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Sample records for helvetica 18-point bold

  1. Helvetica, the Film and the Face in Context

    Winkler, Dietmar R.

    2010-01-01

    Little historic context is generally provided regarding design phenomena; ideas, names, events and relationships are disregarded in design's typical superficial coverage; it is as though design exists in a vacuum. This paper seeks to put Helvetica, the face, the font and the movie into context by exploring its relationship to Swiss Design…

  2. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    % of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  3. Beware of Boldness

    Crane, Conrad C

    2006-01-01

    ... to be?"1 Army Field Manual 7.0, Training the Force, states that the goals of operational deployments and major training opportunities are to enhance unit readiness and "produce bold, innovative leaders...

  4. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  5. In vitro studies of Rickettsia-host cell interactions: Confocal laser scanning microscopy of Rickettsia helvetica-infected eukaryotic cell lines.

    Speck, Stephanie; Kern, Tanja; Aistleitner, Karin; Dilcher, Meik; Dobler, Gerhard; Essbauer, Sandra

    2018-02-01

    Rickettsia (R.) helvetica is the most prevalent rickettsia found in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Germany. Several studies reported antibodies against R. helvetica up to 12.5% in humans investigated, however, fulminant clinical cases are rare indicating a rather low pathogenicity compared to other rickettsiae. We investigated growth characteristics of R. helvetica isolate AS819 in two different eukaryotic cell lines with focus on ultra-structural changes of host cells during infection determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Further investigations included partially sequencing of rickA, sca4 and sca2 genes, which have been reported to encode proteins involved in cell-to-cell spread and virulence in some rickettsiae. R. helvetica grew constantly but slowly in both cell lines used. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the dissemination of R. helvetica AS819 in both cell lines was rather mediated by cell break-down and bacterial release than cell-to-cell spread. The cytoskeleton of both investigated eukaryotic cell lines was not altered. R. helvetica possesses rickA, but its expression is not sufficient to promote actin-based motility as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Hypothetical Sca2 and Sca4 proteins were deduced from nucleotide gene sequences but the predicted amino acid sequences were disrupted or truncated compared to other rickettsiae most likely resulting in non-functional proteins. Taken together, these results might give a first hint to the underlying causes of the reduced virulence and pathogenicity of R. helvetica.

  6. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae DNA in Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Northeastern European Russia (Komi Republic).

    Kartashov, Mikhail Yu; Glushkova, Ludmila I; Mikryukova, Tamara P; Korabelnikov, Igor V; Egorova, Yulia I; Tupota, Natalia L; Protopopova, Elena V; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Loktev, Valery B

    2017-06-01

    The number of tick-borne infections in the northern European regions of Russia has increased considerably in the last years. In the present study, 676 unfed adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected in the Komi Republic from 2011 to 2013 to study tick-borne rickettsioses. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by PCR in 51 (7.6%) ticks. The nucleotide sequence analysis of gltA fragments (765bp) from 51 ticks indicated that 60.8% and 39.2% of the ticks were infected with Rickettsia helvetica and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. The gltA fragments showed 100% identity with those of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae previously discovered in Siberia and China, whereas R. helvetica showed 99.9% sequence identity with European isolates. The ompB had 8 nucleotide substitutions, 6 of which resulted in amino acid substitutions. In the sca9 gene, 3 nucleotide substitutions were detected, and only one resulted in amino acid substitution. The smpA, ompW, and β-lactamase genes of R. helvetica also showed a high level of sequence identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Rickettsia hoogstraalii, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia aeschlimannii in ticks from Sardinia, Italy.

    Chisu, Valentina; Leulmi, Hamza; Masala, Giovanna; Piredda, Mariano; Foxi, Cipriano; Parola, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Tick-borne diseases represent a large proportion of infectious diseases that have become a world health concern. The presence of Rickettsia spp. was evaluated by standard PCR and sequencing in 123 ticks collected from several mammals and vegetation in Sardinia, Italy. This study provides the first evidence of the presence of Rickettsia hoogstralii in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis sulcata ticks from mouflon and Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes festai ticks from hedgehog. In addition, Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia aeschlimannii were detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from foxes, swine, wild boars, and mouflon. The data presented here increase our knowledge of tick-borne diseases in Sardinia and provide a useful contribution toward understanding their epidemiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus infesting wild and domestic animals and in a botfly larva (Cephenemyia stimulator) infesting roe deer in Germany.

    Scheid, Patrick; Speck, Stephanie; Schwarzenberger, Rafael; Litzinger, Mark; Balczun, Carsten; Dobler, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a well-known vector of different human pathogens including Rickettsia helvetica. The role of wild mammals in the distribution and probable maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still to be determined. We therefore investigated various parasites from different wild mammals as well as companion animals for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 606 I. ricinus, 38 Cephenemyia stimulator (botfly larvae), one Dermacentor reticulatus, 24 Haematopinus suis (hog lice) and 30 Lipoptena cervi (deer flies) were collected from free-ranging animals during seasonal hunting, and from companion animals. Sample sites included hunting leases at three main sampling areas and five additional areas in West and Central Germany. All collected parasites were screened for Rickettsia spp. and I. ricinus were investigated for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in addition. While no TBEV was detected, the minimum infection rate (MIR) of I. ricinus with Rickettsia was 4.1% referring to all sampling sites and up to 6.9% at the main sampling site in Koblenz area. Sequencing of a fragment of the ompB gene identified R. helvetica. Approximately one third (29.5%) of the animals carried Rickettsia-positive ticks and the MIR in ticks infesting wild mammals ranged from 4.1% (roe deer) to 9.5%. These data affirm the widespread distribution of R. helvetica in Germany. One botfly larva from roe deer also harboured R. helvetica. Botfly larvae are obligate parasites of the nasal cavity, pharynx and throat of cervids and feed on cell fragments and blood. Based on this one might hypothesise that R. helvetica likely induces rickettsemia in cervids thus possibly contributing to maintenance and distribution of this rickettsia in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. "Extreme Bold" in the Faculty Ranks

    Kuusisto, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Boldness, defense, and the necessity of talking back remain as central to life with disability in one's time as in Francis Bacon's age. "Therefore all deformed persons are extreme bold," Bacon wrote, "first, as in their own defence, as being exposed to scorn, but in process of time, by a general habit." Perhaps no word carries…

  10. Methylopila helvetica sp. nov. and Methylobacterium dichloromethanicum sp. nov.--novel aerobic facultatively methylotrophic bacteria utilizing dichloromethane.

    Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Y A; Tourova, T P; Kuznetsov, B B; Leisinger, T

    2000-06-01

    Eight strains of Gram-negative, aerobic, asporogenous, neutrophilic, mesophilic, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria are taxonomically described. These icl- serine pathway methylobacteria utilize dichloromethane, methanol and methylamine as well as a variety of polycarbon compounds as the carbon and energy source. The major cellular fatty acids of the non-pigmented strains DM1, DM3, and DM5 to DM9 are C18:1, C16:0, C18:0, Ccy19:0 and that of the pink-pigmented strain DM4 is C18:1. The main quinone of all the strains is Q-10. The non-pigmented strains have similar phenotypic properties and a high level of DNA-DNA relatedness (81-98%) as determined by hybridization. All strains belong to the alpha-subgroup of the alpha-Proteobacteria. 16S rDNA sequence analysis led to the classification of these dichloromethane-utilizers in the genus Methylopila as a new species - Methylopila helvetica sp.nov. with the type strain DM9 (=VKM B-2189). The pink-pigmented strain DM4 belongs to the genus Methylobacterium but differs from the known members of this genus by some phenotypic properties, DNA-DNA relatedness (14-57%) and 16S rDNA sequence. Strain DM4 is named Methylobacterium dichloromethanicum sp. nov. (VKM B-2191 = DSMZ 6343).

  11. A NO way to BOLD?

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Ho, Yi Ching Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular coupling links neuronal activity to vasodilation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator, and in neurovascular coupling NO production from NO synthases plays an important role. However, another pathway for NO production also exists, namely the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. On this ......Neurovascular coupling links neuronal activity to vasodilation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator, and in neurovascular coupling NO production from NO synthases plays an important role. However, another pathway for NO production also exists, namely the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway...... to stimuli. A faster and smaller BOLD response, with less variation across local cortex, is consistent with an enhanced hemodynamic coupling during elevated nitrate intake. These findings suggest that dietary patterns, via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, may be a potential way to affect key properties....... On this basis, we hypothesized that dietary nitrate (NO3-) could influence the brain's hemodynamic response to neuronal stimulation. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants were given either sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or sodium chloride (NaCl) (saline placebo) in a crossover study and were shown visual...

  12. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased BOLD responses in audiovisual processing

    Wiersinga-Post, Esther; Tomaskovic, Sonja; Slabu, Lavinia; Renken, Remco; de Smit, Femke; Duifhuis, Hendrikus

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual processing was studied in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the McGurk effect. Perceptual responses and the brain activity patterns were measured as a function of audiovisual delay. In several cortical and subcortical brain areas, BOLD responses correlated negatively

  14. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

    Hall, Michael E; Jordan, Jennifer H; Juncos, Luis A; Hundley, W Gregory; Hall, John E

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR is a non-contrast imaging technique that provides functional information related to renal tissue oxygenation in various pathophysiologic conditions. Here we discuss technical considerations, clinical uses and future directions for use of BOLD MR as well as complementary MR techniques to better understand renal pathophysiology. Our intent is to summarize kidney BOLD MR applications for the clinician rather than focusing on the complex physical challenges that functional MR imaging encompasses; however, we briefly discuss some of those issues. PMID:29559807

  15. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

    Hall ME

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Hall,1,2 Jennifer H Jordan,3 Luis A Juncos,1,2 W Gregory Hundley,3 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD MR is a non-contrast imaging technique that provides functional information related to renal tissue oxygenation in various pathophysiologic conditions. Here we discuss technical considerations, clinical uses and future directions for use of BOLD MR as well as complementary MR techniques to better understand renal pathophysiology. Our intent is to summarize kidney BOLD MR applications for the clinician rather than focusing on the complex physical challenges that functional MR imaging encompasses; however, we briefly discuss some of those issues. Keywords: functional MRI, kidney, oxygenation, chronic kidney disease 

  16. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    J Taylor Webb

    Full Text Available A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group, as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  17. Early anti-correlated BOLD signal changes of physiologic origin.

    Bright, Molly G; Bianciardi, Marta; de Zwart, Jacco A; Murphy, Kevin; Duyn, Jeff H

    2014-02-15

    Negative BOLD signals that are synchronous with resting state fluctuations have been observed in large vessels in the cortical sulci and surrounding the ventricles. In this study, we investigated the origin of these negative BOLD signals by applying a Cued Deep Breathing (CDB) task to create transient hypocapnia and a resultant global fMRI signal decrease. We hypothesized that a global stimulus would amplify the effect in large vessels and that using a global negative (vasoconstrictive) stimulus would test whether these voxels exhibit either inherently negative or simply anti-correlated BOLD responses. Significantly anti-correlated, but positive, BOLD signal changes during respiratory challenges were identified in voxels primarily located near edges of brain spaces containing CSF. These positive BOLD responses occurred earlier than the negative CDB response across most of gray matter voxels. These findings confirm earlier suggestions that in some brain regions, local, fractional changes in CSF volume may overwhelm BOLD-related signal changes, leading to signal anti-correlation. We show that regions with CDB anti-correlated signals coincide with most, but not all, of the regions with negative BOLD signal changes observed during a visual and motor stimulus task. Thus, the addition of a physiological challenge to fMRI experiments can help identify which negative BOLD signals are passive physiological anti-correlations and which may have a putative neuronal origin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Differentiating BOLD and non-BOLD signals in fMRI time series using multi-echo EPI.

    Kundu, Prantik; Inati, Souheil J; Evans, Jennifer W; Luh, Wen-Ming; Bandettini, Peter A

    2012-04-15

    A central challenge in the fMRI based study of functional connectivity is distinguishing neuronally related signal fluctuations from the effects of motion, physiology, and other nuisance sources. Conventional techniques for removing nuisance effects include modeling of noise time courses based on external measurements followed by temporal filtering. These techniques have limited effectiveness. Previous studies have shown using multi-echo fMRI that neuronally related fluctuations are Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals that can be characterized in terms of changes in R(2)* and initial signal intensity (S(0)) based on the analysis of echo-time (TE) dependence. We hypothesized that if TE-dependence could be used to differentiate BOLD and non-BOLD signals, non-BOLD signal could be removed to denoise data without conventional noise modeling. To test this hypothesis, whole brain multi-echo data were acquired at 3 TEs and decomposed with Independent Components Analysis (ICA) after spatially concatenating data across space and TE. Components were analyzed for the degree to which their signal changes fit models for R(2)* and S(0) change, and summary scores were developed to characterize each component as BOLD-like or not BOLD-like. These scores clearly differentiated BOLD-like "functional network" components from non BOLD-like components related to motion, pulsatility, and other nuisance effects. Using non BOLD-like component time courses as noise regressors dramatically improved seed-based correlation mapping by reducing the effects of high and low frequency non-BOLD fluctuations. A comparison with seed-based correlation mapping using conventional noise regressors demonstrated the superiority of the proposed technique for both individual and group level seed-based connectivity analysis, especially in mapping subcortical-cortical connectivity. The differentiation of BOLD and non-BOLD components based on TE-dependence was highly robust, which allowed for the

  19. Cortical layers, rhythms and BOLD signals.

    Scheeringa, René; Fries, Pascal

    2017-11-03

    This review investigates how laminar fMRI can complement insights into brain function derived from the study of rhythmic neuronal synchronization. Neuronal synchronization in various frequency bands plays an important role in neuronal communication between brain areas, and it does so on the backbone of layer-specific interareal anatomical projections. Feedforward projections originate predominantly in supragranular cortical layers and terminate in layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed gamma-band influences. Thus, gamma-band synchronization likely subserves feedforward signaling. By contrast, anatomical feedback projections originate predominantly in infragranular layers and terminate outside layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed alpha- and/or beta-band influences. Thus, alpha-beta band synchronization likely subserves feedback signaling. Furthermore, these rhythms explain part of the BOLD signal, with independent contributions of alpha-beta and gamma. These findings suggest that laminar fMRI can provide us with a potentially useful method to test some of the predictions derived from the study of neuronal synchronization. We review central findings regarding the role of layer-specific neuronal synchronization for brain function, and regarding the link between neuronal synchronization and the BOLD signal. We discuss the role that laminar fMRI could play by comparing it to invasive and non-invasive electrophysiological recordings. Compared to direct electrophysiological recordings, this method provides a metric of neuronal activity that is slow and indirect, but that is uniquely non-invasive and layer-specific with potentially whole brain coverage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  1. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomically constrained distribution of power for each frequency band. This result was replicated on a repository dataset of 195 subjects. Next, we examined larger-scale organization by parceling the neocortex into regions approximating Brodmann Areas (BAs). This indicated that BAs of simple function/connectivity (unimodal), vs. complex properties (transmodal), are dominated by low frequency BOLD oscillations, and within the visual ventral stream we observe a graded shift of power to higher frequency bands for BAs further removed from the primary visual cortex (increased complexity), linking frequency properties of BOLD to hodology. Additionally, BOLD oscillation properties for the default mode network demonstrated that it is composed of distinct frequency dependent regions. When the same analysis was performed on a visual-motor task, frequency-dependent global and voxel-wise shifts in BOLD oscillations could be detected at brain sites mostly outside those identified with general linear modeling. Thus, analysis of BOLD oscillations in full bandwidth uncovers novel brain organizational rules, linking anatomical structures and functional networks to characteristic BOLD oscillations. The approach also identifies changes in brain intrinsic properties in relation to responses to external inputs. PMID:21613505

  2. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J.

    2010-01-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2 * -weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  3. To be so bold: boldness is repeatable and related to within individual behavioural variability in North Island robins.

    He, Ruchuan; Pagani-Núñez, Emilio; Chevallier, Clément; Barnett, Craig R A

    2017-07-01

    Behavioural research traditionally focusses on the mean responses of a group of individuals rather than variation in behaviour around the mean or among individuals. However, examining the variation in behaviour among and within individuals may also yield important insights into the evolution and maintenance of behaviour. Repeatability is the most commonly used measure of variability among individuals in behavioural research. However, there are other forms of variation within populations that have received less attention. One such measure is intraindividual variation in behaviour (IIV), which is a short-term fluctuation of within-individual behaviour. Such variation in behaviour might be important during interactions because it could decrease the ability of conspecific and heterospecific individuals to predict the behaviour of the subject, thus increasing the cost of the interaction. In this experiment, we made repeated measures of the latency of North Island robins to attack a prey in a novel situation (a form of boldness) and examined (i) repeatability of boldness (the propensity to take a risk), (ii) IIV of boldness, and (iii) whether there was a significant relationship between these two traits (a behavioural syndrome). We found that boldness was highly repeatable, that there were high levels of IIV in boldness, and that there was a negative relationship between boldness and IIV in boldness. This suggests that despite high levels of repeatability for this behaviour, there were also still significant differences in IIV among different individuals within the population. Moreover, bolder individuals had significantly less IIV in their boldness, which suggests that they were forming routines (which reduces behavioural variability) compared to shyer individuals. Our results definitively demonstrate that IIV itself varies across individuals and is linked with key behavioural traits, and we argue for the importance of future studies aimed at understanding its causes

  4. Metabolic Changes Underlying Bold Signal Variations after Administration of Zolpidem

    Rodriguez-Rojas, Rafael; Machado, Calixto; Alvarez, Lazaro; Carballo, Maylen; Perez-Nellar, Jesus; Estevez, Mario; Pavon, Nancy; Chinchilla, Mauricio

    2010-12-01

    Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine drug belonging to the imidazopiridine class, which has selectivity for stimulating the effect of gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA] and is used for the therapy of insomnia. Nonetheless, several reports have been published over recent years about a paradoxical arousing effect of Zolpidem in patients with severe brain damage. We studied a PVS case using 1 H-MRS and BOLD signal, before and after Zolpidem administration. Significantly increased BOLD signal was localized in left frontal superior cortex, bilateral cingulated areas, left thalamus and right head of the caudate nucleus. A transient activation was observed in frontal cortex, comprising portions of anterior cingulate, medial, and orbito-frontal cortices. Additionally, significant pharmacological activation in sensory-motor cortex is observed 1 hour after Zolpidem intake. Significant linear correlations of BOLD signal changes were found with primary concentrations of NAA, Glx and Lac in the right frontal cortex. We discussed that when Zolpidem attaches to the modified GABA receptors of the neurodormant cells, dormancy is switched off, inducing brain activation. This might explain the significant correlations of BOLD signal changes and 1 H-MRS metabolites in our patient. We concluded that 1 H-MRS and BOLD signal assessment might contribute to study neurovascular coupling in PVS cases after Zolpidem administration. Although this is a report of a single case, considering our results we recommend to apply this methodology in series of PVS and MCS patients. (author)

  5. Identifying and characterizing systematic temporally-lagged BOLD artifacts.

    Byrge, Lisa; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2018-05-01

    Residual noise in the BOLD signal remains problematic for fMRI - particularly for techniques such as functional connectivity, where findings can be spuriously influenced by noise sources that can covary with individual differences. Many such potential noise sources - for instance, motion and respiration - can have a temporally lagged effect on the BOLD signal. Thus, here we present a tool for assessing residual lagged structure in the BOLD signal that is associated with nuisance signals, using a construction similar to a peri-event time histogram. Using this method, we find that framewise displacements - both large and very small - were followed by structured, prolonged, and global changes in the BOLD signal that depend on the magnitude of the preceding displacement and extend for tens of seconds. This residual lagged BOLD structure was consistent across datasets, and independently predicted considerable variance in the global cortical signal (as much as 30-40% in some subjects). Mean functional connectivity estimates varied similarly as a function of displacements occurring many seconds in the past, even after strict censoring. Similar patterns of residual lagged BOLD structure were apparent following respiratory fluctuations (which covaried with framewise displacements), implicating respiration as one likely mechanism underlying the displacement-linked structure observed. Global signal regression largely attenuates this artifactual structure. These findings suggest the need for caution in interpreting results of individual difference studies where noise sources might covary with the individual differences of interest, and highlight the need for further development of preprocessing techniques for mitigating such structure in a more nuanced and targeted manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Placental baseline conditions modulate the hyperoxic BOLD-MRI response.

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Poulsen, Sofie S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Christiansen, Ole B; Petersen, Astrid; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Human pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction may be characterized by a high hyperoxic Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI response. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it is associated with altered placental baseline conditions, including a lower oxygenation and altered tissue morphology, as estimated by the placental transverse relaxation time (T2*). We included 49 normal pregnancies (controls) and 13 pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction (cases), defined by a birth weight baseline BOLD)/baseline BOLD) from a dynamic single-echo gradient-recalled echo (GRE) MRI sequence and the absolute ΔT2* (hyperoxic T2*- baseline T2*) from breath-hold multi-echo GRE sequences. In the control group, the relative ΔBOLD response increased during gestation from 5% in gestational week 20 to 20% in week 40. In the case group, the relative ΔBOLD response was significantly higher (mean Z-score 4.94; 95% CI 2.41, 7.47). The absolute ΔT2*, however, did not differ between controls and cases (p = 0.37), whereas the baseline T2* was lower among cases (mean Z-score -3.13; 95% CI -3.94, -2.32). Furthermore, we demonstrated a strong negative linear correlation between the Log 10 ΔBOLD response and the baseline T2* (r = -0.88, p baseline conditions, as the absolute increase in placental oxygenation (ΔT2*) does not differ between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Generate the scale-free brain music from BOLD signals.

    Lu, Jing; Guo, Sijia; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Weixia; Yang, Hua; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    Many methods have been developed to translate a human electroencephalogram (EEG) into music. In addition to EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another method used to study the brain and can reflect physiological processes. In 2012, we established a method to use simultaneously recorded fMRI and EEG signals to produce EEG-fMRI music, which represents a step toward scale-free brain music. In this study, we used a neural mass model, the Jansen-Rit model, to simulate activity in several cortical brain regions. The interactions between different brain regions were represented by the average normalized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) structural connectivity with a coupling coefficient that modulated the coupling strength. Seventy-eight brain regions were adopted from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) template. Furthermore, we used the Balloon-Windkessel hemodynamic model to transform neural activity into a blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal. Because the fMRI BOLD signal changes slowly, we used a sampling rate of 250 Hz to produce the temporal series for music generation. Then, the BOLD music was generated for each region using these simulated BOLD signals. Because the BOLD signal is scale free, these music pieces were also scale free, which is similar to classic music. Here, to simulate the case of an epileptic patient, we changed the parameter that determined the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the neural mass model. Finally, we obtained BOLD music for healthy and epileptic patients. The differences in levels of arousal between the 2 pieces of music may provide a potential tool for discriminating the different populations if the differences can be confirmed by more real data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Task effects on BOLD signal correlates of implicit syntactic processing

    Caplan, David

    2010-01-01

    BOLD signal was measured in sixteen participants who made timed font change detection judgments in visually presented sentences that varied in syntactic structure and the order of animate and inanimate nouns. Behavioral data indicated that sentences were processed to the level of syntactic structure. BOLD signal increased in visual association areas bilaterally and left supramarginal gyrus in the contrast of sentences with object- and subject-extracted relative clauses without font changes in which the animacy order of the nouns biased against the syntactically determined meaning of the sentence. This result differs from the findings in a non-word detection task (Caplan et al, 2008a), in which the same contrast led to increased BOLD signal in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The difference in areas of activation indicates that the sentences were processed differently in the two tasks. These differences were further explored in an eye tracking study using the materials in the two tasks. Issues pertaining to how parsing and interpretive operations are affected by a task that is being performed, and how this might affect BOLD signal correlates of syntactic contrasts, are discussed. PMID:20671983

  9. Boldness and intermittent locomotion in the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus

    Alexander D.M. Wilson; Jean-Guy J. Godin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent locomotion, characterized by moves interspersed with pauses, is a common pattern of locomotion in animals, but its ecological and evolutionary significance relative to continuous locomotion remains poorly understood. Although many studies have examined individual differences in both intermittent locomotion and boldness separately, to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated the relationship between these 2 traits. Characterizing and understanding this relationship is impo...

  10. Calibrating the BOLD signal during a motor task using an extended fusion model incorporating DOT, BOLD and ASL data

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Huppert, Theodore J.; Boas, David A.; Gagnon, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal imaging improves the accuracy of the localization and the quantification of brain activation when measuring different manifestations of the hemodynamic response associated with cerebral activity. In this study, we incorporated cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL), Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) recordings to reconstruct changes in oxy- (ΔHbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (ΔHbR). Using the Grubb relation between relative changes in CBF and cerebral blood volume (CBV), we incorporated the ASL measurement as a prior to the total hemoglobin concentration change (ΔHbT). We applied this ASL fusion model to both synthetic data and experimental multimodal recordings during a 2-sec finger-tapping task. Our results show that the new approach is very powerful in estimating ΔHbO2 and ΔHbR with high spatial and quantitative accuracy. Moreover, our approach allows the computation of baseline total hemoglobin concentration (HbT0) as well as of the BOLD calibration factor M on a single subject basis. We obtained an average HbT0 of 71 μM, an average M value of 0.18 and an average increase of 13 % in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), all of which are in agreement with values previously reported in the literature. Our method yields an independent measurement of M, which provides an alternative measurement to validate the hypercapnic calibration of the BOLD signal. PMID:22546318

  11. The BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity response to progressive hypercapnia in young and elderly

    Bhogal, Alex A.; De Vis, Jill B.; Siero, Jeroen C.W.

    2016-01-01

    to broaden our interpretation of the BOLD-CVR response. Significant age-related differences were observed. Grey matter CVR at 7 mm Hg above resting PetCO2 was lower amongst elderly (0.19 ± 0.06%ΔBOLD/mm Hg) as compared to young subjects (0.26 ± 0.07%ΔBOLD/mm Hg). White matter CVR at 7 mm Hg above baseline...

  12. Gamma rays induced bold seeded high yielding mutant in chickpea

    Wani, A.A.; Anis, M.

    2001-01-01

    In pulses especially in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), genetic variability has been exhausted due to natural selection and hence conventional breeding methods are not very fruitful. Mutation techniques are the best methods to enlarge the genetically conditioned variability of a species within a short time and have played a significant role in the development of many crop varieties. Investigations on the effects of ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens in induction of macro-mutations have received much attention owing to their utmost importance in plant breeding. The present study reports a bold seeded mutant in chickpea, the most dominating pulse crop on the Indian subcontinent. Fresh seeds of chickpea variety 'Pusa-212' were procured from IARI, New Delhi and treated with different doses/concentrations of gamma rays ( 60 Co source at NBRI, Lucknow) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), individually as well as in combination, to raise the M1 generation. Seeds of M 1 plants were sown to raise M2 plant progenies. A bold seeded mutant was isolated from 400 Gy gamma ray treatments. The mutant was confirmed as true bred, all the mutant seeds gave rise to morphologically similar plants in M 3 , which were quite distinct from the control. The bold seeded mutant showed 'gigas' characteristics and vigorous growth. The plant remained initially straight but later on attained a trailing habit due to heavy secondary branching. The leaves, petioles, flowers, pods and seeds were almost double that of the parent variety, in size. The flowering occurred 10 days later than the parent and maturity was also delayed accordingly. Observations were recorded on various quantitative traits. Plant height and number of primary branches showed a significant improvement over the parent. It is interesting to note that the number of pods and number of seeds per pod significantly decreased. However, the hundred seed weight (31.73±0.59g) in the mutant plants was more than double in the parent

  13. Transfer function between EEG and BOLD signals of epileptic activity

    Marco eLeite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have seen growing application in the evaluation of epilepsy, namely in the characterization of brain networks related to epileptic activity. In EEG-correlated fMRI studies, epileptic events are usually described as boxcar signals based on the timing information retrieved from the EEG, and subsequently convolved with a heamodynamic response function to model the associated BOLD changes. Although more flexible approaches may allow a higher degree of complexity for the haemodynamics, the issue of how to model these dynamics based on the EEG remains an open question. In this work, a new methodology for the integration of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in epilepsy is proposed, which incorporates a transfer function from the EEG to the BOLD signal. Independent component analysis (ICA of the EEG is performed, and a number of metrics expressing different models of the EEG-BOLD transfer function are extracted from the resulting time courses. These metrics are then used to predict the fMRI data and to identify brain areas associated with the EEG epileptic activity. The methodology was tested on both ictal and interictal EEG-fMRI recordings from one patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma. When compared to the conventional analysis approach, plausible, consistent and more significant activations were obtained. Importantly, frequency-weighted EEG metrics yielded superior results than those weighted solely on the EEG power, which comes in agreement with previous literature. Reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity should be addressed in an extended group of patients in order to further validate the proposed methodology and generalize the presented proof of concept.

  14. Crossing the implementation chasm: a proposal for bold action.

    Lorenzi, Nancy M; Novak, Laurie L; Weiss, Jacob B; Gadd, Cynthia S; Unertl, Kim M

    2008-01-01

    As health care organizations dramatically increase investment in information technology (IT) and the scope of their IT projects, implementation failures become critical events. Implementation failures cause stress on clinical units, increase risk to patients, and result in massive costs that are often not recoverable. At an estimated 28% success rate, the current level of investment defies management logic. This paper asserts that there are "chasms" in IT implementations that represent risky stages in the process. Contributors to the chasms are classified into four categories: design, management, organization, and assessment. The American College of Medical Informatics symposium participants recommend bold action to better understand problems and challenges in implementation and to improve the ability of organizations to bridge these implementation chasms. The bold action includes the creation of a Team Science for Implementation strategy that allows for participation from multiple institutions to address the long standing and costly implementation issues. The outcomes of this endeavor will include a new focus on interdisciplinary research and an inter-organizational knowledge base of strategies and methods to optimize implementations and subsequent achievement of organizational objectives.

  15. Spatiotemporal alignment of in utero BOLD-MRI series.

    Turk, Esra Abaci; Luo, Jie; Gagoski, Borjan; Pascau, Javier; Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N; Grant, P Ellen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Golland, Polina; Malpica, Norberto

    2017-08-01

    To present a method for spatiotemporal alignment of in-utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) time series acquired during maternal hyperoxia for enabling improved quantitative tracking of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes that characterize oxygen transport through the placenta to fetal organs. The proposed pipeline for spatiotemporal alignment of images acquired with a single-shot gradient echo echo-planar imaging includes 1) signal nonuniformity correction, 2) intravolume motion correction based on nonrigid registration, 3) correction of motion and nonrigid deformations across volumes, and 4) detection of the outlier volumes to be discarded from subsequent analysis. BOLD MRI time series collected from 10 pregnant women during 3T scans were analyzed using this pipeline. To assess pipeline performance, signal fluctuations between consecutive timepoints were examined. In addition, volume overlap and distance between manual region of interest (ROI) delineations in a subset of frames and the delineations obtained through propagation of the ROIs from the reference frame were used to quantify alignment accuracy. A previously demonstrated rigid registration approach was used for comparison. The proposed pipeline improved anatomical alignment of placenta and fetal organs over the state-of-the-art rigid motion correction methods. In particular, unexpected temporal signal fluctuations during the first normoxia period were significantly decreased (P quantitative studies of placental function by improving spatiotemporal alignment across placenta and fetal organs. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:403-412. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Pharmacological modulation of the BOLD response: a study of acetazolamide and glyceryl trinitrate in humans

    Asghar, Mohammed Sohail; Hansen, Adam E; Pedersen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of acetazolamide, known to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), known to increase cerebral blood volume (CBV) on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in humans using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate how...... pharmacological agents may modulate cerebral hemodynamic and thereby possibly the BOLD signal....

