of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 161 wells are discussed in this report. These wells include 17 in the surficial aquifer system, 19 in the Brunswick aquifer and equivalent sediments, 66 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 16 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 12 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the well network indicate that water levels generally rose during the 2008-2009 period, with water levels rising in 135 wells and declining in 26. In contrast, water levels declined over the period of record at 100 wells, increased at 56 wells, and remained relatively constant at 5 wells. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during September 2008 and May 2009; in the Brunswick, Georgia area during July 2008 and July-August 2009; and in the City of Albany-Dougherty County, Georgia area during November 2008 and November 2009. In general, water levels in these areas were higher during 2009 than during 2008; however, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces in each of the areas showed little change. Groundwater quality in the Floridan aquifer system is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, Brunswick, and Camden County areas of Georgia. In the Albany area, nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the

  6. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS02 (2008-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Louisana and Mississippi collected in 2008-2009 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...

  7. Bibliograafiaväljaannete võistlus 2008-2009 / Aurika Kruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruus, Aurika, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    ERÜ bibliograafia ettekandepäeval anti üle ka bibliograafia auhind 2008-2009. Parimaks tunnistati Külli Kaunissaare koostatud "Eesti perioodika 1941-1944" ja Sirje Tammoja koostatud "Hando Runneli bibliograafia 1963-2008". Ülevaade ka teistest võistlusele esitatud töödest

  8. 76 FR 7813 - Amended Final Results of the 2008-2009 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Pure Magnesium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... 2008-2009 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China... Final Results of the 2008-2009 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on pure magnesium... calculation of the antidumping duty margin for Tianjin Magnesium International Co., Ltd. (``TMI''), pursuant...

  9. Public finances in Romania during and after the economic crisis 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Dan CÂMPEAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present Romania’s problems and solutions during and after the economic crisis of 2008-2009. The paper starts with the definitions of public finances and economic crisis and also a brief description of Romania’s economy, continuing with a deeper analysis of the determinants and symptoms of the recession in the country, as well as the perspectives for further development. The financial assessment of Romania’s situation in the broader EU context can be understood by looking at the GDP and the country’s economic activities in relation to it, and by reviewing the information supplied by the National Bank of Romania and others institutions and selected literature. The article is complemented by author’s opinions.

  10. Relationship between empowerment and wealth: trends and predictors in Kenya between 2003 and 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronca, Delia; Walker, Rebekah J; Egede, Leonard E

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between women's empowerment and wealth over time in Kenya. Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 2003 and 2008-2009 were used. Eligible women and men were either married or living with a partner. Two scales were used for empowerment: female participation in decision-making, and attitudes toward domestic violence against female partners. Hierarchical linear models were used based on theoretical blocks of covariates. In a sample of 9847 women and 3207 men, results showed empowerment increased over time. After adjustment, female partners' reporting greater empowerment on either scale remained significantly associated with increased wealth, (urban: β = 0.04, p value wealth in rural regions (β = 0.04, p value wealth in urban regions (β = - 0.08, p value wealth. The association varies by gender of respondent and rural/urban residence.

  11. Production and Quality Assurance of Main Busbar Interconnection Splices during the LHC 2008-2009 Shutdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Dalin, J-M; Fessia, P; Flora, R H; Heck, S; Pfeffer, H; Prin, H; Scheuerlein, C; Thonet, P; Tock, J-P; Williams, L

    2011-01-01

    The main busbar interconnection splices of the Large Hadron Collider are assembled by inductive soldering of the Rutherford type cables and the copper profiles of the stabilizer. Following the September 2008 incident, the assembly process and the quality assurance have been improved, with new measurement and diagnostics methods introduced. In the 2008-2009 shutdown the resistance both in the superconducting and in the normal conducting states have been the focus for improvements. The introduction of gamma radiography has allowed the visualization of voids between cable and stabilizer. It is now known that during the standard soldering heating cycle solder is lost from the busbar extremities adjacent to the splice profiles, leaving parts of the cable in poor contact with the stabilizer. A room temperature resistance measurement has been introduced as a simple, non-destructive test to measure the electrical continuity of the splice in its normal conducting state. An ultrasonic test has been performed systematic...

  12. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: Assisted Reproductive Technology 2008, 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, S; Chambers, G M; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G; Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mansour, R; Ishihara, O; Banker, M; Adamson, G D

    2016-07-01

    What were utilization, outcomes and practices in assisted reproductive technology (ART) globally in 2008, 2009 and 2010? Global utilization and effectiveness remained relatively constant despite marked variations among countries, while the rate of single and frozen embryo transfers (FETs) increased with a concomitant slight reduction in multiple birth rates. ART is widely practised in all regions of the world. Monitoring utilization, an approximation of availability and access, as well as effectiveness and safety is an important component of universal access to reproductive health. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional survey on utilization, effectiveness and safety of ART procedures performed globally from 2008 to 2010. Between 58 and 61 countries submitted data from a total of nearly 2500 ART clinics each year. Aggregate country data were processed and analyzed based on forms and methods developed by the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART). Results are presented at country, regional and global level. For the years 2008, 2009 and 2010, >4 461 309 ART cycles were initiated, resulting in an estimated 1 144 858 babies born. The number of aspirations increased by 6.4% between 2008 and 2010, while FET cycles increased by 27.6%. Globally, ART utilization remained relatively constant at 436 cycles/million in 2008 and 474 cycles/million population in 2010, but with a wide country range of 8-4775 cycles/million population. ICSI remained constant at around 66% of non-donor aspiration cycles. The IVF/ICSI combined delivery rate (DR) per fresh aspiration was 19.8% in 2008; 19.7% in 2009 and 20.0% in 2010, with corresponding DRs for FET of 18.8, 19.7 and 20.7%. In fresh non-donor cycles, single embryo transfer increased from 25.7% in 2008 to 30.0% in 2010, while the average number of embryos transferred fell from 2.1 to 1.9, again with wide regional variation. The rates of twin deliveries following fresh non-donor transfers

  13. 75 FR 13495 - Saccharin from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2008-2009 Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2008-2009 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on saccharin from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009. This administrative review covers one exporter of...

  14. Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay - IPNO. Activity report 2008/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPN Orsay) is undertaking nuclear physics research that is centered on the nature of matter and its ultimate constituents. By the nature of its scientific activities, the IPN is at the heart of a wide range of international collaborations. IPN Orsay is a unit of both the CNRS (National Centre of Scientific Research) and of the Paris-Sud University. It plays a vital role in experiments being carried out by wide-ranging collaborations at major experimental facilities most notably in Europe, the United States and Japan. Its own facilities allows the IPN to carry out fundamental theoretical and experimental research studies in nuclear physics, astro-particle physics, radiochemistry but also in pluri-disciplinary activities. This document presents the activity of the Institute during the 2008-2009 years: 1 - Scientific activities: Nuclear structure; Hadronic physics and Astro-particles; Theoretical physics; Particle Matter Interactions; Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics; Energy and Environment; 2 - Technical activities: Technical departments; Accelerators Division; Instrumentation division; 3 - Knowledge dissemination; 4 - General services; 5 - Appendixes: Publications, Proceedings, Conferences, workshops, collaboration meetings, Seminars, PhDs, accreditations to supervise research, Staff, Visitors, Work experiences

  15. THE REGIONAL IMPACTS OF THE 2008-2009 GLOBAL CRISIS ON GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the regional impacts of the 2008-2009 Global Crisis on Governance. We use World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators (i.e. WGI which includes six dimensions of governance. These six dimensions are “Voice and Accountability”, “Political Stability and Absence of Violence”, “Government Effectiveness”, “Regulatory Quality”, “Rule of Law”, and “Control of Corruption”. The regions that we examine are North America, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, East Asia and Pacific, South Asia, SubSaharan Africa, and Middle East and North Africa. We examine how the global crisis affected the ranking of each region in terms of these six dimensions of governance. Although, both pre- and post-crisis, North America had the highest ranking in all six measures and Sub-Saharan Africa had the lowest ranking in most measures, the rankings of other regions went up or down in different measures. Our findings show that, due to the crisis, while the overall rankings of Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, and South Asia improved after the crisis, the ranking of East Asia and Pacific declined. East Asia and Pacific’s ranking declined in terms of “Political Stability and Absence of Violence”, “Regulatory Quality”, and “Control of Corruption”.

  16. The 2008-2009 Great Recession and employment outcomes among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Hila; Sabbath, Erika L; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2018-03-01

    This study examined whether economic changes related to the 2008-2009 Recession were associated with employment status and job quality indicators among older workers in Europe and Israel. Data were derived from 4917 respondents (16,090 observations both before and after the recession) from 13 countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Annual data on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, life expectancy, and quarterly unemployment rates were assigned to employment assessments from 2004 to 2013. Using difference-in-differences models, we assessed the recession's implications on individual employment outcomes, while isolating cyclical variation within countries and individual changes over time. Among older workers, decreases in GDP were associated with an increase in the likelihood of being unemployed and a decrease in the likelihood of being retired. An increasing country-level unemployment rate had a significant effect on aspects of job quality: lower prospects for job advancement, lower job security, and higher job satisfaction. Economic recessions are thus negatively associated with employment outcomes for older workers. However, malleable policy-related factors such as longer tenure and improved general health can limit the negative employment and job quality outcomes following a recession.

  17. Clermont-Ferrand Corpuscular Physics Laboratory - LPCCF. Activity report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Clermont-Ferrand Corpuscular Physics Laboratory is a joint research unit of the Blaise Pascal University and the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) which belongs to the French National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3). The main research topic, 'Particle physics' and 'Hadronic matter', represents about 3/4 of the laboratory activities and are carried out in the framework of big international cooperations. Other activities of LPCCF are pluri-disciplinary and are related to nuclear physics applications, like isotope dating, low radioactivities, low-dose biological radiation effects, biomaterials, medical imaging etc.. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2008-2009: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Theoretical physics; 3 - Particle and astro-particle physics; 4 - Hadronic matter; 5 - Interdisciplinary research; 6 - General services; 7 - Laboratory organisation and means; 8 - Teaching activity; 9 - PhDs, accreditations to supervise research and Technology Research Diplomas 10 - Communication; 11 - Regional policy and valorisation; 12 - Scientific production 13 - Public information; 14 - Staff

  18. KRISIS KEUANGAN GLOBAL 2008-2009 DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA PEREKONOMIAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Sugema

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis that occurred in 2008-2009 was the worst financial crisis in 80 years, even the economists in the world called it as the mother of all crises. The subprime mortgage crisis in the United States eventually manifested into a world-wide financial crisis. No single country is free from the effects, including Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the global financial crisis, the sources of the cause, the mechanisms of the crisis emergence, and to identify the implications of the crisis on financial sector and real sector, as well as employment and poverty. The results showed that the country has a relatively high poverty rate and unemployment rate than it should. If there is no crisis, the level of poverty alleviation and reduction of unemployment should be at a better rate. In addition, it was found that the impact of the global crisis relatively stronger to the rural households than to urban households. Therefore, because the rural labor market is much more flexible than that in urban areas, the impact of global crisis on rural unemployment rates is relatively weaker as well.

  19. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Reynald; Guy, Julien; Toussenel, Francois; Laforge, Bertrand; Levy, Jean-Michel; Cossin, Isabelle; Cardot, Violaine

    2011-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2008-2009: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Highlights; 3 - Research: Masses and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS; Matter-antimatter asymmetry; Dark matter and dark energy; Cosmic radiation nature and origin; Interdisciplinary activities; Publications, communications; Partnerships; 2 - Teaching, training, internships and PhDs; 3 - Competences and technical realisations (electronics and instrumentation, computers, mechanics departments, test facilities); 4 - Laboratory operation (organisation, financial and human resources, permanent training, communication and library, health and safety, general services, staff); 5 - Scientific life and communication (seminars, meetings..)

  20. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2008-2009 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Quarks and Leptons; 3 - Astro-particles; 4 - Hadronic and nuclear matter; 5 - Theoretical physics; 6 - Radiation sciences; 7 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service); 8 - Laboratory administration; 9 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..)

  1. International travel increase and malaria importation in Romania, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-09-01

    This report aims to assess the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Romania in the context of international travel increase, and to compare them with the data reported by other European countries. Data on malaria cases were provided by the National Centre for Surveillance and Control of the Communicable Disease, whereas the data regarding international travels to and from Romania were retrieved from the Romanian Statistical Yearbook. The number of Romanian citizens who traveled to Africa in 2007 increased by over 600% as compared to the previous year. During the years 2008-2009, 25 cases of imported malaria were registered in Romania, with no fatalities. All patients were male and most of them (84%) acquired the infection in Africa. Plasmodium falciparum was involved in 68% of cases. The majority of the affected patients (41%) were aged 31 to 40 years. Labor was the main reason for traveling (72%), and 92% of cases took either partial or no chemoprophylaxis. The continuous growth of professional and leisure voyages to malaria-endemic regions may lead to a dramatic increase of imported cases, especially if prophylactic measures are not strictly followed.

  2. THE PATTERN OF IPPON APPEARANCE IN MAJOR JUDO COMPETITIONS IN THE PERIOD 2008 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosu Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: Determining the trends manifested in the current competition judo, in relation to the incidence of the Ippon.Methods: 26 major judo competitions during 2008-2009 are analysed in terms of the incidence of Ippon, based on gender, age, weight category and the importance of competition.Results: Ippon appears, on average, at 55.52% of the meetings of males and 51.95% of the meetings of the females. Independent Samples T-test shows that these averages are significantly different at p = 0.033.In men's competitions Ippon represents an increasing share to the extent that increases the weightcategory: 52.34% in light categories, 57.15% in medium categories, 59.98% in heavy categories. One Way Anova shows that these differences are significant at p = 0.002. The lowest frequency of Ippon occurs in light female categories: 48.90%. The Independent Samples T-test shows that between this value and the frequency of53.91% corresponding to the occurrence of Ippon in the middle categories, there are also statistically significantdifferences at p = 0.025.Conclusions: in Judo competitions Ippon occurs following a normal statistical law, yet, some variables such as sex and the weight category can significantly influence the frequency of its occurrence. The age and the importance of the competition do not significantly influence the frequency of Ippon in the competition.

  3. Transformations of Work in the Slovenian Print Production Following the 2008/2009 Crisis Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Breznik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine changes in the working conditions, qualifications required, and education in the workplace of employees in the three branches of the printing production chain (paper production, printing and publishing following the outbreak of the crisis in 2008/2009. The authors examine whether companies conceive reskilling employees as one of the possible solutions to the crisis; how the three branches responded to the crisis regarding the employment and work intensity; and how workers perceive the working conditions in the new circumstances. These issues are presented with three in-depth case studies of enterprises with various ownership structures. For research, authors used three research methods: secondary sources analysis, semi-structured interviews with managers and workers’ representatives, and a survey among workers in selected companies. Two important conclusions are drawn from the analysis. Firstly, a high rate of workers’ participation in the workplace education does not automatically mean greater orientation of the companies in the development of workers’ skills, as it may be a lateral effect of deskilling. Secondly, the reduction of the number of employees (or a slight increase in the number of employees in the case of the printing company is directly proportional to the intensity of the work.

  4. Interculturalidad y percepciones en salud materno-perinatal, Toribio Cauca 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Felisa Muñoz Bravo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la interculturalidad es una propuesta de diálogo, intercambio y complementariedad cultural. Objetivo: analizar los factores relacionados con la atención intercultural en salud de las gestantes del municipio de Toribio 2008-2009. Materiales y Métodos: tipo de estudio cualitativo, etnográfico. Participaron 19 agentes de salud de la Empresa Social del Estado (E.S.E Cxayutc'e Jxut*, 24 promotores de salud, 10 gestantes Nasa y 6 Parteras y Thewala de la asociación de cabildos indígenas del norte del Cauca. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó una entrevista semiestructurada, encuesta etnográfica y grupo focal. Resultados: las diferencias culturales entre los sistemas médicos tradicionales y facultativos crean barreras alrededor del cuidado de la gestante, determinan la búsqueda de servicios de salud facultativos. Destaca la preservación de los cuidados culturales de la familia Nasa y el reconocimiento de la medicina facultativa. El estudio permitió dilucidar al personal de salud como actor pasivo y poco comprometido. Los agentes aspiran al reconocimiento de las prácticas de salud locales y su incorporación a los sistemas de salud, para fortalecer la atención intercultural e institucional como complemento. Conclusiones: 1. las barreras para la atención intercultural fluctúan entre la divergencia de conceptos, la poca credibilidad, el desconocimiento de las capacidades y limitaciones, experiencias negativas al intentar integrar los dos sistemas de salud. 2. La búsqueda del equilibrio y armonización del cuerpo acompañado del control prenatal, son actividades de salud de la nativa que gesta y sus prácticas de cuidado, se rigen por los arraigos culturales y la hegemonía familiar como un derecho. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (1: 39-44Introduction: interculturality is a proposal for dialogue, exchange and complementarity. Objective: Analyse the factors related with attention to intercultural health of the pregnant women of the

  5. Estimativa de consumo de sodio pela populacao brasileira, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Sarno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Atualizar estimativas sobre consumo de sódio no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Realizou-se a conversão em nutrientes dos registros de aquisição de alimentos dos domicílios brasileiros por meio de tabelas de composição de alimentos. Foram calculadas a disponibilidade média de sódio/pessoa/dia e a disponibilidade média ajustada para um consumo energético diário de 2.000 kcal. Calculou-se a contribuição de grupos de alimentos selecionados para o total de sódio disponível para consumo no domicílio e comparou-se com aqueles da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2002-2003. RESULTADOS: A quantidade diária de sódio disponível para consumo nos domicílios brasileiros foi de 4,7 g para ingestão diária de 2.000 kcal, mantendo-se mais de duas vezes superior ao limite recomendado de ingestão desse nutriente. A maior parte do sódio disponível para consumo provém do sal de cozinha e de condimentos à base de sal (74,4%, mas a fração proveniente de alimentos processados com adição de sal aumentou linear e intensamente com o poder aquisitivo domiciliar (12,3% do total de sódio no quinto inferior da distribuição da renda por pessoa e 27,0% no quinto superior. Observou-se redução na contribuição de sal e condimentos à base de sal (76,2% para 74,4% e dos alimentos in natura ou processados sem adição de sal (6,6% para 4,8% e aumento dos alimentos processados com adição de sal (15,8% para 18,9% e dos pratos prontos (1,4% para 1,6% na comparação com a Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2002-2003. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo de sódio no Brasil mantém-se em níveis acima da recomendação máxima para esse nutriente em todas as macrorregiões e classes de renda brasileiras. Observou-se estabilidade na disponibilidade domiciliar total de sódio e aumento na fração proveniente dos alimentos processados com adição de sal e dos pratos prontos, na comparação de

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with overweight in adults - Brazil, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p161   The worldwide overweight prevalence showed a rapid increase in recent decades, featuring a true global epidemic. The aim of this study was to determine the overweight prevalence (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 and possible associations with socioeconomic and demographic indicators for adults in Brazil. This epidemiological study analyzed data from the population of adults aged 20-59 years (n = 101 308 637 included in the 2008-2009 Brazilian Family Budget Survey (POF conducted in all geographic regions of Brazil. The nutritional status assessment used the Body Mass Index, which was categorized as normal weight and overweight according to cutoff points recommended by the World Health Organization. As socioeconomic and demographic indicators, sex, age, color-race, education, income, and geographic region were analyzed. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression was performed. The results showed that the overweight prevalence was 47.7%, and the groups with the highest prevalence were adults aged 20-59 years, males, black skin color, schooling from 6 to 9 years , income of 1/4 ≥ minimum wage <1/2 and living in Southern Brazil. Almost half of adults in Brazil are overweight. Strategic actions aimed at reducing the overweight prevalence among adults in Brazil are needed to combat the obesity epidemic.

  7. [An analysis of Chilean biomedical publications in PubMed in the years 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés S, Gloria; Pérez G, Fernanda; Reyes B, Humberto

    2015-08-01

    During the years 2008 and 2009, 1,191 biomedical articles authored by Chilean investigators working in Chile were indexed in PubMed. To evaluate the potential visibility of those articles, according to scientometric indexes of the journals where they were published. Those journals where the articles had been published were identified and each journal’s Impact Factor (JIF), 5-year JIF, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), SCImago Quartiles (Q) for 2010 and the Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) for 2008-2009 were identified. Three hundred and twelve articles (26,2%) were dedicated to experimental studies in animals, tissues or cells and they were classified as “Biomedicine”, while 879 (73,8%) were classified as “Clinical Medicine”; in both areas the main type of articles were original reports (90% and 73.6%, respectively). Revista Médica de Chile and Revista Chilena de Infectología concentrated the greater number of publications. Articles classified in Biomedicine were published more frequently in English and in journals with higher scientometric indexes than those classified in Clinical Medicine. Biomedical articles dealing with clinical topics, particularly case reports, were published mostly in national journals or in foreign journals with low scientometric indexes. It can be partly attributable to the authors’ interest in reaching local readers. The evaluation of research productivity should combine several scientometric indexes, selected according to the field of research, the institution's and investigators’ interests, with a qualitative and multifactorial assessment.

  8. Breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents: Analysis of the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.

  9. Food Consumption According to the Days of the Week – National Food Survey, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the variations in energy, nutrients, and food groups intake between days of the week and weekend days in the Brazilian population. METHODS We used data from the first National Food Survey (2008-2009 of a one-day food log of a representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or older (n = 34,003. For the analyses, we considered the sample weights and the effect of the study design. The mean (and standard deviations and frequencies (% of energy, nutrients, and food groups consumption were estimated for weekdays (Monday to Friday and weekend (Saturday and Sunday, we then estimated the differences according to the days of the week for the population strata analyzed. RESULTS The average daily energy intake for the weekend was 8% higher than the one observed for weekdays. The average percentage contribution of carbohydrate to the daily energy intake was higher during the week compared to Saturday and Sunday (56.3% versus 54.1%, p < 0.01. The inverse was observed for averages of the contribution to the daily intake of energy from total fat (26.8% versus 28.4%, saturated fat (9.1% versus 9.9% and trans fat (1.4% versus 1.6%. The most significant changes between weekdays and weekend days were observed for eggs, sugar-added beverages, puff snacks and chips, beans, and pasta. During weekends, the frequency of beverage with added sugar consumption increased by 34%, the amount consumed increased by 42%, and the contribution to energy intake increased by 62% when compared to weekdays. CONCLUSIONS The Brazilian population increases energy intake and unhealthy food markers on weekends compared to weekdays.

  10. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Canella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity and obesity in Brazil. METHODS: The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata, geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products. Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. RESULTS: The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile to 39.4% (upper quartile. Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. CONCLUSION: Greater

  11. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Greater household availability of ultra-processed food products in

  12. Desequilíbrio entre a oferta e a demanda brasileira por pescados em 2002/2003 e 2008/2009 = Brazilian fishery supply and demand inequality in 2002/2003 and 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção nacional de pescados entre 2003 e 2009 aumentou em 250,54 mil t, o déficit da balança comercial bruta de pescados aumentou em 285,48 mil t, porém, não se constatou elevação do consumo domiciliar bruto de pescados no mesmo período. Este trabalho propõe um método de análise baseado no equilíbrio entre a oferta e a demanda agregada de pescados nos períodos de 2002-2003 e 2008-2009 para verificar se existe a coerência entre o crescimento da oferta e a destinação dos pescados (consumo domiciliar e fora de casa. Os cálculos indicam que enquanto os dados oficiais apontam um crescimento do consumo per capita aparente de 2 kg/hab.ano, os dados corrigidos apresentam um crescimento mais modesto (em torno de 0,6 kg/hab.ano entre os anos de 2002-2003 e 2008-2009. = Brazilian fish production between 2003 and 2009 increased by 250.54 t, gross fish trade deficit increased at 285.48t, but the household consumption of fish was flat in the same period. This paper proposes an analysis of fish aggregate supply and demand balance in the periods of 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 to check the consistency between supply growth and allocation of fish (household consumption and eating out. While official data indicate 2 kg/hab.year increases in apparent per capita fishery consumption, the corrected data shows 0.6 kg/hab.year increase between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009.

  13. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Truett, Tykey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooper, Christy [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Chew, Andrea [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report presents results of a 2008/2009 survey of hydrogen and fuel cell awareness conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 2008/2009 survey follows up on a similar DOE survey conducted in 2004, measuring levels of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in four populations: (1) the general public, (2) students, (3) personnel in state and local governments, and (4) potential end users of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in business and industry. The 2008/2009 survey includes these four groups and adds a fifth group, safety and code officials. The same survey methods were used for both surveys; the 2008/2009 survey report includes a comparison of 2004 and 2008/2009 findings. Information from these surveys will be used to enhance hydrogen and fuel cell education strategies.

  14. Performance of European Industry of Logistics Services Before and After Economic Crises in the Years 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beti Godnič

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this article we examined the impact of economic crises in the years 2008/2009 on the logistics industry in old member states EU-15 and the new EU member states. The emergence of the economic crisis in 2008/2009 when the states of the old members of EU-15 and new EU member states were the first time subjected to the effects of the crisis inside the single entity-the European Union. Research question: The basic research question is: Were implications of economic crises in the years 2008/2009 in logistics industry in heterogenic states of European Union; old member states EU-15 and the new EU member states different? Purpose:We wanted to determine how the logistics companys in old member States EU (15 and in the new EU member states adapt to the new circumstances caused by economic crises in the years 2008/2009. Method: Economic crises are complex multifunctional phenomenon. Analysing complexity of the changes of the state of economic system need to supplement the pure scientific approach with other types of research work, more holistic approach, which is commonly used in Comparative economics. In this article we combine both. In empirical part we used appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests of differences between old and new member states of the European Union. We used Pearson's chi-squared test (Pearson, 1900, p. 157-175. Results: In the article we studied changes ocured by economic crises in the years 2008/2009 in the European logistics industry. We found that the logistics companies in the old EU member states EU-15 and in the new EU member states differently adapt to the implications of economic crises in the years 2008/2009. EU hasn’t adopted and implemented the harmonised economic policy, which will solve the »North-South« problem in logistics industry and find a way to operate systemically in global environment. Organization: The findings can be used to support undestanding of changed bussines envirnment of the

  15. Analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance during the winter of 2008-2009: moderate risk of supply disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2008-2009

  16. Vstup značky Starbucks na český trh v letech 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "The entrance of Starbucks Coffee Company into the Czech market in 2008-2009" deals with Starbucks Coffee Company and its entrance into the market of the Czech Republic. Thesis is concerned with the description of Starbucks brand in general, its distinctive position among the others and its specific approach to marketing communication. First and foremost, the thesis is the description of its marketing and communication activities in the Czech Republic between years 2008 and 20...

  17. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  18. Subatomic Physics and Cosmology Laboratory - LPSC Grenoble. Activity report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berat, Corinne; Baylac, Maud; Cholat, Christine; Collot, Johann; Derome, Laurent; Kox, Serge; Lamy, Thierry; Pelletier, Jacques; Renault, Cecile; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Regairaz, William; Richard, Jean-Marc; Vernay, Emmanuelle; Favro, Christian

    2010-01-01

    seek answers to the existence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. The locations of the experiments are very diverse: ground-based, underground-based or even satellite-based. LPSC also studies artificially created short-lived particles (created by accelerators which our laboratory helps to design) or cosmic particles that were produced at different epochs of the history of the universe. These activities require the development of sophisticated, state-of-the-art instrumentation. A close collaboration between physicists, engineers and technicians is required to achieve the required performance. In addition, a strong theoretical research activity supports the experiments during the preparatory stages and during the data analysis. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2008-2009: 1 - Forewords, Presentation of the laboratory; 2 - Quarks, leptons and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS (DΦ experiment at Tevatron, ATLAS experiment at LHC, International Linear Collider (ILC) project, Ultra-cold Neutrons (UCN); 3 - Astro-particles and Observational Cosmology (ultra-high energy cosmic radiation, ultra-high energy cosmic rays: Auger and CODALEMA projects, fossil radiation study with PLANCK, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) experiment and theoretical activity, MIMAC (MIcro-tpc MAtrix of Chambers) project; 4 - Hadrons and nuclei (neutron-rich nuclei structure, nucleon structure, ALICE experiment at LHC); 5 - Reactor physics: Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), Molten Salt physico-chemistry and technologies, nuclear data, High Conversion Water Reactors (HCWR) simulation, ADS on-line reactivity monitoring validation (GUINEVERE project); 6 - Theoretical physics (nuclei, hadrons and few-body systems, lattice QCD, perturbative QCD and supersymmetry); 7 - Interdisciplinary research (hadron-therapy, Tomography, Research centre on plasmas-materials-nano-structures - CRPMN); 8 - Accelerators (SPIRAL2 Project, GENEPI-3C accelerator, 60 GHz ECR ion source

  19. Monitoring the West Bohemian earthquake swarm in 2008/2009 by a temporary small-aperture seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemer, Stefan; Roessler, Dirk; Scherbaum, Frank

    2012-04-01

    The most recent intense earthquake swarm in West Bohemia lasted from 6 October 2008 to January 2009. Starting 12 days after the onset, the University of Potsdam monitored the swarm by a temporary small-aperture seismic array at 10 km epicentral distance. The purpose of the installation was a complete monitoring of the swarm including micro-earthquakes ( M L 0.0). In the course of this work, the main temporal features (frequency-magnitude distribution, propagation of back azimuth and horizontal slowness, occurrence rate of aftershock sequences and interevent-time distribution) of the recent 2008/2009 earthquake swarm are presented and discussed. Temporal changes of the coefficient of variation (based on interevent times) suggest that the swarm earthquake activity of the 2008/2009 swarm terminates by 12 January 2009. During the main phase in our studied swarm period after 19 October, the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases from 1.2 to 0.8. This trend is also reflected in the power-law behavior of the seismic moment release. The corresponding total seismic moment release of 1.02×1017 Nm is equivalent to M L,max = 5.4.

  20. THE 2000-2001 FINANCIAL CRISIS IN TURKEY AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 2008-2009: REASONS AND COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek TEMİZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis of 2000-2001 was proved to be demolishing for Turkey after the abundance of currency peg in the same year. The crisis in question stemmed from insufficient implementation of regulations, inadequate depth of the capital markets, lack of assessment of risk, excessive lending to incorporated institutions by national banks, restricted interest rates, monitored foreign exchange operations, limited foreign asset holding, lack of competition, barriers to foreign entry high liquidity, chronic inflation and a deficit in balance of payments. However, the crisis that Turkey was subject to in 2008-2009 was quite different than the previous ones as to be a result of world matters. The sparking effect begun in the USA at the mortgage market, the fail of the mortgage market negatively influenced the capital, stock and derivative markets and spread the world. Thus, this study aims to analyze and reveal the reflections of the 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 crises and their comparison with regards to Turkey on theoretical basis resting on numerous comprehensive and credible national and international publications.

  1. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  2. Impact of Implementation of Direct Cash Transfer Program 2008/2009 on Household Consumption in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to see the impact of direct cash transfer program for 2008/2009 on household consumption of food, nonfood, education, and health in Central Java Province. The study is expected to provide important findings for the improvement of a similar program in the future. This study findings that (1) the increasing in food and non-food consumption for direct cash transfer recipients than non direct cash transfer recipients; (2) the impact of households expenditure on education for direct cash transfer recipients is higher than non direct cash transfer recipients; (3) the impact of households expenditure on health for direct cash transfer recipients is lower than non direct cash transfer recipients. This study recommended that (1) implementation of direct cash transfer program 2008/2009 must be managed to be better because this program can defend household welfare. It shows from several indicators of well-being such as consumption spending, education, and health; (2) data targets for poor households (very poor, poor, nearly poor) must be updated.

  3. Evaluation of inventory change report (ICR) in 2008/2009 - 2012/2013 in MBA.RI-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agustinus Suprijanto; Suratno; Sigit Pramana

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation has been performed for Inventory Change Report (ICR) in 2008/2009 - 2012/2013 in MBA.RI-B (MBA = Material Balance Area) (RI-B = Center for Accelerator and Material Process Technology). The evaluation performed on the inventory change report of nuclear material document. Changes in inventories occur when there is acceptance or shipment of nuclear materials outside nuclear facilities. Successive reports changes in inventory of nuclear material in 2008/2009 comprised 3 sheets ICR document numbers (153, 154 and 155), in 2009/2010 comprised 1 sheet ICR document number (159), in 2010/2011 comprised 3 sheets ICR document numbers (164, 165 and 166), and in 2012/2013 comprised 2 sheets ICR document numbers (175 and 176). From these data report changes in inventory of nuclear material can be concluded that in MBA.RI-B has been the displacement of nuclear material activities includes receipt of nuclear material from other nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials out of facilities for research and development includes receipt 4 times from RI-E and 1 times from RI-A and 3 times shipment to RI-E. (author)

  4. Current-Account Imbalances and Economic Growth During the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between current-account imbalances and economic growth during the 2008-2009 financial and economic crisis for 179 countries (covered by IMF data and within the EU-27 countries (covered by Eurostat data. The countries are divided into 4 groups by GDP per capita based on PPPs, namely, low income, lower middle-income, upper middle-income and high-income countries. Empirical analysis is applied, including descriptive statistics and regression estimates. Statistical data are used, including the average of the GDP growth rate in the years prior to the crisis (2003–2007, the average of the GDP growth rate for 2008 and 2009, current account as a percentage of GDP, and the level of average inflation. It is proved that, in general, the 2008-2009 crisis affected high- and upper middle-income countries more than poorer countries. Within the EU-27 countries, however, the crisis appears to have affected lower income countries more than higher income countries. A common tendency is observed for the two country samples: countries that experienced strong growth just prior to the crisis had an increased risk of suffering after the crisis. The boom prior to the crisis led to imbalances that rendered economies more vulnerable. Additionally, surpluses that existed prior to the crisis are an important risk factor for the two groups of countries.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging features of neuroinfections in patients with AIDS. Pablo Tobon Hospital, Medellin (2008-2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulgarin R, Luis G; Gomez R, Susana; Sanchez Z, Jonathan A; Abreo L, Diego F; Hernandez J, Andres F; Donado G, Jorge H.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to describe the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the central nervous system (CNS ) most common infectious diseases in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and / or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS ) that consulted to the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in the period 2008-2009. We included four adult patients with HIV and / or AIDS from Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe database, who were diagnosed having central nervous system infections by MRI and diagnostic microbiological tests. The most common MRI patterns of CNS infections in AIDS patients in our institution were irregular multifocal intra-axial space-occupying lesions with heterogeneous and variable signals on T1, T2 and FLAI R, with perilesional edema and rim postcontrast enhancement.

  6. The 2008-2009 recession and alcohol outcomes: differential exposure and vulnerability for Black and Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J; Liu, Huiguo; Schmidt, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether race/ethnicity was related to exposure to acute economic losses in the 2008-2009 recession, even accounting for individual-level and geographic variables, and whether it influenced associations between economic losses and drinking patterns and problems. Data were from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey (N = 5,382). Surveys assessed both severe losses (i.e., job and housing loss) and moderate losses (i.e., reduced hours/pay and trouble paying the rent/mortgage) attributed to the 2008-2009 recession. Alcohol outcomes included total annual volume, monthly drunkenness, drinking consequences, and alcohol dependence (based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Compared with Whites, Blacks reported significantly greater exposure to job loss and trouble paying the rent/mortgage, and Latinos reported greater exposure to all economic losses. However, only Black-White differences were robust in multivariate analyses. Interaction tests suggested that associations between exposure to economic loss and alcohol problems were stronger among Blacks than Whites. Given severe (vs. no) loss, Blacks had about 13 times the odds of both two or more drinking consequences and alcohol dependence, whereas the corresponding odds ratios for Whites were less than 3. Conversely, associations between economic loss and alcohol outcomes were weak and ambiguous among Latinos. Results suggest greater exposure to economic loss for both Blacks and Latinos (vs. Whites) and that the Black population may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of economic hardship on the development and/or maintenance of alcohol problems. Findings extend the economic literature and signal policy makers and service providers that Blacks and Latinos may be at special risk during economic downturns.

  7. DATA COLLECTION, QUALITY ASSURANCE, AND ANALYSIS PLAN FOR THE 2008/2009 HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELLS KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    The 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Survey, conducted for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program will measure the levels of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies within five target populations: (1) the general public, (2) students, (3) personnel in state and local governments, (4) potential end users of hydrogen fuel and fuel cell technologies in business and industry, and (5) safety and code officials. The ultimate goal of the surveys is a statistically valid, nationally based assessment. Distinct information collections are required for each of the target populations. Each instrument for assessing baseline knowledge is targeted to the corresponding population group. While many questions are identical across all populations, some questions are unique to each respondent group. The biggest data quality limitation of the hydrogen survey data (at least of the general public and student components) will be nonresponse bias. To ensure as high a response rate as possible, various measures will be taken to minimize nonresponse, including automated callbacks, cycling callbacks throughout the weekdays, and availability of Spanish speaking interviewers. Statistical adjustments (i.e., sampling weights) will also be used to account for nonresponse and noncoverage. The primary objective of the data analysis is to estimate the proportions of target population individuals who would respond to the questions in the various possible ways. Data analysis will incorporate necessary adjustments for the sampling design and sampling weights (i.e., probability sampling). Otherwise, however, the analysis will involve standard estimates of proportions of the interviewees responding in various ways to the questions. Sample-weight-adjusted contingency table chi-square tests will also be computed to identify differences between demographic groups The first round of Knowledge and Opinions Surveys was conducted in 2004. Analysis of these surveys produced a

  8. How many infants likely died in Africa as a result of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    The human consequences of the recent global financial crisis for the developing world are presumed to be severe, but few studies have quantified them. This letter estimates the human cost of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis in one critical dimension-infant mortality-for countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis pools birth-level data, as reported in female adult retrospective birth histories from all Demographic and Health Surveys collected in sub-Saharan Africa. This results in a data set of 639,000 births to 264,000 women in 30 countries. We use regression models with flexible controls for temporal trends to assess an infant's likelihood of death as a function of fluctuations in national income. We then calculate the expected number of excess deaths by combining these estimates with growth shortfalls as a result of the crisis. The results suggest 28,000-50,000 excess infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the crisis-affected year of 2009. Notably, most of these additional deaths were concentrated among girls. Policies that protect the income of poor households and that maintain critical health services during times of economic contraction may reduce the expected increase in mortality. Interventions targeted at female infants and young girls can be particularly beneficial. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Bajo Peso al Nacer. Factores de riesgo y calidad de la atención Prenatal. Buenaventura. 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Gallardo-Ibarra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó estudio descriptivo sobre Bajo Peso al Nacer, Área de Salud Buenaventura, bienio 2008-2009, sobre factores de riesgo y calidad de la atención médica recibida por las gestantes que aportaron recién nacidos bajo peso. Los datos estadísticos se obtuvieron mediante revisión de historias clínicas familiares, obstétricas y hospitalarias. Se emplearon métodos estadísticos histórico lógico, análisis y síntesis e inducción-deducción. Se obtuvo predominio del CIUR como variedad de Bajo Peso al Nacer, mostraron asociación con el bajo peso al nacer la valoración nutricional Bajo Peso materna al inicio de la gestación, insuficiente ganancia de peso, ingreso percápita bajo, malas condiciones de vivienda, antecedentes de dos o más abortos, multigestación, período intergenésico corto, HTA y sepsis cervicovaginal. La Atención Prenatal fue deficiente. No existió relación entre grupos de edades menores de 20 o mayor de 35 años y hábitos tóxicos con la aparición del bajo peso al nacer.

  10. Calibration of the ATLAS hadronic barrel calorimeter TileCal using 2008, 2009 and 2010 cosmic rays data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic rays collected in 2008, 2009 and 2010 have been used in the ATLAS experiment to test the calibration of the hadronic barrel calorimeter TileCal. Stable results were obtained for the three periods. The analysis was based on the comparison between experimental and simulated data, and addresses three issues. First, the average non uniformity of the response of the cells within a layer was estimated to be about 2%. Second, the average response of different layers is found to be not intercalibrated, considering the sources of error. The largest difference between the responses of two layers is 4%. Finally, the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at test beams using electrons was found to range between -2% and +2%. The sources of uncertainties in the response measurements are strongly correlated and include the uncertainty in the simulation of the muon response. The overall uncertainty in the energy scale is estimated to be 3%.

  11. Calibration of the ATLAS hadronic barrel calorimeter TileCal using 2008, 2009 and 2010 cosmic-ray muon data

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Z

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS iron-scintillator hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides precision measurements of jets and missing transverse energy produced in the LHC proton-proton collisions. Results assessing the calorimeter calibration obtained using cosmic ray muons collected in 2008, 2009 and 2010 are presented. The analysis was based on the comparison between experimental and simulated data, and addresses three issues. First the average non-uniformity of the response of the cells within a layer was estimated to be about ±2% . Second, the average response of different layers is found to be not inter-calibrated, considering the sources of error. The largest difference between the responses of two layers is ±4% . Finally, the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at test beams using electrons was found to range between -3% and +1%. The sources of uncertainties in the response measurements are strongly correlated, including the uncertainty in the simulation. The tot...

  12. Capacitación profesoral en la asignatura Morfofisiología III, carrera de Estomatología. Curso 2008-2009 Teaching training in Morpho-physiology-III discipline. Dentistry major, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Félix Albert Díaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los profesores que imparten la disciplina curricular Morfofisiología, muestran debilidades en su proceso formativo, con vistas a garantizar la calidad que el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje requiere. Objetivo: caracterizar a los profesores que imparten la asignatura Morfofisiología III en las SUM, teniendo en cuenta su preparación metodológica y conocimientos pedagógicos, que permita el diseño de una estrategia para su capacitación. Método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal, con vistas a caracterizar el claustro profesoral que imparte la asignatura Morfofisiología III, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río, en las nueve SUM en las que la asignatura se encuentra universalizada, previo al comienzo del segundo semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 12 de dichos profesores. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado. Resultados: estos mostraron que los profesores de la asignatura Morfofisiología III, en las SUM, carecen de la preparación metodológica y de los conocimientos en los contenidos propios de la asignatura, necesarios para enfrentar el proceso, elementos que se tuvieron en cuenta en el diseño del diplomado, el cual se estructuró siguiendo los principios de la educación a distancia. Se concluye a partir del diagnóstico realizado, sobre la necesidad de la instrumentación del diplomado diseñado.The teaching staff of Morpho-physiology discipline shows weak points in the formative process, to guarantee the quality of the teaching-learning process it is required; Objective: To characterize the teaching staff of Morpho-physiology -III in the University Venues, taking into account the methodological preparation and pedagogical knowledge, to allow the design of a strategy to their training. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted to characterize the teaching staff of Morpho

  13. Alimentos mais consumidos no Brasil: Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009 Alimentos más consumidos en Brasil: Pesquisa Nacional de Alimentación 2008-2009 Most consumed foods in Brazil: National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata B. Levy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o consumo alimentar mais frequente da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados referentes ao primeiro dia de registro alimentar de 34.003 indivíduos com dez anos ou mais de idade que responderam ao Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, composto por amostra probabilística da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. O padrão de consumo foi analisado segundo sexo, grupo etário, região e faixa de renda familiar per capita. RESULTADOS: Os alimentos mais frequentemente referidos pela população brasileira foram arroz (84,0%, café (79,0%, feijão (72,8%, pão de sal (63,0% e carne bovina (48,7%, destacando-se também o consumo de sucos e refrescos (39,8%, refrigerantes (23,0% e menor presença de frutas (16,0% e hortaliças (16,0%. Essa configuração apresenta pouca variação quando se consideram os estratos de sexo e faixa etária; contudo, observa-se que os adolescentes foram o único grupo etário que deixou de citar qualquer hortaliça e que incluiu doces, bebida láctea e biscoitos doces entre os itens mais consumidos. Alimentos marcadamente de consumo regional incluem a farinha de mandioca no Norte e Nordeste e o chá na região Sul. Houve discrepâncias no consumo alimentar entre os estratos de menor e maior renda: indivíduos no quarto de renda mais elevada referiram sanduíches, tomate e alface e aqueles no primeiro quarto de renda citaram os peixes e preparações à base de peixe e farinha de mandioca entre os alimentos mais referidos. CONCLUSÕES: Existe um padrão básico do consumo alimentar no Brasil que inclui entre os alimentos mais consumidos arroz, café, feijão, pão de sal e carne bovina, associado ao consumo regional de alguns poucos itens. Particularmente entre os adolescentes, alimentos ricos em gordura e açúcar são também de consumo frequente.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el consumo alimentario más frecuente de la población brasileña. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos

  14. Distribuição regional e socioeconômica da disponibilidade domiciliar de alimentos no Brasil em 2008-2009 Distribución regional y socioeconómica de la disponibilidad domiciliaria de alimentos en Brasil, 2008-2009 Regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil, in 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a distribuição regional e socioeconômica da disponibilidade domiciliar de alimentos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo com dados secundários da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009, realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística sobre aquisições de alimentos e bebidas para consumo domiciliar. As quantidades de alimentos, registradas durante sete dias consecutivos nos 55.970 domicílios brasileiros amostrados, foram transformadas em calorias e nutrientes. Indicadores de qualidade da dieta foram construídos e analisados segundo estratos socioeconômicos e regionais da população brasileira. RESULTADOS: O teor protéico da disponibilidade alimentar mostrou-se adequado em todos os estratos regionais e econômicos. Em contrapartida, observou-se excesso de açúcares livres e de gorduras em todas as regiões, especialmente nas regiões Sul e Sudeste. A proporção de gorduras saturadas foi elevada no meio urbano e consistente com a maior participação de produtos de origem animal. A presença insuficiente de frutas, legumes e verduras foi comum em todas as regiões. Intensificação do teor de gorduras e diminuição do teor de carboidratos da dieta foram observadas com o aumento da renda. CONCLUSÕES: As características negativas da qualidade da dieta da população brasileira observadas ao final da primeira década do século XXI conferem alta prioridade para políticas públicas de promoção da alimentação saudável.OBJETIVO: Describir la distribución regional y socioeconómica de la disponibilidad domiciliaria de alimentos en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio con datos secundarios de la Investigación de Presupuestos Familiares 2008-2009, realizada por el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística sobre adquisiciones de alimentos y bebidas para consumo domiciliario. Las cantidades de alimentos, registradas durante siete días consecutivos en los 55.970 domicilios brasileños muestreados, fueron

  15. Alimentos mais consumidos no Brasil: Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de M. Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o consumo alimentar mais frequente da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados referentes ao primeiro dia de registro alimentar de 34.003 indivíduos com dez anos ou mais de idade que responderam ao Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, composto por amostra probabilística da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. O padrão de consumo foi analisado segundo sexo, grupo etário, região e faixa de renda familiar per capita. RESULTADOS: Os alimentos mais frequentemente referidos pela população brasileira foram arroz (84,0%, café (79,0%, feijão (72,8%, pão de sal (63,0% e carne bovina (48,7%, destacando-se também o consumo de sucos e refrescos (39,8%, refrigerantes (23,0% e menor presença de frutas (16,0% e hortaliças (16,0%. Essa configuração apresenta pouca variação quando se consideram os estratos de sexo e faixa etária; contudo, observa-se que os adolescentes foram o único grupo etário que deixou de citar qualquer hortaliça e que incluiu doces, bebida láctea e biscoitos doces entre os itens mais consumidos. Alimentos marcadamente de consumo regional incluem a farinha de mandioca no Norte e Nordeste e o chá na região Sul. Houve discrepâncias no consumo alimentar entre os estratos de menor e maior renda: indivíduos no quarto de renda mais elevada referiram sanduíches, tomate e alface e aqueles no primeiro quarto de renda citaram os peixes e preparações à base de peixe e farinha de mandioca entre os alimentos mais referidos. CONCLUSÕES: Existe um padrão básico do consumo alimentar no Brasil que inclui entre os alimentos mais consumidos arroz, café, feijão, pão de sal e carne bovina, associado ao consumo regional de alguns poucos itens. Particularmente entre os adolescentes, alimentos ricos em gordura e açúcar são também de consumo frequente.

  16. A two year (2008-2009) analysis of severe convective storms in the Mediterranean basin as observed by satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzini, B.; Melani, S.; Pasi, F.; Ortolani, A.

    2010-09-01

    The increasing damages caused by natural disasters, a great part of them being direct or indirect effects of severe convective storms (SCS), seem to suggest that extreme events occur with greater frequency, also as a consequence of climate changes. A better comprehension of the genesis and evolution of SCS is then necessary to clarify if and what is changing in these extreme events. The major reason to go through the mechanisms driving such events is given by the growing need to have timely and precise predictions of severe weather events, especially in areas that show to be more and more sensitive to their occurrence. When dealing with severe weather events, either from a researcher or an operational point of view, it is necessary to know precisely the conditions under which these events take place to upgrade conceptual models or theories, and consequently to improve the quality of forecasts as well as to establish effective warning decision procedures. The Mediterranean basin is, in general terms, a sea of small areal extent, characterised by the presence of several islands; thus, a severe convection phenomenon originating over the sea, that lasts several hours, is very likely to make landfall during its lifetime. On the other hand, these storms are quasi-stationary or very slow moving so that, when convection happens close to the shoreline, it is normally very dangerous and in many cases can cause very severe weather, with flash floods or tornadoes. An example of these extreme events is one of the case study analysed in this work, regarding the flash flood occurred in Giampileri (Sicily, Italy) the evening of 1st October 2009, where 18 people died, other 79 injured and the historical centre of the village seriously damaged. Severe weather systems and strong convection occurring in the Mediterranean basin have been investigated for two years (2008-2009) using geostationary (MSG) and polar orbiting (AVHRR) satellite data, supported by ECMWF analyses and severe

  17. Degassing behavior of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy) before and during the 2008-2009 eruption, inferred from crater plume and soil gas measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe; La Spina, Alessandro; Giammanco, Salvatore; Burton, Michael; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Murè, Filippo; Randazzo, Daniele; Lopez, Manuela; Bruno, Nicola; Longo, Vincenza

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of magmatic degassing that preceded and accompanied the 2008-2009 Mt. Etna eruption was monitored by using a combination of: i) near-daily SO2 flux measurements; ii) calculated HCl and HF fluxes, obtained combining the daily SO2 flux values with discrete FTIR measurements of SO2/HCl and SO2/HF molar ratios; iii) periodic soil CO2 flux measurements. Thanks to the differential release of magmatic gas species from an ascending magma body we were able to track the magma transfer process in the volcano plumbing system from depth (gas-rich magma ascending and degassing via the central conduit system prior to eruption at the peripheral SEC. Conversely, the 15 month long 2008-09 eruption event was characterized by quasi steady state magma supply. The calculated volume of magma required to produce the observed SO2 flux during the 2008-2009 eruption closely matches the volume of erupted magma. This "eruptive" steady-state would indicate an almost perfect process of magma migration and eruption at the surface, without substantial storage within the volcano plumbing system.

  18. At the intersection of global economics crisis and state anti-feminism: women in Canada, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Lahey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the deterioration of gender equality in Canada as governments failed to understand how badly the 1991 recession affected women's economic status well into the mid-2000s, and then as an anti-feminist conservative government took office in 2006. The author provides examples of how anti-recession and economic recovery policies formulated by a government antagonistic to women's demands for equal treatment accelerated the economic deterioration women continued to experience between 2008 and 2012. The paper includes gender impact data on women's employment, access to unemployment benefits, participation in infrastructure stimulus programs, shares of personal income tax cuts, and the growing wage gap in Canada.

  19. A natural experimental study of the protective effect of home ownership on household food insecurity in Canada before and after a recession (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Wu, Xiuyun; Kwok, Cynthia; Emery, J C Herbert

    2017-06-16

    Home ownership as opposed to renting is associated with lower rates of food insecurity, the latter being a marker of household economic deprivation associated with adverse health outcomes. It is unclear whether this relationship persists during a major economic decline, or whether different subgroups of home owners are equally protected. The 2008-2009 recession in Canada was tied to events in the United States related to inappropriate mortgage financing; the impact of the recession on food insecurity among home owners may identify policies to mitigate recessionary outcomes. We used a before-and-after natural experimental design using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycles 2007/2008 (pre-recession) and 2009/2010 (post-recession) with information on household food insecurity, home ownership versus renting, and socio-demographics. Applying multivariable logistic regression, we examined changes in household food insecurity by housing tenure and sex over the period. Pre-recession, food insecurity affected 3.3% of home owners and 17.1% of renter households. Among home owners, the risk of food insecurity increased post-recession by 10%, which was not statistically significant. Post-recession, and with adjustment, although renters' higher absolute risk of food insecurity persisted, male-respondent home owners experienced the highest rate of increase in food insecurity prevalence by subgroup (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06-1.50) versus renters (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.29). Housing policies in Canada protected most home owners from precarity during the 2008-2009 economic recession; however, male-respondent home owners exhibited a unique economic vulnerability during this time. Implications of Canadian home ownership policies are discussed in light of differential vulnerability of home owner groups.

  20. Consumo por idosos nos arranjos familiares "unipessoal" e "residindo com o cônjuge": uma análise por regiões do país, a partir de dados da POF (2008/2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Natália Calais Vaz de; Teixeira,Karla Maria Damiano; Ferreira,Marco Aurelio Marques; Silva,Neuza Maria da

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Identificar e comparar, com base nos microdados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares POF/IBGE (2008/2009), os tipos de bens e serviços que os idosos dos arranjos familiares "unipessoal" e "residindo com o cônjuge" consomem nas diversas regiões do país. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, quantitativo, com corte transversal, que utilizou os microdados da POF/IBGE (2008/2009), utilizando variáveis sociodemográficas e bens e serviços consumidos...

  1. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  2. Quality of life, human insecurity, and distress among Palestinians in the Gaza Strip before and after the Winter 2008-2009 Israeli war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Weeam; Hogan, Dennis; Giacaman, Rita

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates changes in the quality of life (QoL) of Gaza Palestinians before and after the Israeli winter 2008-2009 war using the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-Bref; the extent to which this instrument adequately measures changing situations; and its responsiveness to locally developed human insecurity and distress measures appropriate for context. Ordinary least squares regression analysis was performed to detect how demographic and socioeconomic variables usually associated with QoL were associated with human insecurity and distress. We estimated the usual baseline model for the three QoL domains, and a second set of models including these standard variables and human insecurity and distress to assess how personal exposure to political violence affects QoL. No difference between the quality of life scores in 2005 and 2009 was found, with results suggesting lack of sensitivity of WHOQOL-Bref in capturing changes resulting from intensification of preexisting political violence. Results show that human insecurity and individual distress significantly increased in 2009 compared to 2005. Results indicate that a political domain may provide further understanding of and possibly increase the sensitivity of the instrument to detect changes in the Qol of Palestinians and possibly other populations experiencing intensified political violence.

  3. Space-borne Observations of Atmospheric Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas: Case Study for Greece 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D. P.; Pulinets, S. A.; Davidenko, D. A.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    We are conducting theoretical studies and practical validation of atm osphere/ionosphere phenomena preceding major earthquakes. Our approach is based on monitoring of two physical parameters from space: outgoi ng long-wavelength radiation (OLR) on the top of the atmosphere and e lectron and electron density variations in the ionosphere via GPS Tot al Electron Content (GPS/TEC). We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of OLR an GPS/TEC parameters characterizing the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before four m ajor earthquakes (M>6) in Greece for 2008-2009: M6.9 of 02.12.08, M6. 2 02.20.08; M6.4 of 06.08.08 and M6.4 of 07.01.09.We found anomalous behavior before all of these events (over land and sea) over regions o f maximum stress. We expect that our analysis reveal the underlying p hysics of pre-earthquake signals associated with some of the largest earthquakes in Greece.

  4. Spatial environmental risk factors for pedestrian injury collisions in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2008-2009): implications for urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Cesar Mario; Hernandez, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the spatial distribution of pedestrian injury collisions and analyse the environmental (social and physical) risk factors in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. More specifically, this study investigates the influence of land use, density, traffic and socio-economic characteristics. This cross sectional study is based on pedestrian injury collision data that were collected by the Municipal Transit Police during 2008-2009. This research presents an analysis of vehicle-pedestrian collisions and their spatial risk determinants using mixed methods that included (1) spatial/geographical information systems (GIS) analysis of pedestrian collision data and (2) ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to explain the density of pedestrian collisions data. In our model, we found a higher probability for pedestrian collisions in census tracts with population and employment density, large concentration of commercial/retail land uses and older people (65 and more). Interventions to alleviate this situation including transportation planning such as decentralisation of municipal transport system, investment in road infrastructure - density of traffic lights, pedestrian crossing, road design, improves lane demarcation. Besides, land use planning interventions should be implemented in commercial/retail areas, in particular separating pedestrian and vehicular spaces.

  5. [Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Clóvis Arlindo de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household) random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR) expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7) reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years), not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  6. 2008-2009 en bref

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La recherche-action participative(RAP) rassemble des représentants des groupes ... finance cinq projets pilotes, et le Programme de recherche sur l'eau, la santé et l'adaptation aux changements climatiques en Afrique, dans le cadre duquel le programme ACCA finance désormais six projets. Kezlya Magawa cultive du ...

  7. SEECOND SEMESSTEER 2008/2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Joe

    Cross River State. 2. Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar ... Ibekwe et al: Effects of Garcinia seed diet on performance of broilers chicks. 133 .... depressed appetite and water intake caused.

  8. Ingestão inadequada de nutrientes na população de idosos do Brasil: Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009 Ingestión inadecuada de nutrientes en la población de ancianos de Brasil: pesquisa nacional de alimentación 2008-2009 Inadequate nutrient intake among the Brazilian elderly: National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Alves Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de ingestão inadequada de nutrientes na população idosa brasileira. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação como parte da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares, em 2008-2009. Dados de consumo alimentar individual de 4.322 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais foram obtidos por meio do registro alimentar de dois dias não consecutivos. A ingestão habitual para cada nutriente foi estimada pelo método do National Cancer Institute, cujos modelos tiveram como covariáveis sexo e região. As prevalências de inadequação de ingestão de micronutrientes foram estimadas segundo sexo e região utilizando o método da EAR como ponte de corte. RESULTADOS: Elevadas prevalências de inadequação (> 50% foram observadas para as vitaminas E, D, A, cálcio, magnésio e piridoxina em ambos os sexos. Em todas as regiões, observou-se 100% de inadequação de vitamina E. Vitamina D obteve percentuais de inadequação próximos de 100% em todas as regiões, exceto para a região Norte. As prevalências de inadequação de vitamina A foram superiores a 70% nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Cálcio e magnésio foram os minerais com maior prevalência de ingestão inadequada (> 80% em todas as regiões. CONCLUSÕES: Idosos brasileiros apresentam elevada inadequação da ingestão de nutrientes, reconhecidos como protetores contra doenças crônicas.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de ingestión inadecuada de nutrientes en la población anciana brasileña. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de la Pesquisa Nacional de Alimentación como parte de la Investigación de Presupuestos Familiares, en 2008-2009. Datos de consumo alimentario individual de 4.322 individuos con 60 años o más se obtuvieron por medio de registro alimentario de dos días no consecutivos. La ingestión habitual para cada nutriente fue estimada por el método del National Cancer Institute, cuyos modelos tuvieron como co

  9. Gastos privados com saúde bucal no Brasil: análise dos dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo foi analisar os gastos privados com assistência odontológica e produtos de higiene bucal dos brasileiros. Foram analisados dados de 55.970 domicílios pesquisados na Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2008-2009. Os gastos foram descritos segundo macrorregiões, estados e capitais do Brasil e de acordo com características socioeconômicas e demográficas dos domicílios (sexo, idade, cor da pele e escolaridade do chefe, renda domiciliar per capita e presença de idoso no domicílio. Os brasileiros gastaram em média no ano R$ 42,19 com serviços de assistência odontológica e R$ 10,27 com produtos de higiene bucal. Desigualdades sociais na distribuição desses gastos segundo as características dos moradores dos domicílios e segundo as diferentes macrorregiões, estados e capitais do país foram encontradas. O presente estudo evidenciou com detalhes quanto e com o que gastam os brasileiros com assistência odontológica e com produtos de higiene bucal. O monitoramento e avaliação desses gastos são condições fundamentais para avaliação e orientação de políticas públicas em saúde bucal.

  10. High risk factors for severe hand, foot and mouth disease: A multicenter retrospective survey in Anhui Province China, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to determine the high risk factors for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective 229 severe HFMD cases from four hospitals in FuYang, HeFei, and BoZhou (Anhui Provincial Hospital, Fuyang City People′s Hospital, No. 2 People′s Hospital of Fuyang and Bozhou city People′s Hospital in 2008-2009 were studied, with 140 mild HFMD cases in the same area. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the high risk factors of HFMD were identified by comparing clinical and laboratory findings between severe cases and mild cases. Results: There was a significant difference in age, total duration of fever, rate of respiratory and heart, shake of limbs, white blood cell count, blood sugar, and CK-MB between the two groups. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that severe cases were associated with age (<3 years, withdrawnness and lethargy, shake of limbs, tachycardia, total leukocyte count (≥17×10 9 /l, blood sugar (≥7 mmol/l, and CK-MB (≥16 mmol/l. Furthermore, age (<3 years, withdrawnness, and lethargy, shake of limbs, WBC (≥17×10 9 /l, and CK-MB (≥16 mmol/l were found to be high risk factors for severe cases after multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Clinicians should give importance to these risk factors. Early recognition of children at risk and timely intervention is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity.

  11. Linkages between sea-ice coverage, pelagic-benthic coupling, and the distribution of spectacled eiders: observations in March 2008, 2009 and 2010, northern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L.W.; Sexson, M.G.; Grebmeier, J.M.; Gradinger, R.; Mordy, C.W.; Lovvorn, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Icebreaker-based sampling in the northern Bering Sea south of St. Lawrence Island in March of 2008, 2009, and 2010 has provided new data on overall ecosystem function early in the annual productive cycle. While water-column chlorophyll concentrations (−2 integrated over the whole water column) are two orders of magnitude lower than observed during the spring bloom in May, sea-ice algal inventories of chlorophyll are high (up to 1 g m−3 in the bottom 2-cm of sea-ice). Vertical fluxes of chlorophyll as measured in sediment traps were between 0.3 to 3.7 mg m−2 d−1 and were consistent with the recent deposition (days to weeks time scale) of chlorophyll to the surface sediments (0–25 mg m−2 present at 0–1 cm). Sediment oxygen respiration rates were lower than previous measurements that followed the spring bloom, but were highest in areas of known high benthic biomass. Early spring release of sedimentary ammonium occurs, particularly southeast of St. Lawrence Island, leading to bottom-water ammonium concentrations of >5 µM. These data, together with other physical, biological, and nutrient data are presented here in conjunction with observed sea-ice dynamics and the distribution of an apex predator, the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri). Sea-ice dynamics in addition to benthic food availability, as determined by sedimentation processes, play a role in the distribution of spectacled eiders, which cannot always access the greatest biomass of their preferred bivalve prey. Overall, the data and observations indicate that the northern Bering Sea is biologically active in late winter, but with strong atmospheric and hydrographic controls. These controls pre-determine nutrient and chlorophyll distributions, water-column mixing, as well as pelagic-benthic coupling.

  12. Study of heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Crin water resources and river of Borujerd city in 2008-2009

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    bahram kamarehei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available with industrial and economic growth and different material production that humans gained from natural resources for their comfort and walfare, inwardly introduced toxic material and heavy metal entered environment that there created serious problems for themselves and environment. This study accomplished to determine heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Crin water resources and river of Borujerd city in 2008-2009. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine heavy metal concentration (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr in water resources and river of Borujerd city. 54 samples of water were taken from 18 drinking water wells, and also in two times 8 samples of Borujerd river were taken from before and after the city. Then samples carried into the lab and were concentrated ten times using expressed methods and standard methods. Then heavy metal concentration determined by AAP (WFX 130 and results analyzed by SPSS and EXCEL software. Results: Heavy metal concentration average (As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr in drinking water wells were 0. 0, 0. 3222, 0. 0014, 0. 0002, 0. 0077 mg/l respectively. and heavy metal concentration in river water after the city has been increased than before the city. Conclusion: Results indicated that heavy metal concentration average in Borujerd drinking water wells were lower than standard amounts and drinking water wells didn’t pollute with heavy metal. But heavy metal concentration in river water after the city has been increased than the before of it because city waste water enters the city river.

  13. La micro y pequeña empresa como generadora de empleo en Baja California durante la crisis de 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo ha sido evaluar la importancia de la conformación del tejido empresarial en la evolución de la actividad económica y la generación de empleo en Baja California en el entorno de la crisis global de 2008-2009, con énfasis en el comportamiento de la micro y pequeña empresa. Lo anterior se consigue a través de la metodología de un análisis de correspondencias de carácter exploratorio y otro econométrico con fines confirmatorios en los cuales se utilizaron variables de los estratos empresariales y los sectores económicos una vez revisados los indicadores poblacionales, migratorios y de la estructura productiva. Como resultados se encontró una relación directa y significativa de las microempresas con el volumen de negocios y el empleo durante la crisis, sin embargo, en el periodo post-crisis (2010-2014 la aportación de la pequeña empresa resultó muy superior. Por su parte, las grandes empresas, mostraron menor sensibilidad general y una reducción de su capacidad para generar empleo aún durante el periodo post-crisis. En cualquier caso, debemos señalar que la limitante es que los resultados deben ser tomados con cautela debido a la alta segregación por estrato. Se concluye que no es posible rechazar la hipótesis de que la micro, pero sobre todo la pequeña empresa jugó un papel estratégico en la generación de empleo y dinamismo económico durante el periodo de crisis, contribuyendo incluso a aminorar su impacto, por lo que se debe fortalecer una política industrial que favorezca el aprendizaje y la innovación de este sector empresarial.

  14. Association of equipment worn and concussion injury rates in National Collegiate Athletic Association football practices: 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P; Cohen, Randy

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of football-related concussions has been extensively examined. However, although football players experience more at-risk exposure time during practices than competitions, there is a dearth of literature examining the nature of the activities or equipment worn during practice. In particular, varying levels of equipment worn during practices may place players at varying levels of risk for concussion. To describe the epidemiology of NCAA men's football concussions that occurred during practices from the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years by amount of equipment worn. Descriptive epidemiology study. Men's collegiate football data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) during the 5-year study period were analyzed. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (RRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals. During the study period, 795 concussions were reported during practices, resulting in an injury rate of 0.39 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) (95% CI, 0.36-0.42). Among NCAA divisions, Division III had the highest concussion rate (0.54/1000 AEs), followed by Division I (0.34/1000 AEs) and Division II (0.24/1000 AEs) (all P values for RRs comparing divisionsconcussions in practice occurred when players were fully padded (69.9%), followed by wearing shells (23.5%) and helmets only (1.9%). The practice concussion rate was higher in fully padded practices (0.66/1000 AEs) compared with practices when shells were worn (0.33/1000 AEs; RR=1.99 [95% CI, 1.69-2.35]; Pconcussion rate of the preseason (0.76/1000 AEs) was higher than that of the regular season (0.18/1000 AEs; RR=4.14 [95% CI, 3.55-4.83]; Pconcussion rate were scrimmages (1.55/1000 AEs). Although only 3 concussions were sustained during scrimmage practices in which players wore shells, the concussion rate (2.84/1000 AEs) was higher than all other reported rates. Practice concussion rates are highest during fully padded practices, preseason practices, and

  15. Balanço de macronutrientes na dieta de idosos brasileiros: análises da Pesquisa Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009

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    Agatha Nogueira Previdelli

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar a contribuição de proteína, lipídio e carboidrato no total de energia da dieta de idosos das diferentes regiões brasileiras. Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 4.286 idosos (60 a 104 anos provenientes da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008/2009. Baseado no consumo obtido por dois registros alimentares, o programa Multiple Source Method estimou o consumo habitual de macronutrientes e gordura saturada. As recomendações do Institute of Medicine (IOM, segundo os Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR, foram utilizadas para avaliar a participação relativa dos macronutrientes de acordo com percentual energético (PE. Modelos de regressão linear identificaram diferenças entre PE dos macronutrientes, situação do domicílio, macrorregiões e gênero. Resultados: A proteína foi o macronutriente que apresentou maior concordância com o AMDR (99,8%. Com relação ao PE lipídico, observou-se que 9,2% da população ficaram acima da recomendação, sendo o dobro do encontrado para carboidrato (4,9% e nove vezes o percentual de idosos, cujo PE-proteico (1,0% foi acima do recomendado. Em 14,5% dos idosos a ingestão de carboidratos foi abaixo da AMDR, sendo que essas dietas apresentaram maior PE lipídico (β = 8,19; p < 0,001, revelando que 50% dos idosos que consumiam carboidratos abaixo do PE recomendado apresentou um consumo excessivo de lipídio. Segundo macrorregiões, o Centro-Oeste foi o único a apresentar diferença para carboidrato, sendo esta de menor percentual (51,6%; p < 0,05. A região Sul (17,9%; p < 0,01 apresentou o menor PE proteico e o maior de lipídios (28,7%; p < 0,01. Conclusões: A elevada frequência de inadequação da ingestão de lipídio pode significar uma pior qualidade da dieta, contribuindo com o aumento no risco de desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas.

  16. Factors influencing place of delivery for women in Kenya: an analysis of the Kenya demographic and health survey, 2008/2009

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    Kitui John

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kenya increased from 380/100000 live births to 530/100000 live births between 1990 and 2008. Skilled assistance during childbirth is central to reducing maternal mortality yet the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities where such assistance can reliably be provided has remained below 50% since the early 1990s. We use the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the factors that determine where women deliver in Kenya and to explore reasons given for home delivery. Methods Data on place of delivery, reasons for home delivery, and a range of potential explanatory factors were collected by interviewer-led questionnaire on 3977 women and augmented with distance from the nearest health facility estimated using health facility Global Positioning System (GPS co-ordinates. Predictors of whether the woman’s most recent delivery was in a health facility were explored in an exploratory risk factor analysis using multiple logistic regression. The main reasons given by the woman for home delivery were also examined. Results Living in urban areas, being wealthy, more educated, using antenatal care services optimally and lower parity strongly predicted where women delivered, and so did region, ethnicity, and type of facilities used. Wealth and rural/urban residence were independently related. The effect of distance from a health facility was not significant after controlling for other variables. Women most commonly cited distance and/or lack of transport as reasons for not delivering in a health facility but over 60% gave other reasons including 20.5% who considered health facility delivery unnecessary, 18% who cited abrupt delivery as the main reason and 11% who cited high cost. Conclusion Physical access to health facilities through distance and/or lack of transport, and economic considerations are important barriers for women to delivering in a health facility in Kenya

  17. Ambient air quality effects of the 2008-2009 Halema`uma`u eruption on the Island of Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Kauahikaua, J. P.; Ray, J. D.; Babb, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    downwind of the vent. Two recent health studies on the Island of Hawaii conducted prior to the 2008-2009 activity noted increased upper respiratory symptom prevalence in areas of persistent volcanic pollution. The current activity and exposure provides further opportunity to examine thresholds of human response. Local emergency response agencies were pressured to act quickly to address the air quality hazards. A variety of initial approaches led to an official policy of “shelter-in-place” during extreme air quality events. To date, interagency mitigation efforts have included providing Web-available near-real-time SO2 and PM data, developing an SO2 alert index, public education, supplying community fire stations and schools with SO2 monitoring equipment, surveying water quality in home-based drinking water catchment tanks, exploring forecast models, and working to install air handling systems for affected hospitals. While volcanic pollution has been an ongoing issue on the Island since the ERZ eruption became continuous in 1986, the current summit eruption has posed new challenges to Hawai`i residents, who must adapt to living with an active volcano.

  18. Prevalência de atividade física no lazer e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalencia de actividad física durante el tiempo libre y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2013-02-01

    en el ocio. Los hallazgos de este trabajo apuntan la importancia de incentivar la actividad física en el ocio, asociada al sexo masculino, mayor renta, edades más jóvenes entre 12 y 29 años, no fumar e informar no sentirse cansado(a frecuentemente.The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7 reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years, not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  19. Factores críticos de éxito y su influencia en el desarrollo turístico competitivo: caso comunidades de los Uros-Puno periodo 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Arohuanca Percca, Paula Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo de Investigación Titulado: "Factores Críticos de Éxito y su influencia en el desarrollo turístico competitivo: caso Comunidad de los Uros-Puno periodo 2008-2009", basado en el tema de desarrollo local y competitividad de territorios subnacionales, con el uso de la metodologia participativa denominada la brújula de competitividad, la que permitió trabajar con los actores directos involucrados en el tema de desarrollo económico local de la comunidad de los Uros. Se trabajó en funci...

  20. La disfuncionalidad familiar y su incidencia en el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes del Colegio Universitario "Fray Vicente Solano", año lectivo 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán Alvarez, María de Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación aborda el tema: La Disfuncionalidad Familiar y su incidencia en el Rendimiento Académico de los estudiantes del Colegio Universitario Fray Vicente Solano, en el año lectivo 2008-2009. Esta investigación está dividida en dos partes, la primera parte es de carácter teórico sustentada en un enfoque Sistémico Estructural, la segunda es fundamentalmente práctico, para lo cual se empleó técnicas investigativas de tipo: cuantitativo (Test de la familia, datos sobre rend...

  1. Unilateral Hemispheric Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Leslie Noone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 10 year old boy presented with history of mild fever and upper respiratory symptoms followed by recurrent seizures and loss of consciousness on the next day. Normal blood counts and abnormal hepatic transaminases were noted. MRI of the brain, done on the fourth day of illness, showed extensive involvement of the cortex in the right hemisphere. Lumbar CSF was normal. The EEG showed bilateral slowing with frontal sharp wave discharges and marked attenuation over the entire right hemisphere. The patient succumbed to the illness on the ninth day. A similar pattern of acute unilateral hemispheric cortical involvement is described in the hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE syndrome, which is typically described to occur in children below 4 years of age. This case of fulminant acute unilateral encaphilitic illness could represent the acute phase of HHE syndrome.

  2. DROUGHT EFFECT ON ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF SOYBEAN PRODUCTION IN THE WEST OF PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL: A CASE STUDY OF THE 2008/2009 CROP EFEITO DA ESTIAGEM NA VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DA PRODUÇÃO DE SOJA NO OESTE DO PARANÁ: UM ESTUDO DE CASO DA SAFRA 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hiroshi Hirakuri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Soybean is one of the most worldwide produced and exported agricultural commodities. Brazil is among the major producers and exporters of that grain, with distinction to the States of Mato Grosso, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul. Estimates of costs and benefits of particular agricultural activities are essential tools for short-term decision making, because they allow a glimpse of the current context and an evaluation of the economic viability of various types of agricultural activities. Due to the instability of the commodities market, in order to maximize the economic and financial performance, it is necessary to manage efficiently the farming and cattle raising business, which has as its fundamental principles to minimize costs, optimize the use of productive space, and increase productivity levels. Through information obtained from local institutions, during the 2008/2009 crop, costs and benefits of the soybean production were estimated in the city of Cafelândia, Paraná State, Brazil, which allowed evaluating the economic viability of the no-tillage system for conventional and transgenic cultivars, under drought conditions. The results showed that loss of productivity could affect farmers’ income, causing even economic damages.

    KEY-WORDS: Glycine max; climate variability

  3. How close are countries of the WHO European Region to achieving the goal of vaccinating 75% of key risk groups against influenza? Results from national surveys on seasonal influenza vaccination programmes, 2008/2009 to 2014/2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Pernille; Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Johansen, Kari; Tsolova, Svetla; Brown, Caroline

    2018-01-25

    Influenza vaccination is recommended especially for persons at risk of complications. In 2003, the World Health Assembly urged Member States (MS) to increase vaccination coverage to 75% among older persons by 2010. To assess progress towards the 2010 vaccination goal and describe seasonal influenza vaccination recommendations in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Data on seasonal influenza vaccine recommendations, dose distribution, and target group coverage were obtained from two sources: European Union and European Economic Area MS data were extracted from influenza vaccination surveys covering seven seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) published by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. For the remaining WHO European MS, a separate survey on policies and uptake for all seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) was distributed to national immunization programmes in 2015. Data was available from 49 of 53 MS. All but two had a national influenza vaccination policy. High-income countries distributed considerably higher number of vaccines per capita (median; 139.2 per 1000 population) compared to lower-middle-income countries (median; 6.1 per 1000 population). Most countries recommended vaccination for older persons, individuals with chronic disease, healthcare workers, and pregnant women. Children were included in < 50% of national policies. Only one country reached 75% coverage in older persons (2014/2015), while a number of countries reported declining vaccination uptake. Coverage of target groups was overall low, but with large variations between countries. Vaccination coverage was not monitored for several groups. Despite policy recommendations, influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. Low levels of vaccination is not only a missed opportunity for preventing influenza in vulnerable groups, but could negatively affect pandemic preparedness. Improved understanding of barriers to

  4. Copepod community structure in Bahia de Banderas during the 2008-2009 La Niña and their transition to the 2009-2010 El Niño

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    Jiménez-Pérez, L.C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the taxonomic copepod community structure and its relations with the climate conditions in the Pacific Ocean, bimonthly samples were made between February 2009 and April 2010. Samples were collected by vertical tows between the surface and the vicinity of the bottom with a 40 cm mouth diameter and 335 µ mesh size standard zooplankton net. At the beginning of the study water temperatures were low indicating that La Niña conditions prevailed in the bay. However, at the end of June, 2 °C warmer waters associated with El Niño 2009-2010 arrival were detected. These conditions persisted at least until February 2010, and by April water temperature returned to normal. 57 copepods species were recorded, being Acartia tonsa, Acartia lilljeborgi, Oithona plumífera, Centropages furcatus and Nannocalanus minor the most representative species. These five populations accounted most of the 90 % of the collected animals. Cluster and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS methods show two groups that seem to be associated with La Niña and El Niño conditions. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM indicated that these assemblages were different (r=0.411; p=0.01 %. Simper analysis indicated that A. tonsa was the dominant population (85.4 % at the end of the 2008-2009 La Niña; this population was followed by A. lilljeborgi (7.9 % and Pareucalanus subtenuis (2.5 %. During the El Niño the dominance of A. tonsa disappeared (32 % while Oithona plumífera, Temora discaudata and Undinula darwinii increased. At the end of El Niño, species diversity and richness also changed. At the end of the 2008-2009 La Niña conditions, 40 species were recorded, while during El Niño the species richness increased to 52 species.

  5. El desigual impacto de la crisis económica de 2008-2009 en los mercados de trabajo de las regiones de México: la frontera norte frente a la región sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica de 2008-2009 afectó al mercado laboral mexicano en términos de cantidad, distribución por sectores y calidad de los empleos. En este artículo se estudian estos cambios desde una perspectiva regional, entendiendo que las áreas del país más vin - culadas a los mercados internacionales padecieron las consecuencias de la crisis de mane - ras y con intensidades distintas a las regiones más aisladas. Mediante el ajuste de modelos ARIMA se demuestra que las entidades de la región sur crearon puestos de trabajo durante la crisis, la mayor parte de ellos en condiciones precarias, pero sin destrucción de empleo formal. Lo contrario ocurrió en la frontera norte, donde la industria manufacturera, la rama más ligada al comercio internacional, soportó la mayor parte del ajuste en términos de em - pleo. El sector terciario y, especialmente, el primario actuaron a modo de refugio tanto en el sur como en el norte del país. Derechos Reservados © 2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  6. Profile of patients submitted to gastroplasty in the university hospital of Maringá - Paraná State during 2008-2009 - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.12019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Hashimoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the profile of patients submitted to gastroplasty in the University Hospital of Maringá during 2008-2009. Clinical charts were analyzed to obtain clinical and laboratory data of all patients with morbid obesity submitted to gastroplasty. During the study period, 28 surgeries were performed, 57% of the patients lived in Maringá, 82% female, 40 years average age, with mean body mass index (BMI of 46.7kg m-2. It was verified that 39% of the patients maintained an usual non-hypocaloric diet, 25% had quoted dietary reeducation, 36% were sedentary, and 29% practiced some physical activity, and remaining 1/3 of patients presented no data about lifestyle. Regarding associated pathologies, 79% were hypertensive, and 71% of patients presented fasting glucose above 100 mg dL-1, but only 12 of them had diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The hospital stay length was 4 days for 89% of the patients, and 11% had surgery complications. In this group of subjects, there was a clear preponderance of females and high prevalence of other pathologies. Identifying the profile of obese patients contributes to more effective decision-making and emphasizes the crucial role of multidisciplinary approach to health promotion and prevention of early and late complications of morbid obesity and gastroplasty.