  17. Analysis of Time and Space Invariance of BOLD Responses in the Rat Visual System

    Bailey, Christopher; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiology provide the linkage between neural activity and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. Here, BOLD responses to light flashes were imaged at 11.7T and compared with neural recordings from...... for general linear modeling (GLM) of BOLD responses. Light flashes induced high magnitude neural/BOLD responses reproducibly from both regions. However, neural/BOLD responses from SC and V1 were markedly different. SC signals followed the boxcar shape of the stimulation paradigm at all flash rates, whereas V1...... signals were characterized by onset/offset transients that exhibited different flash rate dependencies. We find that IRF(SC) is generally time-invariant across wider flash rate range compared with IRF(V1), whereas IRF(SC) and IRF(V1) are both space invariant. These results illustrate the importance...

  18. Brain functional BOLD perturbation modelling for forward fMRI and inverse mapping

    Robinson, Jennifer; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To computationally separate dynamic brain functional BOLD responses from static background in a brain functional activity for forward fMRI signal analysis and inverse mapping. Methods A brain functional activity is represented in terms of magnetic source by a perturbation model: χ = χ0 +δχ, with δχ for BOLD magnetic perturbations and χ0 for background. A brain fMRI experiment produces a timeseries of complex-valued images (T2* images), whereby we extract the BOLD phase signals (denoted by δP) by a complex division. By solving an inverse problem, we reconstruct the BOLD δχ dataset from the δP dataset, and the brain χ distribution from a (unwrapped) T2* phase image. Given a 4D dataset of task BOLD fMRI, we implement brain functional mapping by temporal correlation analysis. Results Through a high-field (7T) and high-resolution (0.5mm in plane) task fMRI experiment, we demonstrated in detail the BOLD perturbation model for fMRI phase signal separation (P + δP) and reconstructing intrinsic brain magnetic source (χ and δχ). We also provided to a low-field (3T) and low-resolution (2mm) task fMRI experiment in support of single-subject fMRI study. Our experiments show that the δχ-depicted functional map reveals bidirectional BOLD χ perturbations during the task performance. Conclusions The BOLD perturbation model allows us to separate fMRI phase signal (by complex division) and to perform inverse mapping for pure BOLD δχ reconstruction for intrinsic functional χ mapping. The full brain χ reconstruction (from unwrapped fMRI phase) provides a new brain tissue image that allows to scrutinize the brain tissue idiosyncrasy for the pure BOLD δχ response through an automatic function/structure co-localization. PMID:29351339

  19. Brain functional BOLD perturbation modelling for forward fMRI and inverse mapping.

    Chen, Zikuan; Robinson, Jennifer; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    To computationally separate dynamic brain functional BOLD responses from static background in a brain functional activity for forward fMRI signal analysis and inverse mapping. A brain functional activity is represented in terms of magnetic source by a perturbation model: χ = χ0 +δχ, with δχ for BOLD magnetic perturbations and χ0 for background. A brain fMRI experiment produces a timeseries of complex-valued images (T2* images), whereby we extract the BOLD phase signals (denoted by δP) by a complex division. By solving an inverse problem, we reconstruct the BOLD δχ dataset from the δP dataset, and the brain χ distribution from a (unwrapped) T2* phase image. Given a 4D dataset of task BOLD fMRI, we implement brain functional mapping by temporal correlation analysis. Through a high-field (7T) and high-resolution (0.5mm in plane) task fMRI experiment, we demonstrated in detail the BOLD perturbation model for fMRI phase signal separation (P + δP) and reconstructing intrinsic brain magnetic source (χ and δχ). We also provided to a low-field (3T) and low-resolution (2mm) task fMRI experiment in support of single-subject fMRI study. Our experiments show that the δχ-depicted functional map reveals bidirectional BOLD χ perturbations during the task performance. The BOLD perturbation model allows us to separate fMRI phase signal (by complex division) and to perform inverse mapping for pure BOLD δχ reconstruction for intrinsic functional χ mapping. The full brain χ reconstruction (from unwrapped fMRI phase) provides a new brain tissue image that allows to scrutinize the brain tissue idiosyncrasy for the pure BOLD δχ response through an automatic function/structure co-localization.

  20. Acetazolamide-augmented dynamic BOLD (aczBOLD imaging for assessing cerebrovascular reactivity in chronic steno-occlusive disease of the anterior circulation: An initial experience

    Junjie Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR in chronic steno-occlusive disease using a novel approach that couples BOLD imaging with acetazolamide (ACZ vasoreactivity (aczBOLD, to evaluate dynamic effects of ACZ on BOLD and to establish the relationship between aczBOLD and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC perfusion MRI. Eighteen patients with unilateral chronic steno-occlusive disease of the anterior circulation underwent a 20-min aczBOLD imaging protocol, with ACZ infusion starting at 5 min of scan initiation. AczBOLD reactivity was calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis to generate CVR maps for subsequent quantitative analyses. Reduced CVR was observed in the diseased vs. the normal hemisphere both by qualitative and quantitative assessment (gray matter (GM: 4.13% ± 1.16% vs. 4.90% ± 0.98%, P = 0.002; white matter (WM: 2.83% ± 1.23% vs. 3.50% ± 0.94%, P = 0.005. In all cases BOLD signal began increasing immediately following ACZ infusion, approaching a plateau at ~8.5 min after infusion, with the tissue volume of reduced augmentation increasing progressively with time, peaking at 2.60 min (time range above 95% of the maximum value: 0–4.43 min for the GM and 1.80 min (time range above 95% of the maximum value: 1.40–3.53 min for the WM. In the diseased hemisphere, aczBOLD CVR significantly correlated with baseline DSC time-to-maximum of the residue function (Tmax (P = 0.008 for the WM and normalized cerebral blood flow (P = 0.003 for the GM, and P = 0.001 for the WM. AczBOLD provides a novel, safe, easily implementable approach to CVR measurement in the routine clinical environments. Further studies can establish quantitative thresholds from aczBOLD towards identification of patients at heightened risk of recurrent ischemia and cognitive decline.

  1. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-01-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as “may all beings be happy,” to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  2. Prospective MR image alignment between breath-holds: Application to renal BOLD MRI.

    Kalis, Inge M; Pilutti, David; Krafft, Axel J; Hennig, Jürgen; Bock, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To present an image registration method for renal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measurements that enables semiautomatic assessment of parenchymal and medullary R2* changes under a functional challenge. In a series of breath-hold acquisitions, three-dimensional data were acquired initially for prospective image registration of subsequent BOLD measurements. An algorithm for kidney alignment for BOLD renal imaging (KALIBRI) was implemented to detect the positions of the left and right kidney so that the kidneys were acquired in the subsequent BOLD measurement at consistent anatomical locations. Residual in-plane distortions were corrected retrospectively so that semiautomatic dynamic R2* measurements of the renal cortex and medulla become feasible. KALIBRI was tested in six healthy volunteers during a series of BOLD experiments, which included a 600- to 1000-mL water challenge. Prospective image registration and BOLD imaging of each kidney was achieved within a total measurement time of about 17 s, enabling its execution within a single breath-hold. KALIBRI improved the registration by up to 35% as found with mutual information measures. In four volunteers, a medullary R2* decrease of up to 40% was observed after water ingestion. KALIBRI improves the quality of two-dimensional time-resolved renal BOLD MRI by aligning local renal anatomy, which allows for consistent R2* measurements over many breath-holds. Magn Reson Med 77:1573-1582, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications; Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD). Bildgebung der Nieren. Konzepte und Anwendungen

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (DE). Inst. fuer Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin (CKM)

    2010-07-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2{sup *}-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  4. Hemodynamic modelling of BOLD fMRI - A machine learning approach

    Jacobsen, Danjal Jakup

    2007-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis concerns the application of machine learning methods to hemodynamic models for BOLD fMRI data. Several such models have been proposed by different researchers, and they have in common a basis in physiological knowledge of the hemodynamic processes involved in the generation...... of the BOLD signal. The BOLD signal is modelled as a non-linear function of underlying, hidden (non-measurable) hemodynamic state variables. The focus of this thesis work has been to develop methods for learning the parameters of such models, both in their traditional formulation, and in a state space...... formulation. In the latter, noise enters at the level of the hidden states, as well as in the BOLD measurements themselves. A framework has been developed to allow approximate posterior distributions of model parameters to be learned from real fMRI data. This is accomplished with Markov chain Monte Carlo...

  5. Correlation between MEG and BOLD fMRI signals induced by visual flicker stimuli

    Chu Renxin; Holroyd Tom; Duyn Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate how the MEG signal amplitude correlates with that of BOLD fMRI.To investigate the correlation between fMRI and macroscopic electrical activity, BOLD fMRI and MEG was performed on the same subjects (n =5). A visual flicker stimulus of varying temporal frequency was used to elicit neural responses in early visual areas. A strong similarity was observed in frequency tuning curves between both modalities.Although, averaged over subjects, the BOLD tuning curve was somewhat broader than MEG, both BOLD and MEG had maxima at a flicker frequency of 10 Hz. Also, we measured the first and second harmonic components as the stimuli frequency by MEG. In the low stimuli frequency (less than 6 Hz), the second harmonic has comparable amplitude with the first harmonic, which implies that neural frequency response is nonlinear and has more nonlinear components in low frequency than in high frequency.

  6. Analysis of Neural-BOLD Coupling through Four Models of the Neural Metabolic Demand

    Christopher W Tyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of the neuronal energetics to the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD response is still incompletely understood. To address this issue, we compared the fits of four plausible models of neurometabolic coupling dynamics to available data for simultaneous recordings of the local field potential (LFP and the local BOLD response recorded from monkey primary visual cortex over a wide range of stimulus durations. The four models of the metabolic demand driving the BOLD response were: direct coupling with the overall LFP; rectified coupling to the LFP; coupling with a slow adaptive component of the implied neural population response; and coupling with the non-adaptive intracellular input signal defined by the stimulus time course. Taking all stimulus durations into account, the results imply that the BOLD response is most closely coupled with metabolic demand derived from the intracellular input waveform, without significant influence from the adaptive transients and nonlinearities exhibited by the LFP waveform.

  7. Non-invasive multiparametric qBOLD approach for robust mapping of the oxygen extraction fraction.

    Domsch, Sebastian; Mie, Moritz B; Wenz, Frederik; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) method has not become clinically established yet because long acquisition times are necessary to achieve an acceptable certainty of the parameter estimates. In this work, a non-invasive multiparametric (nimp) qBOLD approach based on a simple analytical model is proposed to facilitate robust oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times by using separate measurements. The protocol consisted of a gradient-echo sampled spin-echo sequence (GESSE), a T2-weighted Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, and a T2(*)-weighted multi-slice multi-echo gradient echo (MMGE) sequence. The GESSE acquisition time was less than 5 minutes and the extra measurement time for CPMG/MMGE was below 2 minutes each. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach was validated in healthy subjects (N = 5) and one patient. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach facilitated more robust OEF mapping with significantly reduced inter- and intra-subject variability compared to the standard qBOLD method. Thereby, an average OEF in all subjects of 27±2% in white matter (WM) and 29±2% in gray matter (GM) using the nimp-qBOLD method was more stable compared to 41±10% (WM) and 46±10% (GM) with standard qBOLD. Moreover, the spatial variance in the image slice (i.e. standard deviation divided by mean) was on average reduced from 35% to 25%. In addition, the preliminary results of the patient are encouraging. The proposed nimp-qBOLD technique provides a promising tool for robust OEF mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times and could therefore provide an important contribution for analyzing tumors or monitoring the success of radio and chemo therapies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Non-invasive multiparametric qBOLD approach for robust mapping of the oxygen extraction fraction

    Domsch, Sebastian; Mie, Moritz B.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wenz, Frederik [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: The quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) method has not become clinically established yet because long acquisition times are necessary to achieve an acceptable certainty of the parameter estimates. In this work, a non-invasive multiparametric (nimp) qBOLD approach based on a simple analytical model is proposed to facilitate robust oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times by using separate measurements. Methods: The protocol consisted of a gradient-echo sampled spin-echo sequence (GESSE), a T{sub 2}-weighted Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, and a T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted multi-slice multi-echo gradient echo (MMGE) sequence. The GESSE acquisition time was less than 5 minutes and the extra measurement time for CPMG / MMGE was below 2 minutes each. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach was validated in healthy subjects (N = 5) and one patient. Results: The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach facilitated more robust OEF mapping with significantly reduced inter- and intra-subject variability compared to the standard qBOLD method. Thereby, an average OEF in all subjects of 27 ± 2 % in white matter (WM) and 29 ± 2 % in gray matter (GM) using the nimp-qBOLD method was more stable compared to 41 ± 10 % (WM) and 46 ± 10 % (GM) with standard qBOLD. Moreover, the spatial variance in the image slice (i.e. standard deviation divided by mean) was on average reduced from 35 % to 25 %. In addition, the preliminary results of the patient are encouraging. Conclusion: The proposed nimp-qBOLD technique provides a promising tool for robust OEF mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times and could therefore provide an important contribution for analyzing tumors or monitoring the success of radio and chemo therapies. (orig.)

  9. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia.

    Manka, R; Paetsch, I; Schnackenburg, B; Gebker, R; Fleck, E; Jahnke, C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years,) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was perfor...

  10. To Boldly Go: Practical Career Advice for Young Scientists

    Fiske, P.

    1998-05-01

    Young scientists in nearly every field are finding the job market of the 1990's a confusing and frustrating place. Ph.D. supply is far larger than that needed to fill entry-level positions in "traditional" research careers. More new Ph.D. and Master's degree holders are considering a wider range of careers in and out of science, but feel ill-prepared and uninformed about their options. Some feel their Ph.D. training has led them to a dead-end. I present a thorough and practical overview to the process of career planning and job hunting in the 1990's, from the perspective of a young scientist. I cover specific steps that young scientists can take to broaden their horizons, strengthen their skills, and present their best face to potential employers. An important part of this is the realization that most young scientists possess a range of valuable "transferable skills" that are highly sought after by employers in and out of science. I will summarize the specifics of job hunting in the 90's, including informational interviewing, building your network, developing a compelling CV and resume, cover letters, interviewing, based on my book "To Boldly Go: A Practical Career Guide for Scientists". I will also identify other resources available for young scientists. Finally, I will highlight individual stories of Ph.D.-trained scientists who have found exciting and fulfilling careers outside the "traditional" world of academia.

  11. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    Manoharan, V; Thangavelu, S [Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M{sub 1} generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M{sub 2} generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M{sub 2} plants being 1,730. All the M{sub 2} plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  12. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    Manoharan, V.; Thangavelu, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M 1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M 2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M 2 plants being 1,730. All the M 2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  13. Caffeine reduces resting-state BOLD functional connectivity in the motor cortex.

    Rack-Gomer, Anna Leigh; Liau, Joy; Liu, Thomas T

    2009-05-15

    In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), correlations between spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal are used to assess functional connectivity between different brain regions. Changes in resting-state BOLD connectivity measures are typically interpreted as changes in coherent neural activity across spatially distinct brain regions. However, this interpretation can be complicated by the complex dependence of the BOLD signal on both neural and vascular factors. For example, prior studies have shown that vasoactive agents that alter baseline cerebral blood flow, such as caffeine and carbon dioxide, can significantly alter the amplitude and dynamics of the task-related BOLD response. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine (200 mg dose) on resting-state BOLD connectivity in the motor cortex across a sample of healthy young subjects (N=9). We found that caffeine significantly (pcaffeine. These results suggest that caffeine usage should be carefully considered in the design and interpretation of resting-state BOLD fMRI studies.

  14. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, ppurpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pdogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional BOLD MRI: comparison of different field strengths in a motor task

    Meindl, T.; Born, C.; Britsch, S.; Reiser, M.; Schoenberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the benefit of an increased field strength for functional magnetic resonance imaging in a motor task. Six right-handed volunteers were scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using a motor task. Each experiment consisted of two runs with four activation blocks, each with right- and left-hand tapping. Analysis was done using BrainVoyagerQX registered . Differences between both field strengths concerning signal to noise (SNR), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD contrast to noise (CNR) were tested using a paired t test. Delineation of activations and artifacts were graded by two independent readers. Results were further validated by means of a phantom study. The sensorimotor and premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, subcortical and cerebellar structures were activated at each field strength. Additional activations of the right premotor cortex and right superior temporal gyrus were found at 3.0 T. Signal-to-noise, percentage of BOLD signal change, BOLD CNR and functional sensitivity improved at 3.0 T by a factor of up to 2.4. Functional imaging at 3.0 T results in detection of additional activated areas, increased SNR, BOLD signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD CNR. (orig.)

  16. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish

    Pintor, L.M.; Sih, A.; Bauer, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/ boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  17. Volumetric BOLD fMRI simulation: from neurovascular coupling to multivoxel imaging

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2012-01-01

    The blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) modality has been numerically simulated by calculating single voxel signals. However, the observation on single voxel signals cannot provide information regarding the spatial distribution of the signals. Specifically, a single BOLD voxel signal simulation cannot answer the fundamental question: is the magnetic resonance (MR) image a replica of its underling magnetic susceptibility source? In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a multivoxel volumetric BOLD fMRI simulation model and a susceptibility expression formula for linear neurovascular coupling process, that allow us to examine the BOLD fMRI procedure from neurovascular coupling to MR image formation. Since MRI technology only senses the magnetism property, we represent a linear neurovascular-coupled BOLD state by a magnetic susceptibility expression formula, which accounts for the parameters of cortical vasculature, intravascular blood oxygenation level, and local neuroactivity. Upon the susceptibility expression of a BOLD state, we carry out volumetric BOLD fMRI simulation by calculating the fieldmap (established by susceptibility magnetization) and the complex multivoxel MR image (by intravoxel dephasing). Given the predefined susceptibility source and the calculated complex MR image, we compare the MR magnitude (phase, respectively) image with the predefined susceptibility source (the calculated fieldmap) by spatial correlation. The spatial correlation between the MR magnitude image and the magnetic susceptibility source is about 0.90 for the settings of T E = 30 ms, B 0 = 3 T, voxel size = 100 micron, vessel radius = 3 micron, and blood volume fraction = 2%. Using these parameters value, the spatial correlation between the MR phase image and the susceptibility-induced fieldmap is close to 1.00. Our simulation results show that the MR magnitude image is not an exact replica of the magnetic susceptibility

  18. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia.

    Manka, Robert; Paetsch, Ingo; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Jahnke, Cosima

    2010-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years,) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was performed in 3 short axis slices of the heart at rest and during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg/min) followed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. In all 16 standard myocardial segments, T2* values were derived at rest and under adenosine stress. Quantitative coronary angiography served as the standard of reference and defined normal myocardial segments (i.e. all 16 segments in patients without any CAD), ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a coronary artery with ≥50% luminal narrowing) and non-ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a non-significantly stenosed coronary artery in patients with significant CAD). Coronary angiography demonstrated significant CAD in 23 patients. BOLD CMR at rest revealed significantly lower T2* values for ischemic segments (26.7 ± 11.6 ms) compared to normal (31.9 ± 11.9 ms; p BOLD CMR at 3Tesla proved feasible and differentiated between ischemic, non-ischemic, and normal myocardial segments in a clinical patient population. BOLD CMR during vasodilator stress identified patients with significant CAD.

  19. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  20. BOLD repetition decreases in object-responsive ventral visual areas depend on spatial attention.

    Eger, E; Henson, R N A; Driver, J; Dolan, R J

    2004-08-01

    Functional imaging studies of priming-related repetition phenomena have become widely used to study neural object representation. Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) repetition decreases can sometimes be observed without awareness of repetition, any role for spatial attention in BOLD repetition effects remains largely unknown. We used fMRI in 13 healthy subjects to test whether BOLD repetition decreases for repeated objects in ventral visual cortices depend on allocation of spatial attention to the prime. Subjects performed a size-judgment task on a probe object that had been attended or ignored in a preceding prime display of 2 lateralized objects. Reaction times showed faster responses when the probe was the same object as the attended prime, independent of the view tested (identical vs. mirror image). No behavioral effect was evident from unattended primes. BOLD repetition decreases for attended primes were found in lateral occipital and fusiform regions bilaterally, which generalized across identical and mirror-image repeats. No repetition decreases were observed for ignored primes. Our results suggest a critical role for attention in achieving visual representations of objects that lead to both BOLD signal decreases and behavioral priming on repeated presentation.

  1. Re-examine tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses of BOLD fMRI. Implications in presurgical brain mapping

    Wang, Liya; Ali, Shazia; Fa, Tianning; Mao, Hui; Dandan, Chen; Olson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI is used for presurgical functional mapping of brain tumor patients. Abnormal tumor blood supply may affect hemodynamic responses and BOLD fMRI signals. Purpose: To perform a multivariate and quantitative investigation of the effect of brain tumors on the hemodynamic responses and its impact on BOLD MRI signal time course, data analysis in order to better understand tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses, and accurately mapping cortical regions in brain tumor patients. Material and Methods: BOLD fMRI data from 42 glioma patients who underwent presurgical mapping of the primary motor cortex (PMC) with a block designed finger tapping paradigm were analyzed, retrospectively. Cases were divided into high grade (n = 24) and low grade (n = 18) groups based on pathology. The tumor volume and distance to the activated PMCs were measured. BOLD signal time courses from selected regions of interest (ROIs) in the PMCs of tumor affected and contralateral unaffected hemispheres were obtained from each patient. Tumor-induced changes of BOLD signal intensity and time to peak (TTP) of BOLD signal time courses were analyzed statistically. Results: The BOLD signal intensity and TTP in the tumor-affected PMCs are altered when compared to that of the unaffected hemisphere. The average BOLD signal level is statistically significant lower in the affected PMCs. The average TTP in the affected PMCs is shorter in the high grade group, but longer in the low grade tumor group compared to the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Degrees of alterations in BOLD signal time courses are related to both the distance to activated foci and tumor volume with the stronger effect in tumor distance to activated PMC. Conclusion: Alterations in BOLD signal time courses are strongly related to the tumor grade, the tumor volume, and the distance to the activated foci. Such alterations may impair accurate mapping of tumor-affected functional

  2. Evolution of boldness and life-history in response to selective harvesting

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Marty, Lise; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Whether intensive harvesting alters the behavioral repertoire of exploited fishes is currently unknown, but plausible. We extend a fish life-history model to account for boldness as a personality trait that affects foraging intensity, which affects energy intake and risk from predation and fishing...... gear. We systematically investigate life-history and behavioral trait evolution along the boldness–timidity axis in response to the full range of common selectivity and exploitation patterns in fisheries. In agreement with previous studies, we find that any type of harvesting selects for fast life...... histories and that merely elevated, yet unselective, fishing mortality favors boldness. We also find that timid-selective fishing (which can be expected in species targeted by active gear types) selects for increased boldness. By contrast, increased timidity is predicted when fishing targets bolder...

  3. PARTICLE FILTERING WITH SEQUENTIAL PARAMETER LEARNING FOR NONLINEAR BOLD fMRI SIGNALS.

    Xia, Jing; Wang, Michelle Yongmei

    Analyzing the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is typically based on recent ground-breaking time series analysis techniques. This work represents a significant improvement over existing approaches to system identification using nonlinear hemodynamic models. It is important for three reasons. First, instead of using linearized approximations of the dynamics, we present a nonlinear filtering based on the sequential Monte Carlo method to capture the inherent nonlinearities in the physiological system. Second, we simultaneously estimate the hidden physiological states and the system parameters through particle filtering with sequential parameter learning to fully take advantage of the dynamic information of the BOLD signals. Third, during the unknown static parameter learning, we employ the low-dimensional sufficient statistics for efficiency and avoiding potential degeneration of the parameters. The performance of the proposed method is validated using both the simulated data and real BOLD fMRI data.

  4. Time courses of MRI BOLD signals in prolonged visual stimulation. Comparison between colors and orders

    Kashikura, Kenichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Kershaw, J.B.; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Seki, Chie; Kashikura, Akemi; Ardekani, B.A.; Kanno, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    We investigated: the BOLD signal response during 270 second photic stimulation using an EPI pulse sequence; the BOLD signal response for two different color checkerboards; and the BOLD signal response during six consecutive stimulation series. Ten healthy human subjects (age 25±5.5 years) were studied with a 1.5 T MRI system (Siemens Vision, Erlangen, Germany). Black and white (BW) and red and white (RW) checkerboards alternating at 8 Hz were applied in turns for a total series of six. Stimulation timing was: 30 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 270 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off. Acquired data were analyzed according to color and/or order: color (without considering the order); color and order (1st BW vs. 1st RW, 2nd BW vs. 2nd RW, 3rd BW vs. 3rd RW); and order (without considering the color). A t-test (p<0.001) was used for obtaining the activated areas, and simple regression and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA were used for testing the statistical significance of the BOLD response. Results were: the BOLD signal responses during sustained photic stimulation maintained a constant level for the full duration and all series, suggesting stable levels of oxygen extraction and metabolism during cortical activation; the BOLD signal responses in two colors showed no significant difference in time response, suggesting that the neuronal populations perceiving black and red give a similar time response; and the effect of habituation or fatigue as observed by a signal decrease was not obtained, although the S.D. for each subject greatly increased with time and might be an indicator for evaluation fatigue or attention. (author)

  5. Simultaneous Imaging of CBF Change and BOLD with Saturation-Recovery-T1 Method.

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available A neuroimaging technique based on the saturation-recovery (SR-T1 MRI method was applied for simultaneously imaging blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD contrast and cerebral blood flow change (ΔCBF, which is determined by CBF-sensitive T1 relaxation rate change (ΔR1CBF. This technique was validated by quantitatively examining the relationships among ΔR1CBF, ΔCBF, BOLD and relative CBF change (rCBF, which was simultaneously measured by laser Doppler flowmetry under global ischemia and hypercapnia conditions, respectively, in the rat brain. It was found that during ischemia, BOLD decreased 23.1±2.8% in the cortical area; ΔR1CBF decreased 0.020±0.004s-1 corresponding to a ΔCBF decrease of 1.07±0.24 ml/g/min and 89.5±1.8% CBF reduction (n=5, resulting in a baseline CBF value (=1.18 ml/g/min consistent with the literature reports. The CBF change quantification based on temperature corrected ΔR1CBF had a better accuracy than apparent R1 change (ΔR1app; nevertheless, ΔR1app without temperature correction still provides a good approximation for quantifying CBF change since perfusion dominates the evolution of the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1app. In contrast to the excellent consistency between ΔCBF and rCBF measured during and after ischemia, the BOLD change during the post-ischemia period was temporally disassociated with ΔCBF, indicating distinct CBF and BOLD responses. Similar results were also observed for the hypercapnia study. The overall results demonstrate that the SR-T1 MRI method is effective for noninvasive and quantitative imaging of both ΔCBF and BOLD associated with physiological and/or pathological changes.

  6. Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and synchronization during working memory.

    Lars Michels

    Full Text Available In humans, theta band (5-7 Hz power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and higher frequency band synchronization is modulated during WM. Yet, little is known about the link between BOLD, EEG power, and EEG synchronization during WM, and how these measures develop with human brain maturation or relate to behavioral changes. We examined EEG-BOLD signal correlations from 18 young adults and 15 school-aged children for age-dependent effects during a load-modulated Sternberg WM task. Frontal load (in-dependent EEG theta power was significantly enhanced in children compared to adults, while adults showed stronger fMRI load effects. Children demonstrated a stronger negative correlation between global theta power and the BOLD signal in the default mode network relative to adults. Therefore, we conclude that theta power mediates the suppression of a task-irrelevant network. We further conclude that children suppress this network even more than adults, probably from an increased level of task-preparedness to compensate for not fully mature cognitive functions, reflected in lower response accuracy and increased reaction time. In contrast to power, correlations between instantaneous theta global field synchronization and the BOLD signal were exclusively positive in both age groups but only significant in adults in the frontal-parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Furthermore, theta synchronization was weaker in children and was--in contrast to EEG power--positively correlated with response accuracy in both age groups. In summary we conclude that theta EEG-BOLD signal correlations differ between spectral power and

  7. Right anterior cerebellum BOLD responses reflect age related changes in Simon task sequential effects.

    Aisenberg, D; Sapir, A; Close, A; Henik, A; d'Avossa, G

    2018-01-31

    Participants are slower to report a feature, such as color, when the target appears on the side opposite the instructed response, than when the target appears on the same side. This finding suggests that target location, even when task-irrelevant, interferes with response selection. This effect is magnified in older adults. Lengthening the inter-trial interval, however, suffices to normalize the congruency effect in older adults, by re-establishing young-like sequential effects (Aisenberg et al., 2014). We examined the neurological correlates of age related changes by comparing BOLD signals in young and old participants performing a visual version of the Simon task. Participants reported the color of a peripheral target, by a left or right-hand keypress. Generally, BOLD responses were greater following incongruent than congruent targets. Also, they were delayed and of smaller amplitude in old than young participants. BOLD responses in visual and motor regions were also affected by the congruency of the previous target, suggesting that sequential effects may reflect remapping of stimulus location onto the hand used to make a response. Crucially, young participants showed larger BOLD responses in right anterior cerebellum to incongruent targets, when the previous target was congruent, but smaller BOLD responses to incongruent targets when the previous target was incongruent. Old participants, however, showed larger BOLD responses to congruent than incongruent targets, irrespective of the previous target congruency. We conclude that aging may interfere with the trial by trial updating of the mapping between the task-irrelevant target location and response, which takes place during the inter-trial interval in the cerebellum and underlays sequential effects in a Simon task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research progress of BOLD-fMRI in minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Zhou Zhiming; Zhao Jiannong

    2013-01-01

    The minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the early stage of hepatic encephalopathy. It has few apparent clinical symptoms and specific manifestations, and is difficult to diagnose. In the recent years, BOLD-fMRI has been used to study hepatic encephalopathy gradually. Through detection of the brain neuron activities in different states, it can not only locate the abnormal activity of brain functional areas, but also can find the changes of brain functional connectivity. BOLD- fMRI combining with other MR technologies can explore the pathology and pathogenesis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy from micro to macro and from structure to function. (authors)

  9. Blood Flow and Brain Function: Investigations of neurovascular coupling using BOLD fMRI at 7 tesla

    Siero, J.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of ultra high field (7 tesla) MRI systems has opened the possibility to probe biological processes of the human body in great detail. Especially for studying brain function using BOLD fMRI there is a large benefit from the increased magnetic field strength. BOLD fMRI is the working horse

  10. Negative BOLD signal changes in ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex are associated with perfusion decreases and behavioral evidence for functional inhibition

    Schäfer, Katharina; Blankenburg, Felix; Kupers, Ron

    2012-01-01

    that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional inhibition. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at 7Hz evoked robust negative BOLD signals in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) ipsilateral to stimulation, and positive BOLD signals in contralateral SI. The negative BOLD signal in ipsilateral SI......) at the ipsilateral finger during concomitant stimulation of the contralateral median nerve increased significantly, suggesting augmented functional inhibition. Since the CPT in the ipsilateral hallux did not significantly change in response to median nerve stimulation, it is more likely that the CPT......-increase for the finger is due to functional inhibition (Kastrup et al., 2008) than to changes in selective attention. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that stimulus-induced reductions in relative rCBF may underlie the negative BOLD signal, which in turn may reflect increments in functional inhibition....

  11. Using pulse oximetry to account for high and low frequency physiological artifacts in the BOLD signal.

    Verstynen, Timothy D; Deshpande, Vibhas

    2011-04-15

    The BOLD signal not only reflects changes in local neural activity, but also exhibits variability from physiological processes like cardiac rhythms and breathing. We investigated how both of these physiological sources are reflected in the pulse oximetry (PO) signal, a direct measure of blood oxygenation, and how this information can be used to account for different types of noise in the BOLD response. Measures of heart rate, respiration and PO were simultaneously recorded while neurologically healthy participants performed an eye-movement task in a 3T MRI. PO exhibited power in frequencies that matched those found in the independently recorded cardiac and respiration signals. Using the phasic and aphasic properties of these signals as nuisance regressors, we found that the different frequency components of the PO signal could be used to identify different types of physiological artifacts in the BOLD response. A comparison of different physiological noise models found that a simple, down-sampled version of the PO signal improves the estimation of task-relevant statistics nearly as well as more established noise models that may run the risk of over-parameterization. These findings suggest that the PO signal captures multiple sources of physiological noise in the BOLD response and provides a simple and efficient way of modeling these noise sources in subsequent analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series : an application to Rolandic epilepsy

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; Besseling, René M.H.; de Louw, Anton J.A.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Backes, Walter H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in

  13. Evidence accumulation detected in BOLD signal using slow perceptual decision making

    Krueger, Paul M.; van Vugt, Marieke K.; Simen, Patrick; Nystrom, Leigh; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed whether evidence accumulation could be observed in the BOLD signal during perceptual decision making. This presents a challenge since the hemodynamic response is slow, while perceptual decisions are typically fast. NEW METHOD: Guided by theoretical predictions of the drift

  14. Driving innovation through big open linked data (BOLD) : Exploring antecedents using interpretive structural modelling

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Slade, Emma L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Weerakkody, Vishanth; Millard, Jeremy; Hidders, Jan; Snijders, D.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation is vital to find new solutions to problems, increase quality, and improve profitability. Big open linked data (BOLD) is a fledgling and rapidly evolving field that creates new opportunities for innovation. However, none of the existing literature has yet considered the

  15. Development of visual cortical function in infant macaques: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days. Large rotating checkerboard stimuli induced BOLD activation in visual cortices at early ages. Additionally we used static and dynamic Glass pattern stimuli to probe BOLD responses in primary visual cortex and two extrastriate areas: V4 and MT-V5. The resulting activations were analyzed with standard GLM and multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA approaches. We analyzed three contrasts: Glass pattern present/absent, static/dynamic Glass pattern presentation, and structured/random Glass pattern form. For both GLM and MVPA approaches, robust coherent BOLD activation appeared relatively late in comparison to the maturation of known neuronal properties and the development of behavioral sensitivity to Glass patterns. Robust differential activity to Glass pattern present/absent and dynamic/static stimulus presentation appeared first in V1, followed by V4 and MT-V5 at older ages; there was no reliable distinction between the two extrastriate areas. A similar pattern of results was obtained with the two analysis methods, although MVPA analysis showed reliable differential responses emerging at later ages than GLM. Although BOLD responses to large visual stimuli are detectable, our results with more refined stimuli indicate that global BOLD activity changes as behavioral performance matures. This reflects an hierarchical development of

  16. Searching for Conservation Laws in Brain Dynamics—BOLD Flux and Source Imaging

    Henning U. Voss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD imaging is the most important noninvasive tool to map human brain function. It relies on local blood-flow changes controlled by neurovascular coupling effects, usually in response to some cognitive or perceptual task. In this contribution we ask if the spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD signal can be modeled by a conservation law. In analogy to the description of physical laws, which often can be derived from some underlying conservation law, identification of conservation laws in the brain could lead to new models for the functional organization of the brain. Our model is independent of the nature of the conservation law, but we discuss possible hints and motivations for conservation laws. For example, globally limited blood supply and local competition between brain regions for blood might restrict the large scale BOLD signal in certain ways that could be observable. One proposed selective pressure for the evolution of such conservation laws is the closed volume of the skull limiting the expansion of brain tissue by increases in blood volume. These ideas are demonstrated on a mental motor imagery fMRI experiment, in which functional brain activation was mapped in a group of volunteers imagining themselves swimming. In order to search for local conservation laws during this complex cognitive process, we derived maps of quantities resulting from spatial interaction of the BOLD amplitudes. Specifically, we mapped fluxes and sources of the BOLD signal, terms that would appear in a description by a continuity equation. Whereas we cannot present final answers with the particular analysis of this particular experiment, some results seem to be non-trivial. For example, we found that during task the group BOLD flux covered more widespread regions than identified by conventional BOLD mapping and was always increasing during task. It is our hope that these results motivate more work towards the search for conservation

  17. A comparison of measures of boldness and their relationships to survival in young fish.

    James R White

    Full Text Available Boldness is the propensity of an animal to engage in risky behavior. Many variations of novel-object or novel-environment tests have been used to quantify the boldness of animals, although the relationship between test outcomes has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, the relationship of outcomes to any ecological aspect of fitness is generally assumed, rather than measured directly. Our study is the first to compare how the outcomes of the same test of boldness differ among observers and how different tests of boldness relate to the survival of individuals in the field. Newly-metamorphosed lemon damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, were placed onto replicate patches of natural habitat. Individual behavior was quantified using four tests (composed of a total of 12 different measures of behavior: latency to enter a novel environment, activity in a novel environment, and reactions to threatening and benign novel objects. After behavior was quantified, survival was monitored for two days during which time fish were exposed to natural predators. Variation among observers was low for most of the 12 measures, except distance moved and the threat test (reaction to probe thrust, which displayed unacceptable amounts of inter-observer variation. Overall, the results of the behavioral tests suggested that novel environment and novel object tests quantified similar behaviors, yet these behavioral measures were not interchangeable. Multiple measures of behavior within the context of novel environment or object tests were the most robust way to assess boldness and these measures have a complex relationship with survivorship of young fish in the field. Body size and distance ventured from shelter were the only variables that had a direct and positive relationship with survival.

  18. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia

    Gebker Rolf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years, with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was performed in 3 short axis slices of the heart at rest and during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg/min followed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE imaging. In all 16 standard myocardial segments, T2* values were derived at rest and under adenosine stress. Quantitative coronary angiography served as the standard of reference and defined normal myocardial segments (i.e. all 16 segments in patients without any CAD, ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a coronary artery with ≥50% luminal narrowing and non-ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a non-significantly stenosed coronary artery in patients with significant CAD. Results Coronary angiography demonstrated significant CAD in 23 patients. BOLD CMR at rest revealed significantly lower T2* values for ischemic segments (26.7 ± 11.6 ms compared to normal (31.9 ± 11.9 ms; p Conclusions Rest and stress BOLD CMR at 3Tesla proved feasible and differentiated between ischemic, non-ischemic, and normal myocardial segments in a clinical patient population. BOLD CMR during vasodilator stress identified patients with significant CAD.

  19. Mapping transient hyperventilation induced alterations with estimates of the multi-scale dynamics of BOLD signal.

    Vesa J Kiviniemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD contrast signals in functional MRI during rest may be characterized by power spectral distribution (PSD trends of the form 1/f α. Trends with 1/f characteristics comprise fractal properties with repeating oscillation patterns in multiple time scales. Estimates of the fractal properties enable the quantification of phenomena that may otherwise be difficult to measure, such as transient, non-linear changes. In this study it was hypothesized that the fractal metrics of 1/f BOLD signal trends can map changes related to dynamic, multi-scale alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF after a transient hyperventilation challenge. Twenty-three normal adults were imaged in a resting-state before and after hyperventilation. Different variables (1/f trend constant α, fractal dimension Df, and, Hurst exponent H characterizing the trends were measured from BOLD signals. The results show that fractal metrics of the BOLD signal follow the fractional Gaussian noise model, even during the dynamic CBF change that follows hyperventilation. The most dominant effect on the fractal metrics was detected in grey matter, in line with previous hyperventilation vaso-reactivity studies. The α was able to differentiate also blood vessels from grey matter changes. Df was most sensitive to grey matter. H correlated with default mode network areas before hyperventilation but this pattern vanished after hyperventilation due to a global increase in H. In the future, resting-state fMRI combined with fractal metrics of the BOLD signal may be used for analyzing multi-scale alterations of cerebral blood flow.

  20. Mapping Transient Hyperventilation Induced Alterations with Estimates of the Multi-Scale Dynamics of BOLD Signal.

    Kiviniemi, Vesa; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Silven, Olli; Tervonen, Osmo

    2009-01-01

    Temporal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast signals in functional MRI during rest may be characterized by power spectral distribution (PSD) trends of the form 1/f(alpha). Trends with 1/f characteristics comprise fractal properties with repeating oscillation patterns in multiple time scales. Estimates of the fractal properties enable the quantification of phenomena that may otherwise be difficult to measure, such as transient, non-linear changes. In this study it was hypothesized that the fractal metrics of 1/f BOLD signal trends can map changes related to dynamic, multi-scale alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after a transient hyperventilation challenge. Twenty-three normal adults were imaged in a resting-state before and after hyperventilation. Different variables (1/f trend constant alpha, fractal dimension D(f), and, Hurst exponent H) characterizing the trends were measured from BOLD signals. The results show that fractal metrics of the BOLD signal follow the fractional Gaussian noise model, even during the dynamic CBF change that follows hyperventilation. The most dominant effect on the fractal metrics was detected in grey matter, in line with previous hyperventilation vaso-reactivity studies. The alpha was able to differentiate also blood vessels from grey matter changes. D(f) was most sensitive to grey matter. H correlated with default mode network areas before hyperventilation but this pattern vanished after hyperventilation due to a global increase in H. In the future, resting-state fMRI combined with fractal metrics of the BOLD signal may be used for analyzing multi-scale alterations of cerebral blood flow.

  1. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI; Das Arbeitsgedaechtnis bei Gesunden und bei Schizophrenen: Untersuchungen mit BOLD-fMRT

    Giesel, F.L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hohmann, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany); Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie (Germany); Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J. [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [German] Die funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) nutzt den ''blood oxygen level dependent effect'' (BOLD-Effekt) zur nichtinvasiven Darstellung zerebraler Korrelate kognitiver Funktionen. Die Bedeutung dieses Verfahrens fuer das Verstaendnis physiologischer und pathologischer Prozesse wird anhand von Untersuchungen zum Arbeitsgedaechtnis bei Schizophrenen und gesunden Kontrollpersonen verdeutlicht. Das Arbeitsgedaechtnis dient weniger der Speicherung, sondern vielmehr der Verarbeitung von Informationen und ist deshalb in komplexe Prozesse wie Lernen und Problemloesen eingebunden. Im Rahmen schizophrener Psychosen kommt es zu einer deutlichen Einschraenkung dieser Funktionen. Erwartungsgemaess zeigen sich unter Durchfuehrung eines Arbeitsgedaechtnisparadigmas Unterschiede in der zerebralen Aktivitaet, die jedoch bei den Erkrankten unter Therapie prinzipiell reversibel sind. Von Interesse sind auch Trainingseffekte bei Gesunden, wobei eine verminderte Aktivierung nach Training auf eine ''Oekonomisierung'' schliessen laesst. (orig.)

  2. Spatiotopic coding of BOLD signal in human visual cortex depends on spatial attention.

    Sofia Crespi

    Full Text Available The neural substrate of the phenomenological experience of a stable visual world remains obscure. One possible mechanism would be to construct spatiotopic neural maps where the response is selective to the position of the stimulus in external space, rather than to retinal eccentricities, but evidence for these maps has been inconsistent. Here we show, with fMRI, that when human subjects perform concomitantly a demanding attentive task on stimuli displayed at the fovea, BOLD responses evoked by moving stimuli irrelevant to the task were mostly tuned in retinotopic coordinates. However, under more unconstrained conditions, where subjects could attend easily to the motion stimuli, BOLD responses were tuned not in retinal but in external coordinates (spatiotopic selectivity in many visual areas, including MT, MST, LO and V6, agreeing with our previous fMRI study. These results indicate that spatial attention may play an important role in mediating spatiotopic selectivity.

  3. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam

    2004-01-01

    to be more accurately localized and quantified based on changes in venous blood oxygenation alone. The normalized BOLD signal induced by the motor task was consistent across different magnetic fields and pulse sequences, and corresponded well with cerebral blood flow measurements. Our data suggest...... size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... for global stimulation, subjects breathed a 5% CO(2) gas mixture. Under all conditions, voxels containing primarily large veins and those containing primarily active tissue (i.e., capillaries and small veins) showed distinguishable behavior after hypercapnic normalization. This allowed functional activity...

  4. Bold Ideas for the 4th H in 4-H: Teen Identified Concerns and Actions

    Virginia Brown; Bonnie Braun; JoAnne Leatherman

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes a literature review; teen-identified health concerns and issues; and teen bold ideas for actions. Findings from the National 4-H Council and Molina Healthcare Teens Take on Health initiative are provided and implications for 4-H programming tied to the new Cooperative Extension National Framework for Health and Wellness are addressed. The article is intended as background for Extension educators, volunteers and administrators as they review the 4-H Healthy Living Missi...

  5. Electrophysiological correlates of the BOLD signal for EEG-informed fMRI

    Murta, Teresa; Leite, Marco; Carmichael, David W; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Lemieux, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are important tools in cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Combined EEG–fMRI has been shown to help to characterise brain networks involved in epileptic activity, as well as in different sensory, motor and cognitive functions. A good understanding of the electrophysiological correlates of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal is necessary to interpret fMRI maps, particularly when obtained in combination with EEG. We review the current understanding of electrophysiological–haemodynamic correlates, during different types of brain activity. We start by describing the basic mechanisms underlying EEG and BOLD signals and proceed by reviewing EEG-informed fMRI studies using fMRI to map specific EEG phenomena over the entire brain (EEG–fMRI mapping), or exploring a range of EEG-derived quantities to determine which best explain colocalised BOLD fluctuations (local EEG–fMRI coupling). While reviewing studies of different forms of brain activity (epileptic and nonepileptic spontaneous activity; cognitive, sensory and motor functions), a significant attention is given to epilepsy because the investigation of its haemodynamic correlates is the most common application of EEG-informed fMRI. Our review is focused on EEG-informed fMRI, an asymmetric approach of data integration. We give special attention to the invasiveness of electrophysiological measurements and the simultaneity of multimodal acquisitions because these methodological aspects determine the nature of the conclusions that can be drawn from EEG-informed fMRI studies. We emphasise the advantages of, and need for, simultaneous intracranial EEG–fMRI studies in humans, which recently became available and hold great potential to improve our understanding of the electrophysiological correlates of BOLD fluctuations. PMID:25277370

  6. Using CO5BOLD models to predict the effects of granulation on colours .

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Castelli, F.; Gallagher, A. J.; Prakapavičius, D.; Kučinskas, A.; Cayrel, R.; Freytag, B.; Plez, B.; Homeier, D.

    In order to investigate the effects of granulation on fluxes and colours, we computed the emerging fluxes from the models in the CO5BOLD grid with metallicities [M/H]=0.0,-1.0,-2.0 and -3.0. These fluxes have been used to compute colours in different photometric systems. We explain here how our computations have been performed and provide some results.

  7. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Berry, Barnett

    2013-04-19

    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  8. Interictal functional connectivity of human epileptic networks assessed by intracerebral EEG and BOLD signal fluctuations.

    Gaelle Bettus

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to demonstrate whether spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI reflect spontaneous neuronal activity in pathological brain regions as well as in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. This is a crucial issue as coherent fluctuations of fMRI signals between remote brain areas are now widely used to define functional connectivity in physiology and in pathophysiology. We quantified functional connectivity using non-linear measures of cross-correlation between signals obtained from intracerebral EEG (iEEG and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI in 5 patients suffering from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Functional connectivity was quantified with both modalities in areas exhibiting different electrophysiological states (epileptic and non affected regions during the interictal period. Functional connectivity as measured from the iEEG signal was higher in regions affected by electrical epileptiform abnormalities relative to non-affected areas, whereas an opposite pattern was found for functional connectivity measured from the BOLD signal. Significant negative correlations were found between the functional connectivities of iEEG and BOLD signal when considering all pairs of signals (theta, alpha, beta and broadband and when considering pairs of signals in regions spared by epileptiform discharges (in broadband signal. This suggests differential effects of epileptic phenomena on electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals and/or an alteration of the neurovascular coupling secondary to pathological plasticity in TLE even in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. In addition, indices of directionality calculated from both modalities were consistent showing that the epileptogenic regions exert a significant influence onto the non epileptic areas during the interictal period. This study shows that functional

  9. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  10. Detection of Acute Tubular Necrosis Using Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD MRI

    Frederic Bauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To date, there is no imaging technique to assess tubular function in vivo. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI measures tissue oxygenation based on the transverse relaxation rate (R2*. The present study investigates whether BOLD MRI can assess tubular function using a tubule-specific pharmacological maneuver. Methods: Cross sectional study with 28 participants including 9 subjects with ATN-induced acute kidney injury (AKI, 9 healthy controls, and 10 subjects with nephron sparing tumor resection (NSS with clamping of the renal artery serving as a model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced subclinical ATN (median clamping time 15 min, no significant decrease of eGFR, p=0.14. BOLD MRI was performed before and 5, 7, and 10 min after intravenous administration of 40 mg furosemide. Results: Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was significantly higher in ATN-induced AKI and NSS subjects than in healthy controls (p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively. Before administration of furosemide, absolute medullary R2*, cortical R2*, and medullary/cortical R2* ratio did not significantly differ between ATN-induced AKI vs. healthy controls and between NSS-I/R vs. contralateral healthy kidneys (p>0.05 each. Furosemide led to a significant decrease in the medullary and cortical R2* of healthy subjects and NSS contralateral kidneys (p<0.05 each, whereas there was no significant change of R2* in ATN-induced AKI and the NSS-I/R kidneys (p>0.05 each. Conclusion: BOLD-MRI is able to detect even mild tubular injury but necessitates a tubule-specific pharmacological maneuver, e.g. blocking the Na+-K+-2Cl- transporter by furosemide.

  11. Ultrafast bold fMRI using single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging

    Boujraf Said

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of imaging parameters for functional MRI can have an impact on the accuracy of functional localization by affecting the image quality and the degree of blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD contrast achieved. By improving sampling efficiency, parallel acquisition techniques such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE have been used to shorten readout trains in single-shot (SS echo planar imaging (EPI. This has been applied to susceptibility artifact reduction and improving spatial resolution. SENSE together with single-shot spin-echo (SS-SE imaging may also reduce off-resonance artifacts. The goal of this work was to investigate the BOLD response of a SENSE-adapted SE-EPI on a three Tesla scanner. Whole-brain fMRI studies of seven healthy right hand-dominant volunteers were carried out in a three Tesla scanner. fMRI was performed using an SS-SE EPI sequence with SENSE. The data was processed using statistical parametric mapping. Both, group and individual subject data analyses were performed. Individual average percentage and maximal percentage signal changes attributed to the BOLD effect in M1 were calculated for all the subjects as a function of echo time. Corresponding activation maps and the sizes of the activated clusters were also calculated. Our results show that susceptibility artifacts were reduced with the use of SENSE; and the acquired BOLD images were free of the typical quadrature artifacts of SS-EPI. Such measures are crucial at high field strengths. SS SE-EPI with SENSE offers further benefits in this regard and is more specific for oxygenation changes in the microvasculature bed. Functional brain activity can be investigated with the help of single-shot spin echo EPI using SENSE at high magnetic fields.

  12. Task performance changes the amplitude and timing of the BOLD signal

    Akhrif Atae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational studies comparing imaging data of animals and humans have gained increasing scientific interests. With this upcoming translational approach, however, identifying harmonized statistical analysis as well as shared data acquisition protocols and/or combined statistical approaches is necessary. Following this idea, we applied Bayesian Adaptive Regression Splines (BARS, which have until now mainly been used to model neural responses of electrophysiological recordings from rodent data, on human hemodynamic responses as measured via fMRI. Forty-seven healthy subjects were investigated while performing the Attention Network Task in the MRI scanner. Fluctuations in the amplitude and timing of the BOLD response were determined and validated externally with brain activation using GLM and also ecologically with the influence of task performance (i.e. good vs. bad performers. In terms of brain activation, bad performers presented reduced activation bilaterally in the parietal lobules, right prefrontal cortex (PFC and striatum. This was accompanied by an enhanced left PFC recruitment. With regard to the amplitude of the BOLD-signal, bad performers showed enhanced values in the left PFC. In addition, in the regions of reduced activation such as the parietal and striatal regions, the temporal dynamics were higher in bad performers. Based on the relation between BOLD response and neural firing with the amplitude of the BOLD signal reflecting gamma power and timing dynamics beta power, we argue that in bad performers, an enhanced left PFC recruitment hints towards an enhanced functioning of gamma-band activity in a compensatory manner. This was accompanied by reduced parieto-striatal activity, associated with increased and potentially conflicting beta-band activity.

  13. Socially bold personality in the real communication and Internet communication: the analysis of representations of people of the different age

    Pogodina A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the results of the study, subject of which is the submis- sion of the respondents of the different age groups about the social and bold personality. Required property of the respondents was the presence in the Internet environment and participation in various social networks. They assessed social and bold personal- ity in such contexts of communication, as real communication and Internet communication. Analyses were undertaken to determine the structural and content features of emotional and semantic representations of the phenomenon of the social and bold personality, depending on the context of communication, but also the detection of age-sensitive representations of the young respondents (19—35 years, middle-aged respondents (36-55 years and older respondents (from 56 to 70 years. The concept of the “social and bold personality in real communion” is shown to have a high semantic relevance, strongly marked positive emotional coloration and a similar factor structure for respondents of all age groups. The concept of the “social and bold personality in online communication” with a high semantic significance in the perception of the young respondents moves into a zone of moderate and semantic importance in representations of the middle-aged and older respondents. In representations of the respondents of all age groups, the attractiveness of the "social and bold personality in Internet communication" is less than in comparison with the "social and bold personality in the real communication". The age-specific of the social representations about social and bold personality in the real and virtual communication has been analysed in detail.

  14. The effect of sleep deprivation on BOLD activity elicited by a divided attention task.

    Jackson, Melinda L; Hughes, Matthew E; Croft, Rodney J; Howard, Mark E; Crewther, David; Kennedy, Gerard A; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Rob J; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Johnston, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Sleep loss, widespread in today's society and associated with a number of clinical conditions, has a detrimental effect on a variety of cognitive domains including attention. This study examined the sequelae of sleep deprivation upon BOLD fMRI activation during divided attention. Twelve healthy males completed two randomized sessions; one after 27 h of sleep deprivation and one after a normal night of sleep. During each session, BOLD fMRI was measured while subjects completed a cross-modal divided attention task (visual and auditory). After normal sleep, increased BOLD activation was observed bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobe during divided attention performance. Subjects reported feeling significantly more sleepy in the sleep deprivation session, and there was a trend towards poorer divided attention task performance. Sleep deprivation led to a down regulation of activation in the left superior frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting an attenuation of top-down control mechanisms on the attentional system. These findings have implications for understanding the neural correlates of divided attention and the neurofunctional changes that occur in individuals who are sleep deprived.

  15. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  16. Using BOLD imaging to measure renal oxygenation dynamics in rats injected with diuretics

    Kusakabe, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Taro; Honda, Saori; Okada, Sakie; Murase, Kenya

    2010-01-01

    We used blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) to measure renal oxygenation dynamics in rats injected with diuretics and evaluated diuretic effect on renal oxygenation. We performed BOLD MRI studies in 32 rats using a 1.5-tesla MR imaging system for animal experiments. We intravenously injected rats with saline (n=7), furosemide (n=7), acetazolamide (n=6), or mannitol (n=6). For controls, 6 rats were not injected with drugs. We estimated the apparent transverse relaxation rate (R 2 *) from the apparent transverse relaxation time (T 2 *)-weighted images and measured the time course of R 2 * at 4-min intervals over approximately 30 min. Compared with preadministration values, the R 2 * value did not change significantly in either the cortex or medulla in the control and mannitol groups but decreased significantly in the saline group; the R 2 * value significantly decreased in the medulla but did not change significantly in the cortex in the furosemide group; and the R 2 * value significantly increased in the medulla and significantly decreased in the cortex in the acetazolamide group. Our study results suggest that BOLD MRI is useful for evaluating the dynamics of renal oxygenation in response to various diuretics in the renal cortex and in the medulla. (author)

  17. Correlations of noninvasive BOLD and TOLD MRI with pO2 and relevance to tumor radiation response.

    Hallac, Rami R; Zhou, Heling; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Song, Kwang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Zhao, Dawen; Solberg, Timothy; Peschke, Peter; Mason, Ralph P

    2014-05-01

    To examine the potential use of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and tissue oxygenation level dependent (TOLD) contrast MRI to assess tumor oxygenation and predict radiation response. BOLD and TOLD MRI were performed on Dunning R3327-AT1 rat prostate tumors during hyperoxic gas breathing challenge at 4.7 T. Animals were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 9), subsequent (19) F MRI based on spin lattice relaxation of hexafluorobenzene reporter molecule provided quantitative oximetry for comparison. For Group 2 rats (n = 13) growth delay following a single dose of 30 Gy was compared with preirradiation BOLD and TOLD assessments. Oxygen (100%O2 ) and carbogen (95%O2 /5%CO2 ) challenge elicited similar BOLD, TOLD and pO2 responses. Strong correlations were observed between BOLD or R2* response and quantitative (19) F pO2 measurements. TOLD response showed a general trend with weaker correlation. Irradiation caused a significant tumor growth delay and tumors with larger changes in TOLD and R1 values upon oxygen breathing exhibited significantly increased tumor growth delay. These results provide further insight into the relationships between oxygen sensitive (BOLD/TOLD) MRI and tumor pO2 . Moreover, a larger increase in R1 response to hyperoxic gas challenge coincided with greater tumor growth delay following irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Correlation of BOLD Signal with Linear and Nonlinear Patterns of EEG in Resting State EEG-Informed fMRI

    Galina V. Portnova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent EEG and fMRI acquisitions in resting state showed a correlation between EEG power in various bands and spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. However, there is a lack of data on how changes in the complexity of brain dynamics derived from EEG reflect variations in the BOLD signal. The purpose of our study was to correlate both spectral patterns, as linear features of EEG rhythms, and nonlinear EEG dynamic complexity with neuronal activity obtained by fMRI. We examined the relationships between EEG patterns and brain activation obtained by simultaneous EEG-fMRI during the resting state condition in 25 healthy right-handed adult volunteers. Using EEG-derived regressors, we demonstrated a substantial correlation of BOLD signal changes with linear and nonlinear features of EEG. We found the most significant positive correlation of fMRI signal with delta spectral power. Beta and alpha spectral features had no reliable effect on BOLD fluctuation. However, dynamic changes of alpha peak frequency exhibited a significant association with BOLD signal increase in right-hemisphere areas. Additionally, EEG dynamic complexity as measured by the HFD of the 2–20 Hz EEG frequency range significantly correlated with the activation of cortical and subcortical limbic system areas. Our results indicate that both spectral features of EEG frequency bands and nonlinear dynamic properties of spontaneous EEG are strongly associated with fluctuations of the BOLD signal during the resting state condition.

  19. Correlative BOLD MR imaging of stages of synovitis in a rabbit model of antigen-induced arthritis

    Doria, Andrea S.; Crawley, Adrian; Gahunia, Harpal; Rayner, Tammy; Tassos, Vivian; Zhong, Anguo; Moineddin, Rahim; Pritzker, Kenneth; Mendes, Maria; Jong, Roland; Salter, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the ability of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI to assess blood oxygenation changes within the microvasculature, this technique holds potential for evaluating early perisynovial changes in inflammatory arthritis. To evaluate the feasibility of BOLD MRI to detect interval perisynovial changes in knees of rabbits with inflammatory arthritis. Rabbit knees were injected with albumin (n=9) or saline (n=6) intra-articularly, or were not injected (control knees, n=9). Except for two rabbits (albumin-injected, n=2 knees; saline-injected, n=2 knees) that unexpectedly died on days 7 and 21 of the experiment, respectively, all other animals were scanned with BOLD MRI on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after induction of arthritis. T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI was performed during alternate 30 s of normoxia/hyperoxia. BOLD MRI measurements were compared with clinical, laboratory and histological markers. Percentage of activated voxels was significantly greater in albumin-injected knees than in contralateral saline-injected knees (P=0.04). For albumin-injected knees (P < 0.05) and among different categories of knees (P=0.009), the percentage of activated BOLD voxels varied over time. A quadratic curve for on-and-off BOLD difference was delineated for albumin- and saline-injected knees over time (albumin-injected, P=0.047; saline-injected, P=0.009). A trend toward a significant difference in synovial histological scores between albumin-injected and saline-injected knees was noted only for acute scores (P=0.07). As a proof of concept, BOLD MRI can depict perisynovial changes during progression of experimental arthritis. (orig.)