  7. Continuidades y cambios en las relaciones de Colombia con sus países vecinos: 2008-2009, año crítico con Ecuador y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ardila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo hace un balance de las principales características que inciden en los nuevos matices de la inserción de Colombia a nivel vecinal, principalmente con Ecuador y Venezuela, entre los años 2008-2009. Se trata de demostrar que son varios los cambios -y también continuidades- que tienden a aislar a Colombia del escenario regional. Los temas "intermésticos" de la agenda, la política exterior colombiana como instrumento de la política doméstica, la relación con Estados Unidos y sus efectos en la subregión, la ideologización y securitización de la agenda exterior colombiana frente a sus vecinos, la inserción negativa internacional como "país problema", las repercusiones de la regionalización del con- flicto interno, el liderazgo del Ministerio de Defensa en temas de seguridad y la diplomacia paralela; son las tendencias que se studiarán para llegar a proponer escenarios de inserción regional de Colombia como tema prioritario del próximo gobierno.

  8. Detonation in TATB Hemispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, B; Souers, P C; Chow, C; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Hrousis, C

    2004-03-17

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54{sup o} at ambient temperatures and 42{sup o} at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0{sup o}. The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. The problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably there but it cannot be quantified.

  9. Detonation in TATB hemispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, Robert L.; Souers, P. Clark; Chow, Charles; Roeske, Franklin; Vitello, Peter; Hrousis, Constantine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB (triamino-trinitrobenzene) hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54 at ambient temperatures and 42 at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0 . The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. The problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably present, but it cannot be quantified. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 8, 9, 10 11 & 12 June 2009 11:00-12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 Scenarios and Technological Challenges for a LHC Luminosity Upgrade: Introduction to the LHC Upgrade Program and Summary of Physics Motivations After a general introduction to the motivations for a LHC upgrade, the lectures will discuss the beam dynamics and technological challenges of the increase of the LHC luminosity, and the possible scenarios. Items such as a stronger final focus with larger aperture magnets, crab cavities, electron cloud issues, beam-beam interaction, machine protection and collimation will be discussed.Monday 8 June 2009 Introduction to the LHC upgrade program - L. Evans Summary of Physics Motivations - M. Mangano Tuesday 9 June 2009 The Dectector Upgrade and the Requirements on the Upgrade Scenarios - M. Nessi Wednesday 10 June 2009 Scenarios for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade - F. Zimmermann Thursday 11 June 2009 Main Accelerator Science Challenges: Magnet Technolog...

  11. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 8, 9, 10 11 & 12 June 2009 11:00-12:00 - BE Auditorium Meyrin, Bldg. 6-2-024 Scenarios and Technological Challenges for a LHC Luminosity Upgrade: Introduction to the LHC Upgrade Program and Summary of Physics Motivations Lyn Evans / DG Projects Office, Michelangelo Mangano / PH Department After a general introduction to the motivations for a LHC upgrade, the lectures will discuss the beam dynamics and technological challenges of the increase of the LHC luminosity, and the possible scenarios. Items such as a stronger final focus with larger aperture magnets, crab cavities, electron cloud issues, beam-beam interaction, machine protection and collimation will be discussed.

  12. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 26-27-28 January 2009 11:00-12:00, Main Auditorium, Bldg 500-1-001 Electroweak symmetry breaking: to Higgs or not to Higgs Christophe Grojean / CERN-PH-TH How do elementary particles acquire their mass? What makes the photon different from the Z boson? In a word: How is electroweak symmetry broken? This is one of the pressing questions in particle physics that the LHC will answer soon. The aim of this lecture is, after briefly introducing SM physics and the conventional Higgs mechanism, to give a survey of recent attempts to go beyond a simple elementary Higgs. In particular, I will describe composite models (where the Higgs boson emerges from a strongly-interacting sector) and Higsless models. Distinctive signatures at the LHC are expected and will reveal the true nature of the electroweak symmetry sector. 2-5 February 2009 11:00-12:00, Main Auditorium, Bldg 500-1-001 Statistical Techniques for Particle Physics Kyle Cranmer / CERN-PH This series will con...

  13. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 5-6 March 2009 Thursday, 5 March 2009: 11:00-12:00, 14:00-15:00 Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Friday, 6 March 2009: 10:00-12:00, Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Recent developments at 3rd generation storage ring light sources Jean-Marc FILHOL, Deputy Director-General SOLEIL, France Over the last decade, many 3rd generation storage ring light sources have been built and put into operation. Progressively, significant improvements have been brought to the machine performances and experiences developed at the first facilities have benefited to the most recently built ones. Most of the recent facilities are now featuring small emittances, high current together with high position stability. The small sizes of the electron beam at the source points impose achieving position stabilities in the sub micron range. The technology to build the insertion devices that produce the photon beams has reached a very mature state and enables 3 GeV medium energy /medium size machines to produce high brillian...

  14. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIE 21-22-23 January 2009 11:00-12:00 hrs., Main Auditorium, Bldg 500-1-001 The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC James WELLS / CERN-TH There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery. 26-27-28 January 2009 11:00-12:00 hrs., Main Auditorium, Bldg 500-1-001 Electroweak symmetry breaking: to Higgs or not to Higgs Christophe Grojean / CERN-PH-TH How do elementary particles acquire their mass? What is making the photon different from the Z boson? In a word: How is electroweak symmetry broken? This is one of the pressing questions in particle phys...

  15. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 21-22-23 January 2009 11:00-12:00 hrs., Main Auditorium, Bldg 500-1-001 The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC James WELLS / CERN-TH There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery. 26-27-28 January 2009 11:00-12:00 hrs., Main Auditorium, Bldg 500-1-001 Electroweak symmetry breaking: to Higgs or not to Higgs Christophe Grojean / CERN-PH-TH How do elementary particles acquire their mass? What makes the photon different from the Z boson? In a word: How is electroweak symmetry broken? This is one of the pressing...

  16. Caltran's strategic research plan, 2008/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to convey the progress the Division of Research and Innovation (DRI) has made toward achieving its research goals and objectives. It provides an overview as to the management of research and a synopsis of recently comple...

  17. Recent advances in mechatronics. 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, Tomas [Brno Univ. of Technology (Czech Republic). Inst. of Automation and Computer Science; Jablonski, Ryszard (eds.) [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Mechatronics is a synergic discipline integrating precise mechanics, electrotechnics, electronics and IT technologies. The main goal of mechatronical approach to design of complex products is to achieve new quality of their utility value at reasonable price. Successful accomplishment of this task would not be possible without application of advanced software and hardware tools for simulation of design, technologies and production control and also for simulation of behavior of these products in order to provide the highest possible level of spatial and functional integration of the final product. This book brings a review of the current state of the art in mechatronics, as presented at the 8{sup th} International Conference Mechatronics 2009, organized by the Brno Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Republic. The specific topics of the conference are Modelling and Simulation, Metrology and Diagnostics, Sensorics and Photonics, Control and Robotics, MEMS Design and Mechatronic Products, Production Machines and Biomechanics. The selected contributions provide an insight into the current development of these scientific disciplines, present the new results of research and development and indicate the trends of development in the interdisciplinary field of mechatronic systems. Therefore, the book provides the latest and helpful information both for the R and D specialists and for the designers working in mechatronics and related fields. (orig.)

  18. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 9-10 February 2009 Monday 9 February 2009 11:00-12:00, 16:00-17:00. Tuesday 10 February 2009 11:00-12:00, 14:00-15:00. Council Chamber, Bldg 503-1-001 Understanding Cross Sections at the LHC Dr. Stephen MRENNA / Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA My lectures will focus on the theoretical and phenomenological tools that will be needed to understand the Standard Model at the LHC. Emphasis will be placed on parton shower event generators and the methodology for tuning them to data. 5-6 March 2009 Thursday, 5 March 2009: 11:00-12:00, 14:00-15:00 Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Friday, 6 March 2009: 10:00-12:00, Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Recent developments at 3rd generation storage ring light sources Jean-Marc FILHOL, Deputy Director-General SOLEIL, France Over the last decade, many 3rd generation storage ring light sources have been built and put into operation. Progressively, significant improvements have been brought to the machine performances and experiences developed at...

  19. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 April 2009 11:00-12:00 - TH Auditorium, Bldg. 4-3-006 The Use of Radiation Detectors in Medecine: The Future of Molecular Imaging and Multimodality Imaging Prof. Alberto Del Guerra / Dep. of Physics "E. Fermi", Univ. of Pise and INFN, Italy The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in the late 70s with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in high energy physics of position-sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research p...

  20. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 April 2009 11:00-12:00 - TH Auditorium, Bldg. 4-3-006 The Use of Radiation Detectors in Medecine: The Future of Molecular Imaging and Multimodality Imaging Prof. Alberto Del Guerra / Dep. of Physics "E. Fermi", Univ. of Pise and INFN, Italy The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in the late 70s with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in high energy physics of position-sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents addition...

  1. CERN Academic Training Programme 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 23, 24 , 25 February 2009 11:00-12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 String Theory for Pedestrians Prof. Constantin Bachas / École normale supérieure, Paris, France This is a rapid non-technical course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.. 5-6 March 2009 Thursday, 5 March 2009: 11:00-12:00, 14:00-15:00, Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001. Friday, 6 March 2009: 10:00-12:00, Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Recent developments at 3rd generation storage ring light sources Jean-Marc FILHOL, Deputy Director-General SOLEIL, France Over the last decade, many 3rd ge...

  2. Ingestão inadequada de nutrientes na população de idosos do Brasil: Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Mara Fisberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de ingestão inadequada de nutrientes na população idosa brasileira. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação como parte da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares, em 2008-2009. Dados de consumo alimentar individual de 4.322 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais foram obtidos por meio do registro alimentar de dois dias não consecutivos. A ingestão habitual para cada nutriente foi estimada pelo método do National Cancer Institute, cujos modelos tiveram como covariáveis sexo e região. As prevalências de inadequação de ingestão de micronutrientes foram estimadas segundo sexo e região utilizando o método da EAR como ponte de corte. RESULTADOS: Elevadas prevalências de inadequação (> 50% foram observadas para as vitaminas E, D, A, cálcio, magnésio e piridoxina em ambos os sexos. Em todas as regiões, observou-se 100% de inadequação de vitamina E. Vitamina D obteve percentuais de inadequação próximos de 100% em todas as regiões, exceto para a região Norte. As prevalências de inadequação de vitamina A foram superiores a 70% nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Cálcio e magnésio foram os minerais com maior prevalência de ingestão inadequada (> 80% em todas as regiões. CONCLUSÕES: Idosos brasileiros apresentam elevada inadequação da ingestão de nutrientes, reconhecidos como protetores contra doenças crônicas.

  3. Fatores associados à adequação do cuidado pré-natal e à assistência ao parto em São Tomé e Príncipe, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alexandra da Graça Dantas dos Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, foram identificados fatores sociodemográficos associados com o cuidado pré-natal e com a assistência ao parto em São Tomé e Príncipe. A amostra foi composta por 1.326 nascidos vivos de mulheres de 15 a 49 anos que participaram do Inquérito Demográfico e Sanitário de São Tomé e Príncipe, 2008-2009. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão logística e multinomial multiníveis. A adequação global do cuidado pré-natal foi de 26% e da assistência ao parto de 7% quando realizado por médicos e de 76% quando realizado por enfermeiras/auxiliares. Os fatores associados ao pré-natal e à assistência ao parto adequados foram: ordem de nascimento, educação materna e o índice de bem-estar econômico. O local de residência se mostrou fator importante apenas em relação à assistência ao parto. Observou-se que os efeitos aleatórios referentes às áreas onde as mulheres residem exerceram impacto importante sobre a chance de realizar pré-natal adequado e parto com profissionais capacitados. A importância dos fatores socioeconômicos aponta para a elaboração de ações que visem reduzir a desigualdade social em São Tomé e Príncipe.

  4. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  5. Effective Connectivity Reveals Right-Hemisphere Dominance in Audiospatial Perception: Implications for Models of Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717

  6. Early-stage chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and osteoporosis as risk factors of sarcopenia in aged population: the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J E; Lee, Y-H; Huh, J H; Kang, D R; Rhee, Y; Lim, S-K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcopenia means the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with aging. In this study, we found that insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease stage 3, and osteoporosis at the femur neck were closely associated with sarcopenia in elderly men. These conditions modified to slow down the progression of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is known to have multiple contributing factors; however, its modifiable risk factors have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the most influential and modifiable risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study using data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009. This study included 940 men and 1,324 women aged 65 years and older who completed a body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height(2) of less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group. Using univariate analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, high-risk drinking, family income, osteoporosis, daily energy, and protein intake were associated with sarcopenia in men; age, BMI, limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, occupation, osteoporosis at the total hip, and daily energy intake were associated with sarcopenia in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR ≥2.5 (odds ratio [OR] for sarcopenia, 2.27; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.25), chronic kidney disease stage 3 (OR, 3.13; 95 % CI, 1.14-8.61), and osteoporosis at the femur neck (OR, 6.83; 95 % CI, 1.08-43.41) were identified as risk factors for sarcopenia in men. Insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis at the femur neck should be modified to prevent the acceleration of skeletal muscle

  7. A review of statistical estimators for risk-adjusted length of stay: analysis of the Australian and new Zealand Intensive Care Adult Patient Data-Base, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, John L; Solomon, Patricia J

    2012-05-16

    For the analysis of length-of-stay (LOS) data, which is characteristically right-skewed, a number of statistical estimators have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression with log dependent variable. Using a cohort of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 2008-2009, 12 different methods were used for estimation of intensive care (ICU) length of stay. These encompassed risk-adjusted regression analysis of firstly: log LOS using OLS, linear mixed model [LMM], treatment effects, skew-normal and skew-t models; and secondly: unmodified (raw) LOS via OLS, generalised linear models [GLMs] with log-link and 4 different distributions [Poisson, gamma, negative binomial and inverse-Gaussian], extended estimating equations [EEE] and a finite mixture model including a gamma distribution. A fixed covariate list and ICU-site clustering with robust variance were utilised for model fitting with split-sample determination (80%) and validation (20%) data sets, and model simulation was undertaken to establish over-fitting (Copas test). Indices of model specification using Bayesian information criterion [BIC: lower values preferred] and residual analysis as well as predictive performance (R2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean absolute error [MAE]) were established for each estimator. The data-set consisted of 111663 patients from 131 ICUs; with mean(SD) age 60.6(18.8) years, 43.0% were female, 40.7% were mechanically ventilated and ICU mortality was 7.8%. ICU length-of-stay was 3.4(5.1) (median 1.8, range (0.17-60)) days and demonstrated marked kurtosis and right skew (29.4 and 4.4 respectively). BIC showed considerable spread, from a maximum of 509801 (OLS-raw scale) to a minimum of 210286 (LMM). R2 ranged from 0.22 (LMM) to 0.17 and the CCC from 0.334 (LMM) to 0.149, with MAE 2.2-2.4. Superior residual behaviour was established for the log-scale estimators

  8. Hemisphere partition function and monodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkinger, David; Knapp, Johanna [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-05-29

    We discuss D-brane monodromies from the point of view of the gauged linear sigma model. We give a prescription on how to extract monodromy matrices directly from the hemisphere partition function. We illustrate this procedure by recomputing the monodromy matrices associated to one-parameter Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in weighted projected space.

  9. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  10. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  11. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  12. Hemispheric processing asymmetries: implications for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, M G; Corballis, P M; Gazzaniga, M S

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that memory for words elicits left hemisphere activation, faces right hemisphere activation, and nameable objects bilateral activation. This pattern of results was attributed to dual coding of information, with the left hemisphere employing a verbal code and the right a nonverbal code. Nameable objects can be encoded either verbally or nonverbally and this accounts for their bilateral activation. We investigated this hypothesis in a callosotomy patient. Consistent with dual coding, the left hemisphere was superior to the right in memory for words, whereas the right was superior for faces. Contrary to prediction, performance on nameable pictures was not equivalent in the two hemispheres, but rather resulted in a right hemisphere superiority. In addition, memory for pictures was significantly better than for either words or faces. These findings suggest that the dual code hypothesis is an oversimplification of the processing capabilities of the two hemispheres.

  13. Awake right hemisphere brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Smith, Timothy R; Chiocca, E Antonio; Johnson, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We report the indications and outcomes of awake right hemispheric brain surgery, as well as a rare patient with crossed aphasia. Awake craniotomies are often performed to protect eloquent cortex. We reviewed the medical records for 35 of 96 patients, in detail, who had awake right hemisphere brain operations. Intraoperative cortical mapping of motor and/or language function was performed in 29 of the 35 patients. A preoperative speech impairment and left hand dominance were the main indicators for awake right-sided craniotomies in patients with right hemisphere lesions. Four patients with lesion proximity to eloquent areas underwent awake craniotomies without cortical mapping. In addition, one patient had a broncho-pulmonary fistula, and another had a recent major cardiac procedure that precluded awake surgery. An eloquent cortex representation was identified in 14 patients (48.3%). Postoperatively, seven of 17 patients (41.1%) who presented with weakness, experienced improvements in their motor functions, 11 of 16 (68.7%) with seizures became seizure-free, and seven of nine (77.7%) with moderate to severe headaches and one of two with a visual field deficit improved significantly. There were also improvements in speech and language functions in all patients who presented with speech difficulties. A right sided awake craniotomy is an excellent option for left handed patients, or those with right sided cortical lesions that result in preoperative speech impairments. When combined with intraoperative cortical mapping, both speech and motor function can be well preserved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparação das estimativas de prevalência de indicadores de saúde no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, nos anos de 2001/2002 (ISA-SP e 2008/2009 (ISA-Camp Comparación de las estimaciones de prevalencia en los indicadores de salud en Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, durante los años 2001/2002 (ISA-SP y 2008/2009 (ISA-Camp Comparison of prevalence estimates for health indicators in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001-2002 (ISA-SP and 2008-2009 (ISA-Camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester Luis Galvão César

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar estimativas da prevalência de indicadores de saúde para adultos residentes em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando dados de inquéritos domiciliares realizados em diferentes períodos de tempo (ISA-SP 2001/2002 e ISA-Camp 2008/2009, com amostras de 941 e 2.637 indivíduos de 18 anos e mais, respectivamente. Variáveis sociodemográficas caracterizaram a população estudada. Foram estimadas prevalências e seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança e as comparações foram realizadas pelas razões de prevalência ajustadas por sexo, idade e escolaridade, obtidas pela regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram observadas para as prevalências de: morbidade referida, uso de medicamentos, percentual dos que nunca fumaram, realização dos exames de Papanicolaou e de mamografia, alguma vez na vida. O acompanhamento de indicadores de saúde por inquéritos repetidos em uma mesma população pode facilitar o monitoramento de objetivos e metas fornecendo subsídios ao planejamento de ações em saúde.El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las estimaciones de prevalencia en los indicadores de salud para los adultos que viven en Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, con datos de encuestas de diferentes períodos de tiempo (ISA-SP 2001/2002 y ISA-Camp 2008/2009, con muestras de 941 y 2.637 personas de 18 años y más, respectivamente. Las variables sociodemográficas caracterizaron a la población de estudio. Se estimaron la prevalencia y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza del 95% y las comparaciones se realizaron por razones de prevalencia ajustadas por sexo, edad y educación, obtenidas mediante la regresión de Poisson. Se observaron diferencias estadísticas en la prevalencia de morbilidad, uso de medicamentos, el porcentaje de quienes nunca habían fumado, la realización de citologías vaginales y mamografías, en algún momento de sus vidas. El seguimiento

  15. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benis, E.P. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: benis@iesl.forth.gr; Zouros, T.J.M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2008-04-15

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R{sub 0} and the nominal value of the potential V(R{sub 0}) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD.

  16. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benis, E.P.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R 0 and the nominal value of the potential V(R 0 ) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD

  17. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  18. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  19. Right hemispheric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with left hemispheric partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Gina S; McCaslin, Justin; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres.

  20. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  1. Personality, Hemispheric Dominance, and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Jaime; Hartman, Steve E.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that 154 medical students and 526 undergraduates (samples treated separately) who were judged left- or right-hemisphere dominant (by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator) were found to have very different personalities (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). Considers some of the practical ramifications of the psychometric overlap of…

  2. Interaction of cerebral hemispheres and artistic thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Nikolay N.

    1998-07-01

    Study of drawings by patients with local lesions of the right or left hemisphere allows to understand how artistic thinking is supported by brain structures. The role of the right hemisphere is significant at the early stage of creative process. The right hemisphere is a generator of nonverbal visuo-spatial thinking. It operates with blurred nonverbal images and arrange them in a visual space. With the help of iconic signs the right hemisphere reflects the world and creates perceptive visual standards which are stored in the long-term right hemisphere memory. The image, which appeared in the `inner' space, should be transferred into a principally different language, i.e. a left hemispheric sign language. This language operates with a number of discrete units, logical succession and learned grammar rules. This process can be explained by activation (information) transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one. Thus, natural and spontaneous creative process, which is finished by a conscious effort, can be understood as an activation impulse transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one and back.

  3. Hitler: a neurohistorical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, C; Hasenfus, N; Hines, D

    1976-01-01

    It is hypothesized that Adolf Hitler suffered from a constitutional left-side weakness that allowed his cerebral hemisphere to exert a strong influence on his thought and behavior. Physical characteristics such as trembling of the left extremities, lack of a left testicle, and tendency to exhibit leftward eye movements are interpreted as supportive of the hypothesis. Right hemisphere dominance is consistent with a number of Hitler's personal traits such as praise of the irrational, automatic speech, auditory hallucinations, hypochondriasis, uncontrolled rages, and spatial and musical interests. Right hemisphere dominated thought may also have formed a basis for his two basic political policies: Lebensraum and anti-Semitism.

  4. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance and sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, A; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2004-06-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites: endogenous digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor, immunomodulator and regulator of neurotransmitter/amino acid transport), dolichol (regulates N-glycosylation of proteins) and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The role of the isoprenoid pathway in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in relation to hemispheric dominance was studied. The isoprenoid pathway-related cascade was assessed in patients with systemic sarcoidosis with pulmonary involvement. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric and bihemispheric dominance for comparison to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. In patients with sarcoidosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in the cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in the glycoconjugate level of red blood cell (RBC) membrane in this group of patients. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric dominance. In individuals with left hemispheric dominance the patterns were reversed. Endogenous digoxin, by activating the calcineurin signal transduction pathway of T cells, can contribute to immune activation in sarcoidosis. An altered glycoconjugate metabolism can lead to the generation of endogenous self-glycoprotein antigens in the lung as well as other tissues. Increased free radical generation can also lead to immune activation. The role of a dysfunctional isoprenoid pathway and endogenous digoxin in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in relation to right hemispheric chemical dominance is discussed. All the patients with sarcoidosis were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant according to the dichotic listening test, but their biochemical patterns

  5. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-10-31

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Technology Assessment Program (TAP) was developed to provide detailed, comparable data for environmental technologies and to disseminate this data to D&D professionals in a manner that will facilitate the review and selection of technologies to perform decontamination and decommissioning. The objectives for this project include the following: Determine technology needs through review of the Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) information and other applicable websites and needs databases; Perform a detailed review of industries that perform similar activities as those required in D&D operations to identify additional technologies; Define the technology assessment program for characterization and waste management problem sets; Define the data management program for characterization, dismantlement, and waste management problem sets; Evaluate baseline and innovative technologies under standard test conditions at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) and other locations and collect data in the areas of performance, cost, health and safety, operations and maintenance, and primary and secondary waste generation; Continue to locate, verify, and incorporate technology performance data from other sources into the multimedia information system; and Develop the conceptual design for a dismantlement technology decision analysis tool for dismantlement technologies.

  6. Les « Toits de l’Europe II » (2008-2009. Mise en œuvre d’une méthodologie partagée pour l’étude, la conservation et la mise en valeur des toitures historiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Aumard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Charpentes et matériaux de couvertureDans le cadre du projet « Les toits de l’Europe », reconduit en 2008-2009 , la rencontre d’Auxerre a pour objectif de faire un tour d’horizon des recherches menées dans un domaine encore mal connu du bâti médiéval : les matériaux de couverture. Si les travaux d’étude sur les charpentes anciennes se sont considérablement développés au cours de ces dernières décennies, notamment grâce à la dendrochronologie, très peu ont porté une attention particulière aux ...

  7. Hemispheric resource limitations in comprehending ambiguous pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H; Minor, S W

    1990-03-01

    Ambiguous pictures (Roschach inkblots) were lateralized for 100 msec vs. 200 msec to the right and left hemispheres (RH and LH) of 32 normal right-handed males who determined which of two previously presented words (an accurate or inaccurate one) better described the inkblot. Over the first 32 trials, subjects receiving each stimulus exposure duration were less accurate when the hemisphere receiving the stimulus also controlled the hand used to register a keypress response (RH-left hand and LH-right hand trials) than when hemispheric resources were shared, i.e., when one hemisphere controlled stimulus processing and the other controlled response programming. These differences were eliminated when the 32 trials were repeated.

  8. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. PMID:25624815

  9. Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    La Seguridad Internacional, la Nueva Geopolitica Continental y Mexico ,” Seminario Internacional sobre Misiones de Paz, Seguridad y Defensa, Rio de...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE OF HEMISPHERIC SECURITY FOR MEXICO by LTC Enrique Garcia Jaramillo Cavalry, Mexican Army COL Joseph R...xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-04-01

    The isoprenoid path way produces endogenous digoxin, a substance that can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in individuals with chronic insomnia. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The activity of HMG GoA reductase and serum levels of digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in individuals with chronic insomnia and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism (increased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine), and downregulated tyrosine catabolism (decreased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with chronic insomnia and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism (decreased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine) and upregulated tyrosine catabolism (increased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with normal sleep patterns and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin plays a central role in the regulation of sleep behavior. Hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to digoxin status is also crucial.

  11. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-03-01

    The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in atheistic and spiritually inclined individuals. The pathway was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to assess whether hemispheric dominance has a correlation with spiritual and atheistic tendency. HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, and tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns were assessed in spiritual/atheistic individuals and in those differing hemispheric dominance. In spiritually-inclined individuals, there was increased digoxin synthesis, decreased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, increased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and decreased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). The pattern in spiritually-inclined individuals correlated with right hemispheric chemical dominance. In atheistic individuals there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolities (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern in atheistic individuals correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to spirituality or atheism.

  12. Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; Carlson, Anders E; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Kutzbach, John E

    2013-02-07

    According to the Milankovitch theory, changes in summer insolation in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere caused glacial cycles through their impact on ice-sheet mass balance. Statistical analyses of long climate records supported this theory, but they also posed a substantial challenge by showing that changes in Southern Hemisphere climate were in phase with or led those in the north. Although an orbitally forced Northern Hemisphere signal may have been transmitted to the Southern Hemisphere, insolation forcing can also directly influence local Southern Hemisphere climate, potentially intensified by sea-ice feedback, suggesting that the hemispheres may have responded independently to different aspects of orbital forcing. Signal processing of climate records cannot distinguish between these conditions, however, because the proposed insolation forcings share essentially identical variability. Here we use transient simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to identify the impacts of forcing from changes in orbits, atmospheric CO(2) concentration, ice sheets and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on hemispheric temperatures during the first half of the last deglaciation (22-14.3 kyr BP). Although based on a single model, our transient simulation with only orbital changes supports the Milankovitch theory in showing that the last deglaciation was initiated by rising insolation during spring and summer in the mid-latitude to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere and by terrestrial snow-albedo feedback. The simulation with all forcings best reproduces the timing and magnitude of surface temperature evolution in the Southern Hemisphere in deglacial proxy records. AMOC changes associated with an orbitally induced retreat of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets is the most plausible explanation for the early Southern Hemisphere deglacial warming and its lead over Northern Hemisphere temperature; the ensuing rise in atmospheric CO(2

  13. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-04-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which regulates neuronal transmission. The digoxin status and neurotransmitter patterns were studied in creative and non-creative individuals, as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance, in order to find out the role of cerebral dominance in this respect. The activity of HMG CoA reductase and serum levels of digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in creative/non-creative individuals, and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In creative individuals there was increased digoxin synthesis, decreased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, increased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and decreased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). The pattern in creative individuals correlated with right hemispheric dominance. In non-creative individuals there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern in non-creative individuals correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to creative tendency.

  14. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  15. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  16. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere

  17. Investment in the Western Hemisphere energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillam, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the main characteristics of Western Hemisphere energy markets are well known to those in the energy industry. The United States sits in the northern half of the hemisphere, importing more and more oil from the rest of the world. Brazil, with a market one-tenth of the size of the United Sates, sits in the southern half of the hemisphere, importing less and less oil from the rest of the world. Venezuela sits in the center with an eye to the future as a long-term player in the world petroleum industry. Venezuela has 6 or 7 percent of the world's known conventional petroleum reserves, plus an uncountable bitumen resource which is now being commercialized as Orimulsion, a low-emission substitute for coal. The United States is circled by major producing countries with smaller exports, such as Mexico and Canada, and there are smaller producing or consuming countries of which Colombia is the largest exporter and Argentian the largest importer. The United States dominates the numbers. Half of British Petroleum's (BP) investments have been in the energy industry of the Western Hemisphere. We are maintaining that proportion, but opportunities are becoming more difficult to find

  18. Hemispheric differences in the mesostriatal dopaminergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana eMolochnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mesostriatal dopaminergic system, which comprises the mesolimbic and the nigrostriatal pathways, plays a major role in neural processing underlying motor and limbic functions. Multiple reports suggest that these processes are influenced by hemispheric differences in striatal dopamine (DA levels, DA turnover and its receptor activity. Here, we review studies which measured the concentration of DA and its metabolites to examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior under different conditions. Specifically, we assess evidence in support of endogenous, inter-hemispheric DA imbalance; determine whether the known anatomy provides a suitable substrate for this imbalance; examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior; and characterize the symmetry of the observed inter-hemispheric laterality in the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic DA systems. We conclude that many studies provide supporting evidence for the occurrence of experience-dependent endogenous DA imbalance which is controlled by a dedicated regulatory/compensatory mechanism. Additionally, it seems that the link between DA imbalance and animal behavior is better characterized in the nigrostriatal than in the mesolimbic system. Nonetheless, a variety of brain and behavioral manipulations demonstrate that the nigrostriatal system displays symmetrical laterality whereas the mesolimbic system displays asymmetrical laterality which supports hemispheric specialization in rodents. The reciprocity of the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior (i.e. the capacity of animal training to alter DA imbalance for prolonged time periods remains controversial, however, if confirmed, may provide a valuable noninvasive therapeutic means for treating abnormal DA imbalance.

  19. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine L. Goodale; Michael J. Apps; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher B. Field; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Gundolf H. Kohlmaier; Werner Kurz; Shirong Liu; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measurement-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together...

  20. A vision of graded hemispheric specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43% in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39% in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered. Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  2. Global Forum for Health Research 2008-2009 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since its foundation in 1998, the Global Forum for Health Research (GFHR) has sought to focus greater attention and resources on research that will improve the health of the poor, marginalized and disadvantaged. The Forum has also become an authoritative and independent source of reliable data, practical tools and ...

  3. Geospace environment modeling 2008--2009 challenge: Dst index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.M.; Glocer, A.; Welling, D.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wittberger, M.; Jordanova, V.K.; Yu, Y.; Zaharia, S.; Weigel, R.S.; Sazykin, S.; Boynton, R.; Wei, H.; Eccles, V.; Horton, W.; Mays, M.L.; Gannon, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the metrics-based results of the Dst index part of the 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge. The 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for four geomagnetic storm events and five different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical, climatological or physics-based models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of 30 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations, we use comparisons of 1 hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of 1 minute model data with the 1 minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geological Survey. The latter index can be used to calculate spectral variability of model outputs in comparison to the index. We find that model rankings vary widely by skill score used. None of the models consistently perform best for all events. We find that empirical models perform well in general. Magnetohydrodynamics-based models of the global magnetosphere with inner magnetosphere physics (ring current model) included and stand-alone ring current models with properly defined boundary conditions perform well and are able to match or surpass results from empirical models. Unlike in similar studies, the statistical models used in this study found their challenge in the weakest events rather than the strongest events.

  4. Progress Report 2007/2008 and 2008/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    In the year 2009, we celebrate 90 years of electrical engineering education in Croatia, which started in 1919 with the Electrical engineering department within the Technical faculty of the University of Zagreb. A lot has changed since then. Governments, regimes, country names: Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Republic of Croatia. Our institution changed names too: Electrical engineering department in 1919, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in 1956, Faculty of electrical engineering and computing in 1994, but it has never changed its aim towards excellence. Always independent of the politics, even in the most turbulent times, we have been able to attract brightest and most capable students in the region and graduate more than 15000 engineers who were constantly highly appreciated at all labour markets, foreign and domestic. The regional leading role of our Faculty in the research and education in the fields of electrical engineering and later in computing and information and communication technology, has remained undisputed through almost a century. Keeping pace with ever-changing state of technology, in the area of science which was progressing like no other, particularly throughout recent decades, the Faculty has been adopting and enhancing itself, for the benefit of our students, faculty, staff and community, making a major contribution to the economic, social and cultural life of our city and the region. At all times ahead of the others, sometimes too avant-garde for the rest of the regional academic community, we have been persistently but gradually reforming an archaic higher education system. I am highly confident that, in the countless years to come, the Faculty of electrical engineering and computing will continue to advance and adapt, changing only to the better. This will require a considerable effort of all the involved, but, being aware of the devotion of our employees and students to our institution, I have no doubt that they will do their best. This Progress Report in front of you is slightly different from the previous versions. They used to include complete lists of publications which scientists of our Faculty had published during the previous two years. Now, this list has simply become too long, and therefore it is included on an accompanying disk. Even without that list, limiting ourselves to the most basic facts, we have not been able to reduce the size under hundred pages. This sole fact can give you an idea about the size and complexity of our institution. I hope that you would enjoy browsing through this publication.(author)

  5. Click It or Ticket evaluation : 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, widely publicized enforcement efforts used to improve seat belt use. Annual national mobilizations have been conducted in May every year since 2003. National and State expenditures ...

  6. Raport doktoranta za rok akademicki 2008/2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politechnika Poznańska

    The ability of the microbial consortium to produce biosurfactants under the ... derivatization reaction was carried out at room temperature for 18 h in a tightly closed vial with ..... rhamnolipid biosurfactants and toxic chlorinated phenols enhance.

  7. End-of-year closure 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin No. 3-4/2008, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 20 December 2008 to Sunday 4 January 2009 inclusive. This period consists of 15 days: 4 days’ official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2008 and 1 January 2009; 6 days’ special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.38 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 22, 23, 26, 29, 30 December 2008 and 2 January 2009; 3 Saturdays, i.e. 20, 27 December 2008 and 3 January 2009; 3 Sundays, i.e. 21, 28 December 2008 and 4 January 2009. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 5 January 2009. Further information is available from Department Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  8. End-of-year closure 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin Nº 3-4/2008, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 20 December 2008 to Sunday 4 January 2009 inclusive. This period consists of 15 days: • 4 days’ official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2008 and 1 January 2009; • 6 days’ special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.38 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 22, 23, 26, 29, 30 December 2008 and 2 January 2009; • 3 Saturdays, i.e. 20, 27 December 2008 and 3 January 2009; • 3 Sundays, i.e. 21, 28 December 2008 and 4 January 2009. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 5 January 2009. Further information is available from Department Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  9. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel coun...

  10. Audits of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for auditing radiopharmaceutical formulations is described. To meet FDA guidelines regarding the quality of radiopharmaceuticals, institutional radioactive drug research committees perform audits when such drugs are formulated away from an institutional pharmacy. All principal investigators who formulate drugs outside institutional pharmacies must pass these audits before they can obtain a radiopharmaceutical investigation permit. The audit team meets with the individual who performs the formulation at the site of drug preparation to verify that drug formulations meet identity, strength, quality, and purity standards; are uniform and reproducible; and are sterile and pyrogen free. This team must contain an expert knowledgeable in the preparation of radioactive drugs; a radiopharmacist is the most qualified person for this role. Problems that have been identified by audits include lack of sterility and apyrogenicity testing, formulations that are open to the laboratory environment, failure to use pharmaceutical-grade chemicals, inadequate quality control methods or records, inadequate training of the person preparing the drug, and improper unit dose preparation. Investigational radiopharmaceutical formulations, including nonradiolabeled drugs, must be audited before they are administered to humans. A properly trained pharmacist should be a member of the audit team

  11. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  12. Reactive decontamination formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletto, Anthony [College Station, TX; White, William [College Station, TX; Cisar, Alan J [Cypress, TX; Hitchens, G Duncan [Bryan, TX; Fyffe, James [Bryan, TX

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  13. Behavioral evidence for left-hemisphere specialization of motor planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Meulenbroek, R.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the left hemisphere is dominant for the planning of motor actions. This left-hemisphere specialization hypothesis was proposed in various lines of research, including patient studies, motor imagery studies, and studies involving neurophysiological techniques. However,

  14. Preparation of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Garlich, J.R.; Frank, R.K.; McMillan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical formulations for complexes comprising at least one radionuclide complexed with a ligand, or its physiologically-acceptable salts thereof, especially 153 samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid, which optionally contains a divalent metal ion, e.g. calcium, and is frozen, thawed, and then administered by injection. Alternatively, the radiopharmaceutical formulations must contain the divalent metal and are frozen only if the time before administration is sufficiently long to cause concern for radiolysis of the ligand. 2 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Tariff formulation and equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svartsund, Trond

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the transmission tariff is to provide for socioeconomic use of the transmission grid. The present tariff structure is basically right. The responsibility for the formulation of the tariff resides with the local grid owner. This must take place in agreement with the current regulations which are passed by the authorities. The formulation must be adaptable to the local requirements. EBL (Norwegian Electricity Industry Association) is content with the current regulations

  16. Calibration of fisheye lenses for hemispherical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaci, J.; Kolar, U.

    2000-01-01

    Hemispherical photography represents one of the most appropriate methods of estimating averages of solar radiation over extended periods of time. This method is based upon the use of extremely wide-angle fisheye lenses, which produce large projection distortion. To correctly interpret hemispherical photography we have to know the projection characteristics of the fisheye lens in combination with a camera body. This can be achieved through lens calibration. The first part of the article explains in detail the calibration method for fisheye lenses which are used to assess the solar radiation in forest ecology research. In the second part the results of calibration for fisheye lens Sigma 8 mm, f/4 (MF, N) are presented. The lens was used on a Nikon F50 camera body

  17. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  18. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  19. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  20. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  1. An Evaluative Review of Hemispheric Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Multiple resources in divided attention : a cross-modal te&t o£ the independence of hemispheric resources. Journal of < Experimental Psychology...found, for example, in a pianist who could play melodies without difficulty, compose new melodies at the piano, and write them down accurately...of the pair at the oppo- site ear; this procedure, referred to as dichotic presentation, has its origins in experiments on selective attention

  2. Recent climate changes in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of analyzed changes in surface wind stress, sea level pressures and surface temperatures between 1980-86 and previous periods indicates the reality of statistically significant and substantial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere, especially over the North Pacific, on decadal time scales. Cooling in North Pacific sea surface temperatures and warming along the west coast of North America and Alaska are ascribed mainly to the changes in thermal advection associated with a deeper and more extensive Aleutian Low

  3. Water. Unresolved emergency of the Southern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, C.

    2001-01-01

    Among the serious dramas in the Southern hemisphere, the most serious relates to health, and the most serious health problem is dysentery among the rural population, caused by the lack of unpolluted water. Bad management frustrates much of the aid sent to this part of the world, including projects to help the water crisis. In view of the success, it would appear that a concrete solution could be found within a decade, at a cost that can easily be sustained by the rich world, so long as funds are managed honestly. Much more ambitious and, at least for the moment, beyond all concrete possibility, is the project to provide a barrel of water per head to each person in the southern hemisphere. Providing unpolluted water and facilitating farming development through minor irrigation and family cattle-raising schemes is an idea that appears entirely Utopian. The conclusion provides a critical analysis of the major hydraulic works essential for true development, but effective only if the human environment is ready to receive them, whereas minor works are useful in any case - at village level - to resolve the thirst of the southern hemisphere [it

  4. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  5. Long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Song; Deng Lin-Hua; Xu Shi-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index is investigated. It is found that, (1) the phase difference of the flare index between the northern and southern hemispheres is about 6–7 months, which is near the time delay between flare activity and sunspot activity; (2) both the dominant and phase-leading hemisphere of the flare index is the northern hemisphere in the considered time interval, implying that the hemispheric asynchrony of solar activity has a close connection with the N-S asymmetry of solar activity. (research papers)

  6. Lesion characteristics driving right-hemispheric language reorganization in congenital left-hemispheric brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in eating disorders. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The serum HMG CoA reductase activity, RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity, serum digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine, and nicotine), and tyrosine catabolites (morphine, dopamine, and noradrenaline) were measured in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism and downregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism and upregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. The membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased in anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance while they were increased in bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance play a central role in the regulation of eating behavior. Anorexia nervosa represents the right hemispheric chemically dominant/hyperdigoxinemic state and bulimia nervosa the left hemispheric chemically dominant/hypodigoxinemic state.