  20. Correlative BOLD MR imaging of stages of synovitis in a rabbit model of antigen-induced arthritis

    Doria, Andrea S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Gahunia, Harpal; Rayner, Tammy; Tassos, Vivian; Zhong, Anguo [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Family and Community Medicine, Department of Public Health, Toronto (Canada); Pritzker, Kenneth; Mendes, Maria; Jong, Roland [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Salter, Robert B. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Because of the ability of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI to assess blood oxygenation changes within the microvasculature, this technique holds potential for evaluating early perisynovial changes in inflammatory arthritis. To evaluate the feasibility of BOLD MRI to detect interval perisynovial changes in knees of rabbits with inflammatory arthritis. Rabbit knees were injected with albumin (n=9) or saline (n=6) intra-articularly, or were not injected (control knees, n=9). Except for two rabbits (albumin-injected, n=2 knees; saline-injected, n=2 knees) that unexpectedly died on days 7 and 21 of the experiment, respectively, all other animals were scanned with BOLD MRI on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after induction of arthritis. T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI was performed during alternate 30 s of normoxia/hyperoxia. BOLD MRI measurements were compared with clinical, laboratory and histological markers. Percentage of activated voxels was significantly greater in albumin-injected knees than in contralateral saline-injected knees (P=0.04). For albumin-injected knees (P < 0.05) and among different categories of knees (P=0.009), the percentage of activated BOLD voxels varied over time. A quadratic curve for on-and-off BOLD difference was delineated for albumin- and saline-injected knees over time (albumin-injected, P=0.047; saline-injected, P=0.009). A trend toward a significant difference in synovial histological scores between albumin-injected and saline-injected knees was noted only for acute scores (P=0.07). As a proof of concept, BOLD MRI can depict perisynovial changes during progression of experimental arthritis. (orig.)

  1. Implications of oxidative stress in the brain plasticity originated by fasting: a BOLD-fMRI study.

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Magoul, Rabia; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was assessing the intermittent fasting effect on brain plasticity and oxidative stress (OS) using blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) approach. Evidences of physiological and molecular phenomena involved in this process are discussed and compared to reported literature. Six fully healthy male non-smokers volunteered in this study. All volunteers were right handed, and have an equilibrated, consistent and healthy daily nutritional habit, and a healthy lifestyle. Participants were allowed consuming food during evening and night time while fasting with self-prohibiting food and liquids during 14 hours/day from sunrise to sunset. All participants underwent identical brain BOLD-fMRI protocol. The images were acquired in the Department of Radiology and Clinical Imaging of the University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco. The anatomical brain and BOLD-fMRIs were acquired using a 1.5-Tesla scanner (Signa, General Electric, Milwaukee, United States). BOLD-fMRI image acquisition was done using single-shot gradient echo echo-planer imaging sequence. BOLD-fMRI paradigm consisted of the motor task where volunteers were asked to perform finger taping of the right hand. Two BOLD-fMRI scan sessions were performed, the first one between the 5th and 10th days preceding the start of fasting and the second between days 25th and 28th of the fasting month. All sessions were performed between 3:30 PM and 5:30 PM. Although individual maps were originated from different individual participants, they cover the same anatomic area in each case. Image processing and statistical analysis were conducted with Statistical Parameter Mapping version 8 (2008, Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London UK). The maximal BOLD signal changes were calculated for each subject in the motor area M1; Activation maps were calculated and overlaid on the anatomical images. Group analysis of the data was performed, and the average volume

  2. Dictionary-driven Ischemia Detection from Cardiac Phase-Resolved Myocardial BOLD MRI at Rest

    Bevilacqua, Marco; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac Phase-resolved Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependent (CP–BOLD) MRI provides a unique opportunity to image an ongoing ischemia at rest. However, it requires post-processing to evaluate the extent of ischemia. To address this, here we propose an unsupervised ischemia detection (UID) method which relies on the inherent spatio-temporal correlation between oxygenation and wall motion to formalize a joint learning and detection problem based on dictionary decomposition. Considering input data of a single subject, it treats ischemia as an anomaly and iteratively learns dictionaries to represent only normal observations (corresponding to myocardial territories remote to ischemia). Anomaly detection is based on a modified version of One-class Support Vector Machines (OCSVM) to regulate directly the margins by incorporating the dictionary-based representation errors. A measure of ischemic extent (IE) is estimated, reflecting the relative portion of the myocardium affected by ischemia. For visualization purposes an ischemia likelihood map is created by estimating posterior probabilities from the OCSVM outputs, thus obtaining how likely the classification is correct. UID is evaluated on synthetic data and in a 2D CP–BOLD data set from a canine experimental model emulating acute coronary syndromes. Comparing early ischemic territories identified with UID against infarct territories (after several hours of ischemia), we find that IE, as measured by UID, is highly correlated (Pearson’s r = 0.84) w.r.t. infarct size. When advances in automated registration and segmentation of CP–BOLD images and full coverage 3D acquisitions become available, we hope that this method can enable pixel-level assessment of ischemia with this truly non-invasive imaging technique. PMID:26292338

  3. Cholinergic enhancement reduces functional connectivity and BOLD variability in visual extrastriate cortex during selective attention.

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bernardi, Giulio; Pietrini, Pietro; Furey, Maura L

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cholinergic function improves performance on various cognitive tasks and alters neural responses in task specific brain regions. We have hypothesized that the changes in neural activity observed during increased cholinergic function reflect an increase in neural efficiency that leads to improved task performance. The current study tested this hypothesis by assessing neural efficiency based on cholinergically-mediated effects on regional brain connectivity and BOLD signal variability. Nine subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover fMRI study. Following an infusion of physostigmine (1 mg/h) or placebo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) was conducted as participants performed a selective attention task. During the task, two images comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Subjects were instructed periodically to shift their attention from one stimulus component to the other and to perform a matching task using hand held response buttons. A control condition included phase-scrambled images of superimposed faces and houses that were presented in the same temporal and spatial manner as the attention task; participants were instructed to perform a matching task. Cholinergic enhancement improved performance during the selective attention task, with no change during the control task. Functional connectivity analyses showed that the strength of connectivity between ventral visual processing areas and task-related occipital, parietal and prefrontal regions reduced significantly during cholinergic enhancement, exclusively during the selective attention task. Physostigmine administration also reduced BOLD signal temporal variability relative to placebo throughout temporal and occipital visual processing areas, again during the selective attention task only. Together with the observed behavioral improvement, the decreases in connectivity strength throughout task-relevant regions and BOLD variability within stimulus

  4. BOLD quantified renal pO2 is sensitive to pharmacological challenges in rats.

    Thacker, Jon; Zhang, Jeff L; Franklin, Tammy; Prasad, Pottumarthi

    2017-07-01

    Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI has been effectively used to monitor changes in renal oxygenation. However, R2* (or T2*) is not specific to blood oxygenation and is dependent on other factors. This study investigates the use of a statistical model that takes these factors into account and maps BOLD MRI measurements to blood pO2. Spin echo and gradient echo images were obtained in six Sprague-Dawley rats and R2 and R2* maps were computed. Measurements were made at baseline, post-nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), and post-furosemide administration. A simulation of each region was performed to map R2' (computed as R2*-R2) to blood pO2. At baseline, blood pO2 in the outer medulla was 30.5 ± 1.2 mmHg and 51.9 ± 5.2 mmHg in the cortex, in agreement with previous invasive studies. Blood pO2 was found to decrease within the outer medulla following L-NAME (P pO2 in the cortex increased following furosemide (P pO2 is sensitive to pharmacological challenges, and baseline pO2 is comparable to literature values. Reporting pO2 instead of R2* could lead to a greater clinical impact of renal BOLD MRI and facilitate the identification of hypoxic regions. Magn Reson Med 78:297-302, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Hypoxia in Prostate Cancer: Correlation of BOLD-MRI With Pimonidazole Immunohistochemistry-Initial Observations

    Hoskin, Peter J.; Carnell, Dawn M.; Taylor, N. Jane; Smith, Rowena E.; Stirling, J. James; Daley, Frances M.; Saunders, Michele I.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Collins, David J.; D'Arcy, James A.; Padhani, Anwar P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI to depict clinically significant prostate tumor hypoxia. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with prostate carcinoma undergoing radical prostatectomy were studied preoperatively, using gradient echo sequences without and with contrast medium enhancement, to map relative tissue oxygenation according to relaxivity rates and relative blood volume (rBV). Pimonidazole was administered preoperatively, and whole-mount sections of selected tumor-bearing slices were stained for pimonidazole fixation and tumor and nontumor localization. Histologic and imaging parameters were independently mapped onto patient prostate outlines. Using 5-mm grids, 861 nontumor grid locations were compared with 237 tumor grids (with >50% tumor per location) using contingency table analysis with respect to the ability of imaging to predict pimonidazole staining. Results: Twenty patients completed the imaging and histologic protocols. Pimonidazole staining was found in 33% of nontumor and in 70% of tumor grids. The sensitivity of the MR relaxivity parameter R 2 * in depicting tumor hypoxia was high (88%), improving with the addition of low rBV information (95%) without changing specificity (36% and 29%, respectively). High R 2 * increased the positive predictive value for hypoxia by 6% (70% to 76%); conversely, low R 2 * decreased the likelihood of hypoxia being present by 26% (70% to 44%) and by 41% (71% to 30%) when combined with rBV information. Conclusion: R 2 * maps from BOLD-MRI have high sensitivity but low specificity for defining intraprostatic tumor hypoxia. This together with the negative predictive value of 70% when combined with blood volume information makes BOLD-MRI a potential noninvasive technique for mapping prostatic tumor hypoxia

  6. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series: An application to Rolandic epilepsy.

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Hofman, Paul A M; Besseling, René M H; de Louw, Anton J A; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2017-12-01

    To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy. The BOLD time series was decomposed using the discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet entropy was calculated. Using a model time series consisting of multiple harmonics and nonstationary components, the wavelet entropy was compared with Shannon and spectral (Fourier-based) entropy. As an application, the wavelet entropy in 22 children with Rolandic epilepsy was compared to 22 age-matched healthy controls. The images were obtained by performing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 3T system, an 8-element receive-only head coil, and an echo planar imaging pulse sequence ( T2*-weighted). The wavelet entropy was also compared to spectral entropy, regional homogeneity, and Shannon entropy. Wavelet entropy was found to identify the nonstationary components of the model time series. In Rolandic epilepsy patients, a significantly elevated wavelet entropy was observed relative to controls for the whole cerebrum (P = 0.03). Spectral entropy (P = 0.41), regional homogeneity (P = 0.52), and Shannon entropy (P = 0.32) did not reveal significant differences. The wavelet entropy measure appeared more sensitive to detect abnormalities in cerebral fluctuations represented by nonstationary effects in the BOLD time series than more conventional measures. This effect was observed in the model time series as well as in Rolandic epilepsy. These observations suggest that the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy exhibit stronger nonstationary temporal signal fluctuations than controls. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1728-1737. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic

  7. Moment-to-Moment BOLD Signal Variability Reflects Regional Changes in Neural Flexibility across the Lifespan.

    Nomi, Jason S; Bolt, Taylor S; Ezie, C E Chiemeka; Uddin, Lucina Q; Heller, Aaron S

    2017-05-31

    Variability of neuronal responses is thought to underlie flexible and optimal brain function. Because previous work investigating BOLD signal variability has been conducted within task-based fMRI contexts on adults and older individuals, very little is currently known regarding regional changes in spontaneous BOLD signal variability in the human brain across the lifespan. The current study used resting-state fMRI data from a large sample of male and female human participants covering a wide age range (6-85 years) across two different fMRI acquisition parameters (TR = 0.645 and 1.4 s). Variability in brain regions including a key node of the salience network (anterior insula) increased linearly across the lifespan across datasets. In contrast, variability in most other large-scale networks decreased linearly over the lifespan. These results demonstrate unique lifespan trajectories of BOLD variability related to specific regions of the brain and add to a growing literature demonstrating the importance of identifying normative trajectories of functional brain maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although brain signal variability has traditionally been considered a source of unwanted noise, recent work demonstrates that variability in brain signals during task performance is related to brain maturation in old age as well as individual differences in behavioral performance. The current results demonstrate that intrinsic fluctuations in resting-state variability exhibit unique maturation trajectories in specific brain regions and systems, particularly those supporting salience detection. These results have implications for investigations of brain development and aging, as well as interpretations of brain function underlying behavioral changes across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375539-10$15.00/0.

  8. Resting bold fMRI differentiates dementia with Lewy bodies vs Alzheimer disease

    Price, J.L.; Yan, Z.; Morris, J.C.; Sheline, Y.I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Clinicopathologic phenotypes of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer disease (AD) often overlap, making discrimination difficult. We performed resting state blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether there were differences between AD and DLB. Methods: Participants (n = 88) enrolled in a longitudinal study of memory and aging underwent 3-T fcMRI. Clinical diagnoses of probable DLB (n = 15) were made according to published criteria. Cognitively normal control participants (n = 38) were selected for the absence of cerebral amyloid burden as imaged with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB). Probable AD cases (n = 35) met published criteria and had appreciable amyloid deposits with PiB imaging. Functional images were collected using a gradient spin-echo sequence sensitive to BOLD contrast (T2* weighting). Correlation maps selected a seed region in the combined bilateral precuneus. Results: Participants with DLB had a functional connectivity pattern for the precuneus seed region that was distinct from AD; both the DLB and AD groups had functional connectivity patterns that differed from the cognitively normal group. In the DLB group, we found increased connectivity between the precuneus and regions in the dorsal attention network and the putamen. In contrast, we found decreased connectivity between the precuneus and other task-negative default regions and visual cortices. There was also a reversal of connectivity in the right hippocampus. Conclusions: Changes in functional connectivity in DLB indicate patterns of activation that are distinct from those seen in AD and may improve discrimination of DLB from AD and cognitively normal individuals. Since patterns of connectivity differ between AD and DLB groups, measurements of BOLD functional connectivity can shed further light on neuroanatomic connections that distinguish DLB from AD. PMID:21525427

  9. The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon.

    Goldstein, Joseph L

    2016-09-22

    For many scientific awards, such as Nobels and Laskers, the maximum number of recipients is three. This Rule of Three forces selection committees to make difficult decisions that increase the likelihood of singling out those individuals who open a new field and continue to lead it. The Rule of Three is reminiscent of art's three-panel triptych, a form that the modern master Francis Bacon used to distill complex stories in a bold way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis, Version III

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a condensed documentation for VERSION III of the BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis. An experienced analyst should be able to use this system routinely for solving problems by referring to this document. Individual reports must be referenced for details. This report covers basic input instructions and describes recent extensions to the modules as well as to the interface data file specifications. Some application considerations are discussed and an elaborate sample problem is used as an instruction aid. Instructions for creating the system on IBM computers are also given

  11. Bold Ideas for the 4th H in 4-H: Teen Identified Concerns and Actions

    Virginia Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a literature review; teen-identified health concerns and issues; and teen bold ideas for actions. Findings from the National 4-H Council and Molina Healthcare Teens Take on Health initiative are provided and implications for 4-H programming tied to the new Cooperative Extension National Framework for Health and Wellness are addressed. The article is intended as background for Extension educators, volunteers and administrators as they review the 4-H Healthy Living Mission Mandate, learn what mattered to teens and consider how to incorporate the findings into state and local 4-H youth development programming.

  12. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats.

    Ferris, Craig F; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M; Carter, C Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  13. BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis, Version III

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a condensed documentation for VERSION III of the BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis. An experienced analyst should be able to use this system routinely for solving problems by referring to this document. Individual reports must be referenced for details. This report covers basic input instructions and describes recent extensions to the modules as well as to the interface data file specifications. Some application considerations are discussed and an elaborate sample problem is used as an instruction aid. Instructions for creating the system on IBM computers are also given.

  14. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI

    Giesel, F.L.; Hohmann, N.; Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M.

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [de

  15. Distinction between Neural and Vascular BOLD Oscillations and Intertwined Heart Rate Oscillations at 0.1 Hz in the Resting State and during Movement.

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    Full Text Available In the resting state, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD oscillations with a frequency of about 0.1 Hz are conspicuous. Whether their origin is neural or vascular is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these BOLD oscillations interact with slow oscillations in heart rate (HR. To address these two questions, we estimated phase-locking (PL values between precentral gyrus (PCG and insula in 25 scanner-naïve individuals during rest and stimulus-paced finger movements in both hemispheres. PL was quantified in terms of time delay and duration in the frequency band 0.07 to 0.13 Hz. Results revealed both positive and negative time delays. Positive time delays characterize neural BOLD oscillations leading in the PCG, whereas negative time delays represent vascular BOLD oscillations leading in the insula. About 50% of the participants revealed positive time delays distinctive for neural BOLD oscillations, either with short or long unilateral or bilateral phase-locking episodes. An expected preponderance of neural BOLD oscillations was found in the left hemisphere during right-handed movement and unexpectedly in the right hemisphere during rest. Only neural BOLD oscillations were significantly associated with heart rate variability (HRV in the 0.1-Hz range in the first resting state. It is well known that participating in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies may be frightening and cause anxiety. In this respect it is important to note that the most significant hemispheric asymmetry (p<0.002 with a right-sided dominance of neural BOLD and a left-sided dominance of vascular BOLD oscillations was found in the first resting session in the scanner-naïve individuals. Whether the enhanced left-sided perfusion (dominance of vascular BOLD or the right-sided dominance of neural BOLD is related to the increased level of anxiety, attention or stress needs further research.

  16. A Big Five facet analysis of sub-clinical narcissism: understanding boldness in terms of well-known personality traits.

    Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to examine a Big Five 'bright-side' analysis of a sub-clinical personality disorder, i.e. narcissism. A total of 6957 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R, which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the domain and the facet level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS), which has a measure of Narcissism called Bold as one of its dysfunctional interpersonal tendencies. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between the Big Five domains and facets (NEO-PI-R) and sub-clinical narcissism. The Bold (Narcissism) scale from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. Bold individuals are disagreeable extraverts with very low scores on facet Modesty but moderately high scores on Assertiveness, Competence and Achievement Striving. The study confirmed work using different population groups and different measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Changes in BOLD and ADC weighted imaging in acute hypoxia during sea-level and altitude adapted states

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, Henrik B.W.; Born, Alfred P.

    2005-01-01

    possible structural changes as measured by diffusion weighted imaging. Eleven healthy sea-level residents were studied after 5 weeks of adaptation to high altitude conditions at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5260 m). The subjects were studied immediately after return to sea-level in hypoxic and normoxic conditions...... was slightly elevated in high altitude as compared to sea-level adaptation. It is concluded that hypoxia significantly diminishes the BOLD response, and the mechanisms underlying this finding are discussed. Furthermore, altitude adaptation may influence both the magnitude of the activation-related response......, and the examinations repeated 6 months later after re-adaptation to sea-level conditions. The BOLD response, measured at 1.5 T, was severely reduced during acute hypoxia both in the altitude and sea-level adapted states (50% reduction during an average S(a)O(2) of 75%). On average, the BOLD response magnitude was 23...

  18. Effect of hypoxia on BOLD fMRI response and total cerebral blood flow in migraine with aura patients

    Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2018-01-01

    was measured in the visual cortex ROIs V1-V5. Total cerebral blood flow (CBF) was calculated by measuring the blood velocity in the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery using phase-contrast mapping (PCM) MRI. Hypoxia induced a greater decrease in BOLD response to visual stimulation in V1-V4 in MA......Experimentally induced hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura (MA). We investigated the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal response to visual stimulation during hypoxia in MA patients and healthy volunteers. In a randomized double......-blind crossover study design, 15 MA patients were allocated to 180 min of normobaric poikilocapnic hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham (normoxia) on two separate days and 14 healthy volunteers were exposed to hypoxia. The BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) signal response to visual stimulation...

  19. Comparison of diffusion-weighted fMRI and BOLD fMRI responses in a verbal working memory task

    Aso, Toshihiko; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Le Bihan, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) has been reported to have a different response pattern in the visual cortex than that of BOLD-fMRI. Especially, the DfMRI signal shows a constantly faster response at both onset and offset of the stimulus, suggesting that the DfMRI signal might be more directly linked to neuronal events than the hemodynamic response. However, because the DfMRI response also contains a residual sensitivity to BOLD this hypothesis has been challenged. Using a verbal working memory task we show that the DfMRI time-course features are preserved outside visual cortices, but also less liable to between-subject/between-regional variation than the BOLD response. The overall findings not only support the feasibility of DfMRI as an approach for functional brain imaging, but also strengthen the uniqueness of the DfMRI signal origin. (authors)

  20. Increased BOLD Signals Elicited by High Gamma Auditory Stimulation of the Left Auditory Cortex in Acute State Schizophrenia

    Hironori Kuga, M.D.

    2016-10-01

    We acquired BOLD responses elicited by click trains of 20, 30, 40 and 80-Hz frequencies from 15 patients with acute episode schizophrenia (AESZ, 14 symptom-severity-matched patients with non-acute episode schizophrenia (NASZ, and 24 healthy controls (HC, assessed via a standard general linear-model-based analysis. The AESZ group showed significantly increased ASSR-BOLD signals to 80-Hz stimuli in the left auditory cortex compared with the HC and NASZ groups. In addition, enhanced 80-Hz ASSR-BOLD signals were associated with more severe auditory hallucination experiences in AESZ participants. The present results indicate that neural over activation occurs during 80-Hz auditory stimulation of the left auditory cortex in individuals with acute state schizophrenia. Given the possible association between abnormal gamma activity and increased glutamate levels, our data may reflect glutamate toxicity in the auditory cortex in the acute state of schizophrenia, which might lead to progressive changes in the left transverse temporal gyrus.

  1. Personality and the collective: bold homing pigeons occupy higher leadership ranks in flocks.

    Sasaki, Takao; Mann, Richard P; Warren, Katherine N; Herbert, Tristian; Wilson, Tara; Biro, Dora

    2018-05-19

    While collective movement is ecologically widespread and conveys numerous benefits on individuals, it also poses a coordination problem: who controls the group's movements? The role that animal 'personalities' play in this question has recently become a focus of research interest. Although many animal groups have distributed leadership (i.e. multiple individuals influence collective decisions), studies linking personality and leadership have focused predominantly on the group's single most influential individual. In this study, we investigate the relationship between personality and the influence of multiple leaders on collective movement using homing pigeons, Columba livia , a species known to display complex multilevel leadership hierarchies during flock flights. Our results show that more exploratory (i.e. 'bold') birds are more likely to occupy higher ranks in the leadership hierarchy and thus have more influence on the direction of collective movement than less exploratory (i.e. 'shy') birds during both free flights around their lofts and homing flights from a distant site. Our data also show that bold pigeons fly faster than shy birds during solo flights. We discuss our results in light of theories about the evolution of personality, with specific reference to the adaptive value of heterogeneity in animal groups.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Olfactory responses to natal stream water in sockeye salmon by BOLD fMRI.

    Hiroshi Bandoh

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that juvenile salmon imprint olfactory memory of natal stream odors during downstream migration, and adults recall this stream-specific odor information to discriminate their natal stream during upstream migration for spawning. The odor information processing of the natal stream in the salmon brain, however, has not been clarified. We applied blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the odor information processing of the natal stream in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon of lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka. The strong responses to the natal stream water were mainly observed in the lateral area of dorsal telencephalon (Dl, which are homologous to the medial pallium (hippocampus in terrestrial vertebrates. Although the concentration of L-serine (1 mM in the control water was 20,000-times higher than that of total amino acid in the natal stream water (47.5 nM, the BOLD signals resulting from the natal stream water were stronger than those by L-serine in the Dl. We concluded that sockeye salmon could process the odor information of the natal stream by integrating information in the Dl area of the telencephalon.

  3. Intraindividual variability of boldness is repeatable across contexts in a wild lizard.

    Laura Highcock

    Full Text Available Animals do not behave in exactly the same way when repeatedly tested in the same context or situation, even once systematic variation, such as habituation, has been controlled for. This unpredictability is called intraindividual variability (IIV and has been little studied in animals. Here we investigated how IIV in boldness (estimated by flight initiation distances changed across two seasons--the dry, non-breeding season and the wet, breeding season--in a wild population of the Namibian rock agama, Agama planiceps. We found significant differences in IIV both between individuals and seasons, and IIV was higher in the wet season, suggesting plasticity in IIV. Further, IIV was highly repeatable (r = 0.61 between seasons and we found strong negative correlations between consistent individual differences in flight initiation distances, i.e. their boldness, and individuals' IIVs. We suggest that to understand personality in animals, researchers should generate a personality 'profile' that includes not only the relative level of a trait (i.e. its personality, but also its plasticity and variability under natural conditions.

  4. Unemployment in chronic airflow obstruction around the world: results from the BOLD study.

    Grønseth, Rune; Erdal, Marta; Tan, Wan C; Obaseki, Daniel O; Amaral, Andre F S; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juvekar, Sanjay K; Koul, Parvaiz A; Studnicka, Michael; Salvi, Sundeep; Burney, Peter; Buist, A Sonia; Vollmer, William M; Johannessen, Ane

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine associations between chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) and unemployment across the world.Cross-sectional data from 26 sites in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study were used to analyse effects of CAO on unemployment. Odds ratios for unemployment in subjects aged 40-65 years were estimated using a multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear model with study site as random effect. Site-by-site heterogeneity was assessed using individual participant data meta-analyses.Out of 18 710 participants, 11.3% had CAO. The ratio of unemployed subjects with CAO divided by subjects without CAO showed large site discrepancies, although these were no longer significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and education. The site-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for unemployment was 1.79 (1.41-2.27) for CAO cases, decreasing to 1.43 (1.14-1.79) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and forced vital capacity. Of other covariates that were associated with unemployment, age and education were important risk factors in high-income sites (4.02 (3.53-4.57) and 3.86 (2.80-5.30), respectively), while female sex was important in low- to middle-income sites (3.23 (2.66-3.91)).In the global BOLD study, CAO was associated with increased levels of unemployment, even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and lung function. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. MEG and fMRI fusion for nonlinear estimation of neural and BOLD signal changes

    Sergey M Plis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The combined analysis of MEG/EEG and functional MRI measurements can lead to improvement in the description of the dynamical and spatial properties of brain activity. In this paper we empirically demonstrate this improvement using simulated and recorded task related MEG and fMRI activity. Neural activity estimates were derived using a dynamic Bayesian network with continuous real valued parameters by means of a sequential Monte Carlo technique. In synthetic data, we show that MEG and fMRI fusion improves estimation of the indirectly observed neural activity and smooths tracking of the BOLD response. In recordings of task related neural activity the combination of MEG and fMRI produces a result with greater SNR, that confirms the expectation arising from the nature of the experiment. The highly nonlinear model of the BOLD response poses a difficult inference problem for neural activity estimation; computational requirements are also high due to the time and space complexity. We show that joint analysis of the data improves the system's behavior by stabilizing the differential equations system and by requiring fewer computational resources.

  6. Visual BOLD Response in Late Blind Subjects with Argus II Retinal Prosthesis.

    E Castaldi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI. After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them. No subject showed any improvement of contrast sensitivity in either eye when not using the Argus II. Before the implant, the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD activity in V1 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN was very weak or absent. Surprisingly, after prolonged use of Argus II, BOLD responses to visual input were enhanced. This is, to our knowledge, the first study tracking the neural changes of visual areas in patients after retinal implant, revealing a capacity to respond to restored visual input even after years of deprivation.

  7. Low prevalence of obstructive lung disease in a suburban population of Malaysia: A BOLD collaborative study.

    Loh, Li Cher; Rashid, Abdul; Sholehah, Siti; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Patel, Jaymini H; Burney, Peter

    2016-08-01

    As a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) collaboration, we studied the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated risk factors in a suburban population in Malaysia. Nonhospitalized men or women of age ≥ 40 years from a Penang district were recruited by stratified simple random sampling. Participants completed detailed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and exposure to COPD risk factors. Prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry conducted was standardized across all international BOLD sites in device and data quality control. Of the 1218 individuals recruited for the study, 663 (340 men and 323 women) had complete questionnaire data and acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry. The estimated population prevalence of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) ≥ stage I was 6.5% or 3.4% based on either fixed forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of population-based epidemiology data on COPD for Malaysia. Compared with other sites globally, our estimated population prevalence was relatively low. In addition to cigarette smoking, use of biomass fuel and exposure to dusty job represented significant risk to the development of COPD. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. Task-Related Modulations of BOLD Low-Frequency Fluctuations within the Default Mode Network

    Silvia Tommasin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN, are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33 ± 6 years, 8 F/12 M the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the continuous execution of a working memory n-back task. We found that task execution impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to continuous task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response to a task.

  9. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Yadong Liu

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response (sNBR using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  10. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Liu, Yadong; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Zongtan; Hu, Dewen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response (sNBR) using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR) counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  11. Task-Related Modulations of BOLD Low-Frequency Fluctuations within the Default Mode Network

    Tommasin, Silvia; Mascali, Daniele; Gili, Tommaso; Assan, Ibrahim Eid; Moraschi, Marta; Fratini, Michela; Wise, Richard G.; Macaluso, Emiliano; Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33 ± 6 years, 8 F/12 M) the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the continuous execution of a working memory n-back task. We found that task execution impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to continuous task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response to a task. PMID:28845420

  12. Increased BOLD activation to predator stressor in subiculum and midbrain of amphetamine-sensitized maternal rats.

    Febo, Marcelo; Pira, Ashley S

    2011-03-25

    Amphetamine, which is known to cause sensitization, potentiates the hormonal and neurobiological signatures of stress and may also increase sensitivity to stress-inducing stimuli in limbic areas. Trimethylthiazoline (5μL TMT) is a chemical constituent of fox feces that evokes innate fear and activates the neuronal and hormonal signatures of stress in rats. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to test whether amphetamine sensitization (1mg/kg, i.p. ×3days) in female rats has a lasting effect on the neural response to a stress-evoking stimulus, the scent of a predator, during the postpartum period. The subiculum and dopamine-enriched midbrain VTA/SN of amphetamine-sensitized but not control mothers showed a greater BOLD signal response to predator odor than a control putrid scent. The greater responsiveness of these two brain regions following stimulant sensitization might impact neural processing in response to stressors in the maternal brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring BOLD changes during spatial attention in non-stimulated visual cortex.

    Linda Heinemann

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD responses were measured in parts of primary visual cortex that represented unstimulated visual field regions at different distances from a stimulated central target location. The composition of the visual scene varied by the presence or absence of additional peripheral distracter stimuli. Bottom-up effects were assessed by comparing peripheral activity during central stimulation vs. no stimulation. Top-down effects were assessed by comparing active vs. passive conditions. In passive conditions subjects simply watched the central letter stimuli and in active conditions they had to report occurrence of pre-defined targets in a rapid serial letter stream. Onset of the central letter stream enhanced activity in V1 representations of the stimulated region. Within representations of the periphery activation decreased and finally turned into deactivation with increasing distance from the stimulated location. This pattern was most pronounced in the active conditions and during the presence of peripheral stimuli. Active search for a target did not lead to additional enhancement at areas representing the attentional focus but to a stronger deactivation in the vicinity. Suppressed neuronal activity was also found in the non distracter condition suggesting a top-down attention driven effect. Our observations suggest that BOLD signal decreases in primary visual cortex are modulated by bottom-up sensory-driven factors such as the presence of distracters in the visual field as well as by top-down attentional processes.

  14. Task-related modulations of BOLD low-frequency fluctuations within the default mode network

    Tommasin, Silvia; Mascali, Daniele; Gili, Tommaso; Eid Assan, Ibrahim; Moraschi, Marta; Fratini, Michela; Wise, Richard G.; Macaluso, Emiliano; Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33±6 years, 8F/12M) the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the steady-state execution of a sustained working memory n-back task. We found that the steady state execution of such a task impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to steady-state task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response of a task.

  15. fMRI BOLD response to the eyes task in offspring from multiplex alcohol dependence families.

    Hill, Shirley Y; Kostelnik, Bryan; Holmes, Brian; Goradia, Dhruman; McDermott, Michael; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2007-12-01

    Increased susceptibility for developing alcohol dependence (AD) may be related to structural and functional differences in brain circuits that influence social cognition and more specifically, theory of mind (ToM). Alcohol dependent individuals have a greater likelihood of having deficits in social skills and greater social alienation. These characteristics may be related to inherited differences in the neuroanatomical network that comprises the social brain. Adolescent/young adult participants from multiplex AD families and controls (n = 16) were matched for gender, age, IQ, education, and handedness and administered the Eyes Task of Baron-Cohen during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). High-risk (HR) subjects showed significantly diminished blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in comparison with low-risk control young adults in the right middle temporal gyrus (RMTG) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), areas that have previously been implicated in ToM tasks. Offspring from multiplex families for AD may manifest one aspect of their genetic susceptibility by having a diminished BOLD response in brain regions associated with performance of ToM tasks. These results suggest that those at risk for developing AD may have reduced ability to empathize with others' state of mind, possibly resulting in diminished social skill.

  16. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  17. Detecting Activation in fMRI Data: An Approach Based on Sparse Representation of BOLD Signal

    Blanca Guillen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple yet effective approach for detecting activated voxels in fMRI data by exploiting the inherent sparsity property of the BOLD signal in temporal and spatial domains. In the time domain, the approach combines the General Linear Model (GLM with a Least Absolute Deviation (LAD based regression method regularized by the pseudonorm l0 to promote sparsity in the parameter vector of the model. In the spatial domain, detection of activated regions is based on thresholding the spatial map of estimated parameters associated with a particular stimulus. The threshold is calculated by exploiting the sparseness of the BOLD signal in the spatial domain assuming a Laplacian distribution model. The proposed approach is validated using synthetic and real fMRI data. For synthetic data, results show that the proposed approach is able to detect most activated voxels without any false activation. For real data, the method is evaluated through comparison with the SPM software. Results indicate that this approach can effectively find activated regions that are similar to those found by SPM, but using a much simpler approach. This study may lead to the development of robust spatial approaches to further simplifying the complexity of classical schemes.

  18. Background MR gradient noise and non-auditory BOLD activations: a data-driven perspective.

    Haller, Sven; Homola, György A; Scheffler, Klaus; Beckmann, Christian F; Bartsch, Andreas J

    2009-07-28

    The effect of echoplanar imaging (EPI) acoustic background noise on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activations was investigated. Two EPI pulse sequences were compared: (i) conventional EPI with a pulsating sound component of typically 8-10 Hz, which is a potent physiological stimulus, and (ii) the more recently developed continuous-sound EPI, which is perceived as less distractive despite equivalent peak sound pressure levels. Sixteen healthy subjects performed an established demanding visual n-back working memory task. Using an exploratory data analysis technique (tensorial probabilistic independent component analysis; tensor-PICA), we studied the inter-session/within-subject response variability introduced by continuous-sound versus conventional EPI acoustic background noise in addition to temporal and spatial signal characteristics. The analysis revealed a task-related component associated with the established higher-level working memory and motor feedback response network, which exhibited a significant 19% increase in its average effect size for the continuous-sound as opposed to conventional EPI. Stimulus-related lower-level activations, such as primary visual areas, were not modified. EPI acoustic background noise influences much more than the auditory system per se. This analysis provides additional evidence for an enhancement of task-related, extra-auditory BOLD activations by continuous-sound EPI due to less distractive acoustic background gradient noise.

  19. Nonlinear Bayesian Estimation of BOLD Signal under Non-Gaussian Noise

    Ali Fahim Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal has been a subject of study for over a decade in the neuroimaging community. Inspired from fluid dynamics, the hemodynamic model provides a plausible yet convincing interpretation of the BOLD signal by amalgamating effects of dynamic physiological changes in blood oxygenation, cerebral blood flow and volume. The nonautonomous, nonlinear set of differential equations of the hemodynamic model constitutes the process model while the weighted nonlinear sum of the physiological variables forms the measurement model. Plagued by various noise sources, the time series fMRI measurement data is mostly assumed to be affected by additive Gaussian noise. Though more feasible, the assumption may cause the designed filter to perform poorly if made to work under non-Gaussian environment. In this paper, we present a data assimilation scheme that assumes additive non-Gaussian noise, namely, the e-mixture noise, affecting the measurements. The proposed filter MAGSF and the celebrated EKF are put to test by performing joint optimal Bayesian filtering to estimate both the states and parameters governing the hemodynamic model under non-Gaussian environment. Analyses using both the synthetic and real data reveal superior performance of the MAGSF as compared to EKF.

  20. Ghrelin modulates the fMRI BOLD response of homeostatic and hedonic brain centers regulating energy balance in the rat.

    Miklós Sárvári

    Full Text Available The orexigenic gut-brain peptide, ghrelin and its G-protein coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1A are pivotal regulators of hypothalamic feeding centers and reward processing neuronal circuits of the brain. These systems operate in a cooperative manner and receive a wide array of neuronal hormone/transmitter messages and metabolic signals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed in the current study to map BOLD responses to ghrelin in different brain regions with special reference on homeostatic and hedonic regulatory centers of energy balance. Experimental groups involved male, ovariectomized female and ovariectomized estradiol-replaced rats. Putative modulation of ghrelin signaling by endocannabinoids was also studied. Ghrelin-evoked effects were calculated as mean of the BOLD responses 30 minutes after administration. In the male rat, ghrelin evoked a slowly decreasing BOLD response in all studied regions of interest (ROI within the limbic system. This effect was antagonized by pretreatment with GHS-R1A antagonist JMV2959. The comparison of ghrelin effects in the presence or absence of JMV2959 in individual ROIs revealed significant changes in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens of the telencephalon, and also within hypothalamic centers like the lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the female rat, the ghrelin effects were almost identical to those observed in males. Ovariectomy and chronic estradiol replacement had no effect on the BOLD response. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid signaling by rimonabant significantly attenuated the response of the nucleus accumbens and septum. In summary, ghrelin can modulate hypothalamic and mesolimbic structures controlling energy balance in both sexes. The endocannabinoid signaling system contributes to the manifestation of ghrelin's BOLD effect in a region specific manner. In females, the

  1. "To Boldly Go" versus "Last, Best Hope" : The Future of Human Civilization as Depicted in American Science Fiction

    Glasø, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    "'To Boldly Go" versus "Last, Best Hope'" examines a total of four American television series from the Star Trek and Babylon 5 franchises, and the portrayal of human civilization in the future. The thesis traces how Star Trek set out "to boldly go" and how Babylon 5 was the "last, best hope" in depicting a coherent, futuristic vision for humanity. The initial chapter focuses on the background of the series and also the ways they differed from one another, while chapter 2 is devoted to the por...

  2. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  3. The role of ecological context and predation risk-stimuli in revealing the true picture about the genetic basis of boldness evolution in fish

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Krause, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To showcase the importance of genotype × environment interactions and the presence of predation risk in the experimental assessment of boldness in fish, we investigated boldness in terms of feeding behavior and refuge use in two genetically different populations of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio)...

  4. Spatial–temporal signature of resting-state BOLD signals in classic trigeminal neuralgia

    Wang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yanping Wang,1 Congying Xu,1 Liping Zhai,1 Xudong Lu,1 Xiaoqiang Wu,1 Yahui Yi,2 Ziyun Liu,1 Qiaobing Guan,1 Xiaoling Zhang1 1Department of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 2Department of Radiology, the Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, China Abstract: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI signals are spatiotemporally organized. R-fMRI studies in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN have suggested alterations in functional connectivity. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the local oscillations and their frequency-specific changes in these patients. The objective of this study was to address this issue in patients with CTN. R-fMRI data from 17 patients with CTN and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs were analyzed using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. The ALFF was computed across different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz in patients with CTN compared to HCs. In the typical band, patients with CTN showed increases of ALFF in bilateral temporal, occipital, and left middle frontal regions and in the left middle cingulate gyrus, as well as decreases of ALFF in the right inferior temporal region and in regions (medial prefrontal regions of default mode network. These significant group differences were identified in different sub-bands, with greater brainstem findings in higher frequencies (slow-4 and extensive default mode network and right postparietal results in lower frequencies (slow-5. Furthermore, significant relationships were found between subjective pain ratings and both amplitudes of higher frequency (slow-4 blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signals in pain localization brain regions and lower frequencies (slow-5 in pain signaling/modulating brain regions in the patients, and decreased ALFF within the prefrontal regions was significantly

  5. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  6. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; Van der Zwaag, W.

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and

  7. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major): body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    Carere, C.; Van Oers, K.

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  8. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major) : body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    Carere, C; van Oers, K

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  9. Comparison between subjects with long- and short-allele carriers in the BOLD signal within amygdala during emotional tasks

    Hadi, Shamil; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    Emotional tasks may result in a strong blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala in 5- HTTLRP short-allele. Reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-amygdala connectivity in short-allele provides a potential mechanistic account for the observed increase in amygdala activity. In our study, fearful and threatening facial expressions were presented to two groups of 12 subjects with long- and short-allele carriers. The BOLD signals of the left amygdala of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the model parameters to elucidate the underlying hemodynamic mechanism. Our results showed a positive BOLD signal in the left amygdala for short-allele individuals, and a negative BOLD signal in the same region for long-allele individuals. This is due to the fact that short-allele is associated with lower availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and this leads to an increase of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the cACC-amygdala synapse.

  10. Associations of resting-state fMRI functional connectivity with flow-BOLD coupling and regional vasculature.

    Tak, Sungho; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Wang, Danny J J; Yan, Lirong; Chen, J Jean

    2015-04-01

    There has been tremendous interest in applying functional magnetic resonance imaging-based resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI) measurements to the study of brain function. However, a lack of understanding of the physiological mechanisms of rs-fcMRI limits their ability to interpret rs-fcMRI findings. In this work, the authors examine the regional associations between rs-fcMRI estimates and dynamic coupling between the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as resting macrovascular volume. Resting-state BOLD and CBF data were simultaneously acquired using a dual-echo pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) technique, whereas macrovascular volume fraction was estimated using time-of-flight MR angiography. Functional connectivity within well-known functional networks—including the default mode, frontoparietal, and primary sensory-motor networks—was calculated using a conventional seed-based correlation approach. They found the functional connectivity strength to be significantly correlated with the regional increase in CBF-BOLD coupling strength and inversely proportional to macrovascular volume fraction. These relationships were consistently observed within all functional networks considered. Their findings suggest that highly connected networks observed using rs-fcMRI are not likely to be mediated by common vascular drainage linking distal cortical areas. Instead, high BOLD functional connectivity is more likely to reflect tighter neurovascular connections, attributable to neuronal pathways.

  11. Somatosensory BOLD fMRI reveals close link between salient blood pressure changes and the murine neuromatrix.

    Reimann, Henning Matthias; Todiras, Mihail; Hodge, Russ; Huelnhagen, Till; Millward, Jason Michael; Turner, Robert; Seeliger, Erdmann; Bader, Michael; Pohlmann, Andreas; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2018-05-15

    The neuromatrix, or "pain matrix", is a network of cortical brain areas which is activated by noxious as well as salient somatosensory stimulation. This has been studied in mice and humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Here we demonstrate that BOLD effects observed in the murine neuromatrix in response to salient somatosensory stimuli are prone to reflect mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) changes, rather than neural activity. We show that a standard electrostimulus typically used in murine somatosensory fMRI can induce substantial elevations in MABP. Equivalent drug-induced MABP changes - without somatosensory stimulation - evoked BOLD patterns in the neuromatrix strikingly similar to those evoked by electrostimulation. This constitutes a serious caveat for murine fMRI. The regional specificity of these BOLD patterns can be attributed to the co-localization of the neuromatrix with large draining veins. Based on these findings we propose a cardiovascular support mechanism whereby abrupt elevations in MABP provide additional energy supply to the neuromatrix and other essential brain areas in fight-or-flight situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  13. The impact of susceptibility gradients on cartesian and spiral EPI for BOLD fMRI

    Sangill, Ryan; Wallentin, Mikkel; Østergaard, Leif

    2006-01-01

    , with special emphasis on spiral EPI (spiral) and cartesian EPI (EPI) and their performance under influence of induced field gradients (SFGs) and stochastic noise. A numerical method for calculating synthetic MR images is developed and used to simulate BOLD fMRI experiments using EPI and spirals. The data...... is then examined for activation using a pixel-wise t test. Nine subjects are scanned with both techniques while performing a motor task. SPM99 is used for analysing the experimental data. The simulated spirals provide generally higher t scores at low SFGs but lose more strength than EPI at higher SFGs, where EPI...... activation is offset from the true position. In the primary motor area spirals provide significantly higher t scores (P SFG areas spirals provide stronger activation than...

  14. Spatial-temporal-spectral EEG patterns of BOLD functional network connectivity dynamics

    Lamoš, Martin; Mareček, Radek; Slavíček, Tomáš; Mikl, Michal; Rektor, Ivan; Jan, Jiří

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during electroencephalogram (EEG) data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity. Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by parallel factor analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity. The simultaneously acquired BOLD fMRI data were decomposed by independent component analysis. Dynamic functional connectivity was computed on the component’s time series using a sliding window correlation, and between-network connectivity states were then defined based on the values of the correlation coefficients. ANOVA tests were performed to assess the relationships between the dynamics of between-network connectivity states and the fluctuations of EEG spectral patterns. Main results. We found three patterns related to the dynamics of between-network connectivity states. The first pattern has dominant peaks in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands and is related to the dynamics between the auditory, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. The second pattern, with dominant peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the visual and default mode network. The third pattern, also with peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the auditory and frontal network. Significance. Our previous findings revealed a relationship between EEG spectral pattern fluctuations and the hemodynamics of large-scale brain networks. In this study, we suggest that the relationship also exists at the level of functional connectivity dynamics among large-scale brain networks when no standard spatial and spectral

  15. A statistical approach for segregating cognitive task stages from multivariate fMRI BOLD time series

    Charmaine eDemanuele

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern analysis can reveal new information from neuroimaging data to illuminate human cognition and its disturbances. Here, we develop a methodological approach, based on multivariate statistical/machine learning and time series analysis, to discern cognitive processing stages from fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD time series. We apply this method to data recorded from a group of healthy adults whilst performing a virtual reality version of the delayed win-shift radial arm maze task. This task has been frequently used to study working memory and decision making in rodents. Using linear classifiers and multivariate test statistics in conjunction with time series bootstraps, we show that different cognitive stages of the task, as defined by the experimenter, namely, the encoding/retrieval, choice, reward and delay stages, can be statistically discriminated from the BOLD time series in brain areas relevant for decision making and working memory. Discrimination of these task stages was significantly reduced during poor behavioral performance in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, but not in the primary visual cortex (V1. Experimenter-defined dissection of time series into class labels based on task structure was confirmed by an unsupervised, bottom-up approach based on Hidden Markov Models. Furthermore, we show that different groupings of recorded time points into cognitive event classes can be used to test hypotheses about the specific cognitive role of a given brain region during task execution. We found that whilst the DLPFC strongly differentiated between task stages associated with different memory loads, but not between different visual-spatial aspects, the reverse was true for V1. Our methodology illustrates how different aspects of cognitive information processing during one and the same task can be separated and attributed to specific brain regions based on information contained in multivariate patterns of voxel

  16. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention

    Mara eKottlow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health.We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods.Four temporally coherent networks - the default mode network (DMN, the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network - were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks’ pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing.We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be online synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  17. Frequency-dependent tACS modulation of BOLD signal during rhythmic visual stimulation.

    Chai, Yuhui; Sheng, Jingwei; Bandettini, Peter A; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a promising tool for modulating cortical oscillations. In previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, tACS has been found to modulate brain oscillatory activity in a frequency-specific manner. However, the spatial distribution and hemodynamic response for this modulation remains poorly understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the advantage of measuring neuronal activity in regions not only below the tACS electrodes but also across the whole brain with high spatial resolution. Here, we measured fMRI signal while applying tACS to modulate rhythmic visual activity. During fMRI acquisition, tACS at different frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz) was applied along with visual flicker stimulation at 8 and 16 Hz. We analyzed the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal difference between tACS-ON vs tACS-OFF, and different frequency combinations (e.g., 4 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker vs 8 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker). We observed significant tACS modulation effects on BOLD responses when the tACS frequency matched the visual flicker frequency or the second harmonic frequency. The main effects were predominantly seen in regions that were activated by the visual task and targeted by the tACS current distribution. These findings bridge different scientific domains of tACS research and demonstrate that fMRI could localize the tACS effect on stimulus-induced brain rhythms, which could lead to a new approach for understanding the high-level cognitive process shaped by the ongoing oscillatory signal. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Computing moment to moment BOLD activation for real-time neurofeedback

    Hinds, Oliver; Ghosh, Satrajit; Thompson, Todd W.; Yoo, Julie J.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating moment to moment changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation levels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has applications for learned regulation of regional activation, brain state monitoring, and brain-machine interfaces. In each of these contexts, accurate estimation of the BOLD signal in as little time as possible is desired. This is a challenging problem due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of fMRI data. Previous methods for real-time fMRI analysis have either sacrificed the ability to compute moment to moment activation changes by averaging several acquisitions into a single activation estimate or have sacrificed accuracy by failing to account for prominent sources of noise in the fMRI signal. Here we present a new method for computing the amount of activation present in a single fMRI acquisition that separates moment to moment changes in the fMRI signal intensity attributable to neural sources from those due to noise, resulting in a feedback signal more reflective of neural activation. This method computes an incremental general linear model fit to the fMRI timeseries, which is used to calculate the expected signal intensity at each new acquisition. The difference between the measured intensity and the expected intensity is scaled by the variance of the estimator in order to transform this residual difference into a statistic. Both synthetic and real data were used to validate this method and compare it to the only other published real-time fMRI method. PMID:20682350

  19. Back pain in seniors: the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort baseline data.

    Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Turner, Judith A; Sullivan, Sean D; Shi, Xu; Nerenz, David R; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Kessler, Larry; James, Kathryn; Friedly, Janna L; Bresnahan, Brian W; Bauer, Zoya; Avins, Andrew L; Deyo, Richard A

    2014-04-23

    Back pain represents a substantial burden globally, ranking first in a recent assessment among causes of years lived with disability. Though back pain is widely studied among working age adults, there are gaps with respect to basic descriptive epidemiology among seniors, especially in the United States. Our goal was to describe how pain, function and health-related quality of life vary by demographic and geographic factors among seniors presenting to primary care providers with new episodes of care for back pain. We examined baseline data from the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) registry, the largest inception cohort to date of seniors presenting to a primary care provider for back pain. The sample included 5,239 patients ≥ 65 years old with a new primary care visit for back pain at three integrated health systems (Northern California Kaiser-Permanente, Henry Ford Health System [Detroit], and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates [Boston]). We examined differences in patient characteristics across healthcare sites and associations of patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with baseline patient-reported measures of pain, function, and health-related quality of life. Patients differed across sites in demographic and other characteristics. The Detroit site had more African-American patients (50%) compared with the other sites (7-8%). The Boston site had more college graduates (68%) compared with Detroit (20%). Female sex, lower educational status, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse functional disability as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Except for age, these factors were also associated with worse pain. Baseline pain and functional impairment varied substantially with a number of factors in the BOLD cohort. Healthcare site was an important factor. After controlling for healthcare site, lower education, female sex, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse

  20. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  1. Interneuronal systems of the cervical spinal cord assessed with BOLD imaging at 1.5 T

    Stracke, C.P.; Schoth, F.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Krings, T.; Pettersson, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if functional activity with spinal cord somatosensory stimulation can be visualized using BOLD fMRI. We investigated nine healthy volunteers using a somatosensory stimulus generator. The stimuli were applied in three different runs at the first, third, and fifth finger tip of the right hand, respectively, corresponding to dermatomes c6, c7, and c8. The stimuli gave an increase of BOLD signal (activation) in three different locations of the spinal cord and brain stem. First, activations could be seen in the spinal segment corresponding to the stimulated dermatome in seven out of nine volunteers for c6 stimulation, two out of eight for c7, and three out of eight for c8. These activations were located close to the posterior margin of the spinal cord, presumably reflecting synaptic transmission to dorsal horn interneurons. Second, activation in the medulla oblongata was evident in four subjects, most likely corresponding to the location of the nucleus cuneatus. The third location of activation, which was the strongest and most reliable observed was inside the spinal cord in the c3 and c4 segments. Activation at these spinal levels was almost invariably observed independently of the dermatome stimulated (9/9 for c6, 8/8 for c7, and 7/8 for c8 stimulation). These activations may pertain to an interneuronal system at this spinal level. The results are discussed in relation to neurophysiological studies on cervical spinal interneuronal pathways in animals and humans. (orig.)

  2. Negative BOLD in sensory cortices during verbal memory: a component in generating internal representations?

    Azulay, Haim; Striem, Ella; Amedi, Amir

    2009-05-01

    People tend to close their eyes when trying to retrieve an event or a visual image from memory. However the brain mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Recently, we showed that during visual mental imagery, auditory areas show a much more robust deactivation than during visual perception. Here we ask whether this is a special case of a more general phenomenon involving retrieval of intrinsic, internally stored information, which would result in crossmodal deactivations in other sensory cortices which are irrelevant to the task at hand. To test this hypothesis, a group of 9 sighted individuals were scanned while performing a memory retrieval task for highly abstract words (i.e., with low imaginability scores). We also scanned a group of 10 congenitally blind, which by definition do not have any visual imagery per se. In sighted subjects, both auditory and visual areas were robustly deactivated during memory retrieval, whereas in the blind the auditory cortex was deactivated while visual areas, shown previously to be relevant for this task, presented a positive BOLD signal. These results suggest that deactivation may be most prominent in task-irrelevant sensory cortices whenever there is a need for retrieval or manipulation of internally stored representations. Thus, there is a task-dependent balance of activation and deactivation that might allow maximization of resources and filtering out of non relevant information to enable allocation of attention to the required task. Furthermore, these results suggest that the balance between positive and negative BOLD might be crucial to our understanding of a large variety of intrinsic and extrinsic tasks including high-level cognitive functions, sensory processing and multisensory integration.

  3. Boldness towards novelty and translocation success in captive-raised, orphaned Tasmanian devils.

    Sinn, David L; Cawthen, Lisa; Jones, Susan M; Pukk, Chrissy; Jones, Menna E

    2014-01-01

    Translocation of endangered animals is common, but success is often variable and/or poor. Despite its intuitive appeal, little is known with regards to how individual differences amongst translocated animals influence their post-release survival, growth, and reproduction. We measured consistent pre-release responses to novelty in a familiar environment (boldness; repeatability=0.55) and cortisol response in a group of captive-reared Tasmanian devils, currently listed as "Endangered" by the IUCN. The devils were then released at either a hard- or soft-release site within their mothers' population of origin, and individual growth, movement, reproduction (females only), and survival across 2-8 months post-release was measured. Sex, release method, cohort, behavior, and cortisol response did not affect post-release growth, nor did these factors influence the home range size of orphan devils. Final linear distances moved from the release site were impacted heavily by the release cohort, but translocated devils' movement overall was not different from that in the same-age wild devils. All orphan females of reproductive age were subsequently captured with offspring. Overall survival rates in translocated devils were moderate (∼42%), and were not affected by devil sex, release method, cohort, release weight, or pre-release cortisol response. Devils that survived during the study period were, however, 3.5 times more bold than those that did not (effect size r=0.76). Our results suggest that conservation managers may need to provide developmental conditions in captivity that promote a wide range of behaviors across individuals slated for wild release. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Distributed BOLD-response in association cortex vector state space predicts reaction time during selective attention.

    Musso, Francesco; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Schäffner, Cornelius; Friedrich, Britta; Frech, Peter; Stoeter, Peter; Winterer, Georg

    2006-02-15

    Human cortical information processing is thought to be dominated by distributed activity in vector state space (Churchland, P.S., Sejnowski, T.J., 1992. The Computational Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge.). In principle, it should be possible to quantify distributed brain activation with independent component analysis (ICA) through vector-based decomposition, i.e., through a separation of a mixture of sources. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a selective attention-requiring task (visual oddball), we explored how the number of independent components within activated cortical areas is related to reaction time. Prior to ICA, the activated cortical areas were determined on the basis of a General linear model (GLM) voxel-by-voxel analysis of the target stimuli (checkerboard reversal). Two activated cortical areas (temporoparietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) were further investigated as these cortical regions are known to be the sites of simultaneously active electromagnetic generators which give rise to the compound event-related potential P300 during oddball task conditions. We found that the number of independent components more strongly predicted reaction time than the overall level of "activation" (GLM BOLD-response) in the left temporoparietal area whereas in the medial prefrontal cortex both ICA and GLM predicted reaction time equally well. Comparable correlations were not seen when principle components were used instead of independent components. These results indicate that the number of independently activated components, i.e., a high level of cortical activation complexity in cortical vector state space, may index particularly efficient information processing during selective attention-requiring tasks. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a potential relationship between neuronal generators of cognitive processes, the associated electrophysiological evidence for the existence of distributed networks

  5. Physiologic characterization of inflammatory arthritis in a rabbit model with BOLD and DCE MRI at 1.5 Tesla

    Nasui, Otilia C.; Chan, Michael W.; Nathanael, George; Rayner, Tammy; Weiss, Ruth; Detzler, Garry; Zhong, Anguo [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Miller, Elka [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Belik, Jaques [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cheng, Hai-Ling; Kassner, Andrea; Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Department of Public Health, Family and Community Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jong, Roland; Rogers, Marianne [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    Our aim was to test the feasibility of blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to monitor periarticular hypoxic/inflammatory changes over time in a juvenile rabbit model of arthritis. We examined arthritic and contralateral nonarthritic knees of 21 juvenile rabbits at baseline and days 1,14, and 28 after induction of arthritis by unilateral intra-articular injection of carrageenin with BOLD and DCE MRI at 1.5 Tesla (T). Nine noninjected rabbits served as controls. Associations between BOLD and DCE-MRI and corresponding intra-articular oxygen pressure (PO{sub 2}) and blood flow [blood perfusion units (BPU)] (polarographic probes, reference standards) or clinical-histological data were measured by correlation coefficients. Percentage BOLD MRI change obtained in contralateral knees correlated moderately with BPU on day 0 (r = -0.51, p = 0.02) and excellently on day 28 (r = -0.84, p = 0.03). A moderate correlation was observed between peak enhancement DCE MRI (day 1) and BPU measurements in arthritic knees (r = 0.49, p = 0.04). In acute arthritis, BOLD and DCE MRI highly correlated (r = 0.89, p = 0.04; r = 1.0, p < 0.0001) with histological scores in arthritic knees. The proposed techniques are feasible to perform at 1.5 T, and they hold potential as surrogate measures to monitor hypoxic and inflammatory changes over time in arthritis at higher-strength MRI fields. (orig.)

  6. Quantifying the microvascular origin of BOLD-fMRI from first principles with two-photon microscopy and an oxygen-sensitive nanoprobe.

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Frédéric; Musacchia, Joseph J; Lefebvre, Joël; Fang, Qianqian; Yücel, Meryem A; Evans, Karleyton C; Mandeville, Emiri T; Cohen-Adad, Jülien; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Lo, Eng H; Greve, Douglas N; Buxton, Richard B; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna; Boas, David A

    2015-02-25

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast is widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies aimed at investigating neuronal activity. However, the BOLD signal reflects changes in blood volume and oxygenation rather than neuronal activity per se. Therefore, understanding the transformation of microscopic vascular behavior into macroscopic BOLD signals is at the foundation of physiologically informed noninvasive neuroimaging. Here, we use oxygen-sensitive two-photon microscopy to measure the BOLD-relevant microvascular physiology occurring within a typical rodent fMRI voxel and predict the BOLD signal from first principles using those measurements. The predictive power of the approach is illustrated by quantifying variations in the BOLD signal induced by the morphological folding of the human cortex. This framework is then used to quantify the contribution of individual vascular compartments and other factors to the BOLD signal for different magnet strengths and pulse sequences. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353663-13$15.00/0.

  7. Post-contractile BOLD contrast in skeletal muscle at 7 T reveals inter-individual heterogeneity in the physiological responses to muscle contraction.

    Towse, Theodore F; Elder, Christopher P; Bush, Emily C; Klockenkemper, Samuel W; Bullock, Jared T; Dortch, Richard D; Damon, Bruce M

    2016-12-01

    Muscle blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) contrast is greater in magnitude and potentially more influenced by extravascular BOLD mechanisms at 7 T than it is at lower field strengths. Muscle BOLD imaging of muscle contractions at 7 T could, therefore, provide greater or different contrast than at 3 T. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using BOLD imaging at 7 T to assess the physiological responses to in vivo muscle contractions. Thirteen subjects (four females) performed a series of isometric contractions of the calf muscles while being scanned in a Philips Achieva 7 T human imager. Following 2 s maximal isometric plantarflexion contractions, BOLD signal transients ranging from 0.3 to 7.0% of the pre-contraction signal intensity were observed in the soleus muscle. We observed considerable inter-subject variability in both the magnitude and time course of the muscle BOLD signal. A subset of subjects (n = 7) repeated the contraction protocol at two different repetition times (T R : 1000 and 2500 ms) to determine the potential of T 1 -related inflow effects on the magnitude of the post-contractile BOLD response. Consistent with previous reports, there was no difference in the magnitude of the responses for the two T R values (3.8 ± 0.9 versus 4.0 ± 0.6% for T R  = 1000 and 2500 ms, respectively; mean ± standard error). These results demonstrate that studies of the muscle BOLD responses to contractions are feasible at 7 T. Compared with studies at lower field strengths, post-contractile 7 T muscle BOLD contrast may afford greater insight into microvascular function and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Co-localization between the BOLD response and epileptiform discharges recorded by simultaneous intracranial EEG-fMRI at 3 T

    Yahya Aghakhani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: iEEG-fMRI is a feasible and low-risk method for assessment of hemodynamic changes of very focal IEDs that may not be recorded by scalp EEG. A high concordance rate between the location of the BOLD response and IEDs was seen for mesial temporal (6/7 IEDs. Significant BOLD activation was also seen in areas distant from the active electrode and these sites exhibited maximal BOLD activation in the majority of cases. This implies that iEEG-fMRI may further describe the areas involved in the generation of IEDs beyond the vicinity of the electrode(s.