  8. Factors Influencing Right Hemisphere Engagement During Metaphor Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T.; Eppes, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere is critical for language, clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging research suggest that the right hemisphere also contributes to language comprehension. In particular, research has suggested that figurative language may be one type of language that preferentially engages right hemisphere regions. However, there is disagreement about whether these regions within the right hemisphere are sensitive to figurative language per se or to other factors that co-vary with figurativeness. In this article, we will review the neuroimaging literature on figurative language processing, focusing on metaphors, within the context of several theoretical perspectives that have been proposed about hemispheric function in language. Then we will examine three factors that may influence right hemisphere engagement: novelty, task difficulty, and context. We propose that factors that increase integration demands drive right hemisphere involvement in language processing, and that such recruitment is not limited to figurative language. PMID:29643825

  9. Granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  10. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  11. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda E Chambers

    Full Text Available Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias, although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially

  12. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Siegel, Bianca; Shah, Priyanka; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    A thorough understanding of why we hold a cell phone to a particular ear may be of importance when studying the impact of cell phone safety. To determine if there is an obvious association between sidedness of cell phone use and auditory hemispheric dominance (AHD) or language hemispheric dominance (LHD). It is known that 70% to 95% of the population are right-handed, and of these, 96% have left-brain LHD. We have observed that most people use their cell phones in their right ear. An Internet survey was e-mailed to individuals through surveymonkey.com. The survey used a modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory protocol. Sample questions surveyed which hand was used to write with, whether the right or left ear was used for phone conversations, as well as whether a brain tumor was present. General community. An Internet survey was randomly e-mailed to 5000 individuals selected from an otology online group, patients undergoing Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as persons on the university listserv, of which 717 surveys were completed. Determination of hemispheric dominance based on preferred ear for cell phone use. A total of 717 surveys were returned. Ninety percent of the respondents were right handed, and 9% were left handed. Sixty-eight percent of the right-handed people used the cell phone in their right ear, 25% in the left ear, and 7% had no preference. Seventy-two of the left-handed respondents used their left ear, 23% used their right ear, and 5% had no preference. Cell phone use averaged 540 minutes per month over the past 9 years. An association exists between hand dominance laterality of cell phone use (73%) and our ability to predict hemispheric dominance. Most right-handed people have left-brain LHD and use their cell phone in their right ear. Similarly, most left-handed people use their cell phone in their left ear. Our study suggests that AHD may differ from LHD owing to the difference in handedness and cell phone ear use

  13. Atypical hemispheric dominance for attention: functional MRI topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöel, Agnes; Jansen, Andreas; Deppe, Michael; Kanowski, Martin; Konrad, Carsten; Sommer, Jens; Knecht, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The right hemisphere is predominantly involved in tasks associated with spatial attention. However, left hemispheric dominance for spatial attention can be found in healthy individuals, and both spatial attention and language can be lateralized to the same hemisphere. Little is known about the underlying regional distribution of neural activation in these 'atypical' individuals. Previously a large number of healthy subjects were screened for hemispheric dominance of visuospatial attention and language, using functional Doppler ultrasonography. From this group, subjects were chosen who were 'atypical' for hemispheric dominance of visuospatial attention and language, and their pattern of brain activation was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a task probing spatial attention. Right-handed subjects with the 'typical' pattern of brain organization served as control subjects. It was found that subjects with an inverted lateralization of language and spatial attention (language right, attention left) recruited left-hemispheric areas in the attention task, homotopic to those recruited by control subjects in the right hemisphere. Subjects with lateralization of both language and attention to the right hemisphere activated an attentional network in the right hemisphere that was comparable to control subjects. The present findings suggest that not the hemispheric side, but the intrahemispheric pattern of activation is the distinct feature for the neural processes underlying language and attention.

  14. Hemispheric specialization in dogs for processing different acoustic stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Siniscalchi

    Full Text Available Considerable experimental evidence shows that functional cerebral asymmetries are widespread in animals. Activity of the right cerebral hemisphere has been associated with responses to novel stimuli and the expression of intense emotions, such as aggression, escape behaviour and fear. The left hemisphere uses learned patterns and responds to familiar stimuli. Although such lateralization has been studied mainly for visual responses, there is evidence in primates that auditory perception is lateralized and that vocal communication depends on differential processing by the hemispheres. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether dogs use different hemispheres to process different acoustic stimuli by presenting them with playbacks of a thunderstorm and their species-typical vocalizations. The results revealed that dogs usually process their species-typical vocalizations using the left hemisphere and the thunderstorm sounds using the right hemisphere. Nevertheless, conspecific vocalizations are not always processed by the left hemisphere, since the right hemisphere is used for processing vocalizations when they elicit intense emotion, including fear. These findings suggest that the specialisation of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication is more ancient that previously thought, and so is specialisation of the right hemisphere for intense emotions.

  15. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere Ocean Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Gastaud, J.; Levy, I. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (Monaco); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology Yokosuka (Japan); Kim, C. -S. [Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Roos, P. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Yim, S. A. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP-SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water of the central South Pacific (32.5{sup o}S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m{sup 3}. The {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20{sup o}S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic surface waters (30{sup o}S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The {sup 239}Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging. (author)

  16. Hemispheric and facial asymmetry: faces of academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W M

    1998-11-01

    Facial asymmetry (facedness) of selected academic faculty members was studied in relation to brain asymmetry and cognitive specialization. Comparisons of facedness were made among humanities faculty (H), faculty members of mathematics and physics (M-P), psychologists (P), and a group of randomly selected individuals (R). Facedness was defined in terms of the relative sizes (in square centimeters) of the two hemifaces. It was predicted that the four groups would show differences in facedness, namely, H, right face bias; M-P, left face bias; P, no bias; and R, no bias. The predictions were confirmed, and the results interpreted in terms of known differences in hemispheric specialization of cognitive functions as they relate to the dominant cognitive activity of each of the different groups. In view of the contralateral control of the two hemifaces (below the eyes) by the two hemispheres of the brain, the two sides of the face undergo differential muscular development, thus creating facial asymmetry. Other factors, such as gender, also may affect facial asymmetry. Suggestions for further research on facedness are discussed.

  17. HEMISPHERIC HELICITY TREND FOR SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Juan; Zhang Mei

    2011-01-01

    Using vector magnetograms obtained with the Spectro-polarimeter (SP) on board Hinode satellite, we studied two helicity parameters (local twist and current helicity) of 64 active regions that occurred in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. Our analysis gives the following results. (1) The 34 active regions of the solar cycle 24 follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule, whereas the 30 active regions of the solar cycle 23 do not. (2) When combining all 64 active regions as one sample, they follow the hemispheric helicity sign rule as in most other observations. (3) Despite the so-far most accurate measurement of vector magnetic field given by SP/Hinode, the rule is still weak with large scatters. (4) The data show evidence of different helicity signs between strong and weak fields, confirming previous result from a large sample of ground-based observations. (5) With two example sunspots we show that the helicity parameters change sign from the inner umbra to the outer penumbra, where the sign of penumbra agrees with the sign of the active region as a whole. From these results, we speculate that both the Σ-effect (turbulent convection) and the dynamo have contributed in the generation of helicity, whereas in both cases turbulence in the convection zone has played a significant role.

  18. A dual task priming investigation of right hemisphere inhibition for people with left hemisphere lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Conway Erin R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During normal semantic processing, the left hemisphere (LH is suggested to restrict right hemisphere (RH performance via interhemispheric suppression. However, a lesion in the LH or the use of concurrent tasks to overload the LH's attentional resource balance has been reported to result in RH disinhibition with subsequent improvements in RH performance. The current study examines variations in RH semantic processing in the context of unilateral LH lesions and the manipulation of the interhemispheric processing resource balance, in order to explore the relevance of RH disinhibition to hemispheric contributions to semantic processing following a unilateral LH lesion. Methods RH disinhibition was examined for nine participants with a single LH lesion and 13 matched controls using the dual task paradigm. Hemispheric performance on a divided visual field lexical decision semantic priming task was compared over three verbal memory load conditions, of zero-, two- and six-words. Related stimuli consisted of categorically related, associatively related, and categorically and associatively related prime-target pairs. Response time and accuracy data were recorded and analyzed using linear mixed model analysis, and planned contrasts were performed to compare priming effects in both visual fields, for each of the memory load conditions. Results Control participants exhibited significant bilateral visual field priming for all related conditions (p Conclusions The results from the control group are consistent with suggestions of an age related hemispheric asymmetry reduction and indicate that in healthy aging compensatory bilateral activation may reduce the impact of inhibition. In comparison, the results for the LHD group indicate that following a LH lesion RH semantic processing can be manipulated and enhanced by the introduction of a verbal memory task designed to engage LH resources and allow disinhibition of RH processing.

  19. Ingestão de energia e nutrientes segundo consumo de alimentos fora do lar na Região Nordeste: uma análise do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Brito Cavalcante

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Introdução: O consumo de alimentos fora do lar vem crescendo no Brasil, sendo associado a escolhas alimentares menos nutritivas. Objetivo: Descrever a ingestão de energia e nutrientes específicos entre consumidores e não consumidores de alimentos fora do lar, na Região Nordeste. Métodos: Foram analisados dados do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação (INA, provenientes da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF 2008-2009, em uma amostra de 11.674 indivíduos residentes na Região Nordeste, que forneceram dois registros alimentares em dias não consecutivos, com informação sobre o local de consumo dos alimentos (dentro ou fora do lar. Alimentação fora do lar foi definida como todo alimento adquirido e consumido fora de casa. Modelos de regressão linear foram desenvolvidos para avaliar a relação entre o consumo alimentar fora do lar em um dos dois dias de registro e a ingestão de energia e nutrientes, ajustados por idade, sexo e renda per capita. Resultados: O consumo de alimentos fora do lar, em pelo menos um dos dois dias de registro alimentar, foi reportado por 42% dos indivíduos. Os indivíduos que consomem alimentos fora do lar apresentaram pior ingestão de nutrientes em comparação com os que não consomem alimentos fora do lar, com maior consumo de energia, açúcar livre, gordura saturada, gordura trans e menor ingestão de proteína, ferro e fibra alimentar, independente da idade, sexo e renda (p < 0,05. Conclusão: A alimentação fora do lar no Nordeste contribuiu para uma maior ingestão de energia e uma pior ingestão de nutrientes. Assim, faz-se necessária a elaboração de políticas públicas e estratégias que favoreçam a escolha de alimentos mais saudáveis quando os indivíduos optam por se alimentar fora do lar.

  20. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  1. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  2. Total hemispherical emissivity of Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Shawn E.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Robert V.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K., E-mail: LoyalkaS@missouri.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We have measured the total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 from about 600–1250 K. • Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity. • Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase in the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the 220 grit sandblasted Inconel 718 did show an increase in emissivity. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 was measured in anticipation of its application in Very High Temperature Gas Reactors (VHTRs). A majority of current emissivity data for Inconel 718 is in the form of spectral measurements. The data presented here were obtained with an experimental apparatus based on the standard ASTM C835-06 for total hemispherical emittance. Measurements of Inconel 718 were made for four different surface types including: (i) ‘as-received’ from the manufacturer, (ii) oxidized in air and humidified helium, (iii) sandblasted with aluminum oxide powder, and (iv) with a thin coating of nuclear grade graphite powder (grade NGB-18). The emissivity for the ‘as-received’ sample ranged from 0.21 to 0.28 in the temperature interval from 760 K to 1275 K. Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity into the range from 0.2 at 650 K to 0.52 at 1200 K. There was no dependence on the oxidation times studied here. Oxidation with humidified helium at 1073 K produced less of an increase in emissivity than the oxidation in air but there was an increase up to the range from 0.2 at 600 K to 0.35 at 1200 K. Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity up to the range from 0.43 at 780 K to 0.53 at 1270 K when 60 grit sized powder was used and up to the range from 0.45 at 683 K to 0.57 at 1267 K when 120 and 220 grit sized powders were used. Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase

  3. The Evolution of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.

    2001-05-01

    For much of the last 50 million years, high-latitude regions remained too warm to allow snow to accumulate and form ice sheets. Shackleton et al. (1984) published a landmark paper correlating the first occurrence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) observed at Rockall Plateau with a prominent increase in benthic foraminiferal d18O values during the late Pliocene. These late Pliocene to Pleistocene ice sheets were modulated on an orbital frequency and have characterized the global climate over the past 2.6 myr (Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Shackleton et al., 1984; Ruddiman, et al., 1986). During the early Pliocene, northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG) variations were less significant (Jansen et al., 1993). Our understanding of the Plio-Pleistocene ice sheet cycles can be viewed from two different perspectives. When viewed from the late Pleistocene, the fundamental question is what changed near the early/late Pliocene boundary to produce the large-scale, glacial-interglacial cycles of the past 2.6 Ma. In contrast, the view from the middle to late Miocene is quite different. Since the pioneering work of Shackleton et al. (1984), the record of NHG has been extended further back in time with drilling in the Norwegian Sea (ODP Leg 104). At Sites 642 and 644, IRD was found throughout the late Miocene and back to ~12 Ma. More recent drilling in the high northern latitudes occurred on ODP Leg 151. Site 909 recovered a middle Miocene section from the Fram Straits with rounded quartz grains that were interpreted as IRD (Wolf-Welling et al., 1996). Age estimates for those sediments place the first northern hemisphere ice sheets at least as old as 14 Ma. The occurrence of sand-sized particles (>1000 μm) and coal below this level indicates the possibility of glacial activity in the Northern Hemisphere as early as 16 Ma. Thus, the late Pliocene to Pleistocene cycles appear to be the resumption of the glacial-interglacial pattern that began during the Miocene. While the Miocene ice

  4. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-08-25

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation.

  5. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  6. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  7. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  8. Carbon monoxide budget in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakwin, P.S.; Tans, P.P. (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)); Novelli, P.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-03-15

    To improve urban air quality the major industrialized nations of the West took steps during the 1970s and 1980s to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automobiles and other industrial sources. Overall, CO/CO[sub 2] emission ratios from the mix of fossil fuel combustion sources have been reduced by about half during 1976-1990. Also, the tropospheric abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main sink for CO, is proposed to have increased globally by about 1.0 [+-] 0.8% yr[sup [minus]1]. The authors use a simple two-box model to examine the impact of shrinking emissions and increasing OH on the global abundance of CO. They find that these factors contribute about equally in reducing CO levels in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere by about 1.8 [+-] 0.8 ppb yr[sup [minus]1] on average. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  9. The right hemisphere in esthetic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, Bianca; Sternschein, Rebecca; Widick, Page; Smith, William; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy) and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity) and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism, and animacy). Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of art.

  10. The Right Hemisphere in Aesthetic Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca eBromberger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping (VLSM methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes (AAA, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism and animacy. Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of

  11. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  12. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and mesenteric artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Paramesware Achutha

    2003-12-01

    The role of the isoprenoid pathway in vascular thrombosis, especially mesenteric artery occlusion and its relation to hemispheric dominance, was assessed in this study. The following parameters were measured in patients with mesenteric artery occlusion and individuals with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance: (1) plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels; (2) tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns; (3) free radical metabolism; (4) glycoconjugate metabolism; and (5) membrane composition. In patients with mesenteric artery occlusion there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, low ubiquinone, and elevated free radical levels. The RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in the serum. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these patients. The biochemical patterns obtained in mesenteric artery occlusion is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with mesenteric artery occlusion were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Mesenteric artery occlusion occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function. Hemispheric chemical dominance may thus control the risk for developing vascular thrombosis in individuals.

  13. Hemispheric Differences in the Effects of Context on Vowel Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjerps, Matthias J.; Mitterer, Holger; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Listeners perceive speech sounds relative to context. Contextual influences might differ over hemispheres if different types of auditory processing are lateralized. Hemispheric differences in contextual influences on vowel perception were investigated by presenting speech targets and both speech and non-speech contexts to listeners' right or left…

  14. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  15. Assessment of Hemispheric Dominance for Language at Three Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegano, Deborah Walker

    The purposes of this study were to assess the development of hemispheric dominance for language function among children of 4, 7, and 10 years of age and to determine whether age predicts hemispheric dominance. Within 2 weeks of the beginning of data collection, middle-class subjects selected from private nursery schools and elementary schools…

  16. Cardiac asystole associated with seizures of right hemispheric onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker.

  17. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed

  18. The Joint Development of Hemispheric Lateralization for Words and Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Consistent with long-standing findings from behavioral studies, neuroimaging investigations have identified a region of the inferior temporal cortex that, in adults, shows greater face selectivity in the right than left hemisphere and, conversely, a region that shows greater word selectivity in the left than right hemisphere. What has not been…

  19. Hemispheric lateralization of topological organization in structural brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    The study on structural brain asymmetries in healthy individuals plays an important role in our understanding of the factors that modulate cognitive specialization in the brain. Here, we used fiber tractography to reconstruct the left and right hemispheric networks of a large cohort of 346 healthy participants (20-86 years) and performed a graph theoretical analysis to investigate this brain laterality from a network perspective. Findings revealed that the left hemisphere is significantly more "efficient" than the right hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere showed higher values of "betweenness centrality" and "small-worldness." In particular, left-hemispheric networks displayed increased nodal efficiency in brain regions related to language and motor actions, whereas the right hemisphere showed an increase in nodal efficiency in brain regions involved in memory and visuospatial attention. In addition, we found that hemispheric networks decrease in efficiency with age. Finally, we observed significant gender differences in measures of global connectivity. By analyzing the structural hemispheric brain networks, we have provided new insights into understanding the neuroanatomical basis of lateralized brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2015-01-01

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops

  1. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed. (author)

  2. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  3. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  4. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    -hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made...... perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required......, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may...

  5. Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope Accuracy Analysis Under Temperature Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boran LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequency splitting of hemispherical resonator gyroscope will change as system operating temperature changes. This phenomenon leads to navigation accuracy of hemispherical resonator gyroscope reduces. By researching on hemispherical resonator gyroscope dynamical model and its frequency characteristic, the frequency splitting formula and the precession angle formula of gyroscope vibrating mode based on hemispherical resonator gyroscope dynamic equation parameters are derived. By comparison, gyroscope precession angle deviation caused by frequency splitting can be obtained. Based on analysis of temperature variation against gyroscope resonator, the design of hemispherical resonator gyroscope feedback controller under temperature variation conditions is researched and the maximum theoretical fluctuation of gyroscope dynamical is determined by using a numerical analysis example.

  6. Hemispheric asymmetry in the influence of language on visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanliang; Cai, Yongchun; Lu, Shena

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have shown that language can affect visual perception; however, our understanding of the neural basis of linguistic influence is inadequate. This can be investigated by examining the hemispheric asymmetry of linguistic influence. The left and right hemispheres are dominant in close and distant semantic processing, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to hemispheric asymmetry for concept priming on the detection of objects degraded by continuous flash suppression. We combined a priming paradigm with the divided visual field paradigm and used continuous flash suppression, which renders objects invisible. The results indicated that the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to a right lateralization in the influence of more abstract concepts on visual perception. The lateralization of brain connectomes may be the underlying neural basis of this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. When One Hemisphere Takes Control: Metacontrol in Pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Güntürkün, Onur

    2009-01-01

    Background Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection – a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different. Methodology/Principal Findings Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol. Conclusions/Significance We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the

  8. When one hemisphere takes control: metacontrol in pigeons (Columba livia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Adam

    Full Text Available Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection--a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different.Homing pigeons (Columba livia were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol.We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the problem of choosing between two hemisphere

  9. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  10. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  11. Los efectos del material par ticulado 10 (PM 10 y de las var iables climatológicas en las admisiones hospitalar ias por enfermedades respira torias en niños en la ciudad de Santa Mar ta, Colombia, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Salazar-Ceballos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: The effects of particulate matter 10 (PM10 and climatic variables on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in children in the city of Santa Marta, Colombia, 2008-2009.Resumen:Se realizó un estudio transversal en la ciudad de Santa Marta, para describir la asociación epidemiológica entre el material particulado (PM10 y las variables climatológicas, y sus efectos en las enfermedades respiratorias en niños menores de 14 años durante los años 2008 y 2009. Se observó una asociación débil pero significativa en ambos años en relación con el diagnóstico de enfermedades respiratorias de las vías altas y el invierno. Específicamente en el año 2008, se observó asociación epidemiológica con significancia estadística (p < 0,05 de presentar cualquiera de los síntomas respiratorios agudos y crónicos y su relación con tener menos de 9 años e invierno; pero para el año 2009 esta asociación epidemiológica fue menor y sin significancia estadística (p >0,05. Para ambos años no se observó un riesgo significativo (p > 0,05 de presentar síntomas respiratorios agudos o crónicos y vivir en una zona expuesta, pero se observó asociación epidemiológica no significativa de presentar síntomas respiratorios agudos y vivir en zona expuesta. Este estudio permitió conocer el comportamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias en Santa Marta, donde se observó una tendencia en el aumento de diagnósticos de las enfermedades infecciosas de las vías respiratorias altas, principalmente durante el invierno. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 127 - 142AbstractCross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Santa Marta to describe the epidemiological association between particulate matter (PM10 and weather conditions and their effects on respiratory diseases in children under age 14 during 2008 and 2009. There was a weak but significant association in both years in relation to the diagnosis of respiratory diseases of the upper airway and winter

  12. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  13. Technická řešení Formule SAE v zemích mimo USA

    OpenAIRE

    Bittner, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Technická řešení Formule Student v zemích mimo USA. Bakalářská práce bakalářského studia 3. Ročník, školní rok 2008/2009, studijní skupina 3D/31. FSI VUT v Brně, Ústav automobilního a dopravního inženýrství, odbor Dopravní a manipulační technika, listopad 2008. Projekt vypracovaný v rámci bakalářského studia oboru Dopravní a manipulační technika předkládá návrh práce Technická řešení Formule Student v zemích mimo USA. Náplní práce je zpracovat přehled nejdůležitějších technických předpisů a s...

  14. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H.; Hossain, M. Ashraf; Kashem, M. A.; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance. PMID:24723819

  15. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  16. Vozy formule 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zbožínek, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce uvádí základní pravidla a předpoklady pro konstrukci a použití vozů formule 1. Hlavní zaměření je na aerodynamiku, která je nejdůležitější disciplínou v tomto motoristickém sportu, dále je tato práce zaměřena na základní faktory týkající se motoru vozu, kol, nové technologie KERS a provedení volantu. This work shows basic rules and conditions for construction and use of cars formula 1. The main part of this work focus on the aerodynamics which is the most important discipline of...

  17. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    of the success criteria through face-to-face interviews with 46 managers, workshops involving 40 managers, and two in-depth case studies. The success criteria have been slightly modified due to the empirical results, to yield the assessment tool. Findings – The resulting assessment tool integrates three generic...... approaches to strategy assessment, namely the goal-centred, comparative and improvement approaches, as found in the literature. Furthermore, it encompasses three phases of strategy formulation processes: strategic thinking, strategic planning and embedding of strategy. The tool reflects that the different......, but cases and managerial perceptions indicate that the need for accurate and detailed plans might be overrated in the literature, as implementation relies heavily on continuous improvement and empowerment. Concerning embedding, key aspects relate both to the goal-centred and improvement approaches, while...

  18. Climate change induced by Southern Hemisphere desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Yan, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Some 10-20% of global dry-lands are already degraded, and the ongoing desertification threatens the world's poorest populations. Studies on desertification effects are essential for humans to adapt to the environmental challenges posed by desertification. Given the importance of the much larger southern ocean to the global climate and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate changes in phase with those in the north, the biogeophysical effects of the SH desertification on climate are assessed using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, MPM-2. This analysis focuses on differences in climate among the averages of simulations with desert expansion in different latitude bands by year 2000. The localized desertification causes significant global changes in temperature and precipitation as well as surface albedo. On the global scale, cooling dominates the SH desertification effects. However, the biogeophysical effects are most significant in regions with desertification, and the cooling is also prominent in northern mid-latitudes. Desert expansion in 15°-30°S reveals statistically most significant cooling and increased precipitation over the forcing regions during spring. The global and regional scale responses from desertification imply the climate teleconnection and address the importance of the effects from the SH which are contingent on the location of the forcing. Our study indicates that biogeophysical mechanisms of land cover changes in the SH need to be accounted for in the assessment of land management options especially for latitude band over 15°-30°S.

  19. Hemispheric processing of vocal emblem sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann-Werth, Yael; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K

    2013-01-01

    Vocal emblems, such as shh and brr, are speech sounds that have linguistic and nonlinguistic features; thus, it is unclear how they are processed in the brain. Five adult dextral individuals with left-brain damage and moderate-severe Wernicke's aphasia, five adult dextral individuals with right-brain damage, and five Controls participated in two tasks: (1) matching vocal emblems to photographs ('picture task') and (2) matching vocal emblems to verbal translations ('phrase task'). Cross-group statistical analyses on items on which the Controls performed at ceiling revealed lower accuracy by the group with left-brain damage (than by Controls) on both tasks, and lower accuracy by the group with right-brain damage (than by Controls) on the picture task. Additionally, the group with left-brain damage performed significantly less accurately than the group with right-brain damage on the phrase task only. Findings suggest that comprehension of vocal emblems recruits more left- than right-hemisphere processing.

  20. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A; Druce, R L; Phillips, D; Lee, R; Mudge, S; Roeske, F

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data, including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.

  1. MR imaging features of hemispherical spondylosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Joao R.T.; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar L.; Chang, Connie Y.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Hemispherical spondylosclerosis (HS) is a rare degenerative entity characterized by dome-shaped sclerosis of a single vertebral body that may pose a diagnostic dilemma. The goal of this study was to describe the MR imaging features of HS. We identified spine radiographs and CT examinations of subjects with HS who also had MR imaging for correlation. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently assessed sclerosis characteristics, presence of endplate erosions, marrow signal intensity, and disk degeneration (Pfirrmann scale). We identified 11 subjects (six males, five females, mean 48 ± 10 years) with radiographic/CT findings of HS. The most commonly affected vertebral body was L4 (6/11; 55%). On MR imaging, variable signal intensity was noted, being most commonly low on T1 (8/11, 73%) and high on fat-suppressed T2-weighted (8/11, 73%) images. In two subjects, diffuse post-contrast enhancement was seen in the lesion. Moderate disk degeneration and endplate bone erosions adjacent to sclerosis were present in all subjects. Erosions of the opposite endplate were present in two subjects (2/11, 18%). CT data from nine subjects showed the mean attenuation value of HS was 472 ± 96 HU. HS appearance on MR imaging is variable and may not correlate with the degree of sclerosis seen on radiographs or CT. Disk degenerative changes and asymmetric endplate erosions are consistent markers of HS. (orig.)

  2. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  3. Hemispheric asymmetry of electroencephalography-based functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-11-12

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based functional brain networks have been investigated frequently in health and disease. It has been shown that a number of graph theory metrics are disrupted in brain disorders. EEG-based brain networks are often studied in the whole-brain framework, where all the nodes are grouped into a single network. In this study, we studied the brain networks in two hemispheres and assessed whether there are any hemispheric-specific patterns in the properties of the networks. To this end, resting state closed-eyes EEGs from 44 healthy individuals were processed and the network structures were extracted separately for each hemisphere. We examined neurophysiologically meaningful graph theory metrics: global and local efficiency measures. The global efficiency did not show any hemispheric asymmetry, whereas the local connectivity showed rightward asymmetry for a range of intermediate density values for the constructed networks. Furthermore, the age of the participants showed significant direct correlations with the global efficiency of the left hemisphere, but only in the right hemisphere, with local connectivity. These results suggest that only local connectivity of EEG-based functional networks is associated with brain hemispheres.

  4. Handedness results from Complementary Hemispheric Dominance, not Global Hemispheric Dominance: Evidence from Mechanically Coupled Bilateral Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woytowicz, Elizabeth J; Westlake, Kelly P; Whitall, Jill; Sainburg, Robert L

    2018-05-09

    Two contrasting views of handedness can be described as 1) complementary dominance, in which each hemisphere is specialized for different aspects of motor control, and 2) global dominance, in which the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for all aspects of motor control. The present study sought to determine which motor lateralization hypothesis best predicts motor performance during common bilateral task of stabilizing an object (e.g. bread) with one hand while applying forces to the object (e.g. slicing) using the other hand. We designed an experimental equivalent of this task, performed in a virtual environment with the unseen arms supported by frictionless air-sleds. The hands were connected by a spring, and the task was to maintain the position of one hand, while moving the other hand to a target. Thus, the reaching hand was required to take account of the spring load to make smooth and accurate trajectories, while the stabilizer hand was required to impede the spring load to keep a constant position. Right-handed subjects performed two task sessions (right hand reach and left hand stabilize; left hand reach and right hand stabilize) with the order of the sessions counterbalanced between groups. Our results indicate a hand by task-component interaction, such that the right hand showed straighter reaching performance while the left showed more stable holding performance. These findings provide support for the complementary dominance hypothesis and suggest that the specializations of each cerebral hemisphere for impedance and dynamic control mechanisms are expressed during bilateral interactive tasks.

  5. Southern Hemisphere Upper Thermospheric Wind Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Emmert, J. T.; Drob, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study is focused on the poorly understood large-scale upper thermospheric wind dynamics in the southern polar cap, auroral, and mid latitudes. The gaps in our understanding of the dynamic high-latitude thermosphere are largely due to the sparseness of thermospheric wind measurements. Using data from current observational facilities, it is unfeasible to construct a synoptic picture of the Southern Hemisphere upper thermospheric winds. However, enough data with wide spatial and temporal coverage have accumulated to construct a meaningful statistical analysis of winds as function of season, magnetic latitude, and magnetic local time. We use long-term data from nine ground-based stations located at different southern high latitudes and three space-based instruments. These diverse data sets possess different geometries and different spatial and solar coverage. The major challenge of the effort is to combine these disparate sources of data into a coherent picture while overcoming the sampling limitations and biases among the datasets. Our preliminary analyses show mutual biases present among some of them. We first address the biases among various data sets and then combine them in a coherent way to construct maps of neutral winds for various seasons. We then validate the fitted climatology against the observational data and compare with corresponding fits of 25 years of simulated winds from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. This study provides critical insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and sets a necessary benchmark for validating new observations and tuning first-principles models.

  6. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements

  7. Globalization, energy and sustainable development in the hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas Rodriguez, Luis Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Presently paper, it is emphasized in the politics in the environmental and energetic field that has taken place in the hemisphere like consequence of the setting of the action plan agreed in the summit of the America in 1994

  8. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  9. Airpower's Role in Homeland Defense: A Western Hemisphere Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witek, Roger

    2002-01-01

    .... The author assesses hemispheric historical cases such as antisubmarine warfare during World War II, the development of NORAD during the Cold War, and counterdrug operations during the last two decades...

  10. Reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion in two cases of SMART syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Karmen; Balabanski, Anna; Chia, Nicholas; Kleinig, Timothy

    2017-09-01

    Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome manifests as prolonged episodes of cortical dysfunction, years after cranial irradiation. We present two cases demonstrating reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion. Case 1 presented with left hemispheric symptoms following previous similar episodes. CT perfusion (CTP) demonstrated reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion; subsequent investigations were consistent with SMART syndrome. Case 2 presented following the third episode of a hemispheric syndrome with near-identical CTP abnormalities. L-arginine was administered with rapid reversal of clinical and CTP abnormalities. We conclude that SMART syndrome may demonstrate significant hypoperfusion on hyperacute CTP without subsequent infarction. Impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation probably contributes to cortical dysfunction in SMART syndrome. L-arginine warrants investigation as a potential treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motivation, affect, and hemispheric asymmetry: power versus affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Julius; Kazén, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors examined to what extent information related to different social needs (i.e., power vs. affiliation) is associated with hemispheric laterality. Response latencies to a lateralized dot-probe task following lateralized pictures or verbal labels that were associated with positive or negative episodes related to power, affiliation, or achievement revealed clear-cut laterality effects. These effects were a function of need content rather than of valence: Power-related stimuli were associated with right visual field (left hemisphere) superiority, whereas affiliation-related stimuli were associated with left visual field (right hemisphere) superiority. Additional results demonstrated that in contrast to power, affiliation primes were associated with better discrimination between coherent word triads (e.g., goat, pass, and green, all related to mountain) and noncoherent triads, a remote associate task known to activate areas of the right hemisphere. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Modelling the Main Ionospheric Trough Across the Northern Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Bath as follows: The contractor will investigate disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere ionosphere using a Multi-instrument data analysis (MIDAS) imaging algorithm...

  13. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  14. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and the tridosha theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-05-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian System of Medicine, deals with the theory of the three tridosha states (both physical and psychological): Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. They are the three major human constitutional types that both depend on psychological and physical characteristics. The Pitta state is described as a critical, discriminative, and rational psychological state of mind, while the Kapha state is described as being dominant for emotional stimuli. The Vata state is an intermediate unstable shifting state. The Pitta types are of average height and built with well developed musculature. The Vata types are thin individuals with low body mass index. The Kapha types are short stocky individuals that tend toward obesity, and who are sedentary. The study assessed the biochemical differences between right hemispheric dominant, bihemispheric dominant, and left hemispheric dominant individuals, and then compared this with the patterns obtained in the Vata, Pitta, and Kapha states. The isoprenoid metabolites (digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone), glycoconjugate metabolism, free radical metabolism, and the RBC membrane composition were studied. The hemispheric chemical dominance in various systemic diseases and psychological states was also investigated. The results showed that right hemispheric chemically dominant/Kapha state had elevated digoxin levels, increased free radical production and reduced scavenging, increased tryptophan catabolites and reduced tyrosine catabolites, increased glycoconjugate levels and increased cholesterol: phospholipid ratio of RBC membranes. Left hemispheric chemically dominant/Pitta states had the opposite biochemical patterns. The patterns were normal or intermediate in the bihemispheric chemically dominant/Vata state. This pattern could be correlated with various systemic and neuropsychiatric diseases and personality traits. Right hemispheric chemical dominance/Kapha state represents a hyperdigoxinemic state with membrane sodium

  15. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and chronic bronchitis emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-09-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor, immunomodulator, and regulator of neurotransmitter/amino acid transport), dolichol (regulates N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). This was assessed in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema. All the 15 patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. In patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol, and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate levels of RBC membrane in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric dominance. Endogenous digoxin by activating the calcineurin signal transduction pathway of T-cell can contribute to immune activation in chronic bronchitis emphysema. Increased free radical generation can also lead to immune activation. Endogenous synthesis of nicotine can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Altered glycoconjugate metabolism and membranogenesis can lead to defective lysosomal stability contributing to the disease process by increased release of lysosomal proteases. The role of an endogenous digoxin and hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema and in the regulation of lung structure/function is discussed. The biochemical patterns obtained in chronic bronchitis emphysema is similar to those obtained in left

  16. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin-like factor (EDLF) (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), ubiquinone (free radical scavenger), and dolichol (regulator of glycoconjugate metabolism). The pathway was assessed in peptic ulcer and acid peptic disease and its relation to hemispheric dominance studied. The activity of HMG CoA reductase, serum levels of EDLF, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in acid peptic disease, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. All the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The pathway was upregulated with increased EDLF synthesis in peptic ulcer disease (PUD). There was increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in these patients. The ubiquinone levels were low and free radical production increased. Dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were increased and lysosomal stability reduced in patients with acid peptic disease (APD). There was increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio with decreased glyco conjugate levels in membranes of patients with PUD. Acid peptic disease represents an elevated EDLF state which can modulate gastric acid secretion and the structure of the gastric mucous barrier. It can also lead to persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The biochemical pattern obtained in peptic ulcer disease is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listen ing test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Peptic ulcer disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  17. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. All 15 cases of interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The isoprenoidal metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns, free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism, and RBC membrane composition--were assessed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction con tributes to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in interstitial lung disease are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. However, all the patients with interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Interstitial lung disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  18. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-09-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. It was considered pertinent to assess the pathway in inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and regional ileitis). Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport, the pathway and the related cascade were also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in its pathogenesis. All the patients with inflammatory bowel disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The following parameters were measured in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance: (1) plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels; (2) tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns; (3) free-radical metabolism; (4) glycoconjugate metabolism; and (5) membrane composition and RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these groups of patients. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an upregulated isoprenoid pathway and elevated digoxin secretion from the hypothalamus. This can contribute to immune activation, defective glycoprotein bowel antigen presentation, and autoimmunity and a schizophreniform psychosis important in its pathogenesis. The biochemical patterns obtained in inflammatory bowel disease is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right

  19. PHASE RELATIONSHIPS OF SOLAR HEMISPHERIC TOROIDAL AND POLOIDAL CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraközy, J., E-mail: murakozy.judit@csfk.mta.hu [Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory (DHO), Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences H-4010 Debrecen P.O.B. 30, H-4010 (Hungary)

    2016-08-01

    The solar northern and southern hemispheres exhibit differences in their intensities and time profiles of the activity cycles. The time variation of these properties was studied in a previous article covering the data from Cycles 12–23. The hemispheric phase lags exhibited a characteristic variation: the leading role was exchanged between hemispheres every four cycles. The present work extends the investigation of this variation using the data of Staudacher and Schwabe in Cycles 1–4 and 7–10 as well as Spörer’s data in Cycle 11. The previously observed variation cannot be clearly recognized using the data of Staudacher, Schwabe, and Spörer. However, it is more interesting that the phase lags of the reversals of the magnetic fields at the poles follow the same variations as those of the hemispheric cycles in Cycles 12–23, i.e., one of the hemispheres leads in four cyles and the leading role jumps to the opposite hemisphere in the next four cycles. This means that this variation is a long-term property of the entire solar dynamo mechanism, for both the toroidal and poloidal fields, which hints at an unidentified component of the process responsible for the long-term memory.

  20. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to b...

  1. Smartphone based hemispherical photography for canopy structure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Jiang, Xueqin; Zhang, Jingwen; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The canopy is the most direct and active interface layer of the interaction between plant and environment, and has important influence on energy exchange, biodiversity, ecosystem matter and climate change. The measurement about canopy structure of plant is an important foundation to analyze the pattern, process and operation mechanism of forest ecosystem. Through the study of canopy structure of plant, solar radiation, ambient wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil evaporation, soil temperature and other forest environmental climate characteristics can be evaluated. Because of its accuracy and effectiveness, canopy structure measurement based on hemispherical photography has been widely studied. However, the traditional method of canopy structure hemispherical photogrammetry based on SLR camera and fisheye lens. This method is expensive and difficult to be used in some low-cost occasions. In recent years, smartphone technology has been developing rapidly. The smartphone not only has excellent image acquisition ability, but also has the considerable computational processing ability. In addition, the gyroscope and positioning function on the smartphone will also help to measure the structure of the canopy. In this paper, we present a smartphone based hemispherical photography system. The system consists of smart phones, low-cost fisheye lenses and PMMA adapters. We designed an Android based App to obtain the canopy hemisphere images through low-cost fisheye lenses and provide horizontal collimation information. In addition, the App will add the acquisition location tag obtained by GPS and auxiliary positioning method in hemisphere image information after the canopy structure hemisphere image acquisition. The system was tested in the urban forest after it was completed. The test results show that the smartphone based hemispherical photography system can effectively collect the high-resolution canopy structure image of the plant.

  2. Unilateral hearing during development: hemispheric specificity in plastic reorganizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej eKral

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hemispheric contributions of neuronal reorganization following early single-sided hearing (unilateral deafness. The experiments were performed on ten cats from our colony of deaf white cats. Two were identified in early hearing screening as unilaterally congenitally deaf. The remaining eight were bilaterally congenitally deaf, unilaterally implanted at different ages with a cochlear implant. Implanted animals were chronically stimulated using a single-channel portable signal processor for two to five months. Microelectrode recordings were performed at the primary auditory cortex under stimulation at the hearing and deaf ear with bilateral cochlear implants. Local field potentials (LFPs were compared at the cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the hearing ear. The focus of the study was on the morphology and the onset latency of the LFPs. The data revealed that effects of hearing experience were more pronounced when stimulating the hearing ear. With respect to morphology of LFPs, pronounced hemisphere-specific effects were observed. Morphology of amplitude-normalized LFPs for stimulation of the deaf and the hearing ear was similar for responses recorded at the same hemisphere. However, when comparisons were performed between the hemispheres, the morphology was more dissimilar even though the same ear was stimulated. This demonstrates hemispheric specificity of some cortical adaptations irrespective of the ear stimulated. The results suggest a specific adaptation process at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear, involving specific (down-regulated inhibitory mechanisms not found in the contralateral hemisphere. Finally, onset latencies revealed that the sensitive period for the cortex ipsilateral to the hearing ear is shorter than that for the contralateral cortex. Unilateral hearing experience leads to a functionally-asymmetric brain with different neuronal reorganizations and different sensitive

  3. Unilateral hearing during development: hemispheric specificity in plastic reorganizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Andrej; Heid, Silvia; Hubka, Peter; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the hemispheric contributions of neuronal reorganization following early single-sided hearing (unilateral deafness). The experiments were performed on ten cats from our colony of deaf white cats. Two were identified in early hearing screening as unilaterally congenitally deaf. The remaining eight were bilaterally congenitally deaf, unilaterally implanted at different ages with a cochlear implant. Implanted animals were chronically stimulated using a single-channel portable signal processor for two to five months. Microelectrode recordings were performed at the primary auditory cortex under stimulation at the hearing and deaf ear with bilateral cochlear implants. Local field potentials (LFPs) were compared at the cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the hearing ear. The focus of the study was on the morphology and the onset latency of the LFPs. With respect to morphology of LFPs, pronounced hemisphere-specific effects were observed. Morphology of amplitude-normalized LFPs for stimulation of the deaf and the hearing ear was similar for responses recorded at the same hemisphere. However, when comparisons were performed between the hemispheres, the morphology was more dissimilar even though the same ear was stimulated. This demonstrates hemispheric specificity of some cortical adaptations irrespective of the ear stimulated. The results suggest a specific adaptation process at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear, involving specific (down-regulated inhibitory) mechanisms not found in the contralateral hemisphere. Finally, onset latencies revealed that the sensitive period for the cortex ipsilateral to the hearing ear is shorter than that for the contralateral cortex. Unilateral hearing experience leads to a functionally-asymmetric brain with different neuronal reorganizations and different sensitive periods involved.

  4. Brain State-dependent Functional Hemispheric Specialization in Men but not in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Christine; Michel, Christoph M.; Lantz, Goran; Ortigue, Stephanie; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle; Landis, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    Hemispheric specialization is reliably demonstrated in patients with unilateral lesions or disconnected hemispheres, but is inconsistent in healthy populations. The reason for this paradox is unclear. We propose that functional hemispheric specialization in healthy participants depends upon functional brain states at stimulus arrival (FBS). Brain activity was recorded from 123 surface electrodes while 22 participants (11 women) performed lateralized lexical decisions (left hemisphere processi...

  5. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  6. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  7. Interindividual variability in the hemispheric organization for speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Josse, G; Crivello, F; Mazoyer, B

    2004-01-01

    A PET activation study was designed to investigate hemispheric specialization during speech comprehension and production in right- and left-handed subjects. Normalized regional cerebral blood flow (NrCBF) was repeatedly monitored while subjects either listened to factual stories (Story) or covertly generated verbs semantically related to heard nouns (Gener), using silent resting (Rest) as a common control condition. NrCBF variations in each task, as compared to Rest, as well as functional asymmetry indices (FAI = right minus left NrCBF variations), were computed in anatomical regions of interest (AROIs) defined on the single-subject MNI template. FAIs were predominantly leftward in all regions during both tasks, although larger FAIs were observed during Gener. Subjects were declared "typical" for language hemispheric specialization based on the presence of significant leftward asymmetries (FAI Gener, and in the middle and inferior temporal AROIs during Story. Six subjects (including five LH) showed an atypical language representation. Among them, one presented a right hemisphere specialization during both tasks, another a shift in hemispheric specialization from production to comprehension (left during Gener, right during Story). The group of 14 typical subjects showed significant positive correlation between homologous left and right AROIs NrCBF variations in temporal areas during Story, and in temporal and inferior frontal areas during Gener, almost all regions presenting a leftward FAI. Such correlations were also present in deactivated areas with strong leftward asymmetry (supramarginalis gyrus, inferior parietal region). These results suggest that entry into a language task translates into a hemispheric reconfiguration of lateral cortical areas with global NrCBF increase in the dominant hemisphere and decrease in the minor hemisphere. This can be considered as the setting up of a "language mode", under the control of a mechanism that operates at a perisylvian

  8. High Q diamond hemispherical resonators: fabrication and energy loss mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, Jonathan J; Bancu, Mirela G; Bauer, Joseph M; Cook, Eugene H; Kumar, Parshant; Nyinjee, Tenzin; Perlin, Gayatri E; Ricker, Joseph A; Teynor, William A; Weinberg, Marc S; Newton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated polycrystalline diamond hemispheres by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) in spherical cavities wet-etched into a high temperature glass substrate CTE matched to silicon. Hemispherical resonators 1.4 mm in diameter have a Q of up to 143 000 in the fundamental wineglass mode, for a ringdown time of 2.4 s. Without trimming, resonators have the two degenerate wineglass modes frequency matched as close as 2 Hz, or 0.013% of the resonant frequency (∼16 kHz). Laser trimming was used to match resonant modes on hemispheres to 0.3 Hz. Experimental and FEA energy loss studies on cantilevers and hemispheres examine various energy loss mechanisms, showing that surface related losses are dominant. Diamond cantilevers with a Q of 400 000 and a ringdown time of 15.4 s were measured, showing the potential of polycrystalline diamond films for high Q resonators. These resonators show great promise for use as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRGs) on a chip. (paper)

  9. Apraxia and spatial inattention dissociate in left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-10-01

    Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Holocene sea-level fluctuation in the southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    If rising sea levels dominate in the northern hemisphere (NH), falling or fluctuating sea levels predominate in the southern hemisphere (SH). Endogenic processes (tectonics, isostasy or geoidal changes) could explain local or regional mean sea level (MSL) fluctuations but not an hemispherical one. Evidence from South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans suggest that the Holocene transgression rose above the present MSL, in higher latitudes before the tropics. By plotting latitude against the age of MSL arrival at present coasts, good correlation is observed. Oceanic salinity mixing has been already proposed to explain this mid-Holocene sea-level fluctuation. Climate could be the only factor responsible for this hemisphere-wide behavior of MSL. It has been suggested previously that the climate of the SH precedes that of the NH by 3000 years. The climatic optimum, or maximum warmth, occurred predominantly about 6000 BP in the NH, but about 10-9000 BP in the SH. Short-term climatic effects on the sea level (monsoons, southern oscillation/El Niño phenomena) should have significant occurrences during the past in the windiest oceanic hemisphere. This latitudinal trend in former MSL should be considered when using shorelines as reference points for measuring vertical crustal movements.

  11. Taxonomic and ad hoc categorization within the two cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yeshayahu; Aharoni, Bat-El; Mashal, Nira

    2015-01-01

    A typicality effect refers to categorization which is performed more quickly or more accurately for typical than for atypical members of a given category. Previous studies reported a typicality effect for category members presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH), suggesting that the RH applies a similarity-based categorization strategy. However, findings regarding the typicality effect within the left hemisphere (LH) are less conclusive. The current study tested the pattern of typicality effects within each hemisphere for both taxonomic and ad hoc categories, using words presented to the left or right visual fields. Experiment 1 tested typical and atypical members of taxonomic categories as well as non-members, and Experiment 2 tested typical and atypical members of ad hoc categories as well as non-members. The results revealed a typicality effect in both hemispheres and in both types of categories. Furthermore, the RH categorized atypical stimuli more accurately than did the LH. Our findings suggest that both hemispheres rely on a similarity-based categorization strategy, but the coarse semantic coding of the RH seems to facilitate the categorization of atypical members.

  12. Classification of hemispheric monthly mean stratospheric potential vorticity fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huth

    Full Text Available Monthly mean NCEP reanalysis potential vorticity fields at the 650 K isentropic level over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 1979 and 1997 were studied using multivariate analysis tools. Principal component analysis in the T-mode was applied to demonstrate the validity of such statistical techniques for the study of stratospheric dynamics and climatology. The method, complementarily applied to both the raw and anomaly fields, was useful in determining and classifying the characteristics of winter and summer PV fields on both hemispheres, in particular, the well-known differences in the behaviour and persistence of the polar vortices. It was possible to identify such features as sudden warming events in the Northern Hemisphere and final warming dates in both hemispheres. The stratospheric impact of other atmospheric processes, such as volcanic eruptions, also identified though the results, must be viewed at this stage as tentative. An interesting change in behaviour around 1990 was detected over both hemispheres.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; general circulation; climatology

  13. Modeling the Influence of Hemispheric Transport on Trends in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the development and application of the hemispheric version of the CMAQ to examine the influence of long-range pollutant transport on trends in surface level O3 distributions. The WRF-CMAQ model is expanded to hemispheric scales and multi-decadal model simulations were recently performed for the period spanning 1990-2010 to examine changes in hemispheric air pollution resulting from changes in emissions over this period. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations across the U.S. and the northern hemisphere over the past two decades are compared with those inferred from available measurements during this period. Additionally, the decoupled direct method (DDM) in CMAQ is used to estimate the sensitivity of O3 to emissions from different source regions across the northern hemisphere. The seasonal variations in source region contributions to background O3 is then estimated from these sensitivity calculations and will be discussed. A reduced form model combining these source region sensitivities estimated from DDM with the multi-decadal simulations of O3 distributions and emissions trends, is then developed to characterize the changing contributions of different source regions to background O3 levels across North America. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas

  14. Optimization of a scintillation detector with hemispherical configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saules Mendonca, A.C. de.

    1980-08-01

    A hemispherical configuration for scintillation detectors, is introduced so as to minimize the dispersion in light collection by reducing the number of reflexions. Better results in the process of light collection appear explicitly in the gain in the amplitude of the pulse and a better resolution in time and energy when a comparative analysis is made between the cylindrical and hemispherical geometries. The measurements were made using NE102, a plastic scintillator with cylindrical and hemispherical forms, comparing the results of pulse amplitude and energy resolution. The results were quite significant showing a 13% improvement in pulse amplitude and more than 10% in energy resolution for some values of energies from 511 KeV to 1275 KeV. (Author) [pt

  15. Topographic brain mapping of emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschmann, R; Wittling, W

    1992-03-01

    The study used topographic brain mapping of visual evoked potentials to investigate emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries. The stimulus material consisted of color photographs of human faces, grouped into two emotion-related categories: normal faces (neutral stimuli) and faces deformed by dermatological diseases (emotional stimuli). The pictures were presented tachistoscopically to 20 adult right-handed subjects. Brain activity was recorded by 30 EEG electrodes with linked ears as reference. The waveforms were averaged separately with respect to each of the two stimulus conditions. Statistical analysis by means of significance probability mapping revealed significant differences between stimulus conditions for two periods of time, indicating right hemisphere superiority in emotion-related processing. The results are discussed in terms of a 2-stage-model of emotional processing in the cerebral hemispheres.

  16. Hemispheric asymmetry of liking for representational and abstract paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marcos; Schiavi, Susanna; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2017-10-13

    Although the neural correlates of the appreciation of aesthetic qualities have been the target of much research in the past decade, few experiments have explored the hemispheric asymmetries in underlying processes. In this study, we used a divided visual field paradigm to test for hemispheric asymmetries in men and women's preference for abstract and representational artworks. Both male and female participants liked representational paintings more when presented in the right visual field, whereas preference for abstract paintings was unaffected by presentation hemifield. We hypothesize that this result reflects a facilitation of the sort of visual processes relevant to laypeople's liking for art-specifically, local processing of highly informative object features-when artworks are presented in the right visual field, given the left hemisphere's advantage in processing such features.

  17. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  18. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric dominance, and neurobiology of love and affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-05-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which can regulate neuronal transmission. The digoxin status and neurotransmitter patterns were studied in individuals with a predilection to fall in love. It was also studied in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of cerebral dominance in this respect. In individuals with a predilection to fall in love there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to fall in love.

  19. Comparison of 'electrojet' indices from the northern and southern hemispheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclennan, C.G.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Akasofu, S. I.; Zaitzev, A.N.; Popov, V.; Wilkinson, P.J.; Wolfe, A.

    1991-01-01

    A unique data set of digital and digitized analog magnetic recordings from 22 stations in the Antarctic was used to construct the southern hemisphere equivalent of the northern hemisphere auroral electrojet index, AE, for two separate intervals of magnetic disturbance (totaling seven days) in June 1982. A second index constructed using only 9 stations between ∼ 60 degrees-70 degrees geomagnetic south latitude showed only small differences from that using all 22 stations. For the universal time interval (00-11 UT inclusive) when a reasonably good coverage of ground stations exists in the austral auroral zone, it is found that there is a good correlation between the northern and southern hemisphere indices; this is the case even though the southern ionosphere is largely in total darkness during the interval studied. No effect of the north-south direction of the interplanetary magnetic field is found on the correlation

  20. Design criteria for a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    A detector for the direct measurement of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in cylindrical geometry was developed by Brandan and DeLuca. The detector successfully measured the LET of protons and a fraction of the heavy charged particles generated in cylindrical A150 plastic and graphite walls by 14.8 MeV neutrons. In this report, we present design tests for the hemispherical LET detector which will measure the LET of charged particles in spherical geometry and allow comparison with calculated LET spectra. The hemispherical LET detector will also provide a data base for radiobiological predictions with the Track Structure Model by Katz. A comparison of predictions of radiobiological effects by the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and the Track Structure Model by Edwards and the authors indicate that the Track Structure Model predicts cell survival as a function of dose more accurately and hence an additional motivation for the present construction of the hemispherical LET detector

  1. Modeling and verification of hemispherical solar still using ANSYS CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Hitesh N. [KSV University, Gujarat Power Engineering and Research Institute, Mehsana (India); Shah, P.K. [Silver Oak College of Engineering and Technology, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)

    2013-07-01

    In every efficient solar still design, water temperature, vapor temperature and distillate output, and difference between water temperature and inner glass cover temperatures are very important. Here, two dimensional three phase model of hemispherical solar still is made for evaporation as well as condensation process in ANSYS CFD. Simulation results like water temperature, vapor temperature, distillate output compared with actual experimental results of climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23° 59’ and longitude of 72° 38) of hemispherical solar still. Water temperature and distillate output were good agreement with actual experimental results. Study shows that ANSYS-CFD is very powerful as well as efficient tool for design, comparison purpose of hemispherical solar still.

  2. Hemispheric asymmetry in holistic processing of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paulo; Delgado, João; Ferreira, Miguel; Farinha-Fernandes, António; Guerreiro, José C; Faustino, Bruno; Leite, Isabel; Wong, Alan C-N

    2018-05-13

    Holistic processing has been regarded as a hallmark of face perception, indicating the automatic and obligatory tendency of the visual system to process all face parts as a perceptual unit rather than in isolation. Studies involving lateralized stimulus presentation suggest that the right hemisphere dominates holistic face processing. Holistic processing can also be shown with other categories such as words and thus it is not specific to faces or face-like expertize. Here, we used divided visual field presentation to investigate the possibly different contributions of the two hemispheres for holistic word processing. Observers performed same/different judgment on the cued parts of two sequentially presented words in the complete composite paradigm. Our data indicate a right hemisphere specialization for holistic word processing. Thus, these markers of expert object recognition are domain general.

  3. Detection of Northern Hemisphere transient eddies at Gale Crater Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Juárez, Manuel de la Torre; Kahre, Melinda A.; Kass, David M.; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik

    2018-06-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Curiosity Rover is operating in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars and is detecting synoptic period oscillations in the pressure data that we attribute to Northern Hemisphere transient eddies. We base this interpretation on the similarity in the periods of the eddies and their seasonal variations with those observed in northern midlatitudes by Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) 18 Mars years earlier. Further support for this interpretation comes from global circulation modeling which shows similar behavior in the transient eddies at the grid points closest to Curiosity and VL-2. These observations provide the first in situ evidence that the frontal systems often associated with "Flushing Dust Storms" do cross the equator and extend into the Southern Hemisphere.

  4. Affective imposition influences risky choice: handedness points to the hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Todd; Corbin, Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    The study of risk preference has become a widely investigated area of research. The current study is designed to investigate the relationship between handedness, hemispheric predominance and valence imposition in a risky-choice decision task. Research into the valence hypothesis (e.g., Ahern & Schwartz, 1985; Davidson, 1984) has shown that the left hemisphere is more active in processing positively valenced stimuli, whereas the right hemisphere is more active in processing negatively valenced stimuli. A total of 520 individuals (343 female, 117 male) participated in a self-imposed framing task and took a degree of handedness questionnaire. The results of the framing task and handedness questionnaire showed that participants' degree of handedness significantly influenced the positive/negative valence they imposed onto the framing task as well as their level of risk preference.

  5. Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the hypothesized effects of global warming from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is a change in the frequency and/or intensity of extratropical cyclones. In this study, winter frequencies and intensities of extratropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1959-97 are examined to determine if identifiable trends are occurring. Results indicate a statistically significant decrease in midlatitude cyclone frequency and a significant increase in high-latitude cyclone frequency. In addition, storm intensity has increased in both the high and midlatitudes. The changes in storm frequency correlate with changes in winter Northern Hemisphere temperature and support hypotheses that global warming may result in a northward shift of storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere.

  6. Experimental Study on CHF in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J.H.; Park, R.J.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the SONATA-IV program, KAERI is conducting an experimental investigation of critical heat flux(CHF) in hemispherical narrow gaps. A visualization experiment, VISU-II, was done as the first step to get a visual observation of the flow behaviour inside a hemispherical gap and to understand the CHF-triggering mechanism. It was observed that the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) phenomenon prevented water from wetting the heater surface and induced CHF. The CHFG (Critical Heat Flux in Gap) test is now being performed to measure the CHF and to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in hemispherical narrow gaps. Temperature measurements over the heater surface show that the two-phase flow behaviour inside the gaps could be quite different from the other usual CHF experiments. The measured CHF points are lower than the predictions by existing empirical correlations based on the data measured with small-scale horizontal plates and vertical annulus. (authors)

  7. Proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Il [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong Gun [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, we perform a proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere at Re = 300 to reduce its lift fluctuations by attenuating the strength of the vortex shedding. As a control input, blowing/suction is distributed on the surface of hemisphere before the separation, and its strength is linearly proportional to the transverse velocity at a sensing location in the centerline of the wake. The sensing location is determined based on a correlation function between the lift force and the time derivative of sensing velocity. The optimal proportional gains for the proportional control are obtained for the sensing locations considered. The present control successfully attenuates the velocity fluctuations at the sensing location and three dimensional vertical structures in the wake, resulting in the reduction of lift fluctuations of hemisphere.

  8. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  9. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  10. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  11. Microcanonical formulation of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazaki, A.

    1984-03-01

    A microcanonical formulation of Euclidean quantum field theories is presented. In the formulation, correlation functions are given by a microcanonical ensemble average of fields. Furthermore, the perturbative equivalence of the formulation and the standard functional formulation is proved and the equipartition low is derived in our formulation. (author)

  12. The effect of dual-hemisphere breeding on stallion fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbornn, S R; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Varner, D D

    2017-05-01

    Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B). Five separate analyses of the data were performed. For Analyses 1-3, the effects of hemisphere (northern hemisphere [NH] vs. southern hemisphere [SH]) and breeding order (refers to the first [O1] or second [O2] season within the first year of dual-hemisphere breeding) were examined for all stallions (combined group [CG]), NOV stallions only, and EXP stallions only, respectively. Fertility values were generally higher in the SH than the NH (P fertility of O1 was generally similar to O2 (P > 0.05). For Analysis 4, fertility of DH breeding seasons was compared to single hemisphere (SIN) breeding seasons within the same 16 stallions and was found to be similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). For Analysis 5, the effect of the number of consecutive DH breeding seasons on fertility was examined and was found to remain unchanged (P > 0.05). In summary, no adverse effects of DH breeding on fertility were detected. Fertility was higher when stallions were bred in the SH, as compared to the NH. Potential reasons for higher fertility achieved in the SH were smaller book sizes and better mare reproductive quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.

  14. Opposed hemispheric specializations for human hypersexuality and orgasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffren, Sabrina; Braun, Claude M J; Guimond, Anik; Devinsky, Orrin

    2011-05-01

    With a multiple case report analysis we demonstrate that hypersexuality more often results from right hemisphere (RH) (n=26) than left hemisphere (LH) (n=7) lesions, possibly because of LH release after the RH lesion, and that ictal orgasm more often occurs in patients with right-sided (n=23) than left-sided (n=8) seizure foci, with the symptom probably resulting from RH activation. The LH may be specialized for increasing sexual tension, whereas the RH may be specialized for release of this tension (orgasm), the former being catabolic and the latter anabolic. Several other interpretations of the findings are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Plane and hemispherical potential structures in magnetically expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Igarashi, Yuichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional potential structures are measured for different gas pressure in expanding argon plasma using permanent magnets, where the magnetic field is about 100 G in the source and several gauss in the diffusion chamber. The plane potential drop is observed near the source exit for 0.35 mTorr, while the potential structure becomes hemispherical when increasing up to 1 mTorr; the hemispherical structure results in the radial divergence of the ion beam. It is found that the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the electrons overcoming the potential drop are dominated by the potential structure and magnetic-field lines, respectively.

  16. An overview of Fukushima radionuclides measured in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Ballard, S.; Nelson, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulted in the tragic accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and subsequently uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants into the atmosphere. This review article attempts to compile and interpret data collected by various national and international monitoring networks in response to the Fukushima releases across the northern hemisphere. The majority of the releases occurred during the period March 12–22 with a maximum release phase from March 14–17, 2011. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases (xenon and krypton), iodine, cesium, and tellurium. The radioactive gases and particles released in the accident were dispersed over the middle latitudes of the entire northern hemisphere and for the first time also measured in the southern Hemisphere. Isotopes of iodine and cesium were detected in air, water, milk and food samples collected across the entire northern hemisphere. Elevated levels of fission products were detected from March to May 2011 at many locations over the northern hemisphere. This article focuses on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes are also discussed. Spatial and temporal patterns and differences are contrasted. The activity ratios of 131 I/ 137 Cs and 134 Cs/ 137 Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected outside of Japan have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental hazard. - Graphical abstract: The trace levels of radioactivity in air, water, and milk samples collected across the northern hemisphere between March–May, 2011 from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan are discussed. Highlights: • We report

  17. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  18. SFR test fixture for hemispherical and hyperhemispherical camera systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkin, John M.

    2017-08-01

    Optical testing of camera systems in volume production environments can often require expensive tooling and test fixturing. Wide field (fish-eye, hemispheric and hyperhemispheric) optical systems create unique challenges because of the inherent distortion, and difficulty in controlling reflections from front-lit high resolution test targets over the hemisphere. We present a unique design for a test fixture that uses low-cost manufacturing methods and equipment such as 3D printing and an Arduino processor to control back-lit multi-color (VIS/NIR) targets and sources. Special care with LED drive electronics is required to accommodate both global and rolling shutter sensors.

  19. An overview of Fukushima radionuclides measured in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Ballard, S. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Nelson, R. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021, National Parks Hwy, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulted in the tragic accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and subsequently uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants into the atmosphere. This review article attempts to compile and interpret data collected by various national and international monitoring networks in response to the Fukushima releases across the northern hemisphere. The majority of the releases occurred during the period March 12–22 with a maximum release phase from March 14–17, 2011. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases (xenon and krypton), iodine, cesium, and tellurium. The radioactive gases and particles released in the accident were dispersed over the middle latitudes of the entire northern hemisphere and for the first time also measured in the southern Hemisphere. Isotopes of iodine and cesium were detected in air, water, milk and food samples collected across the entire northern hemisphere. Elevated levels of fission products were detected from March to May 2011 at many locations over the northern hemisphere. This article focuses on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes are also discussed. Spatial and temporal patterns and differences are contrasted. The activity ratios of {sup 131}I/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected outside of Japan have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental hazard. - Graphical abstract: The trace levels of radioactivity in air, water, and milk samples collected across the northern hemisphere between March–May, 2011 from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan are discussed. Highlights

  20. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Post-Stroke Longitudinal Alterations of Inter-Hemispheric Correlation and Hemispheric Dominance in Mouse Pre-Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Fabio; Lai, Stefano; Spalletti, Cristina; Panarese, Alessandro; Alia, Claudia; Micera, Silvestro; Caleo, Matteo; Di Garbo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Limited restoration of function is known to occur spontaneously after an ischemic injury to the primary motor cortex. Evidence suggests that Pre-Motor Areas (PMAs) may "take over" control of the disrupted functions. However, little is known about functional reorganizations in PMAs. Forelimb movements in mice can be driven by two cortical regions, Caudal and Rostral Forelimb Areas (CFA and RFA), generally accepted as primary motor and pre-motor cortex, respectively. Here, we examined longitudinal changes in functional coupling between the two RFAs following unilateral photothrombotic stroke in CFA (mm from Bregma: +0.5 anterior, +1.25 lateral). Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the RFAs of both hemispheres in freely moving injured and naïve mice. Neural signals were acquired at 9, 16 and 23 days after surgery (sub-acute period in stroke animals) through one bipolar electrode per hemisphere placed in the center of RFA, with a ground screw over the occipital bone. LFPs were pre-processed through an efficient method of artifact removal and analysed through: spectral,cross-correlation, mutual information and Granger causality analysis. Spectral analysis demonstrated an early decrease (day 9) in the alpha band power in both the RFAs. In the late sub-acute period (days 16 and 23), inter-hemispheric functional coupling was reduced in ischemic animals, as shown by a decrease in the cross-correlation and mutual information measures. Within the gamma and delta bands, correlation measures were already reduced at day 9. Granger analysis, used as a measure of the symmetry of the inter-hemispheric causal connectivity, showed a less balanced activity in the two RFAs after stroke, with more frequent oscillations of hemispheric dominance. These results indicate robust electrophysiological changes in PMAs after stroke. Specifically, we found alterations in transcallosal connectivity, with reduced inter-hemispheric functional coupling and a fluctuating dominance

  2. Post-Stroke Longitudinal Alterations of Inter-Hemispheric Correlation and Hemispheric Dominance in Mouse Pre-Motor Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vallone

    Full Text Available Limited restoration of function is known to occur spontaneously after an ischemic injury to the primary motor cortex. Evidence suggests that Pre-Motor Areas (PMAs may "take over" control of the disrupted functions. However, little is known about functional reorganizations in PMAs. Forelimb movements in mice can be driven by two cortical regions, Caudal and Rostral Forelimb Areas (CFA and RFA, generally accepted as primary motor and pre-motor cortex, respectively. Here, we examined longitudinal changes in functional coupling between the two RFAs following unilateral photothrombotic stroke in CFA (mm from Bregma: +0.5 anterior, +1.25 lateral.Local field potentials (LFPs were recorded from the RFAs of both hemispheres in freely moving injured and naïve mice. Neural signals were acquired at 9, 16 and 23 days after surgery (sub-acute period in stroke animals through one bipolar electrode per hemisphere placed in the center of RFA, with a ground screw over the occipital bone. LFPs were pre-processed through an efficient method of artifact removal and analysed through: spectral,cross-correlation, mutual information and Granger causality analysis.Spectral analysis demonstrated an early decrease (day 9 in the alpha band power in both the RFAs. In the late sub-acute period (days 16 and 23, inter-hemispheric functional coupling was reduced in ischemic animals, as shown by a decrease in the cross-correlation and mutual information measures. Within the gamma and delta bands, correlation measures were already reduced at day 9. Granger analysis, used as a measure of the symmetry of the inter-hemispheric causal connectivity, showed a less balanced activity in the two RFAs after stroke, with more frequent oscillations of hemispheric dominance.These results indicate robust electrophysiological changes in PMAs after stroke. Specifically, we found alterations in transcallosal connectivity, with reduced inter-hemispheric functional coupling and a fluctuating

  3. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  4. Right Hemisphere Dominance for Emotion Processing in Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallez, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetries of emotional facial expressions in humans offer reliable indexes to infer brain lateralization and mostly revealed right hemisphere dominance. Studies concerned with oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates largely showed a left-sided asymmetry in chimpanzees, marmosets and macaques. The presence of asymmetrical oro-facial…

  5. Gender and rapid alterations of hemispheric dominance during planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, Daniel; Skotchko, Tatjana; Duschek, Stefan; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Mental planning and carrying out a plan provoke specific cerebral hemodynamic responses. Gender aspects of hemispheric laterality using rapid cerebral hemodynamics have not been reported. Here, we applied functional transcranial Doppler sonography to examine lateralization of cerebral hemodynamics of the middle cerebral arteries of 28 subjects (14 women and 14 men) performing a standard planning task. There were easy and difficult problems, and mental planning without motor activity was separated from movement execution. Difficult mental planning elicited lateralization to the right hemisphere after 2 or more seconds, a feature that was not observed during movement execution. In females, there was a dominance to the left hemisphere during movement execution. Optimized problem solving yielded an increased laterality change to the right during mental planning. Gender-related hemispheric dominance appears to be condition-dependent, and change of laterality to the right may play a role in optimized performance. Results are of relevance when considering laterality from a perspective of performance enhancement of higher cognitive functions, and also of psychiatric disorders with cognitive dysfunctions and abnormal lateralization patterns such as schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Age-related shifts in hemispheric dominance for syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Michelle; Federmeier, Kara D

    2017-12-01

    Recent ERP data from young adults have revealed that simple syntactic anomalies elicit different patterns of lateralization in right-handed participants depending upon their familial sinistrality profile (whether or not they have left-handed biological relatives). Right-handed participants who do not have left-handed relatives showed a strongly lateralized response pattern, with P600 responses following left-hemisphere-biased presentations and N400 responses following right-hemisphere-biased presentations. Given that the literature on aging has documented a tendency to change across adulthood from asymmetry of function to a more bilateral pattern, we tested the stability of this asymmetric response to syntactic violations by recording ERPs as 24 older adults (age 60+) with no history of familial sinistrality made grammaticality judgments on simple two-word phrases. Results showed that the asymmetric pattern observed in right-handed adults without familial sinistrality indeed changes with age, such that P600 responses come to be elicited not only with left-hemisphere-biased but also with right-hemisphere-biased presentations in older adults. These findings suggest that, as with many other cognitive functions, syntactic processing becomes more bilateral with age. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Wave-current generated turbulence over hemisphere bottom roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Krishnendu; Roy, Sayahnya; Debnath, Koustuv

    2018-03-01

    The present paper explores the effect of wave-current interaction on the turbulence characteristics and the distribution of eddy structure over artificially crammed rough bed prepared with hemispheres. The effect of the surface wave on temporal and spatial-averaged mean velocity, intensity, Reynolds shear stress over, within cavity and above the hemispherical bed are discussed. Detailed three-dimensional time series velocity components were measured in a tilting flume using 3-D Micro-Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) at a Reynolds number, 62 × 103. This study reports the fractional contributions of burst-sweep cycles dominating the total shear stress near hemispherical rough surface both for current only flow as well as for wave-induced cases. Wavelet analysis of the fluctuating velocity signal shows that the superimposed wave of frequency 1 Hz is capable of modulating the energy containing a range of velocity fluctuations at the mid-depth of the cavity region (formed due to the crammed arrangement of the hemispheres). As a result, the large-scale eddies (with large values of wavelet coefficients) are concentrated at a pseudo-frequency which is equal to the wave oscillating frequency. On the other hand, it is observed that the higher wave frequency (2 Hz) is incapable of modulating the eddy structures at that particular region.

  8. Hemispheric lateralization of motor thresholds in relation to stuttering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A Alm

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15 and in controls (n = 15. In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026, with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049. The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control.

  9. Hemispheric Lateralization of Motor Thresholds in Relation to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A.; Karlsson, Ragnhild; Sundberg, Madeleine; Axelson, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control. PMID:24146930

  10. Hemispheric Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…

  11. Reading the Wrong Way with the Right Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Kirk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.

  12. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  13. Experimental Study on Critical Power in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study of critical heat flux in gap (CHFG) has been performed to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in a hemispherical narrow gap. The objectives of the CHFG test are to measure critical power from a critical heat removal rate through the hemispherical narrow gap using distilled water with experimental parameters of system pressure and gap width. The CHFG test results have shown that a countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) brings about local dryout at the small edge region of the upper part and finally global dryout in a hemispherical narrow gap. Increases in the gap width and pressure lead to an increase in critical power. The measured values of critical power are lower than the predictions made by other empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate, annuli, and small spherical gaps. The measured data on critical power in the hemispherical narrow gaps have been correlated using nondimensional parameters with a range of approximately ±20%. The developed correlation has been expanded to apply the spherical geometry using the Siemens/KWU correlation

  14. Terrestrial ecological responses of climate change in the Northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forchhammer, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on the single most important atmospheric phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the author reviews the recent studies coupling the NAO with the ecology of a wide range of terrestrial organisms. In particular, the author focuses on low variations in the NAO affect phenotypic variation in life history Traits and, ultimately, dynamics of populations and of interacting species. (LN)

  15. optical analysis of a hemispheric concentrator with a manual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    sophisticated system involving robotics, managed by a. PLC using algorithms of calculation for the orientation of each element is necessary. Studies on hemispheric concentrators were conducted, usually to show that they focus at a point just like a paraboloid concentrator (Bellel, 2011). The angle change does not cause a ...

  16. Shock stand off Calculations for Hemisphere in Hypersonic Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Ghaffar, A.; Bilal, S.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The shape and location of shock has been studied by solving the axi symmetric Navier Stokes Equations for a hemisphere in hypersonic flow. The effect of Mach number on shock stand-off distance has been investigated. It is found that the shock location varies with Mach number and the free stream conditions at a given nose radius. (author)

  17. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  18. Reading the wrong way with the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Karen E; Haigh, Charlotte E; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Buckley, Jude; Kirk, Ian J

    2013-07-17

    Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords) during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.

  19. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmezoğlu, K; Sperling, B; Henriksen, T

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduct...

  20. Hemispheric Correlates of the Rod-And-Frame Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Donna F.; Languis, Marlin L.

    1981-01-01

    Right-handed sixth graders were administered the WISC Block Design and verbal and nonverbal versions of the Rod-and-Frame Test (RFT), measuring field dependence/independence. Results seemed to reflect a right hemisphere processing for the nonverbal RFT and a possible sex bias against girls in its traditional verbal administration. (Author/SJL)

  1. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  2. Operation of a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A hemispherical ΔE/E detector has been constructed and tested for the measurement of linear-energy-transfer distributions of charged particles induced by fast neutrons. The initial performance test results and LET distributions from 14.8-MeV monoenergetic neutron irradiation in free space of carbon, lead, and Al50-plastic are presented

  3. Southern hemisphere coal characteristics and their impact on plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y Y; Dickson, A J; Lowe, A; Pearson, J M; Pitman, B L; Semark, P M [Taiwan Power Company (Taiwan)

    1992-09-01

    The paper reports performance information of specific utilities fired by coal mined in the Southern Hemisphere. It includes information from Pacific Power Services, Australia, the China Light and Power Company, Hong Kong, the Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan, and the South Africa Electricity Power Company, South Africa. 12 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  5. Hemispheric Specialization and the Growth of Human Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Connectionistic notions of hemispheric specialization and use are incompatible with the network organization of the human brain. Although brain organization has correspondence with phenomena at more complex levels of analysis, the correspondence is not categorical in nature, as has been claimed by the left-brain/right-brain theorists. (Author/GC)

  6. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  7. Presentation of words to separate hemispheres prevents interword illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liederman, J; Sohn, Y S

    1999-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that division of inputs between the hemispheres could prevent interword letter migrations in the form of illusory conjunctions. The task was to decide whether a centrally-presented consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) target word matched one of four CVC words presented to a single hemisphere or divided between the hemispheres in a subsequent test display. During half of the target-absent trials, known as conjunction trials, letters from two separate words (e.g., "tag" and "cop") in the test display could be mistaken for a target word (e.g., "top"). For the other half of the target-absent trails, the test display did not match any target consonants (Experiment 1, N = 16) or it matched one target consonant (Experiment 2, N = 29), the latter constituting true "feature" trials. Bi- as compared to unihemispheric presentation significantly reduced the number of conjunction, but not feature, errors. Illusory conjunctions did not occur when the words were presented to separate hemispheres.

  8. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  9. Methods of dichotic listening as a research methodology for hemispheric interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovyazina M.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data was obtained from a dichotic listening test by patients with unilateral brain lesions and corpus callosum pathology (agenesis, cysts, degenerative changes, etc. Efficiency index analysis shows that interhemispheric interaction in the audioverbal sphere depends to a greater extent on the right hemisphere state. The dichotic listening technique is not an informative means of studying hemispheric interaction, since it does not allow a clear distinction between hemispheric symptoms and symptoms of pathology of the corpus callosum. Thus, violations of hemispheric relations caused by disorders of the corpus callosum and cerebral hemispheres change worth more right hemisphere activity.

  10. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  11. The Southern Oscillation and northern hemisphere temperature variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropelewski, C.F.; Halpert, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Southern Oscillation (SO) is the best defined and understood mode of interannual climate variability. The extreme phases of the SO have been identified with global-scale variations in the atmosphere/ocean circulation system and with the modulation of monsoon precipitation on the global scale. While SO-related precipitation has been the subject of several studies, the magnitude of the SO-related temperature variability on the global scale has not been well documented. In this paper the authors provide an estimate of the SO-related temperature variability in the context of monitoring global warming related to the increase in greenhouse gases. This analysis suggested that traditional time series of hemispheric and global temperature anomalies for the calendar year may confuse interannual temperature variability associated with the SO and perceived climate trend. Analyses based on calendar-year data are likely to split the effects of the SO-related temperature variability over two years. The Northern Hemisphere cold season (october through March) time series may be more appropriate to separate the SO-related effects on the hemispheric temperature from other modes of variability. mean interannual temperature anomaly differences associated with the extremes of the So are estimated to be 0.2 C for the October-to-March season in the Northern Hemisphere. In areas directly linked to the SO, the mean interannual differences amount to over 0.5 C. The So cannot account for all the variability in the hemispheric times series of surface temperature estimates, but the SO signal must be properly accounted for if these time series are to be understood

  12. Neuropragmatics: Extralinguistic Pragmatic Ability is Better Preserved in Left-Hemisphere-Damaged Patients than in Right-Hemisphere-Damaged Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutica, Ilaria; Bucciarelli, Monica; Bara, Bruno G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the pragmatic ability of right- and left-hemisphere-damaged patients excluding the possible interference of linguistic deficits. To this aim, we study extralinguistic communication, that is communication performed only through gestures. The Cognitive Pragmatics Theory provides the theoretical framework:…

  13. Curcumin nanodisks: formulation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Mistuni; Singh, Amareshwar T. K.; Xu, Wenwei; Sulchek, Todd; Gordon, Leo I.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Nanodisks (ND) are nanoscale, disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose edge is stabilized by apolipoproteins. In the present study, ND were formulated with the bioactive polyphenol, curcumin, at a 6:1 phospholipid:curcumin molar ratio. Atomic force microscopy revealed that curcumin-ND are particles with diameters

  14. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  15. Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Tanii, Y.