  9. Towards a mechanistic understanding of vulnerability to hook-and-line fishing: Boldness as the basic target of angling-induced selection

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Kuparinen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    by juvenile growth rate, while morphological traits were only weakly related to angling vulnerability. In addition, we found juvenile growth rate to be moderately correlated with boldness. Hence, direct selection on boldness will also induce indirect selection on juvenile growth and vice versa, but given......In passively operated fishing gear, boldness-related behaviors should fundamentally affect the vulnerability of individual fish and thus be under fisheries selection. To test this hypothesis, we used juvenile common-garden reared carp (Cyprinus carpio) within a narrow size range to investigate...... the mechanistic basis of behavioral selection caused by angling. We focused on one key personality trait (i.e., boldness), measured in groups within ponds, two morphological traits (body shape and head shape), and one life-history trait (juvenile growth capacity) and studied mean standardized selection gradients...

  10. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  11. BOLD Imaging in Awake Wild-Type and Mu-Opioid Receptor Knock-Out Mice Reveals On-Target Activation Maps in Response to Oxycodone

    Kelsey Moore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (µ opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO in response to oxycodone (OXY. Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2.5 mg of OXY. BOLD activation was detected in 72 regions out of 122, and was most prominent in areas of high µ opioid receptor density (thalamus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, caudate putamen, basal amygdala and hypothalamus, and focus on pain circuits indicated strong activation in major pain processing centers (central amygdala, solitary tract, parabrachial area, insular cortex, gigantocellularis area, ventral thalamus primary sensory cortex and prelimbic cortex. Importantly, the OXY-induced positive BOLD was eliminated in MuKO mice in most regions, with few exceptions (some cerebellar nuclei, CA3 of the hippocampus, medial amygdala and preoptic areas. This result indicates that most effects of OXY on positive BOLD are mediated by the µ opioid receptor (on-target effects. OXY also caused an increase in negative BOLD in WT mice in few regions (16 out of 122 and, unlike the positive BOLD response the negative BOLD was only partially eliminated in the MuKO mice (cerebellum, and in some case intensified (hippocampus. Negative BOLD analysis therefore shows activation and deactivation events in the absence of the µ receptor for some areas where receptor expression is normally extremely low or absent (off-target effects. Together, our approach permits establishing opioid-induced BOLD activation maps in awake mice. In addition, comparison of WT and MuKO mutant mice reveals both on-target and off-target activation events, and set an OXY

  12. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes. PMID:28489864

  13. Food intake rates of inactive fish are positively linked to boldness in three‐spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Manica, A.; Boogert, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the link between personality and maximum food intake of inactive individuals, food‐deprived three‐spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus at rest in their home compartments were provided with ad libitum prey items. Bolder individuals ate considerably more than shyer individuals, even after accounting for body size, while sociability did not have an effect. These findings support pace‐of‐life theory predicting that life‐history strategies are linked to boldness. PMID:26940195

  14. Measurement of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF): An optimized BOLD signal model for use with hypercapnic and hyperoxic calibration.

    Merola, Alberto; Murphy, Kevin; Stone, Alan J; Germuska, Michael A; Griffeth, Valerie E M; Blockley, Nicholas P; Buxton, Richard B; Wise, Richard G

    2016-04-01

    Several techniques have been proposed to estimate relative changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) by exploiting combined BOLD fMRI and cerebral blood flow data in conjunction with hypercapnic or hyperoxic respiratory challenges. More recently, methods based on respiratory challenges that include both hypercapnia and hyperoxia have been developed to assess absolute CMRO2, an important parameter for understanding brain energetics. In this paper, we empirically optimize a previously presented "original calibration model" relating BOLD and blood flow signals specifically for the estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and absolute CMRO2. To do so, we have created a set of synthetic BOLD signals using a detailed BOLD signal model to reproduce experiments incorporating hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges at 3T. A wide range of physiological conditions was simulated by varying input parameter values (baseline cerebral blood volume (CBV0), baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF0), baseline oxygen extraction fraction (OEF0) and hematocrit (Hct)). From the optimization of the calibration model for estimation of OEF and practical considerations of hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges, a new "simplified calibration model" is established which reduces the complexity of the original calibration model by substituting the standard parameters α and β with a single parameter θ. The optimal value of θ is determined (θ=0.06) across a range of experimental respiratory challenges. The simplified calibration model gives estimates of OEF0 and absolute CMRO2 closer to the true values used to simulate the experimental data compared to those estimated using the original model incorporating literature values of α and β. Finally, an error propagation analysis demonstrates the susceptibility of the original and simplified calibration models to measurement errors and potential violations in the underlying assumptions of isometabolism

  15. The effect of renal denervation on kidney oxygenation as determined by BOLD MRI in patients with hypertension

    Vink, E.E.; Boer, A.; Blankestijn, P.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology, P.O. Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verloop, W.L.; Voskuil, M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Spiering, W.; Leiner, T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Vascular Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vonken, E.; Hoogduin, J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bots, M.L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a promising therapy for resistant hypertension. RDN is assumed to decrease sympathetic activity. Consequently, RDN can potentially increase renal oxygenation. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI (BOLD-MRI) provides a non-invasive tool to determine renal oxygenation in humans. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RDN on renal oxygenation as determined by BOLD-MRI. Patients with resistant hypertension or the inability to follow a stable drug regimen due to unacceptable side effects were included. BOLD-MRI was performed before and 12 months after RDN. Twenty-seven patients were imaged on 3 T and 19 on 1.5 T clinical MRI systems. Fifty-four patients were included, 46 patients (23 men, mean age 57 years) completed the study. Mean 24-h BP changed from 163(±20)/98(±14) mmHg to 154(±22)/92(±13) mmHg (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). eGFR did not change after RDN [77(±18) vs. 79(±20) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; p = 0.13]. RDN did not affect renal oxygenation [1.5 T: cortical R2*: 12.5(±0.9) vs. 12.5(±0.9), p = 0.94; medullary R2*: 19.6(±1.7) vs. 19.3(1.4), p = 0.40; 3 T: cortical R2*: 18.1(±0.8) vs. 17.8(±1.2), p = 0.47; medullary R2*: 27.4(±1.9) vs. 26.7(±1.8), p = 0.19]. The current study shows that RDN does not lead to changes in renal oxygenation 1 year after RDN as determined by BOLD-MRI. (orig.)

  16. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness.

    Stanley, Christina R; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes.

  17. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  18. Resting State BOLD Variability in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Marker of Cognitive Decline or Cerebrovascular Status?

    Vanessa Scarapicchia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that may benefit from early diagnosis and intervention. Therefore, there is a need to identify early biomarkers of AD using non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Recently, novel approaches to the analysis of resting-state fMRI data have been developed that focus on the moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal. The objective of the current study was to investigate BOLD variability as a novel early biomarker of AD and its associated psychophysiological correlates.Method: Data were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI 2 database from 19 participants with AD and 19 similarly aged controls. For each participant, a map of BOLD signal variability (SDBOLD was computed as the standard deviation of the BOLD timeseries at each voxel. Group comparisons were performed to examine global differences in resting state SDBOLD in AD versus healthy controls. Correlations were then examined between participant SDBOLD maps and (1 ADNI-derived composite scores of memory and executive function and (2 neuroimaging markers of cerebrovascular status.Results: Between-group comparisons revealed significant (p < 0.05 increases in SDBOLD in patients with AD relative to healthy controls in right-lateralized frontal regions. Lower memory scores and higher WMH burden were associated with greater SDBOLD in the healthy control group (p < 0.1, but not individuals with AD.Conclusion: The current study provides proof of concept of a novel resting state fMRI analysis technique that is non-invasive, easily accessible, and clinically compatible. To further explore the potential of SDBOLD as a biomarker of AD, additional studies in larger, longitudinal samples are needed to better understand the changes in SDBOLD that characterize earlier stages of disease progression and their underlying psychophysiological

  19. Relationship between BOLD amplitude and pattern classification of orientation-selective activity in the human visual cortex

    Tong, Frank; Harrison, Stephenie A.; Dewey, John A.; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Orientation-selective responses can be decoded from fMRI activity patterns in the human visual cortex, using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). To what extent do these feature-selective activity patterns depend on the strength and quality of the sensory input, and might the reliability of these activity patterns be predicted by the gross amplitude of the stimulus-driven BOLD response? Observers viewed oriented gratings that varied in luminance contrast (4, 20 or 100%) or spatial frequency (0.25, 1.0 or 4.0 cpd). As predicted, activity patterns in early visual areas led to better discrimination of orientations presented at high than low contrast, with greater effects of contrast found in area V1 than in V3. A second experiment revealed generally better decoding of orientations at low or moderate as compared to high spatial frequencies. Interestingly however, V1 exhibited a relative advantage at discriminating high spatial frequency orientations, consistent with the finer scale of representation in the primary visual cortex. In both experiments, the reliability of these orientation-selective activity patterns was well predicted by the average BOLD amplitude in each region of interest, as indicated by correlation analyses, as well as decoding applied to a simple model of voxel responses to simulated orientation columns. Moreover, individual differences in decoding accuracy could be predicted by the signal-to-noise ratio of an individual's BOLD response. Our results indicate that decoding accuracy can be well predicted by incorporating the amplitude of the BOLD response into simple simulation models of cortical selectivity; such models could prove useful in future applications of fMRI pattern classification. PMID:22917989

  20. Systematic protocol for assessment of the validity of BOLD MRI in a rabbit model of inflammatory arthritis at 1.5 tesla

    Chan, Michael W.; Nathanael, George; Kis, Antonella; Amirabadi, Afsaneh; Zhong, Anguo; Rayner, Tammy; Weiss, Ruth; Detzler, Garry; Gahunia, Harpal [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Jong, Roland [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Family and Community Medicine, Department of Public Health, Toronto (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI has the potential to identify regions of early hypoxic and vascular joint changes in inflammatory arthritis. There is no standard protocol for analysis of BOLD MRI measurements in musculoskeletal disorders. To optimize the following BOLD MRI reading parameters: (1) statistical threshold values (low, r > 0.01 versus high, r > 0.2); (2) summary measures of BOLD contrast (percentage of activated voxels [PT%] versus percentage signal difference between on-and-off signal intensities [diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff]); and (3) direction of BOLD response (positive, negative and positive + negative). Using BOLD MRI protocols at 1.5 T, arthritic (n = 21) and contralateral (n = 21) knees of 21 juvenile rabbits were imaged at baseline and on days 1, 14 and 28 after a unilateral intra-articular injection of carrageenan. Nine non-injected rabbits served as external control knees (n = 18). By comparing arthritic to contralateral knees, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine diagnostic accuracy. Using diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff and positive + negative responses, a threshold of r > 0.01 was more accurate than r > 0.2 (P = 0.03 at day 28). Comparison of summary measures yielded no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Although positive + negative (AUC = 0.86 at day 28) and negative responses (AUC = 0.90 at day 28) for PT% were the most diagnostically accurate, positive + negative responses for diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff (AUC = 0.78 at day 28) also had acceptable accuracy. The most clinically relevant reading parameters included a lower threshold of r > 0.01 and a positive + negative BOLD response. We propose that diff{sub o}n{sub o}ff is a more clinically relevant summary measure of BOLD MRI, while PT% can be used as an ancillary measure. (orig.)

  1. The association between chronic airflow obstruction and poverty in 12 sites of the multinational BOLD study.

    Townend, John; Minelli, Cosetta; Mortimer, Kevin; Obaseki, Daniel O; Al Ghobain, Mohammed; Cherkaski, Hamid; Denguezli, Myriam; Gunesekera, Kirthi; Hafizi, Hasan; Koul, Parvaiz A; Loh, Li C; Nejjari, Chakib; Patel, Jaymini; Sooronbayev, Talant; Buist, Sonia A; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-06-01

    Poverty is strongly associated with mortality from COPD, but little is known of its relation to airflow obstruction.In a cross-sectional study of adults aged ≥40 years from 12 sites (N=9255), participating in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study, poverty was evaluated using a wealth score (0-10) based on household assets. Obstruction, measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) (%) after administration of 200 μg salbutamol, and prevalence of FEV 1 /FVCwealth scores ranged from 4 in Blantyre (Malawi) and Kashmir (India) to 10 in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), and the prevalence of obstruction, from 16% in Kashmir to 3% in Riyadh and Penang (Malaysia). Following adjustments for age and sex, FEV 1 /FVC increased by 0.36% (absolute change) (95%CI: 0.22, 0.49; pwealth score. Adjustments for other confounders reduced this effect to 0.23% (0.11, 0.34), but even this value remained highly significant (pwealth scores explained 38% of the variation in mean FEV 1 /FVC between sites (r 2 =0.385, p=0.031).Airflow obstruction is consistently associated with poverty at individual and community levels across several countries. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  2. Effect of CGRP and sumatriptan on the BOLD response in visual cortex

    Asghar, Mohammed Sohail; Hansen, Adam E; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) modulates brain activity, we investigated the effect of intravenous CGRP on brain activity in response to a visual stimulus. In addition, we examined if possible alteration in brain activity was reversed by the anti-migraine drug......% of the participants reported headache after CGRP. We found no changes in brain activity after CGRP (P = 0.12) or after placebo (P = 0.41). Sumatriptan did not affect brain activity after CGRP (P = 0.71) or after placebo (P = 0.98). Systemic CGRP or sumatriptan has no direct effects on the BOLD activity in visual...... sumatriptan. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive CGRP infusion (1.5 µg/min for 20 min) or placebo. In vivo activity in the visual cortex was recorded before, during and after infusion and after 6 mg subcutaneous sumatriptan by functional magnetic resonance imaging (3 T). 77...

  3. Internal representations for face detection: an application of noise-based image classification to BOLD responses.

    Nestor, Adrian; Vettel, Jean M; Tarr, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    What basic visual structures underlie human face detection and how can we extract such structures directly from the amplitude of neural responses elicited by face processing? Here, we address these issues by investigating an extension of noise-based image classification to BOLD responses recorded in high-level visual areas. First, we assess the applicability of this classification method to such data and, second, we explore its results in connection with the neural processing of faces. To this end, we construct luminance templates from white noise fields based on the response of face-selective areas in the human ventral cortex. Using behaviorally and neurally-derived classification images, our results reveal a family of simple but robust image structures subserving face representation and detection. Thus, we confirm the role played by classical face selective regions in face detection and we help clarify the representational basis of this perceptual function. From a theory standpoint, our findings support the idea of simple but highly diagnostic neurally-coded features for face detection. At the same time, from a methodological perspective, our work demonstrates the ability of noise-based image classification in conjunction with fMRI to help uncover the structure of high-level perceptual representations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exploiting magnetic resonance angiography imaging improves model estimation of BOLD signal.

    Zhenghui Hu

    Full Text Available The change of BOLD signal relies heavily upon the resting blood volume fraction ([Formula: see text] associated with regional vasculature. However, existing hemodynamic data assimilation studies pretermit such concern. They simply assign the value in a physiologically plausible range to get over ill-conditioning of the assimilation problem and fail to explore actual [Formula: see text]. Such performance might lead to unreliable model estimation. In this work, we present the first exploration of the influence of [Formula: see text] on fMRI data assimilation, where actual [Formula: see text] within a given cortical area was calibrated by an MR angiography experiment and then was augmented into the assimilation scheme. We have investigated the impact of [Formula: see text] on single-region data assimilation and multi-region data assimilation (dynamic cause modeling, DCM in a classical flashing checkerboard experiment. Results show that the employment of an assumed [Formula: see text] in fMRI data assimilation is only suitable for fMRI signal reconstruction and activation detection grounded on this signal, and not suitable for estimation of unobserved states and effective connectivity study. We thereby argue that introducing physically realistic [Formula: see text] in the assimilation process may provide more reliable estimation of physiological information, which contributes to a better understanding of the underlying hemodynamic processes. Such an effort is valuable and should be well appreciated.

  5. BOLD data representing activation and connectivity for rare no-go versus frequent go cues

    Harma Meffert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuitry underlying response control is often studied using go/no-go tasks, in which participants are required to respond as fast as possible to go cues and withhold from responding to no-go stimuli. In the current task, response control was studied using a fully counterbalanced design in which blocks with a low frequency of no-go cues (75% go, 25% no-go were alternated with blocks with a low frequency of go cues (25% go, 75% no-go; see also “Segregating attention from response control when performing a motor inhibition task: Segregating attention from response control” [1]. We applied a whole brain corrected, paired t-test to the data assessing for regions differentially activated by low frequency no-go cues relative to high frequency go cues. In addition, we conducted a generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis on the data using a right inferior frontal gyrus seed region. This region was identified through the BOLD response t-test and was chosen because right inferior gyrus is highly implicated in response inhibition.

  6. Functional evaluation of transplanted kidneys in normal function and acute rejection using BOLD MR imaging

    Xiao Wenbo; Xu Jingjing; Wang Qindong; Xu Ying; Zhang Minming

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a large number of subjects using BOLD MRI to provide more information about oxygen metabolism in the normal function of transplanted kidneys and to distinguish acute graft rejection from normal function kidneys. This study included 122 subjects (20 volunteers, 72 patients with normal functioning transplants, and 21 patients with acute rejection), and 9 patients had normal function grafts received examination while grafts dysfunction occurred within 6 months during the follow-up. The R2* (1/s) values in the cortex and medulla as well as the R2* ratio of the medulla to cortex (R2* ratio of M/C) were recorded. The R2* values of the medulla were higher than those of the cortex in the normal function group and the volunteers which have a steep R2* ratio of M/C. All the R2* values in the acute rejection group were lower than those in the normal function grafts group (P 1.1) is an important reason for keeping clinical normal function.

  7. Greater BOLD variability in older compared with younger adults during audiovisual speech perception.

    Sarah H Baum

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit decreased performance and increased trial-to-trial variability on a range of cognitive tasks, including speech perception. We used blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI to search for neural correlates of these behavioral phenomena. We compared brain responses to simple speech stimuli (audiovisual syllables in 24 healthy older adults (53 to 70 years old and 14 younger adults (23 to 39 years old using two independent analysis strategies: region-of-interest (ROI and voxel-wise whole-brain analysis. While mean response amplitudes were moderately greater in younger adults, older adults had much greater within-subject variability. The greatly increased variability in older adults was observed for both individual voxels in the whole-brain analysis and for ROIs in the left superior temporal sulcus, the left auditory cortex, and the left visual cortex. Increased variability in older adults could not be attributed to differences in head movements between the groups. Increased neural variability may be related to the performance declines and increased behavioral variability that occur with aging.

  8. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

    Henning U Voss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  9. BOLD responses in somatosensory cortices better reflect heat sensation than pain.

    Moulton, Eric A; Pendse, Gautam; Becerra, Lino R; Borsook, David

    2012-04-25

    The discovery of cortical networks that participate in pain processing has led to the common generalization that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in these areas indicate the processing of pain. Physical stimuli have fundamental properties that elicit sensations distinguishable from pain, such as heat. We hypothesized that pain intensity coding may reflect the intensity coding of heat sensation during the presentation of thermal stimuli during fMRI. Six 3T fMRI heat scans were collected for 16 healthy subjects, corresponding to perceptual levels of "low innocuous heat," "moderate innocuous heat," "high innocuous heat," "low painful heat," "moderate painful heat," and "high painful heat" delivered by a contact thermode to the face. Subjects rated pain and heat intensity separately after each scan. A general linear model analysis detected different patterns of brain activation for the different phases of the biphasic response to heat. During high painful heat, the early phase was associated with significant anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Persistent responses were detected in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Only the late phase showed significant correlations with perceptual ratings. Significant heat intensity correlated activation was identified in contralateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, motor cortex, and superior temporal lobe. These areas were significantly more related to heat ratings than pain. These results indicate that heat intensity is encoded by the somatosensory cortices, and that pain evaluation may either arise from multimodal evaluative processes, or is a distributed process.

  10. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  11. Spatial attention related SEP amplitude modulations covary with BOLD signal in S1--a simultaneous EEG--fMRI study.

    Schubert, Ruth; Ritter, Petra; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Preuschhof, Claudia; Curio, Gabriel; Sommer, Werner; Villringer, Arno

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies investigating the influence of spatial-selective attention on primary somatosensory processing have produced inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of tactile spatial-selective attention on spatiotemporal aspects of evoked neuronal activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). We employed simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 right-handed subjects during bilateral index finger Braille stimulation to investigate the relationship between attentional effects on somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) components and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. The 1st reliable EEG response following left tactile stimulation (P50) was significantly enhanced by spatial-selective attention, which has not been reported before. FMRI analysis revealed increased activity in contralateral S1. Remarkably, the effect of attention on the P50 component as well as long-latency SEP components starting at 190 ms for left stimuli correlated with attentional effects on the BOLD signal in contralateral S1. The implications are 2-fold: First, the correlation between early and long-latency SEP components and the BOLD effect suggest that spatial-selective attention enhances processing in S1 at 2 time points: During an early passage of the signal and during a later passage, probably via re-entrant feedback from higher cortical areas. Second, attentional modulations of the fast electrophysiological signals and the slow hemodynamic response are linearly related in S1.

  12. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Hames, Elizabeth’ C.; Murphy, Brandi; Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C.; Baker, Mary; Zupancic, Stephen; O’Boyle, Michael; Richman, David

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20–28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs. PMID:27148020

  13. Visual cortex and auditory cortex activation in early binocularly blind macaques: A BOLD-fMRI study using auditory stimuli.

    Wang, Rong; Wu, Lingjie; Tang, Zuohua; Sun, Xinghuai; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Weijun; Qian, Wen; Wang, Jie; Jin, Lixin; Zhong, Yufeng; Xiao, Zebin

    2017-04-15

    Cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices of early binocularly blind macaques is not well studied. In this study, four healthy neonatal macaques were assigned to group A (control group) or group B (binocularly blind group). Sixteen months later, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was conducted to examine the activation in the visual and auditory cortices of each macaque while being tested using pure tones as auditory stimuli. The changes in the BOLD response in the visual and auditory cortices of all macaques were compared with immunofluorescence staining findings. Compared with group A, greater BOLD activity was observed in the bilateral visual cortices of group B, and this effect was particularly obvious in the right visual cortex. In addition, more activated volumes were found in the bilateral auditory cortices of group B than of group A, especially in the right auditory cortex. These findings were consistent with the fact that there were more c-Fos-positive cells in the bilateral visual and auditory cortices of group B compared with group A (p visual cortices of binocularly blind macaques can be reorganized to process auditory stimuli after visual deprivation, and this effect is more obvious in the right than the left visual cortex. These results indicate the establishment of cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EEG-informed fMRI analysis during a hand grip task: estimating the relationship between EEG rhythms and the BOLD signal

    Roberta eSclocco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an increasing interest has arisen in investigating the relationship between the electrophysiological and hemodynamic measurements of brain activity, such as EEG and (BOLD fMRI. In particular, changes in BOLD have been shown to be associated with changes in the spectral profile of neural activity, rather than with absolute power. Concurrently, recent findings showed that different EEG rhythms are independently related to changes in the BOLD signal: therefore, it would be important to distinguish between the contributions of the different EEG rhythms to BOLD fluctuations when modeling the relationship between the two signals. Here we propose a method to perform EEG-informed fMRI analysis, in which the EEG regressors take into account both the changes in the spectral profile and the rhythms distinction. We applied it to EEG-fMRI data during a hand grip task in healthy subjects, and compared the results with those obtained by two existing models found in literature. Our results showed that the proposed method better captures the correlations between BOLD signal and EEG rhythms modulations, identifying task-related, well localized activated volumes. Furthermore, we showed that including among the regressors also EEG rhythms not primarily involved in the task enhances the performance of the analysis, even when only correlations with BOLD signal and specific EEG rhythms are explored.

  15. BOLD/VENTURE-4, Reactor Analysis System with Sensitivity and Burnup

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The system of codes can be used to solve nuclear reactor core static neutronics and reactor history exposure problems. BOLD/VENTURE-4: First order perturbation and time-dependent sensitivity theories can be applied. Control rod positioning may be modeled explicitly and refueling treated with repositioning and recycle. Special capability is coded to model the continuously fueled core and to solve the importance and dominant harmonics problems. The modules of the code system are: VENTNEUT: VENTURE neutronics module; DRIVER and CONTRL: Control module; BURNER: Exposure calculation for reactor core analysis; FILEDTOR: File editor; INPROSER: Input processor; EXPOSURE: BURNER code module; REACRATE: Reaction rate calculation; CNTRODPO: Control rod positioning; FUELMANG: Fuel management positioning and accounting; PERTUBAT: Perturbation reactivity importance analyses; sensitivity analysis; DEPTHMOD: Static and time-dependent perturbation sensitivity analysis. The special processors are: DVENTR: Handles the input to the VENTURE module; DCMACR: Converts CITATION macroscopic cross sections to microscopic cross sections; DCRSPR: Produces input for the CROSPROS module; DUTLIN: Adds or replaces problem input data without exiting the program; DENMAN: Repositions fuel; DMISLY: Miscellaneous tasks. Standard interface files between modules are binary sequential files that follow a standardized format. VENTURE-PC: The microcomputer version is a subset of the mainframe version. The modules and special processors which are not part of VENTURE-PC are: REACRATE, CNTRODPO, PERTUBAT, FUELMANG, DEPTHMOD, DMISLY. 2 - method of solution: BOLD-VENTURE-4: The neutronics problems are solved by applying the multigroup diffusion theory representation of neutron transport applying an over-relaxation inner iteration, outer iteration scheme. Special modeling is used or source correction is done during iteration to solve importance and harmonics problems. No

  16. Development of a parallel zoomed EVI sequence for high temporal resolution analysis of the BOLD response

    Rabrait, C.

    2006-01-01

    The hemodynamic impulse response to any short stimulus typically lasts around 20 seconds. Thus, the detection of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is usually performed using a 2D Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence, with repetition times on the order of 1 or 2 seconds. This temporal resolution is generally enough for detection purposes. Nevertheless, when trying to accurately estimate the hemodynamic response functions (HRF), higher scanning rates represent a real advantage. Thus, in order to reach a temporal resolution around 200 ms, we developed a new acquisition method, based on Echo Volumar Imaging and 2D parallel acquisition (1). Echo Volumar Imaging (EVI) has been proposed in 1977 by Mansfield (2). EVI intrinsically possesses a lot of advantages for functional neuroimaging, as a 3 D single shot acquisition method. Nevertheless, to date, only a few applications have been reported (3, 4). Actually, very restricting hardware requirements make EVI difficult to perform in satisfactory experimental conditions, even today. The critical point in EVI is the echo train duration, which is longer than in EPI, due to 3D acquisition. Indeed, at equal field of view and spatial resolutions, EVI echo train duration must be approximately equal to EPI echo train duration multiplied by the number of slices acquired in EPI. Consequently, EVI is much more sensitive than EPI to geometric distortions, which are related to phase errors, and also to signal losses, which are due to long echo times (TE). Thus, a first improvement has been brought by 'zoomed' or 'localized' EVI (5), which allows to focus on a small volume of interest and thus limit echo train durations compared to full FOV acquisitions.To reduce echo train durations, we chose to apply parallel acquisition. Moreover, since EVI is a 3D acquisition method, we are able to perform parallel acquisition and SENSE reconstruction along the two phase directions (6). The R = 4 under-sampling consists in the

  17. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance.

    Bright, Molly G; Murphy, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable measurement of CVR that makes breath-hold challenges suitable for routine clinical practice. © 2013.

  18. Cerebral Asymmetry of fMRI-BOLD Responses to Visual Stimulation.

    Anders Hougaard

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetry of a wide range of functions is a hallmark of the human brain. The visual system has traditionally been thought of as symmetrically distributed in the brain, but a growing body of evidence has challenged this view. Some highly specific visual tasks have been shown to depend on hemispheric specialization. However, the possible lateralization of cerebral responses to a simple checkerboard visual stimulation has not been a focus of previous studies. To investigate this, we performed two sessions of blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 54 healthy subjects during stimulation with a black and white checkerboard visual stimulus. While carefully excluding possible non-physiological causes of left-to-right bias, we compared the activation of the left and the right cerebral hemispheres and related this to grey matter volume, handedness, age, gender, ocular dominance, interocular difference in visual acuity, as well as line-bisection performance. We found a general lateralization of cerebral activation towards the right hemisphere of early visual cortical areas and areas of higher-level visual processing, involved in visuospatial attention, especially in top-down (i.e., goal-oriented attentional processing. This right hemisphere lateralization was partly, but not completely, explained by an increased grey matter volume in the right hemisphere of the early visual areas. Difference in activation of the superior parietal lobule was correlated with subject age, suggesting a shift towards the left hemisphere with increasing age. Our findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance of these areas, which could lend support to the generally observed leftward visual attentional bias and to the left hemifield advantage for some visual perception tasks.

  19. The Role of Oxytocin in Parenting and as Augmentative Pharmacotherapy: Critical Issues and Bold Conjectures.

    van IJzendoorn, M H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J

    2016-08-01

    Despite the sometimes heated debate about the validity of human oxytocin studies, experimental oxytocin research with intranasal administration is a growing field with promising preliminary findings. The effects of intranasally administered oxytocin compared to placebo on brain neural activity have been supported in animal studies and in human studies of neural resting state. In several studies, oxytocin sniffs have been shown to lead to down-regulation of amygdala activation in response to infant attachment vocalisations. Meta-analytic evidence shows that oxytocin enhances the salience of (emotional) stimuli, lowers stress and arousal, and elevates empathic concern and tender care, in particular for offspring and in-group members. Less firm evidence points at the amnestic effects of oxytocin. We also note that the average effect sizes of oxytocin experiments are small to modest, and that most studies include a small number of subjects and thus are seriously underpowered, which implies a high risk for publication bias and nonreplicability. Nevertheless, we argue that the power of within-subjects experiments with oxytocin has been underestimated. Much more work is needed, however, to create a firm knowledge base of the neural and behavioural effects of oxytocin. Human oxytocin research is still taking place in the context of discovery, in which bold conjectures are being generated. In the context of justification, these conjectures should subsequently be subjected to stringent attempts at refutations before we jump to theoretical or clinical conclusions. For this context of justification, we propose a multisite multiple replications project on the social stimuli salience enhancing effect of oxytocin. Clinical application of oxytocin is premature. Meta-analytically, the use of oxytocin in clinical groups tends to show only effectiveness in changing symptomatology in individuals with autism spectrum disorders but, even then, it is not yet a validated therapy and its

  20. Airflow Obstruction and Use of Solid Fuels for Cooking or Heating: BOLD Results.

    Amaral, André F S; Patel, Jaymini; Kato, Bernet S; Obaseki, Daniel O; Lawin, Hervé; Tan, Wan C; Juvekar, Sanjay K; Harrabi, Imed; Studnicka, Michael; Wouters, Emiel F M; Loh, Li-Cher; Bateman, Eric D; Mortimer, Kevin; Buist, A Sonia; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-09-12

    Evidence supporting the association of COPD or airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels is conflicting and inconsistent. To assess the association of airflow obstruction with self-reported use of solid fuels for cooking or heating. We analysed 18,554 adults from the BOLD study, who had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on use of solid fuels. The association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating was assessed by sex, within each site, using regression analysis. Estimates were stratified by national income and meta-analysed. We carried out similar analyses for spirometric restriction, chronic cough and chronic phlegm. We found no association between airflow obstruction and use of solid fuels for cooking or heating (ORmen=1.20, 95%CI 0.94-1.53; ORwomen=0.88, 95%CI 0.67-1.15). This was true for low/middle and high income sites. Among never smokers there was also no evidence of an association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels (ORmen=1.00, 95%CI 0.57-1.76; ORwomen=1.00, 95%CI 0.76-1.32). Overall, we found no association of spirometric restriction, chronic cough or chronic phlegm with the use of solid fuels. However, we found that chronic phlegm was more likely to be reported among female never smokers and those who had been exposed for ≥20 years. Airflow obstruction assessed from post-bronchodilator spirometry was not associated with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.