    1987-06-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane theory in eleven dimensions is given. The covariant split of the first and second class constraints is exhibited, and their Dirac brackets are computed. Gauge conditions are imposed in such a way that the reparametrizations of the membrane with divergence free 2-vectors are unfixed. (author). 10 refs

  16. Callosal tracts and patterns of hemispheric dominance: a combined fMRI and DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberling, Isabelle S; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Corballis, Michael C

    2011-01-15

    Left-hemispheric dominance for language and right-hemispheric dominance for spatial processing are distinctive characteristics of the human brain. However, variations of these hemispheric asymmetries have been observed, with a minority showing crowding of both functions to the same hemisphere or even a mirror reversal of the typical lateralization pattern. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic imaging to investigate the role of the corpus callosum in participants with atypical hemispheric dominance. The corpus callosum was segmented according to the projection site of the underlying fibre tracts. Analyses of the microstructure of the identified callosal segments revealed that atypical hemispheric dominance for language was associated with high anisotropic diffusion through the corpus callosum as a whole. This effect was most evident in participants with crowding of both functions to the right. The enhanced anisotropic diffusion in atypical hemispheric dominance implies that in these individuals the two hemispheres are more heavily interconnected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2008/2009; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Jahresbericht 2008/2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In the period of report, funding of 431 projects in a total amount of 431 million Euro was granted by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). Most of the sponsored projects deal with chemical-engineering utilization of renewable raw materials.

  18. Effectiveness of early decompressive surgery for massive hemispheric embolic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Hideo; Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakao, Yasuaki; Oyama, Kazutaka; Esaki, Takanori; Watanabe, Mitsuya

    2008-01-01

    Massive hemispheric embolic infarction associated with acute brain swelling and rapid clinical deterioration is known as malignant infarction because of the significant rates of mortality and morbidity. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is effective; however, the timing and outcome still remain unclear. Ninety-four patients with massive embolic hemispheric infarctions (infarct volume >200 ml) were retrospectively divided into 3 groups: 29 patients, treated conservatively (conservative group); 33 patients, operated on after the appearance of signs of brain herniation (late surgery group); and 32 patients, operated on before the onset of signs of brain herniation signs (early surgery group). The mortality at 1 and 6 months in the late surgery group (15.2% and 24.2%, respectively) was significantly improved as compared to the conservative group (62.1% and 69.0%, respectively) (p 200 ml) should be performed before the onset of brain herniation. Early surgery may achieve a satisfactory functional recovery. (author)

  19. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Propper

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT, affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT.

  20. Film Boiling on Downward Quenching Hemisphere of Varying Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan S. Kim; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-04-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Laminar Transition Apparatus). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain low Biot numbers. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of all the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the test sections. The measured data are compared with the numerical predictions from laminar film boiling analysis. The measured heat transfer coefficients are found to be greater than those predicted by the conventional laminar flow theory on account of the interfacial wavy motion incurred by the Helmholtz instability. Incorporation of the wavy motion model considerably improves the agreement between the experimental and numerical results in terms of heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the interfacial wavy motion and the quenching process are visualized through a digital camera.

  1. Agents with left and right dominant hemispheres and quantum statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Alexandr A.; Khrennikov, Andrei Yu.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiagent model illustrating the emergence of two different quantum statistics, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac, in a friendly population of individuals with the right-brain dominance and in a competitive population of individuals with the left-brain hemisphere dominance, correspondingly. Doing so, we adduce the arguments that Lefebvre’s “algebra of conscience” can be used in a natural way to describe decision-making strategies of agents simulating people with different brain dominance. One can suggest that the emergence of the two principal statistical distributions is able to illustrate different types of society organization and also to be used in order to simulate market phenomena and psychic disorders, when a switching of hemisphere dominance is involved.

  2. Hemispheric Division of Function Is the Result of Independent Probabilistic Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Verbal and visuospatial abilities are typically subserved by different cerebral hemispheres: the left hemisphere for the former and the right hemisphere for the latter. However little is known of the origin of this division of function. Causal theories propose that functional asymmetry is an obligatory pattern of organisation, while statistical…

  3. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Meaning Selection: Evidence from the Disambiguation of Homophonic vs. Heterophonic Homographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Orna; Markus, Andrey; Eviatar, Zohar

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating hemispheric asymmetries in meaning selection using homophonic homographs (e.g., "bank"), suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) quickly selects contextually relevant meanings, whereas the right hemisphere (RH) maintains a broader spectrum of meanings including those that are contextually irrelevant (e.g., Faust & Chiarello,…

  4. Communication Impairments in Patients with Right Hemisphere Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abusamra, Valeria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Right brain damages can manifest deficits of communicative skills, which sometimes cause an important inability.The communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage are distinct from those in aphasia and may affect discursive, lexico-semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic components of communication. It is calculated that this troubles affect almost a 50% of this patients.However, these impairments have essentially been studied separately and their possible coexistence in a same individual is still unknown. Moreover, the clinical profiles of communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage, including their correlation with underlying cognitive deficits, are still unreported. The goal of this article is to offer an overview of the verbal communication deficits that can be found in right-hemisphere-damaged individuals. These deficits can interfere, at different levels, with prosody, the semantic processing of words and discourse and pragmatic abilities. In spite of the incapability that they produce, communicational impairments in right brain damaged are usually neglected. Probably, the sub-diagnostic is due to the lack of an appropriate classification or to the absent of adequate assessment tools. In fact, patients with right brain damages might present harsh communicational deficits but perform correctly on aphasia tests because the last ones are not designed to detect this kind of deficit but left brain damaged impairments. Increasing our knowledge about the role of the right-hemisphere in verbal communication will have major theoretical and clinical impacts; it could facilitate the diagnosis of right brain patients in the clinical circle and it will help to lay the foundations to elaborate methods and strategies of intervention.

  5. Task Specific Inter-Hemispheric Coupling in Human Subthalamic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eDarvas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical networks and quantitative measures of connectivity are integral to the study of brain function. Despite lack of direct connections between left and right subthalamic nuclei (STN, there are apparent physiological connections. During clinical examination of patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD, this connectivity is exploited to enhance signs of PD, yet our understanding of this connectivity is limited. We hypothesized that movement leads to synchronization of neural oscillations in bilateral STN, and we implemented phase coherence, a measure of phase-locking between cortical sites in a narrow frequency band, to demonstrate this synchronization. We analyzed task specific phase synchronization and causality between left and right STN local field potentials (LFP recorded from both hemispheres simultaneously during a cued movement task in four subjects with PD who underwent Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS surgery. We used a data driven approach to determine inter-hemispheric channel pairs and frequencies with a task specific increase in phase locking.We found significant phase locking between hemispheres in alpha frequency (8-12 Hz in all subjects concurrent with movement of either hand. In all subjects, phase synchronization increased over baseline upon or prior to hand movement onset and lasted until the motion ceased. Left and right hand movement showed similar patterns. Granger causality at the phase-locking frequencies between synchronized electrodes revealed a unidirectional causality from right to left STN regardless of which side was moved.Phase synchronization across hemispheres between basal ganglia supports existence of a bilateral network having lateralized regions of specialization for motor processing. Our results suggest this bilateral network is activated by a unilateral motor program. Understanding phase synchronization in natural brain functions is critical to development of future DBS systems that augment goal directed

  6. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  7. A new look for the Southern Hemisphere jet stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, D.; Ribera, P. [Facultad de CC Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Herrera, R.; Hernandez, E. [Facultad de CC Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    A new jet stream description, defined as the geostrophic streamline of maximum average velocity is proposed. An objective algorithm for detecting and tracking the jet has been developed, tested and applied to the NCEP/NCAR 200-hPa geopotential height in the Southern Hemisphere for the period 1958-2002. The results show the variability of the double character of the Southern Hemisphere jet, with a marked seasonality. During the warm season, a single jet can be found around 40 S, while autumn and winter are characterized by a clear double jet structure, with a strong and dominant subtropical jet located around 30 S and a polar front jet, progressively displaced toward southern latitudes and reaching 60 S by the end of the cold season. In general, a trend toward slower subtropical jets and stronger polar front jets has been detected during the study period. The Southern Annular Mode appears as a main modulator of the latitude and strength of the polar front jet, influencing to a minor extent its subtropical counterpart. The ENSO cycle strongly modifies the latitude and specially the strength of the subtropical jet, affecting its preferred wavenumber as well. Nevertheless, the effect of this oscillation seems fairly restricted in the Pacific, thus limiting the ability of this jet to drive the El Nino teleconnections along the Southern Hemisphere. The consistency of the results, when compared with previous jet climatologies, suggests that the new approach is a reliable jet-tracking method, thus providing a new tool to analyze climatic variability at hemispheric scales.

  8. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  9. Hemispheric energy trade: agenda for the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inciarte, G. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-10-01

    The developments and perspectives of energy trade in the Western Hemisphere were discussed from a Venezuelan point of view. Agreements such as the ANDEAN PACT, NAFTA, and MERCOSUR were examples of economic integration which strengthen trade and investments between North America and Latin America. Other possibilities for collaboration between North America and Latin America were explored. Efforts made by Venezuela in contributing to opening the process, particularly in the oil industry, were highlighted. 1 tab., 13 figs.

  10. Hemispheric energy trade: agenda for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inciarte, G.

    1996-01-01

    The developments and perspectives of energy trade in the Western Hemisphere were discussed from a Venezuelan point of view. Agreements such as the ANDEAN PACT, NAFTA, and MERCOSUR were examples of economic integration which strengthen trade and investments between North America and Latin America. Other possibilities for collaboration between North America and Latin America were explored. Efforts made by Venezuela in contributing to opening the process, particularly in the oil industry, were highlighted. 1 tab., 13 figs

  11. Hemispheric differences in processing of vocalizations depend on early experience

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Mimi L.; Vicario, David S.

    2010-01-01

    An intriguing phenomenon in the neurobiology of language is lateralization: the dominant role of one hemisphere in a particular function. Lateralization is not exclusive to language because lateral differences are observed in other sensory modalities, behaviors, and animal species. Despite much scientific attention, the function of lateralization, its possible dependence on experience, and the functional implications of such dependence have yet to be clearly determined. We have explored the r...

  12. The Effectiveness of 1 Hz rTMS Over the Primary Motor Area of the Unaffected Hemisphere to Improve Hand Function After Stroke Depends on Hemispheric Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Bösl, Kathrin; Theilig, Steven; Wiederer, Ralf; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of motor cortex excitability of the contralesional hemisphere may improve dexterity of the affected hand after stroke. 40 patients (17 dominant hemispheric stroke, 23 non-dominant hemispheric stroke) with a mild to moderate upper limb motor impairment were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel-groups. Both groups received 15 daily sessions of motor training preceded by either 1 Hz rTMS or sham rTMS. Behavioral and neurophysiological evaluations were performed at baseline, after the first week and after the third week of treatment, and after a 6 months follow-up. In both groups motor function of the affected hand improved significantly. Patients with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere made a similar improvement, regardless of whether the motor training was preceded by sham or 1 Hz rTMS. Patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere had a less favorable improvement than those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere after motor training preceded by sham rTMS. However, when 1 Hz rTMS preceded the motor training, patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere made a similar improvement as those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere. Motor recovery of the affected upper limb after stroke is determined by dominance of the affected hemisphere. Stroke of the dominant hemisphere is associated with per se poorer improvement of the affected hand. 1 Hz rTMS over the contralesional M1 significantly improves dexterity of the affected hand in patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere, but not in those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Right-hemispheric dominance for visual remapping in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisella, L; Alahyane, N; Blangero, A; Thery, F; Blanc, S; Pelisson, D

    2011-02-27

    We review evidence showing a right-hemispheric dominance for visuo-spatial processing and representation in humans. Accordingly, visual disorganization symptoms (intuitively related to remapping impairments) are observed in both neglect and constructional apraxia. More specifically, we review findings from the intervening saccade paradigm in humans--and present additional original data--which suggest a specific role of the asymmetrical network at the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the right hemisphere in visual remapping: following damage to the right dorsal posterior parietal cortex (PPC) as well as part of the corpus callosum connecting the PPC to the frontal lobes, patient OK in a double-step saccadic task exhibited an impairment when the second saccade had to be directed rightward. This singular and lateralized deficit cannot result solely from the patient's cortical lesion and, therefore, we propose that it is due to his callosal lesion that may specifically interrupt the interhemispheric transfer of information necessary to execute accurate rightward saccades towards a remapped target location. This suggests a specialized right-hemispheric network for visuo-spatial remapping that subsequently transfers target location information to downstream planning regions, which are symmetrically organized.

  14. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2015-03-12

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops as language proficiency increases. Sleep is important for the formation of long-term memory, in humans as well as in other animals, including songbirds. Here, we measured neuronal activation (as the expression pattern of the immediate early gene ZENK) during sleep in juvenile zebra finch males that were still learning their songs from a tutor. We found that during sleep, there was learning-dependent lateralisation of spontaneous neuronal activation in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory brain region that is involved in tutor song memory, while there was right hemisphere dominance of neuronal activation in HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor nucleus that is involved in song production and sensorimotor learning. Specifically, in the NCM, birds that imitated their tutors well were left dominant, while poor imitators were right dominant, similar to language-proficiency related lateralisation in humans. Given the avian-human parallels, lateralised neural activation during sleep may also be important for speech and language acquisition in human infants.

  15. Left hemispheric dominance during auditory processing in a noisy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Bernhard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In daily life, we are exposed to different sound inputs simultaneously. During neural encoding in the auditory pathway, neural activities elicited by these different sounds interact with each other. In the present study, we investigated neural interactions elicited by masker and amplitude-modulated test stimulus in primary and non-primary human auditory cortex during ipsi-lateral and contra-lateral masking by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results We observed significant decrements of auditory evoked responses and a significant inter-hemispheric difference for the N1m response during both ipsi- and contra-lateral masking. Conclusion The decrements of auditory evoked neural activities during simultaneous masking can be explained by neural interactions evoked by masker and test stimulus in peripheral and central auditory systems. The inter-hemispheric differences of N1m decrements during ipsi- and contra-lateral masking reflect a basic hemispheric specialization contributing to the processing of complex auditory stimuli such as speech signals in noisy environments.

  16. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy.

  17. Gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry for face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matarazzo Silvia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current cognitive neuroscience models predict a right-hemispheric dominance for face processing in humans. However, neuroimaging and electromagnetic data in the literature provide conflicting evidence of a right-sided brain asymmetry for decoding the structural properties of faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this inconsistency might be due to gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry. Results In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs were recorded in 40 healthy, strictly right-handed individuals (20 women and 20 men while they observed infants' faces expressing a variety of emotions. Early face-sensitive P1 and N1 responses to neutral vs. affective expressions were measured over the occipital/temporal cortices, and the responses were analyzed according to viewer gender. Along with a strong right hemispheric dominance for men, the results showed a lack of asymmetry for face processing in the amplitude of the occipito-temporal N1 response in women to both neutral and affective faces. Conclusion Men showed an asymmetric functioning of visual cortex while decoding faces and expressions, whereas women showed a more bilateral functioning. These results indicate the importance of gender effects in the lateralization of the occipito-temporal response during the processing of face identity, structure, familiarity, or affective content.

  18. Hemispheric specialization in the assessment of female physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Seda; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Gülbetekin, Evrim

    2015-01-01

    Female physical attractiveness has been widely related to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body weight (BW). The present study was conducted to examine the role of hemispheric specialization in the perception of physical attractiveness. Drawings of female figures that differed in BW (underweight, normal and overweight) and WHR (0.7 and 1.0) were presented to both male and female subjects using the visual half-field technique. The stimuli were presented for an unusually short duration (180 msec). Under these conditions, male but not female subjects rated the various female figures as differing in attractiveness. Thus, male judgements of female attractiveness depended on weight and WHR. Reaction time and accuracy scores obtained from male subjects suggested that the left hemisphere (LH) was slower but more accurate than the right hemisphere in detecting differences in the attractiveness of the figures. Additionally, the most attractive figure was detected significantly more accurately than the least attractive figure when the figures were presented to the LH. The findings were discussed in terms of evolutionary views of sex differences in mate selection.

  19. Hemispherical photography to estimate biophysical variables of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziany N. Brandão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Leaf Area Index (LAI is a key parameter to evaluate the vegetation spectral response, estimating plant nutrition and water requirements. However, in large fields is difficult to obtain accurate data to LAI determination. Therefore, the objective of this study was the estimation of LAI, biomass and yield of irrigated cotton through digital hemispherical photography. The treatments consisted of four nitrogen doses (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg ha-1 and four phosphorus doses (0, 120, 240 and 360 kg ha-1. Digital hemispherical photographs were collected under similar sky brightness conditions at 60 and 75 days after emergence (DAE, performed by the Digital Plant Canopy Imager - CI-110® of CID Inc. Biomass and LAI measurements were made on the same dates. LAI was also determined by destructive and non-destructive methods through a leaf area integrator (LI-COR® -LI-3100C model, and by measurements based on the midrib length of all leaves, respectively. The results indicate that the hemispherical images were appropriate to estimate the LAI and biomass production of irrigated cotton, while for the estimation of yield, more research is needed to improve the method.

  20. Hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang-Ping; Ma, Jun-Peng; Zhou, Zhang-Ming; Yang, Min; You, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have investigated the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy (DC) for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. However, the results are controversial. Therefore, the following is a retrospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. From January 2004 to June 2014, patients at two medical centres in south-west China, who underwent DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction, were included. The patients' clinical and radiologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. A chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression model were used to identify the risk factors. A total of 128 patients were included in the study. The incidence of ventriculomegaly and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were 42.2% (54/128) and 14.8% (19/128), respectively. Lower preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were factors significantly associated with the development of post-operative hydrocephalus after DC. Cerebral infarction patients receiving DC have a moderate tendency to suffer from post-operative hydrocephalus. A poor GCS score and the presence of SAH were significantly associated with the development of hydrocephalus after DC.

  1. Temporal processing asymmetries between the cerebral hemispheres: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, M E

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews a large body of research which has investigated the capacities of the cerebral hemispheres to process temporal information. This research includes clinical, non-clinical, and electrophysiological experimentation. On the whole, the research supports the notion of a left hemisphere advantage for temporal resolution. The existence of such an asymmetry demonstrates that cerebral lateralisation is not limited to the higher-order functions such as language. The capacity for the resolution of fine temporal events appears to play an important role in other left hemisphere functions which require a rapid sequential processor. The functions that are facilitated by such a processor include verbal, textual, and fine movement skills. The co-development of these functions with an efficient temporal processor can be accounted for with reference to a number of evolutionary scenarios. Physiological evidence favours a temporal processing mechanism located within the left temporal cortex. The function of this mechanism may be described in terms of intermittency or travelling moment models of temporal processing. The travelling moment model provides the most plausible account of the asymmetry.

  2. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  3. Ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Dawe, Robert J; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to (a) develop an approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, (b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and (c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in vivo and ex vivo. An approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex vivo was assessed. The relationship between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both antemortem and postmortem. This approach for ex vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than intersubject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements. Regional brain volumes measured with this approach for ex vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in vivo and ex vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that this approach captures information linked to antemortem macrostructural brain characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  5. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M. H.; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C.; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2015-01-01

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops as language proficiency increases. Sleep is important for the formation of long-term memory, in humans as well as in other animals, including songbirds. Here, we measured neuronal activation (as the expression pattern of the immediate early gene ZENK) during sleep in juvenile zebra finch males that were still learning their songs from a tutor. We found that during sleep, there was learning-dependent lateralisation of spontaneous neuronal activation in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory brain region that is involved in tutor song memory, while there was right hemisphere dominance of neuronal activation in HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor nucleus that is involved in song production and sensorimotor learning. Specifically, in the NCM, birds that imitated their tutors well were left dominant, while poor imitators were right dominant, similar to language-proficiency related lateralisation in humans. Given the avian-human parallels, lateralised neural activation during sleep may also be important for speech and language acquisition in human infants. PMID:25761654

  6. Langevin formulation of quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncadelli, M.

    1989-03-01

    We first show that nonrelativistic quantum mechanics formulated at imaginary-(h/2 π) can formally be viewed as the Fokker-Planck description of a frictionless brownian motion, which occurs (in general) in an absorbing medium. We next offer a new formulation of quantum mechanics, which is basically the Langevin treatment of this brownian motion. Explicitly, we derive a noise-average representation for the transition probability W(X'',t''|X',t'), in terms of the solutions to a Langevin equation with a Gaussian white-noise. Upon analytic continuation back to real-(h/2 π),W(X'',t''|X',t') becomes the propagator of the original Schroedinger equation. Our approach allows for a straightforward application to quantum dynamical problems of the mathematical techniques of classical stochastic processes. Moreover, computer simulations of quantum mechanical systems can be carried out by using numerical programs based on the Langevin dynamics. (author). 19 refs, 1 tab

  7. Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Magdy I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 23 factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activi...

  8. Delusions and the Right Hemisphere: A Review of the Case for the Right Hemisphere as a Mediator of Reality-Based Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Lindsey; Blum, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating.

  9. Atmospheric mercury in the Southern Hemisphere tropics: seasonal and diurnal variations and influence of inter-hemispheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dean; Nelson, Peter F.; Edwards, Grant C.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Ward, Jason; Harnwell, James; van der Schoot, Marcel; Atkinson, Brad; Chambers, Scott D.; Griffiths, Alan D.; Werczynski, Sylvester; Williams, Alastair G.

    2017-09-01

    Mercury is a toxic element of serious concern for human and environmental health. Understanding its natural cycling in the environment is an important goal towards assessing its impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Due to the unique chemical and physical properties of mercury, the atmosphere is the dominant transport pathway for this heavy metal, with the consequence that regions far removed from sources can be impacted. However, there exists a dearth of long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. This paper presents the first 2 years of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) measurements taken at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in northern Australia, as part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS). Annual mean GEM concentrations determined at ATARS (0.95 ± 0.12 ng m-3) are consistent with recent observations at other sites in the Southern Hemisphere. Comparison with GEM data from other Australian monitoring sites suggests a concentration gradient that decreases with increasing latitude. Seasonal analysis shows that GEM concentrations at ATARS are significantly lower in the distinct wet monsoon season than in the dry season. This result provides insight into alterations of natural mercury cycling processes as a result of changes in atmospheric humidity, oceanic/terrestrial fetch, and convective mixing, and invites future investigation using wet mercury deposition measurements. Due to its location relative to the atmospheric equator, ATARS intermittently samples air originating from the Northern Hemisphere, allowing an opportunity to gain greater understanding of inter-hemispheric transport of mercury and other atmospheric species. Diurnal cycles of GEM at ATARS show distinct nocturnal depletion events that are attributed to dry deposition under stable boundary layer conditions. These cycles provide strong further evidence supportive of a multi-hop model of GEM

  10. The right hemisphere supports but does not replace left hemisphere auditory function in patients with persisting aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barnes, Gareth R; Penny, William D; Iverson, Paul; Woodhead, Zoe V J; Griffiths, Timothy D; Leff, Alexander P

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we used magnetoencephalography and a mismatch paradigm to investigate speech processing in stroke patients with auditory comprehension deficits and age-matched control subjects. We probed connectivity within and between the two temporal lobes in response to phonemic (different word) and acoustic (same word) oddballs using dynamic causal modelling. We found stronger modulation of self-connections as a function of phonemic differences for control subjects versus aphasics in left primary auditory cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus. The patients showed stronger modulation of connections from right primary auditory cortex to right superior temporal gyrus (feed-forward) and from left primary auditory cortex to right primary auditory cortex (interhemispheric). This differential connectivity can be explained on the basis of a predictive coding theory which suggests increased prediction error and decreased sensitivity to phonemic boundaries in the aphasics' speech network in both hemispheres. Within the aphasics, we also found behavioural correlates with connection strengths: a negative correlation between phonemic perception and an inter-hemispheric connection (left superior temporal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus), and positive correlation between semantic performance and a feedback connection (right superior temporal gyrus to right primary auditory cortex). Our results suggest that aphasics with impaired speech comprehension have less veridical speech representations in both temporal lobes, and rely more on the right hemisphere auditory regions, particularly right superior temporal gyrus, for processing speech. Despite this presumed compensatory shift in network connectivity, the patients remain significantly impaired.

  11. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean François Le

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called "flip method" (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and "clustering" (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  12. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  13. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean Francois Le

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference

  14. Split-brain reveals separate but equal self-recognition in the two cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Lucina Q; Rayman, Jan; Zaidel, Eran

    2005-09-01

    To assess the ability of the disconnected cerebral hemispheres to recognize images of the self, a split-brain patient (an individual who underwent complete cerebral commissurotomy to relieve intractable epilepsy) was tested using morphed self-face images presented to one visual hemifield (projecting to one hemisphere) at a time while making "self/other" judgments. The performance of the right and left hemispheres of this patient as assessed by a signal detection method was not significantly different, though a measure of bias did reveal hemispheric differences. The right and left hemispheres of this patient independently and equally possessed the ability to self-recognize, but only the right hemisphere could successfully recognize familiar others. This supports a modular concept of self-recognition and other-recognition, separately present in each cerebral hemisphere.

  15. Middle atmospheric thermal structures in Eastern and Western hemispheres over a solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanakumar, K.; Devanarayanan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Temperature variations of the 25-60 km region of the atmosphere over stations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres were compared for an 11-year solar cycle period (1971-1981). The temperature of the two hemispheres did not show similar variations at the same height and time. A cross-correlation analysis between the variations in temperature of the two hemispheres showed insignificant correlation, except at 30 km over the tropics and at 40 km over the midlatitude. Up to 40 km, the temperature changes in the two hemispheres are identical. At higher levels, Western Hemispheric temperatures were higher than those of the Eastern Hemisphere. The diurnal variation of minor constituents and their vertical transport in the middle atmosphere might be responsible for the differences in temperature observed in the two hemispheres. (author)

  16. The FTAA and hemispheric integration: building a triple-win strategy for trade and sustainability in the hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The concept of a trade and sustainability agenda for the Americas is explained and a historical account of the process of making this concept a reality is discussed in a background paper for the Hemispheric Trade and Sustainability Symposium held on April 18, 2001 in Quebec City. The Symposium was held in conjunction with the Third Summit of the Americas, where heads of 34 American nations discussed ways and means to encourage hemispheric cooperation. The object of the Symposium was to provide a constructive, policy-oriented, and knowledge-based open forum for dialogue on trade and sustainability issues; to identify policy options that can be mutually beneficial to trade, environment and development, and to increase public support for trade liberalisation in the Americas. The strategy aims to build a sustainable FTAA through the identification of a series of environmental provisions to be incorporated in the Agreement; strengthen environmental cooperation in the Americas, especially in trade-sensitive, or trade-related sectors, and create a high level hemispheric expert group on trade and sustainability for continuous and constructive dialogue with civil society and industry on these issues. The backgrounder provides a precis of the fundamental aspect of building a sustainable FTAA, explains the origin of the prevailing fear of unilateral environment-related trade sanctions by the United States, the fear of protectionist measures by Canada and the United States based on environmental provisions in the FTAA, and the fear that higher environmental standards and regulations would undermine the competitiveness of Latin American and Caribbean businesses. The paper attempts to dispel these fears by explaining the mechanism envisaged to be predominant in creating the triple-win strategy, namely impact assessment, transparency, participation and dispute resolution processes. The eventual agreement should also mention sustainable development as an overarching objective of

  17. Predicting hemispheric dominance for language production in healthy individuals using support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Laure; Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Genuer, Robin; Laurent, Alexandre; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Joliot, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to assess hemispheric pattern of language dominance of 47 individuals categorized as non-typical for language from their hemispheric functional laterality index (HFLI) measured on a sentence minus word-list production fMRI-BOLD contrast map. The SVM classifier was trained at discriminating between Dominant and Non-Dominant hemispheric language production activation pattern on a group of 250 participants previously identified as Typicals (HFLI strongly leftward). Then, SVM was applied to each hemispheric language activation pattern of 47 non-typical individuals. The results showed that at least one hemisphere (left or right) was found to be Dominant in every, except 3 individuals, indicating that the "dominant" type of functional organization is the most frequent in non-typicals. Specifically, left hemisphere dominance was predicted in all non-typical right-handers (RH) and in 57.4% of non-typical left-handers (LH). When both hemisphere classifications were jointly considered, four types of brain patterns were observed. The most often predicted pattern (51%) was left-dominant (Dominant left-hemisphere and Non-Dominant right-hemisphere), followed by right-dominant (23%, Dominant right-hemisphere and Non-Dominant left-hemisphere) and co-dominant (19%, 2 Dominant hemispheres) patterns. Co-non-dominant was rare (6%, 2 Non-Dominant hemispheres), but was normal variants of hemispheric specialization. In RH, only left-dominant (72%) and co-dominant patterns were detected, while for LH, all types were found, although with different occurrences. Among the 10 LH with a strong rightward HFLI, 8 had a right-dominant brain pattern. Whole-brain analysis of the right-dominant pattern group confirmed that it exhibited a functional organization strictly mirroring that of left-dominant pattern group. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5871-5889, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Noise radiated by low-Reynolds number flows past a hemisphere at Ma = 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars; Eriksson, Lars-Erik

    2017-07-01

    Flows past a hemisphere and their noise generation are investigated at the Reynolds numbers (Re) of 1000 and 5000. The Mach number is 0.3. The computational method of the flows is large eddy simulation. The noise is computed using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Formulation 1C (F1C). An integral surface with an open end is defined for the F1C. The end surface is removed to reduce the numerical contamination that is introduced by vortices passing this surface. However, the contamination cannot be completely reduced since a discontinuity of the flow quantities still exists at the open surface boundary. This problem is solved using a surface correction method, in which a buffer zone is set up at the end of the integral surface. The transformation of flow structures due to Re is explored. Large coherent structures are observable at low Re, whereas they diminish at high Re. A large amount of small-scale turbulent vortices occur in the latter case. It is found that these characteristics of the flows have an important influence on the noise generation in regard to the noise spectra. In the flows studied in this work, the fluctuating pressure on the walls is a negligible noise contributor as compared with the wake.

  19. Inner-outer interactions in a rough wall turbulent boundary layer over hemispherical roughness using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-11-01

    Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.

  20. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  1. Formulation of soy oil products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel, John B.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  2. Formulation and Characterization of Sustained Release Floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate sustained release gastroretentive microballoons of metformin hydrochloride with the objective of improving its bioavailability. Methods: Microballoons of metformin hydrochloride were formulated by solvent evaporation and diffusion method using varying mixtures of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  3. Bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of ibuprofen

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Talla, Zeyad; Akrawi, Sabah H; Tolley, Luke T; Sioud, Salim H; Zaater, Mohammed F; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the relative bioavailability of two formulations of ibuprofen. The first formulation was Doloraz , produced by Al-Razi Pharmaceutical Company, Amman, Jordan. The second forumulation was Brufen , manufactured by Boots

  4. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Decadal variability and metastability in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Terence; Risbey, James; Franzke, Christian; Horenko, Illia; Monselesan, Didier

    2014-05-01

    An examination of systematic changes in the metastability of the southern hemisphere 500hPa circulation is performed using both cluster analysis techniques and split flow blocking indices. The cluster methodology is a purely data-driven approach for parametrisation whereby a multi-scale approximation to non-stationary dynamical processes is achieved through optimal sequences of locally stationary fast Vector Auto-Regressive Factor (VARX) processes and some slow (or persistent) hidden process switching between them. Comparison is made with blocking indices commonly used in weather forecasting and climate analysis to identify dynamically relevant metastable regimes in the 500hPa circulation in both reanalysis and AMIP model data sets. Our analysis characterises the metastable regime in both reanalysis and model data sets prior to 1978 as positive and negative phases of a hemispheric mid-latitude blocking state with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) associated with a transition state. Post 1978, SAM emerges as a true metastable state replacing the negative phase of the hemispheric blocking pattern. The hidden state frequency of occurrences exhibits strong trends. The blocking pattern dominates in the early 1980s then gradually decreases. There is a corresponding increase in the SAM frequency of occurrence. This trend is largely evident in the reanalysis summer and spring but was not evident in the AMIP data set. Non-stationary cluster analysis was then further used to identify the Southern Oceans response to the systematic changes in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation and identify dynamical regimes associated with subsurface thermocline anomalies which were found to teleconnect the Pacific and Atlantic regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC).

  6. Reaching Across the Hemispheres with Science, Language, Arts and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Zicus, S.; Miller, A.; Baird, A.; Page, G.

    2009-12-01

    Twelve Alaskan elementary and middle school classes (grades 3-8) partnered with twelve Australian middle school classes, with each pair using web-based strategies to develop a collaborative ice-mystery fictional book incorporating authentic polar science. Three professional development workshops were held, bringing together educators and polar scientists in two IPY education outreach projects. The Alaska workshop provided an opportunity to bring together the North American teachers for lessons on arctic and antarctic science and an earth system science program Seasons and Biomes measurement protocols, as well as methods in collaborative e-writing and art in Ice e-Mysteries: Global Student Polar e-books project. Teachers worked with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Australian scientists to become familiar with Arctic science research, science artifacts and resources available at UAF and the University of Alaska Museum of the North. In Australia, teachers received a similar project training through the Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery (TMAG) Center for Learning and Discovery on Antarctic science and the University of Tasmania. The long-distance collaboration was accomplished through Skype, emails and a TMAG supported website. A year later, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere teacher partners met in a joint workshop in Tasmania, to share their experiences, do project assessments and propose activities for future collaborations. The Australian teachers received training on Seasons and Biomes scientific measurements and the Alaskan teachers, on Tasmanian vegetation, fauna and indigenous culture, Antarctic and Southern ocean studies. This innovative project produced twelve e-polar books written and illustrated by students; heightened scientific literacy about the polar regions and the earth system; increased awareness of the environment and indigenous cultures; stronger connections to the scientific community; and lasting friendships. It also resulted in

  7. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  8. Performance Evaluation of Abrasive Grinding Wheel Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on the formulation and manufacture of abrasive grinding wheel using locally formulated silicon carbide abrasive grains. Six local raw material substitutes were identified through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials, a systematic search for an optimal formulation of silicon ...

  9. Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Magdy I

    2004-10-11

    This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 2(3) factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activity, and stability. Commercially available CHL topical powder was used for comparison. All the prepared emulgels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. They also exhibited higher drug release and antifungal activity than the CHL powder. It was found that the emulsifying agent concentration had the most pronounced effect on the drug release from the emulgels followed by the oil phase concentration and finally the type of the gelling agent. The drug release from all the emulgels was found to follow diffusion-controlled mechanism. Rheological studies revealed that the CHL emulgels exhibited a shear-thinning behavior with thixotropy. Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological properties, drug release, and antifungal activity in all the prepared emulgels remained unchanged upon storage for 3 months. As a general conclusion, it was suggested that the CHL emulgel formulation prepared with HPMC with the oil phase concentration in its low level and emulsifying agent concentration in its high level was the formula of choice since it showed the highest drug release and antifungal activity.

  10. Workshop: Western hemisphere network of bird banding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Murillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas. Introduction: Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds on migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. Many countries and organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean are in the process of developing or have expressed interest in developing national banding schemes and databases to support their research and management programs. Coordination of developing and existing banding programs is essential for effective data management, reporting, archiving and security, and most importantly, for gaining a fuller understanding of migratory bird conservation issues and how the banding data can help. Currently, there is a well established bird-banding program in the U.S.A. and Canada, and programs in other countries are being developed as well. Ornithologists in many Latin American countries and the Caribbean are interested in using banding and marking in their research programs. Many in the ornithological community are interested in establishing banding schemes and some countries have recently initiated independent banding programs. With the number of long term collaborative and international initiatives increasing, the time is ripe to discuss and explore opportunities for international collaboration, coordination, and administration of bird banding programs in the Western Hemisphere. We propose the second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs? workshop, in association with the SCSCB, to be an essential step in the progress to strengthen international partnerships and support migratory bird conservation in the Americas and beyond. This will be the second multi-national meeting to promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas (the first meeting was held in October 8-9, 2006 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico). The Second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs

  11. Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, F.K.; Knipp, D.J.; McHarg, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The polar cap (PC) index measures the level of geomagnetic activity in the polar cap based on magnetic perturbations from overhead ionospheric currents and distant field-aligned currents on the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval. Because PC essentially measures the main sources of energy...... input into the polar cap, we propose to use PC as a proxy for the hemispheric Joule heat production rate (JH). In this study, JH is estimated from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We fit hourly PC values to hourly averages of JH. Using a data base approximately...

  12. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  13. Update on Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are responsible for millions of deaths and disabilities yearly, around the globe. The largest burden of these diseases falls on communities with poor access to basic sanitation, healthcare facilities, and educational programs. This review focuses on advances in vaccination, treatment and control programs over the past decade for the major NTDs of the Western Hemisphere: malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, ankylostomiasis, lymphatic filiariasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis, and onchocerciasis. The discussion centers on challenges for NTD eradication and prospects for the future.

  14. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  15. Workflow Generation from the Two-Hemisphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusarovs Konstantīns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-Driven Software Development (MDSD is a trend in Software Development that focuses on code generation from various kinds of models. To perform such a task, it is necessary to develop an algorithm that performs source model transformation into the target model, which ideally is an actual software code written in some kind of a programming language. However, at present a lot of methods focus on Unified Modelling Language (UML diagram generation. The present paper describes a result of authors’ research on Two-Hemisphere Model (2HM processing for easier code generation.

  16. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, Omer; Zouros, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  17. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, Omer, E-mail: omersise@sdu.edu.tr [Dept. of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel Univ., 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Zouros, Theo J.M. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Lab, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, P.O. Box 60228, GR 15310 Ag. Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  18. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Omer; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2016-02-01

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  19. Hypothalamic-mediated model for systemic lupus erythematosis: relation to hemispheric chemical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-11-01

    The isoprenoid pathway including endogenous digoxin was assessed in systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). All the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. This was also studied for comparison in patients with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The isoprenoid pathway was upregulated with increased digoxin synthesis in patients with SLE and in those with right hemispheric dominance. In this group of patients (i) the tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites reduced, (ii) the dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were elevated, (iii) lysosomal stability was reduced, (iv) ubiquinone levels were low and free radical levels increased, and (v) the membrane cholesterol:phospholipid ratios were increased and membrane glycoconjugates reduced. On the other hand, in patients with left hemispheric dominance the reverse patterns were obtained. The biochemical patterns obtained in SLE is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. SLE occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals, and is a reflection of altered brain function. The role of the isoprenoid pathway in the pathogenesis of SLE and its relation to hemispheric dominance is discussed.

  20. Hemispheric biases and the control of visuospatial attention: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banich Marie T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether individual differences in hemispheric utilization can interact with the intrinsic attentional biases of the cerebral hemispheres. Evidence suggests that the hemispheres have competing biases to direct attention contralaterally, with the left hemisphere (LH having a stronger bias than the right hemisphere. There is also evidence that individuals have characteristic biases to utilize one hemisphere more than the other for processing information, which can induce a bias to direct attention to contralateral space. We predicted that LH-biased individuals would display a strong rightward attentional bias, which would create difficulty in selectively attending to target stimuli in the left visual field (LVF as compared to right in the performance of a bilateral flanker task. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, flanker interference effects were found on the N2c event-related brain potential and error rate for LH-biased individuals in the Attend-LVF condition. The error rate effect was correlated with the degree of hemispheric utilization bias for the LH-Bias group. Conclusion We conclude that hemispheric utilization bias can enhance a hemisphere's contralateral attentional bias, at least for individuals with a LH utilization bias. Hemispheric utilization bias may play an important and largely unrecognized role in visuospatial attention.