  1. Graph Theoretical Analysis of BOLD Functional Connectivity during Human Sleep without EEG Monitoring.

    Jun Lv

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks of human have been revealed to have small-world properties by both analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI time series.In our study, by using graph theoretical analysis, we attempted to investigate the changes of paralimbic-limbic cortex between wake and sleep states. Ten healthy young people were recruited to our experiment. Data from 2 subjects were excluded for the reason that they had not fallen asleep during the experiment. For each subject, blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD images were acquired to analyze brain network, and peripheral pulse signals were obtained continuously to identify if the subject was in sleep periods. Results of fMRI showed that brain networks exhibited stronger small-world characteristics during sleep state as compared to wake state, which was in consistent with previous studies using EEG synchronization. Moreover, we observed that compared with wake state, paralimbic-limbic cortex had less connectivity with neocortical system and centrencephalic structure in sleep.In conclusion, this is the first study, to our knowledge, has observed that small-world properties of brain functional networks altered when human sleeps without EEG synchronization. Moreover, we speculate that paralimbic-limbic cortex organization owns an efficient defense mechanism responsible for suppressing the external environment interference when humans sleep, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the paralimbic-limbic cortex may be functionally disconnected from brain regions which directly mediate their interactions with the external environment. Our findings also provide a reasonable explanation why stable sleep exhibits homeostasis which is far less susceptible to outside world.

  2. Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen (CMRO2 ) Mapping by Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) and Quantitative Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Imaging (qBOLD).

    Cho, Junghun; Kee, Youngwook; Spincemaille, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh D; Zhang, Jingwei; Gupta, Ajay; Zhang, Shun; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-07

    To map the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by estimating the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from gradient echo imaging (GRE) using phase and magnitude of the GRE data. 3D multi-echo gradient echo imaging and perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling were performed in 11 healthy subjects. CMRO 2 and OEF maps were reconstructed by joint quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to process GRE phases and quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent (qBOLD) modeling to process GRE magnitudes. Comparisons with QSM and qBOLD alone were performed using ROI analysis, paired t-tests, and Bland-Altman plot. The average CMRO 2 value in cortical gray matter across subjects were 140.4 ± 14.9, 134.1 ± 12.5, and 184.6 ± 17.9 μmol/100 g/min, with corresponding OEFs of 30.9 ± 3.4%, 30.0 ± 1.8%, and 40.9 ± 2.4% for methods based on QSM, qBOLD, and QSM+qBOLD, respectively. QSM+qBOLD provided the highest CMRO 2 contrast between gray and white matter, more uniform OEF than QSM, and less noisy OEF than qBOLD. Quantitative CMRO 2 mapping that fits the entire complex GRE data is feasible by combining QSM analysis of phase and qBOLD analysis of magnitude. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback of the mediodorsal and anterior thalamus enhances correlation between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm.

    Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Wong, Chung Ki; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2018-02-01

    Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) with simultaneous EEG allows volitional modulation of BOLD activity of target brain regions and investigation of related electrophysiological activity. We applied this approach to study correlations between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm. Healthy volunteers in the experimental group (EG, n = 15) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the target region consisting of the mediodorsal (MD) and anterior (AN) thalamic nuclei using rtfMRI-nf during retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. Healthy subjects in the control group (CG, n = 14) were provided with a sham feedback. The EG participants were able to significantly increase BOLD activities of the MD and AN. Functional connectivity between the MD and the inferior precuneus was significantly enhanced during the rtfMRI-nf task. Average individual changes in the occipital alpha EEG power significantly correlated with the average MD BOLD activity levels for the EG. Temporal correlations between the occipital alpha EEG power and BOLD activities of the MD and AN were significantly enhanced, during the rtfMRI-nf task, for the EG compared to the CG. Temporal correlations with the alpha power were also significantly enhanced for the posterior nodes of the default mode network, including the precuneus/posterior cingulate, and for the dorsal striatum. Our findings suggest that the temporal correlation between the MD BOLD activity and posterior alpha EEG power is modulated by the interaction between the MD and the inferior precuneus, reflected in their functional connectivity. Our results demonstrate the potential of the rtfMRI-nf with simultaneous EEG for noninvasive neuromodulation studies of human brain function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Interleaved quantitative BOLD: Combining extravascular R2' - and intravascular R2-measurements for estimation of deoxygenated blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Englund, Erin K; Wehrli, Felix W

    2018-03-23

    Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD), a non-invasive MRI method for assessment of hemodynamic and metabolic properties of the brain in the baseline state, provides spatial maps of deoxygenated blood volume fraction (DBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbO 2 ) by means of an analytical model for the temporal evolution of free-induction-decay signals in the extravascular compartment. However, mutual coupling between DBV and HbO 2 in the signal model results in considerable estimation uncertainty precluding achievement of a unique set of solutions. To address this problem, we developed an interleaved qBOLD method (iqBOLD) that combines extravascular R 2 ' and intravascular R 2 mapping techniques so as to obtain prior knowledge for the two unknown parameters. To achieve these goals, asymmetric spin echo and velocity-selective spin-labeling (VSSL) modules were interleaved in a single pulse sequence. Prior to VSSL, arterial blood and CSF signals were suppressed to produce reliable estimates for cerebral venous blood volume fraction (CBV v ) as well as venous blood R 2 (to yield HbO 2 ). Parameter maps derived from the VSSL module were employed to initialize DBV and HbO 2 in the qBOLD processing. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments at 3 T were performed to evaluate the performance of iqBOLD in comparison to the parent qBOLD method. Data obtained in eight healthy subjects yielded plausible values averaging 60.1 ± 3.3% for HbO 2 and 3.1 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.4% for DBV in gray and white matter, respectively. Furthermore, the results show that prior estimates of CBV v and HbO 2 from the VSSL component enhance the solution stability in the qBOLD processing, and thus suggest the feasibility of iqBOLD as a promising alternative to the conventional technique for quantifying neurometabolic parameters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Towards prognostic biomarkers from BOLD fluctuations to differentiate a first epileptic seizure from new-onset epilepsy.

    Gupta, Lalit; Janssens, Rick; Vlooswijk, Mariëlle C G; Rouhl, Rob P W; de Louw, Anton; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Besseling, René M H; Hofman, Paul A M; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne H; Hilkman, Danny M; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of epilepsy cannot be reliably made prior to a patient's second seizure in most cases. Therefore, adequate diagnostic tools are needed to differentiate subjects with a first seizure from those with a seizure preceding the onset of epilepsy. The objective was to explore spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in subjects with a first-ever seizure and patients with new-onset epilepsy (NOE), and to find characteristic biomarkers for seizure recurrence after the first seizure. We examined 17 first-seizure subjects, 19 patients with new-onset epilepsy (NOE), and 18 healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical investigation and received electroencephalography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The BOLD time series were analyzed in terms of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs). We found significantly stronger amplitudes (higher fALFFs) in patients with NOE relative to first-seizure subjects and healthy controls. The frequency range of 73-198 mHz (slow-3 subband) appeared most useful for discriminating patients with NOE from first-seizure subjects. The ReHo measure did not show any significant differences. The fALFF appears to be a noninvasive measure that characterizes spontaneous BOLD fluctuations and shows stronger amplitudes in the slow-3 subband of patients with NOE relative first-seizure subjects and healthy controls. A larger study population with follow-up is required to determine whether fALFF holds promise as a potential biomarker for identifying subjects at increased risk to develop epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Accounting for the role of hematocrit in between-subject variations of MRI-derived baseline cerebral hemodynamic parameters and functional BOLD responses.

    Xu, Feng; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Peiying; Hua, Jun; Strouse, John J; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang; van Zijl, Peter C M; Qin, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Baseline hematocrit fraction (Hct) is a determinant for baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and between-subject variation of Hct thus causes variation in task-based BOLD fMRI signal changes. We first verified in healthy volunteers (n = 12) that Hct values can be derived reliably from venous blood T 1 values by comparison with the conventional lab test. Together with CBF measured using phase-contrast MRI, this noninvasive estimation of Hct, instead of using a population-averaged Hct value, enabled more individual determination of oxygen delivery (DO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ). The inverse correlation of CBF and Hct explained about 80% of between-subject variation of CBF in this relatively uniform cohort of subjects, as expected based on the regulation of DO 2 to maintain constant CMRO 2 . Furthermore, we compared the relationships of visual task-evoked BOLD response with Hct and CBF. We showed that Hct and CBF contributed 22%-33% of variance in BOLD signal and removing the positive correlation with Hct and negative correlation with CBF allowed normalization of BOLD signal with 16%-22% lower variability. The results of this study suggest that adjustment for Hct effects is useful for studies of MRI perfusion and BOLD fMRI. Hum Brain Mapp 39:344-353, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Food intake rates of inactive fish are positively linked to boldness in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Jolles, J W; Manica, A; Boogert, N J

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the link between personality and maximum food intake of inactive individuals, food-deprived three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus at rest in their home compartments were provided with ad libitum prey items. Bolder individuals ate considerably more than shyer individuals, even after accounting for body size, while sociability did not have an effect. These findings support pace-of-life theory predicting that life-history strategies are linked to boldness. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. SU-D-207A-03: Potential Role of BOLD MRI in Discrimination of Aggressive Tumor Habitat in Prostate Cancer

    Ford, J; Lopez, C; Tschudi, Y; Breto, A; Padgett, K; Pollack, A; Stoyanova, R [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine whether blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI signal measured in prostate cancer patients, in addition to quantitative diffusion and perfusion parameters from multiparametric (mp)MRI exams, can help discriminate aggressive and/or radioresistant lesions. Methods: Several ongoing clinical trials in our institution require mpMRI exam to determine eligibility (presence of identifiable tumor lesion on mpMRI) and prostate volumes for dose escalation. Upon consent, patients undergo fiducial markers placement and a T2*-weighted imaging at the time of CT sim to facilitate the fusion. In a retrospective analysis eleven clinical trial patients were identified who had undergone mpMRI on GE 3T magnet, followed by T2*-weighted imaging (time-period mean±SD = 48±20 days) using a consistent protocol (gradient echo, TR/TE=30/11.8ms, flip angle=12, matrix=256×256×75, voxel size=1.25×1.25×2.5mm). ROIs for prostate tumor lesions were automatically determined using ADC threshold ≤1200 µm2/s. Although the MR protocol was not intended for BOLD analysis, we utilized the T2*-weighted signal normalized to that in nearby muscle; likewise, T2-weighted lesion signal was normalized to muscle, following rigid registration of the T2 to T2* images. The ratio of these normalized signals, T2*/T2, is a measure of BOLD effect in the prostate tumors. Perfusion parameters (Ktrans, ve, kep) were also calculated. Results: T2*/T2 (mean±SE) was found to be substantially lower for Gleason score (GS) 8&9 (0.82±0.04) compared to GS 7 (1.08±0.07). A k-means cluster analysis of T2*/T2 versus kep = Ktrans/ve revealed two distinct clusters, one with higher T2*/T2 and lower kep, containing only GS 7 lesions, and another with lower T2*/T2 and higher kep, associated with tumor aggressiveness. This latter cluster contained all GS 8&9 lesions, as well as some GS 7. Conclusion: BOLD MRI, in addition to ADC and kep, may play a role (perhaps orthogonal to Gleason score) in

  10. Boldness predicts an individual's position along an exploration-exploitation foraging trade-off.

    Patrick, Samantha C; Pinaud, David; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2017-09-01

    -off itself. These results demonstrate a clear trade-off between information gathering and exploitation of prey patches, and reveals for the first time that boldness may drive these differences. This provides a mechanism through which widely reported links between personality and foraging may emerge. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  11. Effects of glyceryl trinitrate and calcitonin-gene-related peptide on BOLD signal and arterial diameter –methodological studies by fMRI and MRA

    Asghar, Mohammed Sohail; Ashina, Messoud

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades MRI has proved to be very useful in the field of drug development and discovery. Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) explores the interaction between brain physiology, neuronal activity and drugs[1]. The BOLD-signal is an indirect method to investigate brain activity by way...... of measuring task-related hemodynamic changes. Pharmacological substances that induce hemodynamic changes can therefore potentially alter the BOLD-signal that in turn falsely can be interpreted as changes in neuronal activity. It is therefore important to characterize possible effects of a pharmacological...... substance on the BOLD-response per see before that substance can be used in an fMRI experiment. Furthermore MR-angiography is useful in determining the vascular site-of-action of vasoactive substances....

  12. The effect of Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales on the aggression and boldness of Myrmica scabrinodis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Ferenc Báthori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of ectosymbiotic Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota fungi and their hosts are rather understudied. Rickia wasmannii Cavara is a common ant-associated Laboulbeniales species that has been reported in 17 countries of Europe, and frequently infects Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, a common ant species host, in high density. These make M. scabrinodis and R. wasmannii appropriate model organisms for studies on fungal host-ectosymbiont interactions. Aggressiveness and boldness of infected and uninfected M. scabrinodis workers from northern and eastern Hungary were studied in two laboratory-established behavioural experiments. Infected workers were significantly less aggressive and less bold (i.e. less likely to leave nest shelters than the uninfected ones. These results suggest that R. wasmannii has considerable effects on the behaviour of M. scabrinodis. Our study brings an evidence that infection of ants with Laboulbeniales might negatively affect the workers’ behaviour. In special, the competitive abilities might be affected most by these fungi, since remaining inside and behaving submissively is not effective behaviour in the case of significant competition for resources among colonies.

  13. Boldness in a deep sea hermit crab to simulated tactile predator attacks is unaffected by ocean acidification

    Kim, Tae Won; Barry, James P.

    2016-09-01

    Despite rapidly growing interest in the effects of ocean acidification on marine animals, the ability of deep-sea animals to acclimate or adapt to reduced pH conditions has received little attention. Deep-sea species are generally thought to be less tolerant of environmental variation than shallow-living species because they inhabit relatively stable conditions for nearly all environmental parameters. To explore whether deep-sea hermit crabs ( Pagurus tanneri) can acclimate to ocean acidification over several weeks, we compared behavioral "boldness," measured as time taken to re-emerge from shells after a simulated predatory attack by a toy octopus, under ambient (pH ˜7.6) and expected future (pH ˜7.1) conditions. The boldness measure for crab behavioral responses did not differ between different pH treatments, suggesting that future deep-sea acidification would not influence anti-predatory behavior. However, we did not examine the effects of olfactory cues released by predators that may affect hermit crab behavior and could be influenced by changes in the ocean carbonate system driven by increasing CO2 levels.

  14. In contrast to BOLD: signal enhancement by extravascular water protons as an alternative mechanism of endogenous fMRI signal change.

    Figley, Chase R; Leitch, Jordan K; Stroman, Patrick W

    2010-10-01

    Despite the popularity and widespread application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in recent years, the physiological bases of signal change are not yet fully understood. Blood oxygen level-dependant (BOLD) contrast - attributed to local changes in blood flow and oxygenation, and therefore magnetic susceptibility - has become the most prevalent means of functional neuroimaging. However, at short echo times, spin-echo sequences show considerable deviations from the BOLD model, implying a second, non-BOLD component of signal change. This has been dubbed "signal enhancement by extravascular water protons" (SEEP) and is proposed to result from proton-density changes associated with cellular swelling. Given that such changes are independent of magnetic susceptibility, SEEP may offer new and improved opportunities for carrying out fMRI in regions with close proximity to air-tissue and/or bone-tissue interfaces (e.g., the prefrontal cortex and spinal cord), as well as regions close to large blood vessels, which may not be ideally suited for BOLD imaging. However, because of the interdisciplinary nature of the literature, there has yet to be a thorough synthesis, tying together the various and sometimes disparate aspects of SEEP theory. As such, we aim to provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of SEEP, including recent and compelling evidence for its validity, its current applications and its future relevance to the rapidly expanding field of functional neuroimaging. Before presenting the evidence for a non-BOLD component of endogenous functional contrast, and to enable a more critical review for the nonexpert reader, we begin by reviewing the fundamental principles underlying BOLD theory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation attenuates the BOLD signal response to noxious sensory input in specific brain regions: Insights into a possible mechanism for analgesia.

    Pawela, Christopher P; Kramer, Jeffery M; Hogan, Quinn H

    2017-02-15

    Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala. These regions differentially demonstrated either positive or negative correlation to the acute noxious stimulation paradigm, in agreement with previous rat fMRI studies. Therapeutic-level GFS significantly attenuated the global BOLD response to noxious stimulation in these regions. This BOLD signal attenuation persisted for 20minutes after the GFS was discontinued. Control experiments in sham-operated animals showed that the attenuation was not due to the effect of repetitive noxious stimulation. Additional control experiments also revealed minimal BOLD fMRI response to GFS at therapeutic intensity when presented in a standard block-design paradigm. High intensity GFS produced a BOLD signal map similar to acute noxious stimulation when presented in a block-design. These findings are the first to identify the specific brain region responses to neuromodulation at the DRG level and suggest possible mechanisms for GFS-induced treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Audiovisual synchrony enhances BOLD responses in a brain network including multisensory STS while also enhancing target-detection performance for both modalities

    Marchant, Jennifer L; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The brain seeks to combine related inputs from different senses (e.g., hearing and vision), via multisensory integration. Temporal information can indicate whether stimuli in different senses are related or not. A recent human fMRI study (Noesselt et al. [2007]: J Neurosci 27:11431–11441) used auditory and visual trains of beeps and flashes with erratic timing, manipulating whether auditory and visual trains were synchronous or unrelated in temporal pattern. A region of superior temporal sulcus (STS) showed higher BOLD signal for the synchronous condition. But this could not be related to performance, and it remained unclear if the erratic, unpredictable nature of the stimulus trains was important. Here we compared synchronous audiovisual trains to asynchronous trains, while using a behavioral task requiring detection of higher-intensity target events in either modality. We further varied whether the stimulus trains had predictable temporal pattern or not. Synchrony (versus lag) between auditory and visual trains enhanced behavioral sensitivity (d') to intensity targets in either modality, regardless of predictable versus unpredictable patterning. The analogous contrast in fMRI revealed BOLD increases in several brain areas, including the left STS region reported by Noesselt et al. [2007: J Neurosci 27:11431–11441]. The synchrony effect on BOLD here correlated with the subject-by-subject impact on performance. Predictability of temporal pattern did not affect target detection performance or STS activity, but did lead to an interaction with audiovisual synchrony for BOLD in inferior parietal cortex. PMID:21953980

  17. BOLD fMRI of C-Fiber Mediated Nociceptive Processing in Mouse Brain in Response to Thermal Stimulation of the Forepaws.

    Simone C Bosshard

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in rodents enables non-invasive studies of brain function in response to peripheral input or at rest. In this study we describe a thermal stimulation paradigm using infrared laser diodes to apply noxious heat to the forepaw of mice in order to study nociceptive processing. Stimulation at 45 and 46°C led to robust BOLD signal changes in various brain structures including the somatosensory cortices and the thalamus. The BOLD signal amplitude scaled with the temperature applied but not with the area irradiated by the laser beam. To demonstrate the specificity of the paradigm for assessing nociceptive signaling we administered the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 to the forepaws, which due to its positive charge cannot readily cross biological membranes. However, upon activation of TRPV1 channels following the administration of capsaicin the BOLD signal was largely abolished, indicative of a selective block of the C-fiber nociceptors due to QX-314 having entered the cells via the now open TRPV1 channels. This demonstrates that the cerebral BOLD response to thermal noxious paw stimulation is specifically mediated by C-fibers.

  18. Patterns of cortical oscillations organize neural activity into whole-brain functional networks evident in the fMRI BOLD signal

    Jennifer C Whitman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings from electrophysiology and multimodal neuroimaging have elucidated the relationship between patterns of cortical oscillations evident in EEG / MEG and the functional brain networks evident in the BOLD signal. Much of the existing literature emphasized how high-frequency cortical oscillations are thought to coordinate neural activity locally, while low-frequency oscillations play a role in coordinating activity between more distant brain regions. However, the assignment of different frequencies to different spatial scales is an oversimplification. A more informative approach is to explore the arrangements by which these low- and high-frequency oscillations work in concert, coordinating neural activity into whole-brain functional networks. When relating such networks to the BOLD signal, we must consider how the patterns of cortical oscillations change at the same speed as cognitive states, which often last less than a second. Consequently, the slower BOLD signal may often reflect the summed neural activity of several transient network configurations. This temporal mismatch can be circumvented if we use spatial maps to assess correspondence between oscillatory networks and BOLD networks.

  19. Complex motor task associated with non-linear BOLD responses in cerebro-cortical areas and cerebellum.

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Samson, Rebecca S; Gasston, David; Pardini, Matteo; Friston, Karl J; D'Angelo, Egidio; Toosy, Ahmed T; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have used fMRI to address the relationship between grip force (GF) applied to an object and BOLD response. However, whilst the majority of these studies showed a linear relationship between GF and neural activity in the contralateral M1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, animal studies have suggested the presence of non-linear components in the GF-neural activity relationship. Here, we present a methodology for assessing non-linearities in the BOLD response to different GF levels, within primary motor as well as sensory and cognitive areas and the cerebellum. To be sensitive to complex forms, we designed a feasible grip task with five GF targets using an event-related visually guided paradigm and studied a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers. Polynomial functions of increasing order were fitted to the data. (1) activated motor areas irrespective of GF; (2) positive higher-order responses in and outside M1, involving premotor, sensory and visual areas and cerebellum; (3) negative correlations with GF, predominantly involving the visual domain. Overall, our results suggest that there are physiologically consistent behaviour patterns in cerebral and cerebellar cortices; for example, we observed the presence of a second-order effect in sensorimotor areas, consistent with an optimum metabolic response at intermediate GF levels, while higher-order behaviour was found in associative and cognitive areas. At higher GF levels, sensory-related cortical areas showed reduced activation, interpretable as a redistribution of the neural activity for more demanding tasks. These results have the potential of opening new avenues for investigating pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases.

  20. Mapping of the brain hemodynamic responses to sensorimotor stimulation in a rodent model: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Salem Boussida

    Full Text Available Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions. Here, using a combination of low level anesthesia, long pulse duration of the electrical stimulation along with improved spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios, we provide a functional description of the main cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor rat brain. With this calibrated fMRI protocol, unilateral non-noxious sensorimotor electrical hindpaw stimulation resulted in robust positive activations in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and bilaterally in the sensorimotor thalamus nuclei, whereas negative activations were observed bilaterally in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen. These results demonstrate that, once the experimental setup allowing necessary spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios is reached, hemodynamic changes related to neuronal activity, as preserved by the combination of a soft anesthesia with a soft muscle relaxation, can be measured within the sensorimotor network. Moreover, the observed responses suggest that increasing pulse duration of the electrical stimulus adds a proprioceptive component to the sensory input that activates sensorimotor network in the brain, and that these activation patterns are similar to those induced by digits paw's movements. These findings may

  1. The dependencies of fronto-parietal BOLD responses evoked by covert visual search suggest eye-centred coding.

    Atabaki, A; Dicke, P W; Karnath, H-O; Thier, P

    2013-04-01

    Visual scenes explored covertly are initially represented in a retinal frame of reference (FOR). On the other hand, 'later' stages of the cortical network allocating spatial attention most probably use non-retinal or non-eye-centred representations as they may ease the integration of different sensory modalities for the formation of supramodal representations of space. We tested if the cortical areas involved in shifting covert attention are based on eye-centred or non-eye-centred coding by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were scanned while detecting a target item (a regularly oriented 'L') amidst a set of distractors (rotated 'L's). The array was centred either 5° right or left of the fixation point, independent of eye-gaze orientation, the latter varied in three steps: straight relative to the head, 10° left or 10° right. A quantitative comparison of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses for the three eye-gaze orientations revealed stronger BOLD responses in the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the right frontal eye field (FEF) for search in the contralateral (i.e. left) eye-centred space, independent of whether the array was located in the right or left head-centred hemispace. The left IPS showed the reverse pattern, i.e. an activation by search in the right eye-centred hemispace. In other words, the IPS and the right FEF, members of the cortical network underlying covert search, operate in an eye-centred FOR. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region. PMID:29249950

  3. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing.

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region.

  4. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique.

  5. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique

  6. WHO Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project: innovating to improve quality of care around the time of childbirth.

    Oladapo, Olufemi T; Souza, João Paulo; Bohren, Meghan A; Tunçalp, Özge; Vogel, Joshua P; Fawole, Bukola; Mugerwa, Kidza; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-05-26

    As most pregnancy-related deaths and morbidities are clustered around the time of childbirth, quality of care during this period is critical to the survival of pregnant women and their babies. Despite the wide acceptance of partograph as the central tool to optimize labour outcomes for over 40 years, its use has not successfully improved outcomes in many settings for several reasons. There are also increasing questions about the validity and applicability of its central feature - "the alert line" - to all women regardless of their labour characteristics. Apart from the known deficiencies in labour care, attempts to improve quality of care in low resource settings have also failed to address and integrate women's birth experience into quality improvement processes. It was against this background that the World Health Organization (WHO) embarked on the Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project to improve the quality of intrapartum care in low- and middle-income countries. The main goal of the BOLD project is to reduce intrapartum-related stillbirths, maternal and newborn mortalities and morbidities by addressing the critical barriers to the process of good quality intrapartum care and enhancing the connection between health systems and communities. The project seeks to achieve this goal by (1) developing an evidence-based, easy to use, labour monitoring-to-action decision-support tool (currently termed Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action - SELMA); and (2) by developing innovative service prototypes/tools, co-designed with users of health services (women, their families and communities) and health providers, to promote access to respectful, dignified and emotionally supportive care for pregnant women and their companions at the time of birth ("Passport to Safer Birth"). This two-pronged approach is expected to positively impact on important domains of quality of care relating to both provision and experience of care. In this paper, we briefly

  7. Higher frequency network activity flow predicts lower frequency node activity in intrinsic low-frequency BOLD fluctuations.

    Bajaj, Sahil; Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    The brain remains electrically and metabolically active during resting conditions. The low-frequency oscillations (LFO) of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coherent across distributed brain regions are known to exhibit features of this activity. However, these intrinsic oscillations may undergo dynamic changes in time scales of seconds to minutes during resting conditions. Here, using wavelet-transform based time-frequency analysis techniques, we investigated the dynamic nature of default-mode networks from intrinsic BOLD signals recorded from participants maintaining visual fixation during resting conditions. We focused on the default-mode network consisting of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left middle temporal cortex (LMTC) and left angular gyrus (LAG). The analysis of the spectral power and causal flow patterns revealed that the intrinsic LFO undergo significant dynamic changes over time. Dividing the frequency interval 0 to 0.25 Hz of LFO into four intervals slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), slow-3 (0.073-0.198 Hz) and slow-2 (0.198-0.25 Hz), we further observed significant positive linear relationships of slow-4 in-out flow of network activity with slow-5 node activity, and slow-3 in-out flow of network activity with slow-4 node activity. The network activity associated with respiratory related frequency (slow-2) was found to have no relationship with the node activity in any of the frequency intervals. We found that the net causal flow towards a node in slow-3 band was correlated with the number of fibers, obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, from the other nodes connecting to that node. These findings imply that so-called resting state is not 'entirely' at rest, the higher frequency network activity flow can predict the lower frequency node activity, and the network activity flow can reflect underlying structural

  8. Linear Discriminant Analysis achieves high classification accuracy for the BOLD fMRI response to naturalistic movie stimuli.

    Hendrik eMandelkow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI. However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM and the general linear model (GLM is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA, have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbour (NN, Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB, and (regularised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie.Results show that LDA regularised by principal component analysis (PCA achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2s apart during a 300s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2s/300s. The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  9. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS BOLD in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project for 1955-08-25 (NODC Accession 5500036)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS BOLD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  10. Integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes and corticospinal tracts

    Wang, Minglei; Ma, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Guo, Yanhong; Xia, Xinshe; Xia, Hechun; Guo, Yulin; Huang, Xueying; He, Hong; Jia, Xiaoxiong; Xie, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of integrating the blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes (PMCs) and corticospinal tracts (CSTs). A total of 20 patients with high-grade gliomas adjacent to PMCs and CSTs between 2012 and 2014 were recruited. The bilateral PMCs and CSTs were located in the normal regions without any overlapping with target volume of the lesions. BOLD-fMRI, DTI and conventional MRI were performed on patients (Karnofsky performance score ≥ 70) before radical radiotherapy treatment. Four different imaging studies were conducted in each patient: a planning computed tomography (CT), an anatomical MRI, a DTI and a BOLD-fMRI. For each case, three treatment plans (3DCRT, IMRT and IMRT-PMC&CST) were developed by 3 different physicists using the Pinnacle planning system. Our study has shown that there was no significant difference between the 3DCRT and IMRT plans in terms of dose homogeneity, but IMRT displayed better planning target volume (PTV) dose conformity. In addition, we have found that the Dmax and Dmean to the ipsilateral and contralateral PMC and CST regions were considerably decreased in IMRT-PMC&CST group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning is feasible and beneficial. With the assistance of the above-described techniques, the bilateral PMCs and CSTs adjacent to the target volume could be clearly marked as OARs and spared during treatment

  11. Comparison of fMRI BOLD response patterns by electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior complex and medial thalamus of the rat.