  1. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  2. Formulation development for PREPP concreted waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Welch, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    Analysis of variance and logistic regression techniques have been used to develop models describing the effects of formulation variables and their interactions on compressive strength, solidification, free-standing water, and workability of hydraulic cement grouts incorporating simulated Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) wastes. These models provide the basis for specifications of grout formulations to solidify these wastes. The experimental test matrix, formulation preparation, and test methods employed are described. The development of analytical models for formulation behavior and the conclusions drawn regarding appropriate formulation variable ranges are discussed. 13 references, 9 figures, 15 tables

  3. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Global Warming Explained by a Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, C. S.; Alexeev, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Amplification, the process of amplified warming at high latitudes, manifests itself differently in the Arctic and Antarctic. Not only is the temperature increase in the Arctic more pronounced than in the Antarctic but the dramatic sea ice decline in the Arctic over the last few decades also contrasts sharply with trendless to weak positive trend of Antarctic sea ice throughout the same period. This asymmetric behavior is often partly attributed to the differences in configuration of continents in the Arctic and Antarctic: the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by land while the Southern Ocean has a continent in the middle. A simple conceptual energy balance model of Budyko-Sellers type, accounting for differences between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, is applied to study the mechanisms of climate sensitivity to a variety of forcings. Asymmetry in major modes of variability is explained using an eigenmode analysis of the linearized model. Negative forcings over Antarctica such as from ozone depletion were found to have an amplified effect on southern hemisphere climate and may be an important cause of the muted warming and slightly positive Antarctic sea ice trend.

  4. Hemispheric asymmetries in speech perception: sense, nonsense and modulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Rosen

    Full Text Available The well-established left hemisphere specialisation for language processing has long been claimed to be based on a low-level auditory specialization for specific acoustic features in speech, particularly regarding 'rapid temporal processing'.A novel analysis/synthesis technique was used to construct a variety of sounds based on simple sentences which could be manipulated in spectro-temporal complexity, and whether they were intelligible or not. All sounds consisted of two noise-excited spectral prominences (based on the lower two formants in the original speech which could be static or varying in frequency and/or amplitude independently. Dynamically varying both acoustic features based on the same sentence led to intelligible speech but when either or both acoustic features were static, the stimuli were not intelligible. Using the frequency dynamics from one sentence with the amplitude dynamics of another led to unintelligible sounds of comparable spectro-temporal complexity to the intelligible ones. Positron emission tomography (PET was used to compare which brain regions were active when participants listened to the different sounds.Neural activity to spectral and amplitude modulations sufficient to support speech intelligibility (without actually being intelligible was seen bilaterally, with a right temporal lobe dominance. A left dominant response was seen only to intelligible sounds. It thus appears that the left hemisphere specialisation for speech is based on the linguistic properties of utterances, not on particular acoustic features.

  5. Hemispheric asymmetries and gender influence Rembrandt's portrait orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirillo, J A

    2000-01-01

    For centuries painters have predominantly painted portraits with the model's left-cheek facing the viewer. This has been even more prevalent with females ( approximately 68%) than males ( approximately 56%). Numerous portraits painted by Rembrandt typify this unexplained phenomenon. In a preliminary experiment, subjects judged 24 emotional and social character traits in 20 portraits by Rembrandt. A factor analysis revealed that females with their left cheek exposed were judged to be much less socially appealing than less commonly painted right-cheeked females. Conversely, the more commonly painted right-cheeked males were judged to be more socially appealing than either left-cheeked males or females facing either direction. It is hypothesized that hemispheric asymmetries regulating emotional facial displays of approach and avoidance influenced the side of the face Rembrandt's models exposed due to prevailing social norms. A second experiment had different subjects judge a different collection of 20 portraits by Rembrandt and their mirror images. Mirror-reversed images produced the same pattern of results as their original orientation counterparts. Consequently, hemispheric asymmetries that specify the emotional expression on each side of the face are posited to account for the obtained results.

  6. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortical cell and neuron density estimates in one chimpanzee hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christine E; Turner, Emily C; Sawyer, Eva Kille; Reed, Jamie L; Young, Nicole A; Flaherty, David K; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-19

    The density of cells and neurons in the neocortex of many mammals varies across cortical areas and regions. This variability is, perhaps, most pronounced in primates. Nonuniformity in the composition of cortex suggests regions of the cortex have different specializations. Specifically, regions with densely packed neurons contain smaller neurons that are activated by relatively few inputs, thereby preserving information, whereas regions that are less densely packed have larger neurons that have more integrative functions. Here we present the numbers of cells and neurons for 742 discrete locations across the neocortex in a chimpanzee. Using isotropic fractionation and flow fractionation methods for cell and neuron counts, we estimate that neocortex of one hemisphere contains 9.5 billion cells and 3.7 billion neurons. Primary visual cortex occupies 35 cm(2) of surface, 10% of the total, and contains 737 million densely packed neurons, 20% of the total neurons contained within the hemisphere. Other areas of high neuron packing include secondary visual areas, somatosensory cortex, and prefrontal granular cortex. Areas of low levels of neuron packing density include motor and premotor cortex. These values reflect those obtained from more limited samples of cortex in humans and other primates.

  8. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenmezoglu, K.; Sperling, B.; Lassen, N.A.; Henriksen, T.; Tfelt-Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99m Tc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduction (average 10%) in contralateral hemispheric cortex. In all four cases clinical signs of unilateral cerebellar dysfunction were still present when rescanned 1 to 4 months later and the relative CBF decrease in the contralateral cortex of the forebrain also remained. The basal ganglia contralateral to the cerebellar lesion CBF showed variable alterations. A relative CBF decrease was seen in upper part of basal ganglia in all four cases, but it was not a constant phenomenon. A relative CBF increase in both early and late SPECT scans was seen at low levels of neostriatum in two cases. The remote CBF changes in cerebellar stroke seen in the forebrain are probably caused by reduced or abolished cerebellar output. The term ''Crossed Cerebral Diaschisis'' may be used to describe these CBF changes that would appear to reflect both decreased and increased neuronal activity. (au)

  9. Right-Hemisphere (Spatial? Acalculia and the Influence of Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBenavides-Varela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  10. Genetic biomarkers for brain hemisphere differentiation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Mou'ath; Mendes, Alexandre; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a study on the genetic profile of the left and right hemispheres of the brain of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal is to characterize, in a genetic basis, PD as a disease that affects these two brain regions in different ways. Using the same whole-genome microarray expression data introduced by Brown et al. (2002) [1], we could find significant differences in the expression of some key genes, well-known to be involved in the mechanisms of dopamine production control and PD. The problem of selecting such genes was modeled as the MIN (α,β)—FEATURE SET problem [2]; a similar approach to that employed previously to find biomarkers for different types of cancer using gene expression microarray data [3]. The Feature Selection method produced a series of genetic signatures for PD, with distinct expression profiles in the Parkinson's model and control mice experiments. In addition, a close examination of the genes composing those signatures shows that many of them belong to genetic pathways or have ontology annotations considered to be involved in the onset and development of PD. Such elements could provide new clues on which mechanisms are implicated in hemisphere differentiation in PD.

  11. Hemispherical F2-layer differences and the neutral atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotadia, K.M.; Almaula, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of noon and early morning (05 h) critical frequencies of the F2-layer through one solar cycle (1958-1969) at 8 pairs of dip-conjugate stations at latitudes lower than +- 60 0 dip. The study reveals some characteristic features of the F2-layer, such as (1) at sunspot minimum the noon foF2 values exhibit a marked semiannual variation with equinoxial maxima in the north and a dominant annual variation with a maximum in December in the south; (2) the annual component of the foF2 variation increases appreciably with solar activity in the north, while the semiannual component increases in the south. They show maxima at latitudes near +- 40 0 dip and minima near the equator. The early morning foF2 values essentially go through an annual wave with maxima in local summer in both hemispheres; there is, however, a significant semiannual component in the south. The annual component is largest at +- 40 0 dip while the semiannual component has peaks at the equator and at 40 0 S dip. The differences between the behaviour of foF2 in the two hemispheres as reported in this paper appear to be in conformity with current thinking on the effects of (a) the global neutral wind pattern and (b) changes in the relative proportions of atomic and molecular gas species. (author)

  12. The USNO-UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Scott; Bruursema, Justice; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Vrba, Fred J.; Dorland, Bryan; Dye, Simon; Kerr, Tom; Varricatt, Watson; Irwin, Mike; Lawrence, Andy; McLaren, Robert; Hodapp, Klaus; Hasinger, Guenther

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) and UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey (U2HS), currently underway using the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) installed on UKIRT on Maunakea. U2HS is a collaborative effort undertaken by USNO, the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) and the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU) in Edinburgh. The principal objective of the U2HS is to provide continuous northern hemisphere K-band coverage over a declination range of δ=0o – +60o by combining over 12,700 deg2 of new imaging with the existing UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS), Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and Galactic Cluster Survey (GCS). U2HS will achieve a 5-σ point source sensitivity of K~18.4 mag (Vega), over three magnitudes deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). In this contribution we discuss survey design, execution, data acquisition and processing, photometric calibration and quality control. The data obtained by the U2HS will be made publicly available through the Wide Field Science Archive (WSA) maintained by the WFAU.

  13. Right hemisphere control of visuospatial attention in near space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Trippier, Sarah; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, the right cerebral hemisphere has been considered to be specialized for spatial attention and orienting. A large body of research has demonstrated dissociable representations of the near space immediately surrounding the body and the more distance far space. In this study, we investigated whether right hemisphere activations commonly reported for tasks involving spatial attention (such as the line bisection and landmark tasks) are specific to stimuli presented in near space. In separate blocks of trials, participants judged either whether a vertical transector was to the left or right of the centre of a line (landmark task) or whether the line was red or blue (colour task). Stimuli were seen from four distances (30, 60, 90, 120 cm). We used EEG to measure an ERP component (the 'line-bisection effect') specific to the direction of spatial attention (i.e., landmark minus colour). Consistent with previous results, spatial attention produced a right-lateralized negativity over occipito-parietal channels. The magnitude of this negativity was inversely related to viewing distance, being largest in near space and reduced in far space. These results suggest that the right occipito-temporal cortex may be specialized not just for the orientation of spatial attention generally, but specifically for orienting attention in the near space immediately surrounding the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy policy formulation for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pakistan is a low income, low energy consumption country. In view of the close interdependence between economic growth and energy consumption, she will need increasing energy supplies in order to maintain her economic growth. This paper develops an energy sector optimization model for the Pakistan economy, which consists of production models for five energy industries, ie oil, gas, coal, electricity (including electricity generated in nuclear power plants) and non-commercial fuels. The model is first used to forecast energy balances for the period 1975 - 2006. The model is then employed to formulate a long-term comprehensive energy policy for Pakistan. Finally the suggested policy is compared with the current official energy programme. (author)

  15. On Scalar Energy: Mathematical Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of electromagnetic waves (EMW), which exists only in vacuum of the empty space, will be discussed and mathematically formulated in this paper. The mathematical existence of this energy was first proposed in a series of groundbreaking equations by Scottish Mathematician, James Clerk Maxwell, in the mid of 1800 and 39;s. This energy is called scalar energy. It is characterized by both particle and wave like. The waves of this energy are called longitudinal EMW to distinguish them from transverse EM, the kind we are familiar with in our daily life. Teslas name of this energy is scalar energy or zero point energy. It is aimed at this paper to explain more details and to verify the scalar EM concept in vacuum.

  16. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoed Nissan Kenett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks – Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition – and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere, unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere. In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized left hemisphere was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  17. The "Creative Right Brain" Revisited: Individual Creativity and Associative Priming in the Right Hemisphere Relate to Hemispheric Asymmetries in Reward Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    The idea that creativity resides in the right cerebral hemisphere is persistent in popular science, but has been widely frowned upon by the scientific community due to little empirical support. Yet, creativity is believed to rely on the ability to combine remote concepts into novel and useful ideas, an ability which would depend on associative processing in the right hemisphere. Moreover, associative processing is modulated by dopamine, and asymmetries in dopamine functionality between hemispheres may imbalance the expression of their implemented cognitive functions. Here, by uniting these largely disconnected concepts, we hypothesize that relatively less dopamine function in the right hemisphere boosts creativity by releasing constraining effects of dopamine on remote associations. Indeed, participants with reduced neural responses in the dopaminergic system of the right hemisphere (estimated by functional MRI in a reward task with positive and negative feedback), displayed higher creativity (estimated by convergent and divergent tasks), and increased associative processing in the right hemisphere (estimated by a lateralized lexical decision task). Our findings offer unprecedented empirical support for a crucial and specific contribution of the right hemisphere to creativity. More importantly our study provides a comprehensive view on potential determinants of human creativity, namely dopamine-related activity and associative processing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: A new approach with research and therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Fredric; Teicher, Martin H; Anderson, Carl; Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Navalta, Carryl P; Andersen, Susan L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV) shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Methods Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recorded during a neutral and an upsetting ...

  19. Hemispheric differences in the voluntary control of spatial attention: direct evidence for a right-hemispheric dominance within frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duecker, Felix; Formisano, Elia; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-08-01

    Lesion studies in neglect patients have inspired two competing models of spatial attention control, namely, Heilman's "hemispatial" theory and Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model. Both assume a functional asymmetry between the two hemispheres but propose very different mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies have identified a bilateral dorsal frontoparietal network underlying voluntary shifts of spatial attention. However, lateralization of attentional processes within this network has not been consistently reported. In the current study, we aimed to provide direct evidence concerning the functional asymmetry of the right and left FEF during voluntary shifts of spatial attention. To this end, we applied fMRI-guided neuronavigation to disrupt individual FEF activation foci with a longer-lasting inhibitory patterned TMS protocol followed by a spatial cueing task. Our results indicate that right FEF stimulation impaired the ability of shifting spatial attention toward both hemifields, whereas the effects of left FEF stimulation were limited to the contralateral hemifield. These results provide strong direct evidence for right-hemispheric dominance in spatial attention within frontal cortex supporting Heilman's "hemispatial" theory. This complements previous TMS studies that generally conform to Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model after disruption of parietal cortex, and we therefore propose that both theories are not mutually exclusive.

  20. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  1. Radioiodine (131I) in animal thyroids during nuclear tests in both hemispheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1975-01-01

    In mid-1974 a small increase of 131 I was observed in animal thyroids following a nuclear test in China. In late 1974 there was no public announcement of an atmospheric nuclear test in the Northern Hemisphere, but 131 I was readily measured in animal thyroids. This latter increase occurred while animals in the Southern Hemisphere accumulated 131 I from nuclear tests in the Southern Hemisphere. It is suggested that in late 1974 the Northern Hemisphere was contaminated by either late fallout from tests in June or by interhemispheric mixing or by a combination of these sources. (author)

  2. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of populations is of paramount importance to understanding responses oforganisms to global environmental change and to evaluating whether conservation practices are yielding intended results through time (Wiens 2009). The population status of many shorebird species, the focus of this volume, remain poorly known. Long-distance migrant shorebirds have proven particularly difficult to monitor, in part because of their highly migratory nature and ranges that extend into highly inaccessible regions. As migrant shorebirds travel the length of the hemisphere, they congregate and disperse in ways that vary among species, locations, and years, presenting serious challenges to designing and implementing monitoring programs. Rigorous field and quantitative methods that estimate population size and monitor trends are vitally needed to direct and evaluate effective conservation measures. Many management efforts depend on unbiased population size estimates; for example, the shorebird conservation plans for both Canada and the United States seek to restore populations to levels calculated for the 1970s based on the best information available from existing surveys. Further, federal wildlife agencies within the United States and Canada have mandates to understand the state of their nations' resources under various conventions for the protection of migratory birds. Accurate estimates of population size are vital statistics for a variety of conservation activities, such as prioritizing species for conservation action and setting management targets. Areas of essential habitat, such as those designated under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the Important Bird Areas program of BirdLife International and the National Audubon Society, or Canada's National Wildlife Areas program, are all evaluated on the basis ofproportions of species' populations which they contain. The size, and trends in size, ofa species' population are considered key information

  3. Foreword: Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen; Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of populations is of paramount importance to understanding responses of organisms to global environmental change and to evaluating whether conservation practices are yielding intended results through time (Wiens 2009). The population status of many shorebird species, the focus of this volume, remain poorly known. Long-distance migrant shorebirds have proven particularly difficult to monitor, in part because of their highly inaccessible regions. As migrant shorebirds travel the length of the hemisphere, the congregate and disperse in ways that vary among species, locations, and years, presenting serious challenges to designing and implementing monitoring programs. Rigorous field and quantitative methods that estimate population size and monitor trends are vitally needed to direct and evaluate effective conservation measures. Many management efforts depend on unbiased population size estimates; for examples, the shorebird conservation plans for both Canada and the United States seek to restore populations to levels calculated for the 1970s based on the best information available from existing surveys. Further, federal wildlife agencies within the United States and Canada have mandates to understand the state of their nations' resources under various conventions for the protection of migratory birds. Accurate estimates of population size are vital statistics for a variety of conservation activities, such as prioritizing species for conservation action and setting management targets. Areas of essential habitat, such as those designated under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the Important Bird Areas program of BirdLife Internationals and the National Audubon Society, or Canada's National Wildlife Areas program, are all evaluated on the basis of proportions of species' populations which they contain. The size, and trends in size, of a species' population are considered key information for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent

  4. Empirically derived climate predictability over the extratropical northern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Elsner

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel application of a technique developed from chaos theory is used in describing seasonal to interannual climate predictability over the Northern Hemisphere (NH. The technique is based on an empirical forecast scheme - local approximation in a reconstructed phase space - for time-series data. Data are monthly 500 hPa heights on a latitude-longitude grid covering the NH from 20° N to the equator. Predictability is estimated based on the linear correlation between actual and predicted heights averaged over a forecast range of one- to twelve.month lead. The method is capable of extracting the major climate signals on this time scale including ENSO and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  5. Hemispherical power asymmetry from scale-dependent modulated reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, John

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field σ. σ must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of σ is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to σ then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component

  6. Southern Hemisphere extratropical circulation: Recent trends and natural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jordan L.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2015-07-01

    Changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Southern Hemisphere (SH) westerly jet location, and magnitude are linked with changes in ocean circulation along with ocean heat and carbon uptake. Recent trends have been observed in these fields but not much is known about the natural variability. Here we aim to quantify the natural variability of the SH extratropical circulation by using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) preindustrial control model runs and compare with the observed trends in SAM, jet magnitude, and jet location. We show that trends in SAM are due partly to external forcing but are not outside the natural variability as described by these models. Trends in jet location and magnitude, however, lie outside the unforced natural variability but can be explained by a combination of natural variability and the ensemble mean forced trend. These results indicate that trends in these three diagnostics cannot be used interchangeably.

  7. Darwin as a plant scientist: a Southern Hemisphere perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Stephen D; Lambers, Hans

    2009-08-01

    Events around the world this year celebrate the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the sesquicentenary of publication of his most important work, The Origin of Species (Darwin 1859). The associated plethora of books and papers now appearing to commemorate Darwin's work continue the traditional emphasis on his zoological and geological contributions. There has been some recent attention directed towards Darwin's relatively unsung but significant accomplishments as a botanist. Here, we bring together a review of Darwin's botanical discoveries and experiments and relevant aspects of his geological investigations, with a focus on the Southern Hemisphere. This is a relatively unexplored aspect of Darwin's contributions that yields some new insights meriting future research.

  8. Towards a governance agenda for the emerging Atlantic Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Basin is re-emerging as an important subsystem within the global political economy: inter-linked flows of people and energy, money and weapons,goods and services, technology and terror,drugs and crime; greater access to each other’s markets, resources, and talent. Yet,growing interdependencies gene-rate new vulnerabilities and challenges: cooperation over resources and energy connections; promotion of trade and investment; migration and integration; building resilient societies; enhancement of good governance; investment in human development; and the fight against transnational criminal organisations and their growing links to terrorists and insurgents. However, while governance mechanisms and diplomatic cooperation based on a pan-Atlantic framework are in their infancy, a host of developments suggests that broadranging, interwoven hemispheric cooperation may be possible. In fact, the Atlantic Basin may emerge as a global laboratory for interregional, networked governance between developed and emerging countries.

  9. A quasi-hemispheric model of the Hermean's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, E.; Oliveira, J.; Langlais, B.; Amit, H.

    2015-10-01

    We analyse and process magnetic field measurements provided by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. The vect or magnetic field measurements are modelled with a dedicated regional scheme expanded in space and in time. Compared to the widely used global Spherical Harmonics (SH), the regional approach is particularly well suited because the partial and quasi hemispheric distribution of the MESSENGER data represents no major numerical difficulty. We confirm that the internal magnetic field of Mercury is mostly axisymmetric with a magnetic equator shifted northward. However, we also observe a time dependency in the model that is at present hardly explained only by time variations of the external magnetic fields. We present the major spatial and temporal structures shown by the regional model.

  10. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    A massive 9.0 earthquake and ensuing tsunami struck the northern coast of the Honshu-island, Japan on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the electric system of the Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems. Subsequent fires, a hydrogen explosion and possible partial core meltdowns released radioactive fission products into the atmosphere. The atmospheric release from the crippled Fukushima NPP started on March 12, 2011 with a maximum release phase from March 14 to 17. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases xenon (Xe-133) and krypton (Kr-85); iodine (I-131,I-132); cesium (Cs-134,Cs-136,Cs-137); and tellurium (Te-132). The non-volatile radionuclides such as isotopes of strontium and plutonium are believed to have remained largely inside the reactor, although there is evidence of plutonium release into the environment. Global air monitoring across the northern hemisphere was increased following the first reports of atmospheric releases. According to the source term, declared by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of Japan), approximately 160 PBq (1 PBq (Peta Becquerel = 10^15 Bq)) of I-131 and 15 PBq of Cs-137 (or 770 PBq "iodine-131 equivalent"), were released into the atmosphere. The 770 PBq figure is about 15% of the Chernobyl release of 5200 PBq of "iodine-131 equivalent". For the assessment of contamination after the accident and to track the transport time of the contaminated air mass released from the Fukushima NPP across the globe, several model calculations were performed by various research groups. All model calculations suggested long-range transport of radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima NPP towards the North American Continent to Europe and to Central Asia. As a result, an elevated level of Fukushima radionuclides were detected in air, rain, milk, and vegetation samples across the northern

  11. Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal oscillations and Northern Hemisphere temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Mann, Michael E.; Miller, Sonya K.

    2015-02-01

    The recent slowdown in global warming has brought into question the reliability of climate model projections of future temperature change and has led to a vigorous debate over whether this slowdown is the result of naturally occurring, internal variability or forcing external to Earth’s climate system. To address these issues, we applied a semi-empirical approach that combines climate observations and model simulations to estimate Atlantic- and Pacific-based internal multidecadal variability (termed “AMO” and “PMO,” respectively). Using this method, the AMO and PMO are found to explain a large proportion of internal variability in Northern Hemisphere mean temperatures. Competition between a modest positive peak in the AMO and a substantially negative-trending PMO are seen to produce a slowdown or “false pause” in warming of the past decade.

  12. Northern Hemisphere moisture variability during the Last Glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Lachniet, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    It was previously shown that large oxygen isotope variability related to changing moisture sources in the southwestern United States (SW) match the Greenland ice core temperature record. The variations were attributed to changes in the ratio of winter to summer precipitation delivered to the SW, with lighter winter δ18O values compared to summer monsoon rainfall, due to meridonial shifts in the position of the polar jet stream, which directs winter storm tracks. Cold stadial δ18O excursions are associated with strongly negative values, while interstadials have higher than average δ18O values. Although these data documented moisture source variability to the SW, the question of effective moisture variability remains unanswered. Here we present new high-resolution δ18O and δ13C isotopic data from a precisely dated speleothem, FS-AH1, from Fort Stanton Cave, New Mexico USA. The sample grew continuously between 47.6 and 11.1 kyr. The new chronology is more precise than previous work due to high sample growth rate, new gains in efficiency provided by our upgraded Neptune MC-ICPMS and new more precise determinations of the half-lives of 230Th and 234U. The FS-AH1 δ18O and the Greenland δ18O data (on the GICC05 time scale) show a remarkable match, both with respect to stadials/interstadial amplitudes and variability, and in the overall long-term trend. Our interpretation of the δ18O data remains the same, an indicator of moisture source variability. The δ18O and δ13C isotopic data show no correlation (R2 effective moisture in the soil zone overlying the cave, with low δ13C attributed to high soil productivity, high effective moisture, and wet conditions. The stadial and interstadial events are expressed mutely, if at all, in the δ13C data, while the secular variation follows the change in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (insolation), similar to other Northern Hemisphere data, such as the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon as recorded in the Hulu

  13. Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of landslides in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Robert L.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2001-01-01

    In spite of improvements in recognition, prediction, mitigative measures, and warning systems, economic losses and casualties due to landslides in the Western Hemisphere appear to be growing as a result of increasing development of landslide-prone areas due to population pressures. This paper notes outstanding examples of socioeconomic losses in the Americas. Landslides impact the following elements of the natural environment: (1) the topography/morphology of both the subaerial and submarine surfaces of the Earth, (2) rivers, streams, forests, and grasslands, and (3) habitats of native fauna, both on the Earth?s surface and in its streams and oceans. Environmental disturbances are results of general tendency toward degradation of the Earth?s surface by gravitational mass wasting and erosion.

  14. Slag-based saltstone formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 400 x 10 6 liters of low-level alkaline salt solution will be treated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) prior to disposal in concrete vaults at SRP. Treatment involves removal of CS + and Sr +2 followed by solidification and stabilization of potential contaminants in saltstone, a hydrated ceramic waste form. Chromium, technetium, and nitrate releases from saltstone can be significantly reduced by substituting hydraulic blast furnace slag for portland cement in the formulation designs. Slag-based mixes are also compatible with Class F fly ash used in saltstone as a functional extender to control heat of hydration and reduce permeability. A monolithic waste form is produced by the hydration of the slag and fly ash. Soluble ion release (NO 3 - ) is controlled by the saltstone microstructure. Chromium and technetium are less leachable from slag mixes compared to cement-based waste forms because these species are chemically reduced to a lower valence state by ferrous iron in the slag and precipitated as relatively insoluble phases, such as CR(OH) 3 and TcO 2 . 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Slag-based saltstone formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    Approximately 400 x 10 6 L of low-level alkaline salt solution will be treated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) prior to disposal in concrete vaults at SRP. Treatment involves removal of Cs + and Sr +2 , followed by solidification and stabilization of potential contaminants in saltstone, a hydrated ceramic wasteform. Chromium, technetium, and nitrate releases from saltstone can be significantly reduced by substituting hydraulic blast furnace slag for portland cement in the formulation designs. Slag-based mixes are also compatible with the Class F flyash used in saltstone as a functional extender to control heat of hydration and reduce permeability. (Class F flyash is also locally available at SRP.) A monolithic wasteform is produced by the hydration of the slag and flyash. Soluble ion release (NO 3- ) is controlled by the saltstone microstructure. Chromium and technetium are less leachable from slag mixes because these species are chemically reduced to a lower valence state by ferrous iron in the slag and are precipitated as relatively insoluble phases, such as Cr(OH) 3 and TcO 2 . 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Akihiro

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  18. Hemispheric transport and influence of meteorology on global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 10-yr simulation with the global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC, the northern hemispheric aerosol transport with the inter-annual and seasonal variability as well as the mean climate was investigated. The intercontinental aerosol transport is predominant in the zonal direction from west to east with the ranges of inter-annual variability between 14% and 63%, and is 0.5–2 orders of magnitude weaker in the meridional direction but with larger inter-annual variability. The aerosol transport is found to fluctuate seasonally with a factor of 5–8 between the maximum in late winter and spring and the minimum in late summer and fall. Three meteorological factors controlling the intercontinental aerosol transport and its inter-annual variations are identified from the modeling results: (1 Anomalies in the mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere. (2 Variations of precipitation over the intercontinental transport pathways and (3 Changes of meteorological conditions within the boundary layer. Changed only by the meteorology, the aerosol column loadings in the free troposphere over the source regions of Europe, North America, South and East Asia vary inter-annually with the highest magnitudes of 30–37% in January and December and the lowest magnitudes of 16–20% in August and September, and the inter-annual aerosol variability within the boundary layer influencing the surface concentrations with the magnitudes from 6% to 20% is more region-dependent. As the strongest climatic signal, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO can lead the anomalies in the intercontinental aerosols in El Niño- and La Niña-years respectively with the strong and weak transport of the mid-latitude westerlies and the low latitude easterlies in the Northern Hemisphere (NH.

  19. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  20. Neural correlates supporting sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstad, Alexandra; Schmalbrock, Petra; Choi, Seongjin; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly half of stroke patients have impaired sensory discrimination, however, the neural structures that support post-stroke sensory function have not been described. Objectives 1) To evaluate the role of the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex in post-stroke sensory discrimination and 2) To determine the relationship between post-stroke sensory discrimination and structural integrity of the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation (sSTR). Methods 10 healthy adults and 10 individuals with left hemisphere stroke participated. Stroke participants completed sensory discrimination testing. An fMRI was conducted during right, impaired hand sensory discrimination. Fractional anisotropy and volume of the sSTR were quantified using diffusion tensor tractography. Results Sensory discrimination was impaired in 60% of participants with left stroke. Peak activation in the left (S1) did not correlate with sensory discrimination ability, rather a more distributed pattern of activation was evident in post-stroke subjects with a positive correlation between peak activation in the parietal cortex and discrimination ability (r=.70, p=.023). The only brain region in which stroke participants had significantly different cortical activation than control participants was the precuneus. Region of interest analysis of the precuneus across stroke participants revealed a positive correlation between peak activation and sensory discrimination ability (r=.77, p=.008). The L/R ratio of sSTR fractional anisotropy also correlated with right hand sensory discrimination (r=.69, p=.027). Conclusions Precuneus cortex, distributed parietal lobe activity, and microstructure of the sSTR support sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke. PMID:22592076

  1. Phonotactic awareness deficit following left-hemisphere stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghaleh

    2015-04-01

    Likert-type scale responses were z-transformed and coded accurate for positive z-values in condition 3 and negative z-values in condition 1 trials. Accuracy was analyzed using binomial mixed effects models and z-transformed scale responses were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. For both analyses, the fixed effects of stimulus, trial number, group (patient/control, education, age, response time, phonotactic regularity (1/3, and gender were examined along with all relevant interactions. Random effects for participant and stimuli as well as random slopes were also included. Model fitting was performed in a backward-stepwise iterative fashion, followed by forward fitting of maximal random effects structure. Models were evaluated by model fitness comparisons using Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion. Accuracy analysis revealed that healthy participants were significantly more accurate than patients [β = 0.47, p<0.001] in Englishness rating. Scale response analysis revealed a significant effect of phonotactic regularity [β = 1.65, p<0.0001] indicating that participants were sensitive to phonotactic regularity differences among non-words. However, the significant interaction of group and phonotactic regularity [β = -0.5, p= 0.02] further demonstrated that, compared to healthy adults, patients were less able to recognize the phonotactic regularity differences between non-words. Results suggest that left-hemisphere lesions cause impaired phonotactic processing and that the left hemisphere might be necessary for phonotactic awareness. These preliminary findings will be followed up by further analyses investigating the interactions between phonotactic processing and participants’ scores on other linguistic/cognitive tasks as well as lesion-symptom mapping.

  2. Formulation of disperse systems science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tadros, Tharwat F

    2014-01-01

    This book presents comprehensively the science and technology behind the formulation of disperse systems like emulsions, suspensions, foams and others. Starting with a general introduction, the book covers a broad range of topics like the role of different classes of surfactants, stability of disperse systems, formulation of different dispersions, evaluation of formulations and many more. Many examples are included, too. Written by the experienced author and editor Tharwart Tadros, this book is indispensable for every scientist working in the field.

  3. Formulated arthropod cadavers for pest suppression

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Pesticidal and/or antimicrobial biological agent-infected arthropod cadavers are formulated by applying a coating agent once on the surface of the cadaver which either (a) prevents the cadavers from sticking together and/or rupturing or (b) acts as an adhesive for a powder or granule applied to the cadaver to prevent sticking and rupturing. The formulated cadavers maintain or improve infectivity, reproducibility, and survivability. The formulated cadavers can be partially desiccated to improv...

  4. Multiple excitation of supports - Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Barbosa, H.J.C.

    1980-12-01

    The formulation and the solution of a simple specific problem of support movement are presented. The formulation is extended to the general case of infinitesimal elasticity where the approximated solutions are obtained by the variational formulation with spatial discretization by Finite Element Method. Finally, the present usual numerical techniques for the treatment of the resulting ordinary differential equations system are discused: Direct integration, Modal overlap, Spectral response. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Critical analysis of ICU/HC beds in South Africa: 2008-2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The American College of Emergency Physicians. (ACEP) defines a ... The ICU enables the CCS team to monitor and care for patients with potentially severe ... patients exceeds supply,[9] and this form of expensive technology needs to be ...

  6. Single-Sex Classes in Two Arkansas Elementary Schools: 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George; Tschepikow, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Interest in single-sex classes continues to grow in the United States, but there has been little research at the elementary level in this country or elsewhere to help guide educators' decision-making about the overall value of single-sex classes in public schools and the specific value of single-sex classes in public schools for increasing boy's…

  7. Microbiology of Olkiluoto and ONKALO groundwater results and interpretations, 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Lydmark, S.; Johansson, J.; Jaegevall, S.; Rabe, L. (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-08-15

    Microbiology cultivation, DNA, and RNA data were assembled from 18 groundwater samples from Olkiluoto, from deep drillholes ranging in depth from 62 to 708 m, and from groundwater from eight ONKALO drillholes ranging in depth from 7.1 to 318 m. Biomass was determined by counting total numbers of microbial cells (TNC) and determining adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations. The aerobic cultivation method used comprised aerobic plate counts. Anaerobic most probable number (MPN) methods were used to determine counts of nitrate-, iron-, manganese-, and sulphatereducing bacteria, acetogenic bacteria, and methanogens. Molecular methods for analysing the diversity and abundance of microorganisms have been continuously developed and applied to groundwater samples. These methods included the sampling of DNA and RNA, extraction of nucleic acids, cloning and sequencing of environmental nucleic acids, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for analysing amounts of DNA and RNA. The results of these analyses have been merged and interpreted, and the outcomes are reported here. The four methods for biomassrelated analysis correlated well. These methods focus on different characteristics of microbial cells: TNC analyses whole cells using a microscope, ATP analyses a cell component using a biochemical method, MPN is based on cultivation and qPCR analyses DNA (genes) and RNA (gene expression). The range of analytical focus encompassed by the methods ensures that the biomass-related information in this and previous reports from Olkiluoto and ONKALO is reliable and reflects a diverse range of the biomass-related characteristics of the analysed microorganisms. The distribution of the MPN data over depth from 2008 to 2009 followed the distribution found earlier. There were generally more cultivable microorganisms between depths of 200 and 400 m than in the shallower 50-200-m depth range. These new results agree with previous results, suggesting that microorganisms are more active in the boundary area between overlying sulphate-rich groundwater and deeper methanerich groundwater at a depth of approximately 300 m. The MPN analyses have indicated that all the physiological groups analysed for were present in Olkiluoto deep groundwater and in ONKALO groundwater. In 2007, analysis of molecular diversity and numbers started. The molecular results agreed well with the cultivation and biomass results. Sequences belonging to iron-, manganese-, and sulphate-reducing bacteria were found. Archaea sequences representative of methane-producing microorganisms were also detected, and sequences identified as belonging to ANME consortia were found. The pumping tests conducted in drillholes OL-KR6{sub 4}22, OL-KR13 T360, and ONKPVA3 conclusively demonstrated the importance of understanding the mechanisms that control microbial diversity, activity, and numbers as a function of sampling methodology, including pumping and draining. Flow rates during sampling, volumes let out before the sample was taken, and configuration of drillhole equipment were factors that exerted influence on microbial numbers; they should consequently be further investigated. (orig.)

  8. Informe científico de investigador: Hough, Guillermo Ernesto (2008-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Guillermo Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    - Desarrollo del método de grado de calidad para la evaluación sensorial analítica de la apariencia de vegetales heterogéneos como el brócoli. Se comparó este método con el método descriptivo cuantitativo, llegándose a la conclusión de que el método de grado de calidad es más apropiado para este tipo de alimentos. - Vida útil sensorial de brócoli: el brócoli ya había sido sometido a tratamiento térmico y con radiación UV para la extensión de la vida útil sensorial. En esta etapa se ...

  9. SOS auf der Klinge.. Hessen-Archäologie 2008 (2009)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer; Wagner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Sword from the excavation at the Biegeneck in Marburg belongs to the European group of SDX-swords. These swords are inscribed with their smith's name and praying formulas.......The Sword from the excavation at the Biegeneck in Marburg belongs to the European group of SDX-swords. These swords are inscribed with their smith's name and praying formulas....

  10. Macroeconomic situation in Moldova in terms of the economic crisis 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail PĂDUREAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The world economic crisis has exerted a negative impact on the economic development of Moldova, but recent trends show that since 2010 the country has been recording a small economic growth. The article examines the problems faced by the Moldavian economy during recession, as well as the subsequent changes with reference to macroeconomic indicators. The paper is a review of the materials of the Institute of Economics of the Republic of Moldova and other institutions, as well as a collection of literature and the author's own opinions. It makes use of the descriptive method and deductive and inductive reasoning.

  11. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2008. 2009 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    This edition is the fortieth in the IAEA's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2008. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM provides enhanced features for data search and analysis

  12. A Growing Global Network’s Role in Outbreak Response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    John Snow’s investigation of cholera and the Broad Street pump in 19th century London [1], effective outbreak response continues to be challenging... Mexico border [in colla- boration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the County of San Diego Health Department]. The U.S...IHR (2005). The most common diseases investigated were influenza (47), cholera (four), dengue fever (four) and hepatitis (three). Human disease was

  13. Law, Policy and Nonproliferation Project Events and Workshops: Key Themes, Results and Related Materials 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    biological precursors are obtained legally from legitimate corporations, these suppliers should incorporate some sort of chemical or genetic “barcode...traditionally come under the rubric of limited engagement, especially as such policy evolved during the Cold War between the US and USSR. With the end...information that may enable access to dual-use technology. A “bar-coding” procedure, by which a genetic sequence or chemical signature is used to

  14. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, I. (Turku Univ., Satakunta Environmental Research Inst., Pori (Finland)); Nieminen, M. (Faunatica Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in April 2009, and compared with earlier studies. Population size estimates are based on interviews of local hunters, and other available material. Conclusions of changes in game populations are based on rough estimates primarily from interviews, only in Elk and Deer also on inventories. Elk population is still slightly decreasing. The growth of the White-tailed Deer population is slowing down. The changes in the Roe Deer population are not precisely known, but it is seemingly varying to some extent in different years. The populations of small predators (American Mink, Raccoon Dog and Red Fox) are still strong in Olkiluoto, partly because of very dense population of voles during the hunting season. The Raccoon Dog population has been diminished due to shooting several individuals during the Elk and Deer hunting. The Red Fox population is obviously increasing. The Mountain Hare population is strong and it increased in 2008. However, the Brown Hare population is apparently decreasing, probably due to kills by mammalian predators, eagles and traffic. Currently, other game animals (e.g. waterfowl) are hardly ever hunted. (orig.)

  15. European Energy Markets Observatory. 2008 and Winter 2008/2009 Data Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Launched in 2002, with the primary objective to assess the progress of deregulation in the European Member States, the report now tackles all the major issues faced by the Utilities industry and analyses its main indicators. This allows to monitor the supply and demand balance, measure the progress in establishing a European integrated market and follow the advancement of competition. The report scans all the segments of the value chain and analyses the hot topics of the moment (impact of the crisis on the sector, increase of the energy prices, nuclear, security of supply, renewables, climate change issues, CO2 emissions, end-users' tariffs, etc.), to identify the key trends of the electricity and gas industries. This is the 11th edition.

  16. Fracture toughness properties of rocks in Olkiluoto: Laboratory measurements 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, T.

    2012-05-15

    In Olkiluoto an underground rock characterization facility (ONKALO) for the final disposal site of spent nuclear fuel has been under thorough research many years, but further knowledge is needed on fracture toughness parameters. Fracture toughness parameters are important for example in fracture mechanics prediction for Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE). This working report describes a laboratory campaign that was done between 2008 and 2009. The campaign aimed at determining the fracture mechanics parameters as well as density and ultrasonic velocities for Olkiluoto rocks. The specimens delivered were selected by Posiva; the core showed no damage and the quality of the delivered cores was good with varying sample diameter. Most of the test samples (9 out of 12) are gneissic rock. The Mode I fracture toughness was determined using two different methods to account for two different fracturing directions. The methods are the Chevron Bend (CB) test as proposed in the ISRM Suggested Method and a method based on the Brazilian Disk (BD) experiment. The Mode II fracture toughness was determined using the Punch-Through Shear with Confining Pressure experiment on the remaining pieces from the CB testing. The scatter in the results is very large, even within one piece of core sample. Usually the scatter of results is less than 5 %. The high scatter in the data at hand is believed to be due to the very inhomogeneous nature of the rock material. The magnitude of the determined Mode I fracture toughness compares well with available reported data for medium to coarse grained granitoide rocks. However the scatter of the mode II fracture toughness values is higher than experienced on other rock types, but the variability is reasonable for the inhomogeneous rock type. Distinguishing the fracture toughness values for different anisotropy directions would require more thorough testing with quality samples at different anisotropy directions. However since fracture mechanics predictions require anisotropic fracture toughness parameters, the results are divided into two regions to acquire the upper and lower limits to distinguish two anisotropy directions. These values are used already in modeling of the POSE in situ experiment. (orig.)

  17. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 3, report for 2008-2009 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Support made scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and significantly increased : the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering programs. R...

  18. The night sky companion a yearly guide to sky-watching 2008-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Plotner, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    The Night Sky Companion is a comprehensive guide to what can be explored in the heavens on a nightly basis. Designed to appeal to readers at all skill levels, it provides a digest for sky watchers interested in all types of astronomical information.

  19. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussila, I.; Nieminen, M.

    2009-10-01

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in April 2009, and compared with earlier studies. Population size estimates are based on interviews of local hunters, and other available material. Conclusions of changes in game populations are based on rough estimates primarily from interviews, only in Elk and Deer also on inventories. Elk population is still slightly decreasing. The growth of the White-tailed Deer population is slowing down. The changes in the Roe Deer population are not precisely known, but it is seemingly varying to some extent in different years. The populations of small predators (American Mink, Raccoon Dog and Red Fox) are still strong in Olkiluoto, partly because of very dense population of voles during the hunting season. The Raccoon Dog population has been diminished due to shooting several individuals during the Elk and Deer hunting. The Red Fox population is obviously increasing. The Mountain Hare population is strong and it increased in 2008. However, the Brown Hare population is apparently decreasing, probably due to kills by mammalian predators, eagles and traffic. Currently, other game animals (e.g. waterfowl) are hardly ever hunted. (orig.)

  20. IMPACT of FINANCIAL CRISIS 2008-2009 on BANKING SECTOR STRUCTURE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Versal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the changes in the structure of Ukraine’s banking sector caused by the crisis 2008 – 2009. The research covers the pre-crisis stage (early 2008, the stage of the impact of the global financial crisis (end of 2008 – 2009, the stage of post-crisis development (2010 – 2013. The analysis is done in two areas: the analysis of the consequences of redistribution of responsibilities between the Deposit Guarantee Fund (the DGF and the National Bank of Ukraine (the NBU and the analysis of changes in the structure of the banking sector (the redistribution of the market between the four groups of banks in terms of assets, state-owned banks and other banks, foreign banks and domestic banks. It is possible to talk about the positive aspects arising from the redistribution of responsibilities between the NBU and the DGF, namely in terms of depositors’ protection strengthening due to reducing the term of the interim administration, eliminating the moratorium on payments to depositors etc. However, it is impossible to make an unambiguous conclusion that these changes have had a positive effect on the level of depositor’s confidence in banks. It turned out to be factors that are more important: economic and political situation in the country. The changes in the structure of the banking sector had a crucial character. Characteristic tendencies for each block of banks have been determined based on an analysis of indicators such as total assets, loans to legal entities and individuals, total liabilities, liabilities of legal entities and individuals, equity and equity multiplier. The financial crisis has revealed deep problems in the banking sector and has caused essential transformation processes: the redistribution of the banking market in favor of banks, which enjoyed the confidence of customers. Research shows that such banks in the unit of banks in terms of assets are banks of 2 and 4 groups; banks in the block by the presence of state ownership – PJSC ‘Oschadbank’, PJSC ‘Ukreximbank’; banks in the block by the presence of foreign capital – foreign banks.

  1. Financial Literacy in College Undergraduates Following the 2008-2009 Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the deep recession of 2008 and 2009, there has been increased concern over the current level of financial literacy among American citizens. For many, this concern extends to our college students getting ready to enter the real world as they leave college life behind. This study looks at the preparedness of college students to manage…

  2. Assessment of the radiological quality of tap waters 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caamano, Delphine; Tracol, Raphael; Guillotin, Laetitia; Jedor, Beatrice; Davezac, Henri; Loyen, Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    After a recall of the context (radioactivity, origin of natural radioactivity in waters, exposure of population to natural radioactivity and health impact, indicators of water radiological quality, presence of uranium in water), this document reports a study which is based on the health control of water radiological quality by regional health agencies, on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides, on a survey on tap water radiological quality performed in 2009 by regional health agencies, and on an inventory of results related to the presence of radon in water performed by the IRSN and these agencies. The obtained results are presented and discussed in terms of factors impacting the result representativeness, of generalisation of the implementation of a health control, of tap water radiological quality. It is outlined that the uranium-related chemical risk is higher than the radiological risk

  3. The relationship of air pollution and asthma patients admitted to hospitals in Kermanshah (2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Khamutian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrialization and urbanization have had a devastating impact on public health. Asthma is considered as one of the major challenges of public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between air pollution and the number of asthma patients admitted to hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and ecological study, the data on the number of asthma patients, the concentration levels of air pollutants and weather conditions were collected from the city of Kermanshah. To determine the association between asthma patients admitted to hospitals and air pollutants, Poisson regression was used (P<0.05. Results: according to the statistical analysis, air pollutants had significant correlation with each other. Based on the results of multiple Poisson regression, among air pollutants CO and O3 were significantly correlated with the number of asthma patients referred to hospitals, with relative risk of 1.18 and 1.016, respectively, and based on the results of single Poisson regression, among air pollutants NOx, NO, NO2 and CO were significantly correlated with the number of asthma patients referred to hospitals with relative risk of 1.011, 1.012, 1.054 and 1.247, respectively. Conclusion: according to the results of the present study, there was a significant association between air pollutants (mainly carbon monoxide and ozone and the total number of asthma patients referred to the hospitals in Kermanshah.

  4. Results and analysis of the 2008-2009 Insulin Injection Technique Questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Carina; Frid, Anders; Gaspar, Ruth; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Larry; Kreugel, Gillian; Liersch, Jutta; Letondeur, Corinne; Sauvanet, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Nadia; Strauss, Kenneth

    Background: The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique and, to provide patients with guidance in this area, we must understand how they currently inject. Methods: From September 2008 to June 2009, 4352 insulin-injecting Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partap S. Narwal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  6. Official holidays in 2008 and end-of-year closure 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2008 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : Friday 21st March (Good Friday); Monday, 24th March (Easter Monday); Thursday,1st May (Ascension day); Friday 2nd May (Compensation of 1st May); Monday, 12th May (Whit Monday); Thursday, 11th September ("Jeûne genevois"). Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 20th December 2008 to Sunday, 4th January 2009 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 5th January 2009. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  7. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. The information is presented for each school.…

  8. Dropout and Graduation Rates 2008-2009. Research Brief. Volume 0902

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The District conducts a "cross-sectional" analysis of student dropouts annually; it examines dropout rates among students enrolled in various grades at one point in time. A "longitudinal" analysis, also conducted annually, tracks a group of students in the same grade or cohort over a period of several years. Each method…

  9. Operational status of the JAEA-MUTSU tandetron AMS 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabuto, Shoji; Kinoshita, Naoki; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    A Tandetron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa in Netherlands had been set up at the Mutsu office of Aomori Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in 1997. This AMS features 3MV Tandetron accelerator and two independence beamlines for 14 C and 129 I measurement. This AMS has measured both internal and external JAEA researcher's samples based on an open door policy since April 2006. Furthermore, the total operation time of this AMS from the routine operation started exceeds more than 20,000 hours in this year. In this report, we describe not only the summary of the current status and troubles from the previous symposium but also the upgrading of the operation system in this AMS which is carried out from June to July in 2009. (author)

  10. A summary of trauma and trauma-related papers published in BJOMS during 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanale, Atul; Mackenzie, Neil; Arakeri, Gururaj; McLeod, Niall; Brennan, Peter A

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 49 trauma and related papers published in British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during the period January 2008 to December 2009. 16/49 (32%) of these publications were full length articles, which covered areas such as epidemiology, service provision, materials and operative surgery. In addition there were other articles including short communications, technical notes, letters to the editor and interesting cases. Whilst fewer full length articles were published compared to the other sub-specialties, it was reassuring to see that the studies represent all aspects of trauma. More basic science and randomized control studies relating to trauma need to be encouraged. Copyright 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SPECKLE OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE WIYN TELESCOPE. VII. MEASURES DURING 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Bahi, Lizzie Anne P.; Gaulin, Joseph R.; Howell, Steve B.; Sherry, William H.; Baena Gallé, Roberto; Van Altena, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Five hundred thirty-one speckle measures of binary stars are reported. These data were taken mainly during the period 2008 June through 2009 October at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak and represent the last data set of single-filter speckle observations taken in the WIYN speckle program prior to the use of the current two-channel speckle camera. The astrometric and photometric precision of these observations is consistent with previous papers in this series: we obtain a typical linear measurement uncertainty of approximately 2.5 mas, and the magnitude differences reported have typical uncertainties in the range of 0.1-0.14 mag. In combination with measures already in the literature, the data presented here permit the revision of the orbit of A 1634AB (= HIP 76041) and the first determination of visual orbital elements for HDS 1895 (= HIP 65982).

  12. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment activities that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

  13. Differences in national influenza vaccination policies across the European Union, Norway and Iceland 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; D'Ancona, F; Giambi, C; Nicoll, A; Levy-Bruhl, D; Lopalco, P L; Weber, J T; Johansen, K; Dematte, L; Salmaso, S; Stefanoff, P; Greco, D; Dorleans, F; Polkowska, A; O'Flanagan, D

    2010-11-04

    In 2009 the second cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project across 27 European Union (EU) member states (MS), Norway and Iceland (n=29) to determine changes in official national seasonal influenza vaccination policies since a survey undertaken in 2008 and to compare the estimates of vaccination coverage between countries using data obtained from both surveys. Of 27 responding countries, all recommended vaccination against seasonal influenza to the older adult population. Six countries recommended vaccination of children aged between six months and <18 years old. Most countries recommended influenza vaccination for those individuals with chronic medical conditions. Recommendations for vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) in various settings existed in most, but not all countries. Staff in hospitals and long-term care facilities were recommended vaccination in 23 countries, and staff in out-patient clinics in 22 countries. In the 2009 survey, the reported national estimates on vaccine coverage varied by country and risk group, ranging from 1.1% - 82.6% for the older adult population; to between 32.9% -71.7% for clinical risk groups; and from 13.4% -89.4% for HCW. Many countries that recommend the influenza vaccination do not monitor the coverage in risk groups. In 2008 and 2009 most countries recommended influenza vaccination for the main risk groups. However, despite general consensus and recommendations for vaccination of high risk groups, many countries do not achieve high coverage in these groups. The reported vaccination coverage still needs to be improved in order to achieve EU and World Health Organization goals.

  14. Outbreak of Clostridium difficile 027 in North Zealand, Denmark, 2008-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, S; St-Martin, G; Olesen, B

    2009-01-01

    We report an outbreak of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in Denmark. The outbreak includes to date 73 cases from the area north of Copenhagen, but there may be related cases elsewhere in Zealand. Most infections are healthcare-associated and in patients who previously received antibiotic...

  15. Summary report on the activities of VGB PowerTech e.V. 2008/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, Karl A.

    2009-01-01

    VGB PowerTech e.V. (VGB) is the European technical association for heat and power generation. The work of the VGB largely depends on the many backers and employees in the companies and office who, for example, manage and support the activities of the committees of its Competence Centres 'Nuclear Power Plants', 'Fossil-fired Power Plants', 'Renewables and Distributed Generation' and 'Environmental Technology, Chemistry, Safety and Health'. VGB is also involved in power plant research via its research foundation and promotes important topics with funds from its member companies. In addition to this work, VGB organises seminars, symposia, conferences and the annual 'Power Plants' congress. These conferences are further platforms for the international exchange of experience - as is the journal at hand. (orig.)

  16. Scientific expertise from the inside: AFSSET Working Group on Radio-frequencies (2008-2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    Although there is now a large amount of social science research on scientific expertise and expert groups, direct evidence by sociologists who themselves participated in scientific expert groups assessing controversial topics remain rare. This paper offers just this type of feedback. The aim is to analyse the production of scientific expert opinions based on personal experience: the author's participation as a sociologist in an expert committee set up by the former French Agency for the Safety of Health, the Environment and Work (AFSSET) on the topic of radio-frequencies. Several problematic aspects of these groups will thus be discussed from this concrete experience: the problem of the composition of the expert group, the issue of conflicts of interest, the organisation of the work within the group, the effects of the presence of an observer from an association, and the differences between performing scientific research and providing scientific expert opinions. (authors)

  17. The impact of the 2008/2009 financial crisis on specialist physician activity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, M Ruth; Hedden, Lindsay; Law, Michael R; McGrail, Kim; Ahuja, Megan; Barer, Morris

    2018-06-19

    Fee-for-service physicians are responsible for planning for their retirements, and there is no mandated retirement age. Changes in financial markets may influence how long they remain in practice and how much they choose to work. The 2008 crisis provides a natural experiment to analyze elasticity in physician service supply in response to dramatic financial market changes. We examined quarterly fee-for-service data for specialist physicians over the period from 1999/2000 to 2013/2014 in Canada. We used segmented regression to estimate changes in the number of physicians receiving payments, per-physician service counts, and per-physician payments following the 2008 financial crisis and explored whether patterns differed by physician age. The number of specialist physicians increased more rapidly in the period since 2008 than in earlier years, but increases were largest within the youngest age group, and we observed no evidence of delayed retirement among older physicians. Where changes in service volume and payments were observed, they occurred across all ages and not immediately following the 2008 financial crisis. We conclude that any response to the financial crisis was small compared with demographic shifts in the physician population and changes in payments per service over the same time period. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Galloway, John

    2010-01-01

    The collection of papers that follow continues the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. This series represents new and sometimes-preliminary findings that are of interest to Earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. The reports presented in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State, serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for Earth-science information in Alaska. This professional paper is one of a series of 'online only' versions of Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, reflecting the current trend toward disseminating research results on the World Wide Web with rapid posting of completed reports.

  19. Progress reports on SCWR-related development projects from Chinese universities for FY2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.K.H.

    2010-02-01

    Canada is participating in the international cooperative forum on system research for two designs (supercritical water-cooled reactor, SCWR, and Very High Temperature Reactor, VHTR) of the Gen-IV nuclear reactor. The forum is referred to as the Generation-IV International Forum (or GIF). The Canadian effort focuses mainly on the SCWR. Among various GIF participants, Canada is the leader of this design and has interest mainly on the pressure-tube type reactor, which is a natural extension of the existing CANDU reactor. Several critical research areas (such as material, chemistry, thermalhydraulics, instability, critical flow, etc.) have been identified in the system-research plan for supporting the SCWR design. Collaborative projects have been established between AECL and universities in China to expedite the CANDU SCWR design. These projects focus on research areas beyond the current scope of the AECL and the NSERC/NRCan/AECL collaborative research and development (CRD) project. AECL supports these projects directly and is contributing (in-kind) the results and findings to the Canadian national program. The collaboration between AECL and Chinese universities began in 2007 July. Most projects cover the duration of three years. The Chinese universities submit their annual progress reports each year prior to the project renewal. The objective of this report is to summarize the progress on collaborative projects between AECL and Chinese universities (namely the Tsinghua University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, and Xi'an Jiaotong University) over the duration of 2008 July to 2009 June. (author)

  20. Click: The Twelfth Annual Report on Schoolhouse Commercialism Trends, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Boninger, Faith; Wilkinson, Gary; Fogarty, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As part of their efforts to create a total advertising environment, companies continue to aggressively market in school to children and youth. Advertisers now routinely blur the boundaries between editorial content and advertising in an effort to thoroughly infuse childhood with marketing messages. The goal of creating a total advertising…

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  2. Evaluation of a community-based falls prevention program in South Florida, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Anamica; Melchior, Michael; Seff, Laura; Frederick, Newman; Palmer, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Many older adults experience fear of falling, which may reduce participation in routine activities. A Matter of Balance (MOB) and Un Asunto de Equilibrio (ADE) workshops were offered in South Florida to reduce fear of falling and increase activity levels in older adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of the lay leader model of the programs in the first year of their implementation and to further report on participant outcome measures. We analyzed reach, adoption, and implementation data for participants who attended workshops between October 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009, who were aged 60 years or older, and who had both baseline and posttest outcome data. Workshops were in English and Spanish and consisted of 8 two-hour sessions. Participants completed a 7-item baseline and posttest questionnaire that consisted of a falls management scale, a social activity item, and modified version of Physician-Based Assessment and Counseling on Exercise. We analyzed outcome data on multiple characteristics using a general linear model. A class evaluation questionnaire measured participant satisfaction. Results for 562 participants who provided both baseline and posttest data showed significant improvement on 6 of 7 questions for MOB and all questions for ADE (P < .001). The 391 participants who provided evaluation data indicated that the programs were effective, beneficial, and well organized. Lay leaders successfully implemented the programs in community settings. The programs were effective in reducing fear of falling among older adults.

  3. Contribution IFJ PAN to the construction of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (2008 - 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Hajduk, L.; Kotula, J.; Stodulski, M.; Sulek, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is now being assembled at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physic (IPP), Greifswald, Germany. The Agreement on Cooperation between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow (IFJ PAN) was signed off in 2007. The intention of the agreement is to cover the whole period of the W7-X construction. According to the agreement IFJ PAN has taken over the following tasks: 1. to assembly of the bus bar system powering the superconducting coils of the stellarator; 2. to take part in design of equipment used during handling, transportation and assembly of outer vessels; 3. to manufacture 30 polichromators used for plasma diagnostics. Task No 2 was completed in 2008 while tasks No 1 and 3 are to be continued. (authors)

  4. Differences in national influenza vaccination policies across the European Union, Norway and Iceland 2008-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the second cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project across 27 European Union (EU) member states (MS), Norway and Iceland (n=29) to determine changes in official national seasonal influenza vaccination policies since a survey undertaken in 2008 and to compare the estimates of vaccination coverage between countries using data obtained from both surveys. Of 27 responding countries, all recommended vaccination against seasonal influenza to the older adult population. Six countries recommended vaccination of children aged between six months and <18 years old. Most countries recommended influenza vaccination for those individuals with chronic medical conditions. Recommendations for vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) in various settings existed in most, but not all countries. Staff in hospitals and long-term care facilities were recommended vaccination in 23 countries, and staff in out-patient clinics in 22 countries. In the 2009 survey, the reported national estimates on vaccine coverage varied by country and risk group, ranging from 1.1% - 82.6% for the older adult population; to between 32.9% -71.7% for clinical risk groups; and from 13.4% -89.4% for HCW. Many countries that recommend the influenza vaccination do not monitor the coverage in risk groups. In 2008 and 2009 most countries recommended influenza vaccination for the main risk groups. However, despite general consensus and recommendations for vaccination of high risk groups, many countries do not achieve high coverage in these groups. The reported vaccination coverage still needs to be improved in order to achieve EU and World Health Organization goals.

  5. Microbiology of Olkiluoto and ONKALO groundwater results and interpretations, 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Lydmark, S.; Johansson, J.; Jaegevall, S.; Rabe, L.

    2010-08-01

    Microbiology cultivation, DNA, and RNA data were assembled from 18 groundwater samples from Olkiluoto, from deep drillholes ranging in depth from 62 to 708 m, and from groundwater from eight ONKALO drillholes ranging in depth from 7.1 to 318 m. Biomass was determined by counting total numbers of microbial cells (TNC) and determining adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations. The aerobic cultivation method used comprised aerobic plate counts. Anaerobic most probable number (MPN) methods were used to determine counts of nitrate-, iron-, manganese-, and sulphatereducing bacteria, acetogenic bacteria, and methanogens. Molecular methods for analysing the diversity and abundance of microorganisms have been continuously developed and applied to groundwater samples. These methods included the sampling of DNA and RNA, extraction of nucleic acids, cloning and sequencing of environmental nucleic acids, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for analysing amounts of DNA and RNA. The results of these analyses have been merged and interpreted, and the outcomes are reported here. The four methods for biomassrelated analysis correlated well. These methods focus on different characteristics of microbial cells: TNC analyses whole cells using a microscope, ATP analyses a cell component using a biochemical method, MPN is based on cultivation and qPCR analyses DNA (genes) and RNA (gene expression). The range of analytical focus encompassed by the methods ensures that the biomass-related information in this and previous reports from Olkiluoto and ONKALO is reliable and reflects a diverse range of the biomass-related characteristics of the analysed microorganisms. The distribution of the MPN data over depth from 2008 to 2009 followed the distribution found earlier. There were generally more cultivable microorganisms between depths of 200 and 400 m than in the shallower 50-200-m depth range. These new results agree with previous results, suggesting that microorganisms are more active in the boundary area between overlying sulphate-rich groundwater and deeper methanerich groundwater at a depth of approximately 300 m. The MPN analyses have indicated that all the physiological groups analysed for were present in Olkiluoto deep groundwater and in ONKALO groundwater. In 2007, analysis of molecular diversity and numbers started. The molecular results agreed well with the cultivation and biomass results. Sequences belonging to iron-, manganese-, and sulphate-reducing bacteria were found. Archaea sequences representative of methane-producing microorganisms were also detected, and sequences identified as belonging to ANME consortia were found. The pumping tests conducted in drillholes OL-KR6 4 22, OL-KR13 T360, and ONKPVA3 conclusively demonstrated the importance of understanding the mechanisms that control microbial diversity, activity, and numbers as a function of sampling methodology, including pumping and draining. Flow rates during sampling, volumes let out before the sample was taken, and configuration of drillhole equipment were factors that exerted influence on microbial numbers; they should consequently be further investigated. (orig.)

  6. Superspace formulation of new nonlinear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    The superspace formulation of two classes of supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models are presented. Two alternative N=1 superspace formulations are given for the d=2 supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models with Killing vector potentials: (a) formulation uses an active central charge and, (b) formulation uses a spurion superfield without inducing a classical breakdown of supersymmetry. The N=2 vector multiplet is used to construct a new class of d=4 nonlinear σ-models which when reduced to d=2 possess N=4 supersymmetry. Implications of these two classes of nonlinear σ-models for N>=4 superfield supergravity are discussed. (author)

  7. Intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry and its relationships with handedness and language Lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliot, M; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Mazoyer, B

    2016-12-01

    Asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity, and its association with handedness and hemispheric dominance for language, were investigated in a sample of 290 healthy volunteers enriched in left-handers (52.7%). From the resting-state FMRI data of each participant, we derived an intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry (HICA) matrix as the difference between the left and right intra-hemispheric matrices of intrinsic correlation computed for each pair of the AICHA atlas ROIs. We defined a similarity measure between the HICA matrices of two individuals as the correlation coefficient of their corresponding elements, and computed for each individual an index of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry as the average similarity measure of his HICA matrix to those of the other subjects of the sample (HICAs). Gaussian-mixture modeling of the age-corrected HICAs sample distribution revealed that two types of HICA patterns were present, one (Typical_HICA) including 92.4% of the participants while the other (Atypical_HICA) included only 7.6% of them, mostly left-handers. In addition, we investigated the relationship between asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity and language hemispheric dominance, including a potential effect of handedness on this relationship, thanks to an FMRI acquisition during language production from which an hemispheric functional lateralization index for language (HFLI) and a type of hemispheric dominance for language, namely leftward, ambilateral, or rightward, were derived for each individual. There was a significant association between the types of language hemispheric dominance and of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry, occurrence of Atypical_HICAs individuals being very high in the group of individuals rightward-lateralized for language (80%), reduced in the ambilateral group (19%) and rare in individuals leftward-lateralized for language (less than 3%). Quantitatively, we found a

  8. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambert Elodie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67% of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than

  9. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waning, Brenda; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Jambert, Elodie; Bärnighausen, Till; Li, Yun; Pouw, Mieke; Moon, Suerie

    2010-10-17

    Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67%) of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than adult markets. Ensuring a long-term supply of quality, well

  10. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  11. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  12. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), dolichol (regulator of N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in patients with bronchial asthma. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The pathway was upregulated with increase in digoxin synthesis in bronchial asthma. There was an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites in patients with bronchial asthma. The ubiquinone levels were low and lipid peroxidation increased in these patients. There was increase in dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and reduction in lysosomal stability in these patients. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was increased and glycoconjugate levels were reduced in the membranes of these patients. The patterns noticed in bronchial asthma were similar to those in patients with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Bronchial asthma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with bronchial asthma were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. But their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

  13. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Gaze-Triggered Reflexive Shift of Attention in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2006-01-01

    Recent findings suggest a right hemispheric dominance in gaze-triggered shifts of attention. The aim of this study was to clarify the dominant hemisphere in the gaze processing that mediates attentional shift. A target localization task, with preceding non-predicative gaze cues presented to each visual field, was undertaken by 44 healthy subjects,…

  14. Divergent Thinking and Hemispheric Dominance for Language Function among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegano, Deborah Walker; And Others

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship of hemispheric dominance (dichotic listening) and divergent thinking (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) with 27 preschool children indicates that divergent thinking is associated with right hemispheric dominance in children as young as four years. (Author/PN)

  15. Hemispheric metacontrol and cerebral dominance in healthy individuals investigated by means of chimeric faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2005-08-01

    Cerebral dominance and hemispheric metacontrol were investigated by testing the ability of healthy participants to match chimeric, entire, or half faces presented tachistoscopically. The two hemi-faces compounding chimeric or entire stimuli were presented simultaneously or asynchronously at different exposure times. Participants did not consciously detect chimeric faces for simultaneous presentations lasting up to 40 ms. Interestingly, a 20 ms separation between each half-chimera was sufficient to induce detection of conflicts at a conscious level. Although the presence of chimeric faces was not consciously perceived, performance on chimeric faces was poorer than on entire- and half-faces stimuli, thus indicating an implicit processing of perceptual conflicts. Moreover, the precedence of hemispheric stimulation over-ruled the right hemisphere dominance for face processing, insofar as the hemisphere stimulated last appeared to influence the response. This dynamic reversal of cerebral dominance, however, was not caused by a shift in hemispheric specialization, since the level of performance always reflected the right hemisphere specialization for face recognition. Thus, the dissociation between hemispheric dominance and specialization found in the present study hints at the existence of hemispheric metacontrol in healthy individuals.

  16. Hemispheric Specialization and Creative Thinking: A Meta-Analytic Review of Lateralization of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…

  17. Determination of hemispheric dominance with mental rotation using functional transcranial Doppler sonography and FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattemer, Katja; Plate, Annika; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Haag, Anja; Keil, Boris; Klein, Karl Martin; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Hamer, Hajo M; Rosenow, Felix; Knake, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    the aim of this study was to investigate specific activation patterns and potential gender differences during mental rotation and to investigate whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) lateralize hemispheric dominance concordantly. regional brain activation and hemispheric dominance during mental rotation (cube perspective test) were investigated in 10 female and 10 male healthy subjects using fMRI and fTCD. significant activation was found in the superior parietal lobe, at the parieto-occipital border, in the middle and superior frontal gyrus bilaterally, and the right inferior frontal gyrus using fMRI. Men showed a stronger lateralization to the right hemisphere during fMRI and a tendency toward stronger right-hemispheric activation during fTCD. Furthermore, more activation in frontal and parieto-occipital regions of the right hemisphere was observed using fMRI. Hemispheric dominance for mental rotation determined by the 2 methods correlated well (P= .008), but did not show concordant results in every single subject. the neural basis of mental rotation depends on a widespread bilateral network. Hemispheric dominance for mental rotation determined by fMRI and fTCD, though correlating well, is not always concordant. Hemispheric lateralization of complex cortical functions such as spatial rotation therefore should be investigated using multimodal imaging approaches, especially if used clinically as a tool for the presurgical evaluation of patients undergoing neurosurgery. Copyright © 2009 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. Bilateral versus ipsilesional cortico-subcortical activity patterns in stroke show hemispheric dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ana C; Banca, Paula; Pascoal, Augusto G; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Sargento-Freitas, João; Gouveia, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Background Understanding of interhemispheric interactions in stroke patients during motor control is an important clinical neuroscience quest that may provide important clues for neurorehabilitation. In stroke patients bilateral overactivation in both hemispheres has been interpreted as a poor prognostic indicator of functional recovery. In contrast, ipsilesional patterns have been linked with better motor outcomes. Aim We investigated the pathophysiology of hemispheric interactions during limb movement without and with contralateral restraint, to mimic the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy. We used neuroimaging to probe brain activity with such a movement-dependent interhemispheric modulation paradigm. Methods We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging block design during which the plegic/paretic upper limb was recruited/mobilized to perform unilateral arm elevation, as a function of presence versus absence of contralateral limb restriction (n = 20, with balanced left/right lesion sites). Results Analysis of 10 right hemispheric stroke participants yielded bilateral sensorimotor cortex activation in all movement phases in contrast with the unilateral dominance seen in the 10 left hemispheric stroke participants. Superimposition of contralateral restriction led to a prominent shift from activation to deactivation response patterns, in particular in cortical and basal ganglia motor areas in right hemispheric stroke. Left hemispheric stroke was, in general, characterized by reduced activation patterns, even in the absence of restriction, which induced additional cortical silencing. Conclusion The observed hemispheric-dependent activation/deactivation shifts is novel and these pathophysiological observations suggest short-term neuroplasticity that may be useful for hemisphere-tailored neurorehabilitation.

  19. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2009-10-01

    Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.

  20. Efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia : A randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkervoort, M; Dekker, J; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Deelman, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia were randomly assigned to two treatment groups; (1) strategy training integrated

  1. Motivation and motor control: hemispheric specialization for approach motivation reverses with handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Geoffrey; Casasanto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    According to decades of research on affective motivation in the human brain, approach motivational states are supported primarily by the left hemisphere and avoidance states by the right hemisphere. The underlying cause of this specialization, however, has remained unknown. Here we conducted a first test of the Sword and Shield Hypothesis (SSH), according to which the hemispheric laterality of affective motivation depends on the laterality of motor control for the dominant hand (i.e., the "sword hand," used preferentially to perform approach actions) and the nondominant hand (i.e., the "shield hand," used preferentially to perform avoidance actions). To determine whether the laterality of approach motivation varies with handedness, we measured alpha-band power (an inverse index of neural activity) in right- and left-handers during resting-state electroencephalography and analyzed hemispheric alpha-power asymmetries as a function of the participants' trait approach motivational tendencies. Stronger approach motivation was associated with more left-hemisphere activity in right-handers, but with more right-hemisphere activity in left-handers. The hemispheric correlates of approach motivation reversed between right- and left-handers, consistent with the way they typically use their dominant and nondominant hands to perform approach and avoidance actions. In both right- and left-handers, approach motivation was lateralized to the same hemisphere that controls the dominant hand. This covariation between neural systems for action and emotion provides initial support for the SSH.

  2. Left and Right Memory Revisited: Electrophysiological Investigations of Hemispheric Asymmetries at Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Hemispheric differences in the use of memory retrieval cues were examined in a continuous recognition design, using visual half-field presentation to bias the processing of test words. A speeded recognition task revealed general accuracy and response time advantages for items whose test presentation was biased to the left hemisphere. A second…

  3. Efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia: a randomised clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkervoort, M.; Dekker, J.; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Deelman, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia were randomly assigned to two treatment groups; (1) strategy training integrated

  4. Efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia: a randomized clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Donkervoort, M.; Stehman, F.C.; Deelman, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. 113 Left hemisphere assigned to two treatment groups: i) strategy training integrated into usual occupational therapy and ii) usual

  5. [Sex differences in relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing in global and local levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in creativity related global-local hemispheric selective processing were examined by hierarchical letter presenting in conditions of their perception and comparison. Fifty-six right-handed males and 68 females (aged 17-22 years) participated in the experiments. Originality-imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test software. Verbal creativity was valued by original sentence using of three nouns from remote semantic categories. The results show that irrespectively of the sex factor and the type of creative thinking, its originality is provided by high speed of right-hemispheric processes of information selection on the global level and delay in the interhemispheric communication. Relationships between originality of ideas and hemispheric attentional characteristics are presented mostly in men while verbal creative problem solving, and in women while figurative original thinking. Originality of verbal activity in men is more associated with success of selective processes in the left hemisphere, but in women--with selective functions of both hemispheres. Figurative thinking in men is less related to hemispheric characteristics of attention compared with women. Increase of figurative originality in women is accompanied acceleration of processes of selection of the information in the right hemisphere, and also higher efficiency of local attention as well as speeds ofglobal processing in the left hemisphere.

  6. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  7. Aphasic Patients Exhibit a Reversal of Hemispheric Asymmetries in Categorical Color Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: (1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and (2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients…

  8. Moral judgement by the disconnected left and right cerebral hemispheres: a split-brain investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Conor M; Hamlin, J Kiley; Miller, Michael B; King, Danielle; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the hemispheric isolation resulting from a severed corpus callosum, research on split-brain patients can help elucidate the brain regions necessary and sufficient for moral judgement. Notably, typically developing adults heavily weight the intentions underlying others' moral actions, placing greater importance on valenced intentions versus outcomes when assigning praise and blame. Prioritization of intent in moral judgements may depend on neural activity in the right hemisphere's temporoparietal junction, an area implicated in reasoning about mental states. To date, split-brain research has found that the right hemisphere is necessary for intent-based moral judgement. When testing the left hemisphere using linguistically based moral vignettes, split-brain patients evaluate actions based on outcomes, not intentions. Because the right hemisphere has limited language ability relative to the left, and morality paradigms to date have involved significant linguistic demands, it is currently unknown whether the right hemisphere alone generates intent-based judgements. Here we use nonlinguistic morality plays with split-brain patient J.W. to examine the moral judgements of the disconnected right hemisphere, demonstrating a clear focus on intent. This finding indicates that the right hemisphere is not only necessary but also sufficient for intent-based moral judgement, advancing research into the neural systems supporting the moral sense.

  9. Questions of Brain Hemispheric Specialization and Gender Difference in Spatial Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    This paper presents a review of selected literature relevant to a general question of hemispheric specialization (right or left brain) and questions of gender differences in spatial abilities among a group of art students. Three basic questions for discussion are proposed: (1) is there a relationship between hemispheric dominance and spatial…

  10. Measuring right-hemisphere dysfunction in children: validity of two new computer tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, H.J.W.A.; C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); H.R. van Dongen (Huug); van der Werff, P.J.J.; Brooke, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe validity of two new computer‐mediated tests for the detection of right‐cerebral hemisphere lesions in children–the Right‐hemisphere Dysfunction Test and the Visual Perception Test–was evaluated. Normative data were drawn from a group of 91 children (aged five to 14 years) and 14

  11. Mass and energy budget of the northern hemisphere. Der Massen- und Energiehaushalt der Nordhemisphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, J M

    1981-01-01

    Seasonal budgets of moist static energy, dry static energy, latent energy, and mass m are calculated for mass-equal finite elements (boxes) over the northern hemisphere. For this purpose the hemispheric atmosphere is divided into 4 meridional belts, 12 zonal sectors and 4 vertical layers, which results in 48 atmospheric columns and a total of 192 boxes.

  12. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Communication Treatments for Individuals with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…

  13. Split-brain, the right hemisphere, and art: fact and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2013-01-01

    The research studies of complete commissurotomy patients (split-brain) in Roger W. Sperry's psychobiology laboratory at Caltech, Pasadena, galvanized the scientific and intellectual world in the 1960s and 1970s. The findings had an important and enduring impact on brain research in countless areas. Interest in hemispheric specialization in particular was sparked by these studies and paved the way for countless discoveries. Right hemisphere specialization for visuospatial functions and facial processing was confirmed with these patients. The further unraveling of right-hemisphere cognition, the "mute" hemisphere, was a major goal in Sperry's laboratory, and much factual knowledge was learned that was not known previously. However, the linking of art and creativity with the right hemisphere was a nonempirically based inference made not by Sperry's lab but rather by others wishing to "assign" functional hemisphericity. The general assumption was that "art" is anchored in spatial cognition, that it is a nonverbal activity requiring imagery and thus must be controlled by the right, nonlanguage hemisphere. To this day, robust evidence that the right specializes in art expression or art perception is yet to be shown, if for no other reason than that art is not a single, unitary form of expression or cognition. The conjectured right hemisphere-art link turned into a popular story that filtered back into science, shaped future research of brain and art, and overlooked other avenues for insights. This chapter traces and explores this background. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Novel Metaphoric Relations: Application of the Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…

  15. Hemispheric specialization and creative thinking: a meta-analytic review of lateralization of creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihov, K.M.; Denzler, M.; Förster, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the

  16. Effect of Temporal Constraints on Hemispheric Asymmetries during Spatial Frequency Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, Carole; Mermillod, Martial; Chokron, Sylvie; Marendaz, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Studies on functional hemispheric asymmetries have suggested that the right vs. left hemisphere should be predominantly involved in low vs. high spatial frequency (SF) analysis, respectively. By manipulating exposure duration of filtered natural scene images, we examined whether the temporal characteristics of SF analysis (i.e., the temporal…

  17. Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

  18. [Amusia and aphasia of Bolero's creator--influence of the right hemisphere on music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Lorraine; Sikirić, Predrag; Tudor, Katarina Ivana; Cambi-Sapunar, Liana; Radonić, Vedran; Tudor, Mario; Buca, Ante; Carija, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The experience with cortical localization (BA 44, 45, 22) of language (Broca, Wernicke and others) in the left hemisphere has been repeatedly tested over the last 150 years and is now generally accepted. A single case report with autopsy findings (Leborgne, Tan tan), has enabled to localize the seat of spoken language in the left third frontal convolution. As music and language have a lot in common and even share the same hearing system, it is logical to try to localize the cognitive centers for music too. The disabling neurological disease illness of Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), a French impressionist composer, is not the right example to localize music center as that of Broca's language center, but it demonstrates the role of the right hemisphere in music production. In the last five years of his life, Ravel suffered from an unknown disease that affected the left hemisphere causing aphasia, apraxia, alexia, agraphia and amusia. It was the reason why Ravel could not compose during the last years of his life. In contrast to Ravel, Shebalin and Britten continued writing music works of their own although aphasic after having sustained two strokes to the left hemisphere. While lacking clinical cases with selective ablative brain lesions, research into the music localization can be done using modern imaging technologies such as fMRI and PET. Exercising music (professionally) develops analytical process in the left hemisphere whereas other individuals process music in their right hemisphere. There is right ear (left hemisphere) predominance in musicians and vice versa in musical amateurs. Music lateralization towards the right hemisphere is seen in women and in inattentive listeners. It can be subject to cultural influence, so the Japanese process their traditional popular music in the left hemisphere, whereas Westerners process the same music in the right hemisphere. Music and language are processed separately; they are localized in homologous regions of the opposite

  19. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  20. Advanced Query Formulation in Deductive Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Timo; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    1992-01-01

    Discusses deductive databases and database management systems (DBMS) and introduces a framework for advanced query formulation for end users. Recursive processing is described, a sample extensional database is presented, query types are explained, and criteria for advanced query formulation from the end user's viewpoint are examined. (31…