    Pai-Feng Yang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the functional connectivity of the lateral and medial thalamocortical pain pathways by investigating the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD activation patterns in the forebrain elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior (VP and medial (MT thalamus. An MRI-compatible stimulation electrode was implanted in the VP or MT of α-chloralose-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation was applied to the VP or MT at various intensities (50 µA to 300 µA and frequencies (1 Hz to 12 Hz. BOLD responses were analyzed in the ipsilateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (iS1FL after VP stimulation and in the ipsilateral cingulate cortex (iCC after MT stimulation. When stimulating the VP, the strongest activation occurred at 3 Hz. The stimulation intensity threshold was 50 µA and the response rapidly peaked at 100 µA. When stimulating the MT, The optimal frequency for stimulation was 9 Hz or 12 Hz, the stimulation intensity threshold was 100 µA and we observed a graded increase in the BOLD response following the application of higher intensity stimuli. We also evaluated c-Fos expression following the application of a 200-µA stimulus. Ventroposterior thalamic stimulation elicited c-Fos-positivity in few cells in the iS1FL and caudate putamen (iCPu. Medial thalamic stimulation, however, produced numerous c-Fos-positive cells in the iCC and iCPu. The differential BOLD responses and c-Fos expressions elicited by VP and MT stimulation indicate differences in stimulus-response properties of the medial and lateral thalamic pain pathways.

  12. Functional dissociation of transient and sustained fMRI BOLD components in human auditory cortex revealed with a streaming paradigm based on interaural time differences.

    Schadwinkel, Stefan; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    A number of physiological studies suggest that feature-selective adaptation is relevant to the pre-processing for auditory streaming, the perceptual separation of overlapping sound sources. Most of these studies are focused on spectral differences between streams, which are considered most important for streaming. However, spatial cues also support streaming, alone or in combination with spectral cues, but physiological studies of spatial cues for streaming remain scarce. Here, we investigate whether the tuning of selective adaptation for interaural time differences (ITD) coincides with the range where streaming perception is observed. FMRI activation that has been shown to adapt depending on the repetition rate was studied with a streaming paradigm where two tones were differently lateralized by ITD. Listeners were presented with five different ΔITD conditions (62.5, 125, 187.5, 343.75, or 687.5 μs) out of an active baseline with no ΔITD during fMRI. The results showed reduced adaptation for conditions with ΔITD ≥ 125 μs, reflected by enhanced sustained BOLD activity. The percentage of streaming perception for these stimuli increased from approximately 20% for ΔITD = 62.5 μs to > 60% for ΔITD = 125 μs. No further sustained BOLD enhancement was observed when the ΔITD was increased beyond ΔITD = 125 μs, whereas the streaming probability continued to increase up to 90% for ΔITD = 687.5 μs. Conversely, the transient BOLD response, at the transition from baseline to ΔITD blocks, increased most prominently as ΔITD was increased from 187.5 to 343.75 μs. These results demonstrate a clear dissociation of transient and sustained components of the BOLD activity in auditory cortex. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Role of 3T multiparametric-MRI with BOLD hypoxia imaging for diagnosis and post therapy response evaluation of postoperative recurrent cervical cancers

    Abhishek Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Conventional-MR with MPMRI significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy for suspected vaginal vault/local recurrence. Post therapy serial MPMRI with hypoxia imaging follow-up objectively documents the response. MPMRI and BOLD hypoxia imaging provide information regarding tumor biology at the molecular, subcellular, cellular and tissue levels and this information may be used as an appropriate and reliable biologic target for radiation dose painting to optimize therapy in future.

  14. A simple solution for model comparison in bold imaging: the special case of reward prediction error and reward outcomes.

    Erdeniz, Burak; Rohe, Tim; Done, John; Seidler, Rachael D

    2013-01-01

    Conventional neuroimaging techniques provide information about condition-related changes of the BOLD (blood-oxygen-level dependent) signal, indicating only where and when the underlying cognitive processes occur. Recently, with the help of a new approach called "model-based" functional neuroimaging (fMRI), researchers are able to visualize changes in the internal variables of a time varying learning process, such as the reward prediction error or the predicted reward value of a conditional stimulus. However, despite being extremely beneficial to the imaging community in understanding the neural correlates of decision variables, a model-based approach to brain imaging data is also methodologically challenging due to the multicollinearity problem in statistical analysis. There are multiple sources of multicollinearity in functional neuroimaging including investigations of closely related variables and/or experimental designs that do not account for this. The source of multicollinearity discussed in this paper occurs due to correlation between different subjective variables that are calculated very close in time. Here, we review methodological approaches to analyzing such data by discussing the special case of separating the reward prediction error signal from reward outcomes.

  15. Study of asymmetry in motor areas related to handedness using the fMRI BOLD response Gaussian convolution model

    Gao Qing; Chen Huafu; Gong Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Brain asymmetry is a phenomenon well known for handedness, and has been studied in the motor cortex. However, few studies have quantitatively assessed the asymmetrical cortical activities for handedness in motor areas. In the present study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated asymmetry in the left and right primary motor cortices during sequential finger movements using the Gaussian convolution model approach based on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response. Six right-handed and six left-handed subjects were recruited to perform three types of hand movement tasks. The results for the expected value of the Gaussian convolution model showed that it took the dominant hand a longer average interval of response delay regardless of the handedness and bi- or uni-manual performance. The results for the standard deviation of the Gaussian model suggested that in the mass neurons, these intervals of the dominant hand were much more variable than those of the non-dominant hand. When comparing bi-manual movement conditions with uni-manual movement conditions in the primary motor cortex (PMC), both the expected value and standard deviation in the Gaussian function were significantly smaller (p < 0.05) in the bi-manual conditions, showing that the movement of the non-dominant hand influenced that of the dominant hand.

  16. When BOLD is thicker than water: processing social information about kin and friends at different levels of the social network.

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural processing of social information about kin and friends at different levels of closeness and social network level. Twenty-five female participants engaged in a cognitive social task involving different individuals in their social network while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to detect BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signals changes. Greater levels of activation occurred in several regions of the brain previously associated with social cognition when thinking about friends than when thinking about kin, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Linear parametric analyses across network layers further showed that, when it came to thinking about friends, activation increased in the vMPFC, lingual gyrus, and sensorimotor cortex as individuals thought about friends at closer layers of the network. These findings suggest that maintaining friendships may be more cognitively exacting than maintaining kin relationships. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Study of asymmetry in motor areas related to handedness using the fMRI BOLD response Gaussian convolution model

    Gao Qing [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Applied Mathematics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chen Huafu [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Applied Mathematics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: Chenhf@uestc.edu.cn; Gong Qiyong [Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2009-10-30

    Brain asymmetry is a phenomenon well known for handedness, and has been studied in the motor cortex. However, few studies have quantitatively assessed the asymmetrical cortical activities for handedness in motor areas. In the present study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated asymmetry in the left and right primary motor cortices during sequential finger movements using the Gaussian convolution model approach based on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response. Six right-handed and six left-handed subjects were recruited to perform three types of hand movement tasks. The results for the expected value of the Gaussian convolution model showed that it took the dominant hand a longer average interval of response delay regardless of the handedness and bi- or uni-manual performance. The results for the standard deviation of the Gaussian model suggested that in the mass neurons, these intervals of the dominant hand were much more variable than those of the non-dominant hand. When comparing bi-manual movement conditions with uni-manual movement conditions in the primary motor cortex (PMC), both the expected value and standard deviation in the Gaussian function were significantly smaller (p < 0.05) in the bi-manual conditions, showing that the movement of the non-dominant hand influenced that of the dominant hand.

  18. Linear increases in BOLD response associated with increasing proportion of incongruent trials across time in a colour Stroop task.

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2010-05-01

    Selective attention is popularly assessed with colour Stroop tasks in which participants name the ink colour of colour words, whilst resisting interference from the natural tendency to read the words. Prior studies hinted that the key brain regions (dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)) may vary their degree of involvement, dependent on attentional demand. This study aimed to determine whether a parametrically varied increase in attentional demand resulted in linearly increased activity in these regions, and/or whether additional regions would be recruited during high attentional demand. Twenty-eight healthy young adults underwent fMRI whilst naming the font colour of colour words. Linear increases in BOLD response were assessed with increasing percentage incongruent trials per block (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%). Whilst ACC activation increased linearly according to incongruity level, dlPFC activity appeared constant. Together with behavioural evidence of reduced Stroop interference, these data support a load-dependent conflict-related response in ACC, but not dlPFC.

  19. The Relationship Between Dopamine Neurotransmitter Dynamics and the Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD Signal: A Review of Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Tyler J. Bruinsma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is widely used in investigations of normal cognition and brain disease and in various clinical applications. Pharmacological fMRI (pharma-fMRI is a relatively new application, which is being used to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of pharmacological modulation of brain activity. Characterizing the effects of neuropharmacological agents on regional brain activity using fMRI is challenging because drugs modulate neuronal function in a wide variety of ways, including through receptor agonist, antagonist, and neurotransmitter reuptake blocker events. Here we review current knowledge on neurotransmitter-mediated blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD fMRI mechanisms as well as recently updated methodologies aimed at more fully describing the effects of neuropharmacologic agents on the BOLD signal. We limit our discussion to dopaminergic signaling as a useful lens through which to analyze and interpret neurochemical-mediated changes in the hemodynamic BOLD response. We also discuss the need for future studies that use multi-modal approaches to expand the understanding and application of pharma-fMRI.

  20. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism:An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Elizabeth C Hames

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining (BOLD fMRI assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD and 10 neurotypical (NT controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block versus the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2­VV2. We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

  1. Neural Correlates of Facial Mimicry: Simultaneous Measurements of EMG and BOLD Responses during Perception of Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals. Subjects reacted spontaneously to happy facial expressions with increased EMG activity in ZM and OO muscles and decreased CS activity, which was interpreted as FM. Facial muscle responses correlated with BOLD activity in regions associated with motor simulation of facial expressions [i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, a classical Mirror Neuron System (MNS)]. Further, we also found correlations for regions associated with emotional processing (i.e., insula, part of the extended MNS). It is concluded that FM involves both motor and emotional brain structures, especially during perception of natural emotional expressions. PMID:29467691

  2. Early Changes in Alpha Band Power and DMN BOLD Activity in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Simultaneous Resting State EEG-fMRI Study

    Katharina Brueggen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI–resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG studies in healthy adults showed robust positive associations of signal power in the alpha band with BOLD signal in the thalamus, and more heterogeneous associations in cortical default mode network (DMN regions. Negative associations were found in occipital regions. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, rsfMRI studies revealed a disruption of the DMN, while rsEEG studies consistently reported a reduced power within the alpha band. The present study is the first to employ simultaneous rsfMRI-rsEEG in an AD sample, investigating the association of alpha band power and BOLD signal, compared to healthy controls (HC. We hypothesized to find reduced positive associations in DMN regions and reduced negative associations in occipital regions in the AD group. Simultaneous resting state fMRI–EEG was recorded in 14 patients with mild AD and 14 HC, matched for age and gender. Power within the EEG alpha band (8–12 Hz, 8–10 Hz, and 10–12 Hz was computed from occipital electrodes and served as regressor in voxel-wise linear regression analyses, to assess the association with the BOLD signal. Compared to HC, the AD group showed significantly decreased positive associations between BOLD signal and occipital alpha band power in clusters in the superior, middle and inferior frontal cortex, inferior temporal lobe and thalamus (p < 0.01, uncorr., cluster size ≥ 50 voxels. This group effect was more pronounced in the upper alpha sub-band, compared to the lower alpha sub-band. Notably, we observed a high inter-individual heterogeneity. Negative associations were only reduced in the lower alpha range in the hippocampus, putamen and cerebellum. The present study gives first insights into the relationship of resting-state EEG and fMRI characteristics in an AD sample. The results suggest that positive associations between alpha band power and BOLD

  3. Regional Reproducibility of BOLD Calibration Parameter M, OEF and Resting-State CMRO2 Measurements with QUO2 MRI.

    Isabelle Lajoie

    Full Text Available The current generation of calibrated MRI methods goes beyond simple localization of task-related responses to allow the mapping of resting-state cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 in micromolar units and estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF. Prior to the adoption of such techniques in neuroscience research applications, knowledge about the precision and accuracy of absolute estimates of CMRO2 and OEF is crucial and remains unexplored to this day. In this study, we addressed the question of methodological precision by assessing the regional inter-subject variance and intra-subject reproducibility of the BOLD calibration parameter M, OEF, O2 delivery and absolute CMRO2 estimates derived from a state-of-the-art calibrated BOLD technique, the QUantitative O2 (QUO2 approach. We acquired simultaneous measurements of CBF and R2* at rest and during periods of hypercapnia (HC and hyperoxia (HO on two separate scan sessions within 24 hours using a clinical 3 T MRI scanner. Maps of M, OEF, oxygen delivery and CMRO2, were estimated from the measured end-tidal O2, CBF0, CBFHC/HO and R2*HC/HO. Variability was assessed by computing the between-subject coefficients of variation (bwCV and within-subject CV (wsCV in seven ROIs. All tests GM-averaged values of CBF0, M, OEF, O2 delivery and CMRO2 were: 49.5 ± 6.4 mL/100 g/min, 4.69 ± 0.91%, 0.37 ± 0.06, 377 ± 51 μmol/100 g/min and 143 ± 34 μmol/100 g/min respectively. The variability of parameter estimates was found to be the lowest when averaged throughout all GM, with general trends toward higher CVs when averaged over smaller regions. Among the MRI measurements, the most reproducible across scans was R2*0 (wsCVGM = 0.33% along with CBF0 (wsCVGM = 3.88% and R2*HC (wsCVGM = 6.7%. CBFHC and R2*HO were found to have a higher intra-subject variability (wsCVGM = 22.4% and wsCVGM = 16% respectively, which is likely due to propagation of random measurement errors, especially for CBFHC due to the

  4. Effect of luminance contrast on BOLD-fMRI response in deaf and normal occipital visual cortex

    Xue Yanping; Zhai Renyou; Jiang Tao; Cui Yong; Zhou Tiangang; Rao Hengyi; Zhuo Yan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of luminance contrast stimulus by using blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) within deaf occipital visual cortex, and to compare the distribution, extent, and intensity of activated areas between deaf subjects and normal hearing subjects. Methods: Twelve deaf subjects (average age 16.5) and 15 normal hearing subjects (average age 23.7) were stimulated by 4 kinds of luminance contrast (0.7, 2.2, 50.0, 180.0 lm). The fMRI data were collected on GE 1.5 T Signa Horizon LX MRI system and analyzed by AFNI to generate the activation map. Results: Responding to all 4 kinds of stimulus luminance contrast, all deaf and normal subjects showed significant activations in occipital visual cortex. For both deaf and normal subjects, the number of activated pixels increased significantly with increasing luminance contrast (F normal = 4.27, P deaf = 6.41, P 0.05). The local mean activation level for all activated pixels remained constant with increasing luminance contrast. However, there was an increase in the mean activation level for those activated pixels common to all trials as the stimulus luminance contrast was increased, but no significant difference was found within them (F normal = 0.79, P > 0.05; F deaf = 1.6, P > 0.05). Conclusion: The effect of luminance contrast on occipital visual cortex of deaf is similar to but somewhat higher than that of normal hearing subjects. In addition, it also proved that fMRI is a feasible method in the study of the deaf visual cortex

  5. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  6. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament

    Peter F. Cook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog’s respective handler, an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog’s general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer. A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications

  7. Role of 3T multiparametric-MRI with BOLD hypoxia imaging for diagnosis and post therapy response evaluation of postoperative recurrent cervical cancers

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Engineer, Reena; Chopra, Supriya; Mahanshetty, Umesh; Juvekar, S.L.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Desekar, Naresh; Thakur, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    •In operated cervix cancer, the accuracy of diagnosing vaginal vault/local recurrent lesions was higher at combined multiparametric MR imaging and conventional MR imaging (100%) than at conventional MR imaging (70%) or multiparametric MR imaging (96.7%) alone.•We found a significant correlation between percentage tumor regression and pre-treatment parameters: NEI (p = 0.02), the maximum slope (p = 0.04), mADC value (p = 0.001) and amount of hypoxic fraction present in the pretherapy MRI (p = 0.01).•Multiparametric and BOLD hypoxia MR Imaging are feasible and reliable in diagnosing post-operative recurrence in cervical cancer and should be applied when there is clinical suspicion of post-operative recurrence.•Quantitative image features obtained at multiparametric-MRI with BOLD hypoxia imaging has potential to be an appropriate and reliable biologic target for radiation dose painting to optimize therapy in future. In operated cervix cancer, the accuracy of diagnosing vaginal vault/local recurrent lesions was higher at combined multiparametric MR imaging and conventional MR imaging (100%) than at conventional MR imaging (70%) or multiparametric MR imaging (96.7%) alone. We found a significant correlation between percentage tumor regression and pre-treatment parameters: NEI (p = 0.02), the maximum slope (p = 0.04), mADC value (p = 0.001) and amount of hypoxic fraction present in the pretherapy MRI (p = 0.01). Multiparametric and BOLD hypoxia MR Imaging are feasible and reliable in diagnosing post-operative recurrence in cervical cancer and should be applied when there is clinical suspicion of post-operative recurrence. Quantitative image features obtained at multiparametric-MRI with BOLD hypoxia imaging has potential to be an appropriate and reliable biologic target for radiation dose painting to optimize therapy in future. To assess the diagnostic value of multiparametric-MRI (MPMRI) with hypoxia imaging as a functional marker for characterizing and detecting

  8. Single-trial EEG-informed fMRI reveals spatial dependency of BOLD signal on early and late IC-ERP amplitudes during face recognition.

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Descoins, Médéric; Soulier, Elisabeth; Le Troter, Arnaud; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Guye, Maxime

    2014-10-15

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI has opened up new avenues for improving the spatio-temporal resolution of functional brain studies. However, this method usually suffers from poor EEG quality, especially for evoked potentials (ERPs), due to specific artifacts. As such, the use of EEG-informed fMRI analysis in the context of cognitive studies has particularly focused on optimizing narrow ERP time windows of interest, which ignores the rich diverse temporal information of the EEG signal. Here, we propose to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate the neural cascade occurring during face recognition in 14 healthy volunteers by using the successive ERP peaks recorded during the cognitive part of this process. N170, N400 and P600 peaks, commonly associated with face recognition, were successfully and reproducibly identified for each trial and each subject by using a group independent component analysis (ICA). For the first time we use this group ICA to extract several independent components (IC) corresponding to the sequence of activation and used single-trial peaks as modulation parameters in a general linear model (GLM) of fMRI data. We obtained an occipital-temporal-frontal stream of BOLD signal modulation, in accordance with the three successive IC-ERPs providing an unprecedented spatio-temporal characterization of the whole cognitive process as defined by BOLD signal modulation. By using this approach, the pattern of EEG-informed BOLD modulation provided improved characterization of the network involved than the fMRI-only analysis or the source reconstruction of the three ERPs; the latter techniques showing only two regions in common localized in the occipital lobe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. When the Brain Takes 'BOLD' Steps: Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Can Further Enhance the Ability to Gradually Self-regulate Regional Brain Activation.

    Sorger, Bettina; Kamp, Tabea; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Peters, Judith Caroline; Goebel, Rainer

    2018-05-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) are currently explored in the context of developing alternative (motor-independent) communication and control means for the severely disabled. In such BCI systems, the user encodes a particular intention (e.g., an answer to a question or an intended action) by evoking specific mental activity resulting in a distinct brain state that can be decoded from fMRI activation. One goal in this context is to increase the degrees of freedom in encoding different intentions, i.e., to allow the BCI user to choose from as many options as possible. Recently, the ability to voluntarily modulate spatial and/or temporal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-signal features has been explored implementing different mental tasks and/or different encoding time intervals, respectively. Our two-session fMRI feasibility study systematically investigated for the first time the possibility of using magnitudinal BOLD-signal features for intention encoding. Particularly, in our novel paradigm, participants (n=10) were asked to alternately self-regulate their regional brain-activation level to 30%, 60% or 90% of their maximal capacity by applying a selected activation strategy (i.e., performing a mental task, e.g., inner speech) and modulation strategies (e.g., using different speech rates) suggested by the experimenters. In a second step, we tested the hypothesis that the additional availability of feedback information on the current BOLD-signal level within a region of interest improves the gradual-self regulation performance. Therefore, participants were provided with neurofeedback in one of the two fMRI sessions. Our results show that the majority of the participants were able to gradually self-regulate regional brain activation to at least two different target levels even in the absence of neurofeedback. When provided with continuous feedback on their current BOLD-signal level, most

  10. Chemists boldly go

    Francl, Michelle; Donnay, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Michael Donnay and Michelle Francl want chemists to share the stories behind the work they do, and not be afraid to identify the heroines and heroes -- and their epic adventures -- that paved the way.

  11. Neither Broad nor Bold

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Children raised in families with higher incomes score higher on math and reading tests. But is parental income the "cause" of a child's success? Or is the connection between income and achievement largely a symptom of something else: genetic heritage, parental skill, or a supportive educational setting? The Broader, Bolder Approach to Education, a…

  12. Consistent inter-individual differences in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Boldness-Shyness, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance.

    Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gunhold-de Oliveira, Tina; Tadić, Zoran; Massen, Jorg J M; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The study of animal personality, defined as consistent inter-individual differences in correlated behavioral traits stable throughout time and/or contexts, has recently become one of the fastest growing areas in animal biology, with study species ranging from insects to non-human primates. The latter have, however, only occasionally been tested with standardized experiments. Instead their personality has usually been assessed using questionnaires. Therefore, this study aimed to test 21 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in three family groups, in five different experiments, and their corresponding controls. We found that behavioral differences between our animals were not only consistent over time, but also across different contexts. Moreover, the consistent behaviors formed a construct of four major non-social personality components: Boldness-Shyness in Foraging, Boldness-Shyness in Predation, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance. We found no sex or age differences in these components, but our results did reveal differences in Exploration-Avoidance between the three family groups. As social environment can have a large influence on behavior of individuals, our results may suggest group-level similarity in personality (i.e., "group personality") in common marmosets, a species living in highly cohesive social groups. Am. J. Primatol. 78:961-973, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Continuous EEG-fMRI in Pre-Surgical Evaluation of a Patient with Symptomatic Seizures: Bold Activation Linked to Interictal Epileptic Discharges Caused by Cavernoma.

    Avesani, M; Formaggio, E; Milanese, F; Baraldo, A; Gasparini, A; Cerini, R; Bongiovanni, L G; Pozzi Mucelli, R; Fiaschi, A; Manganotti, P

    2008-04-07

    We used continuous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) to identify the linkage between the "epileptogenic" and the "irritative" area in a patient with symptomatic epilepsy (cavernoma, previously diagnosed and surgically treated), i.e. a patient with a well known "epileptogenic area", and to increase the possibility of a non invasive pre-surgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsies. A compatible MRI system was used (EEG with 29 scalp electrodes and two electrodes for ECG and EMG) and signals were recorded with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. After the recording session and MRI artifact removal, EEG data were analyzed offline and used as paradigms in fMRI study. Activation (EEG sequences with interictal slow-spiked-wave activity) and rest (sequences of normal EEG) conditions were compared to identify the potential resulting focal increase in BOLD signal and to consider if this is spatially linked to the interictal focus used as a paradigm and to the lesion. We noted an increase in the BOLD signal in the left neocortical temporal region, laterally and posteriorly to the poro-encephalic cavity (residual of cavernoma previously removed), that is around the "epileptogenic area". In our study "epileptogenic" and "irritative" areas were connected with each other. Combined EEG-fMRI may become routine in clinical practice for a better identification of an irritative and lesional focus in patients with symptomatic drug-resistant epilepsy.

  14. Music reduces pain and increases resting state fMRI BOLD signal amplitude in the left angular gyrus in fibromyalgia patients

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Jiang, Zhiguo; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , correlated to the analgesia reports. The post-hoc seed-based functional connectivity analysis of the lAnG showed found higher connectivity after listening to music with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rdlPFC), the left caudate (lCau), and decreased connectivity with right anterior cingulate cortex (r......Music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic pain disease, but the functional neural correlates of music-induced analgesia (MIA) are still largely unknown. We recruited FM patients (n = 22) who listened to their preferred relaxing music and an auditory control (pink noise) for 5 min without...... external noise from fMRI image acquisition. Resting state fMRI was then acquired before and after the music and control conditions. A significant increase in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signal was evident in the left angular gyrus (lAnG) after listening to music, which in turn...

  15. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  16. Correcting for Blood Arrival Time in Global Mean Regression Enhances Functional Connectivity Analysis of Resting State fMRI-BOLD Signals.

    Erdoğan, Sinem B; Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia M; Lindsey, Kimberly P; deB Frederick, Blaise

    2016-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity analysis is a widely used method for mapping intrinsic functional organization of the brain. Global signal regression (GSR) is commonly employed for removing systemic global variance from resting state BOLD-fMRI data; however, recent studies have demonstrated that GSR may introduce spurious negative correlations within and between functional networks, calling into question the meaning of anticorrelations reported between some networks. In the present study, we propose that global signal from resting state fMRI is composed primarily of systemic low frequency oscillations (sLFOs) that propagate with cerebral blood circulation throughout the brain. We introduce a novel systemic noise removal strategy for resting state fMRI data, "dynamic global signal regression" (dGSR), which applies a voxel-specific optimal time delay to the global signal prior to regression from voxel-wise time series. We test our hypothesis on two functional systems that are suggested to be intrinsically organized into anticorrelated networks: the default mode network (DMN) and task positive network (TPN). We evaluate the efficacy of dGSR and compare its performance with the conventional "static" global regression (sGSR) method in terms of (i) explaining systemic variance in the data and (ii) enhancing specificity and sensitivity of functional connectivity measures. dGSR increases the amount of BOLD signal variance being modeled and removed relative to sGSR while reducing spurious negative correlations introduced in reference regions by sGSR, and attenuating inflated positive connectivity measures. We conclude that incorporating time delay information for sLFOs into global noise removal strategies is of crucial importance for optimal noise removal from resting state functional connectivity maps.

  17. Modulation of cognitive control levels via manipulation of saccade trial-type probability assessed with event-related BOLD fMRI.

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control supports flexible behavior adapted to meet current goals and can be modeled through investigation of saccade tasks with varying cognitive demands. Basic prosaccades (rapid glances toward a newly appearing stimulus) are supported by neural circuitry, including occipital and posterior parietal cortex, frontal and supplementary eye fields, and basal ganglia. These trials can be contrasted with complex antisaccades (glances toward the mirror image location of a stimulus), which are characterized by greater functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the aforementioned regions and recruitment of additional regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current study manipulated the cognitive demands of these saccade tasks by presenting three rapid event-related runs of mixed saccades with a varying probability of antisaccade vs. prosaccade trials (25, 50, or 75%). Behavioral results showed an effect of trial-type probability on reaction time, with slower responses in runs with a high antisaccade probability. Imaging results exhibited an effect of probability in bilateral pre- and postcentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Additionally, the interaction between saccade trial type and probability revealed a strong probability effect for prosaccade trials, showing a linear increase in activation parallel to antisaccade probability in bilateral temporal/occipital, posterior parietal, medial frontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, antisaccade trials showed elevated activation across all runs. Overall, this study demonstrated that improbable performance of a typically simple prosaccade task led to augmented BOLD signal to support changing cognitive control demands, resulting in activation levels similar to the more complex antisaccade task. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S.; Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Wiklund, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity β2-containing nicotinic receptors (β2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the β2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, β2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via α7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on β2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  19. First report of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from the Czech Republic

    Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Betášová, Lenka; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Parola, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2016), s. 1222-1224 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia spp. * Dermacentor spp. * DEBONEL * SENLAT Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases , Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  20. First report of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from the Czech Republic

    Rudolf, I.; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, H.; Betášová, L.; Mendel, J.; Hubálek, Z.; Parola, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2016), s. 1222-1224 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Rickettsia spp. * Dermacentor spp. * DEBONEL Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  1. Distinct BOLD fMRI Responses of Capsaicin-Induced Thermal Sensation Reveal Pain-Related Brain Activation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Abu Bakar Ali Asad

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of the adult population suffer from chronic pain that is not adequately treated by current therapies, highlighting a great need for improved treatment options. To develop effective analgesics, experimental human and animal models of pain are critical. Topically/intra-dermally applied capsaicin induces hyperalgesia and allodynia to thermal and tactile stimuli that mimics chronic pain and is a useful translation from preclinical research to clinical investigation. Many behavioral and self-report studies of pain have exploited the use of the capsaicin pain model, but objective biomarker correlates of the capsaicin augmented nociceptive response in nonhuman primates remains to be explored.Here we establish an aversive capsaicin-induced fMRI model using non-noxious heat stimuli in Cynomolgus monkeys (n = 8. BOLD fMRI data were collected during thermal challenge (ON:20 s/42°C; OFF:40 s/35°C, 4-cycle at baseline and 30 min post-capsaicin (0.1 mg, topical, forearm application. Tail withdrawal behavioral studies were also conducted in the same animals using 42°C or 48°C water bath pre- and post- capsaicin application (0.1 mg, subcutaneous, tail.Group comparisons between pre- and post-capsaicin application revealed significant BOLD signal increases in brain regions associated with the 'pain matrix', including somatosensory, frontal, and cingulate cortices, as well as the cerebellum (paired t-test, p<0.02, n = 8, while no significant change was found after the vehicle application. The tail withdrawal behavioral study demonstrated a significant main effect of temperature and a trend towards capsaicin induced reduction of latency at both temperatures.These findings provide insights into the specific brain regions involved with aversive, 'pain-like', responses in a nonhuman primate model. Future studies may employ both behavioral and fMRI measures as translational biomarkers to gain deeper understanding of pain processing and evaluate

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24 (NODC Accession 0117500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117500 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24. These data...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to 2006-09-11 (NODC Accession 0117493)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117493 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to...

  4. Differential Localization of Pain-Related and Pain-Unrelated Neural Responses for Acupuncture at BL60 Using BOLD fMRI

    Na-Hee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to differentiate between pain-related and pain-unrelated neural responses of acupuncture at BL60 to investigate the specific effects of acupuncture. A total of 19 healthy volunteers were evaluated. fMRI was performed with sham or verum acupuncture stimulation at the left BL60 before and after local anesthesia. To investigate the relative BOLD signal effect for each session, a one-sample t-test was performed for individual contrast maps, and a paired t-test to investigate the differences between the pre- and post-anesthetic signal effects. Regarding verum acupuncture, areas that were more activated before local anesthesia included the superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, culmen, and cerebellar tonsil. The postcentral gyrus was more deactivated before local anesthesia. After local anesthesia, the middle occipital gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and declive were deactivated. Pre-anesthetic verum acupuncture at BL60 activated areas of vision and pain transmission. Post-anesthetic verum acupuncture deactivated brain areas of visual function, which is considered to be a pain-unrelated acupuncture response. It indicates that specific effects of acupoint BL60 are to control vision sense as used in the clinical setting.

  5. Music reduces pain and increases resting state fMRI BOLD signal amplitude in the left angular gyrus in fibromyalgia patients

    Eduardo A. Garza-Villarreal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic pain disease, but the functional neural correlates of music-induced analgesia are still largely unknown. We recruited FM patients (n = 22 who listened to their preferred relaxing music and an auditory control (pink noise for 5 minutes without external noise from fMRI image acquisition. Resting state fMRI was then acquired before and after the music and control conditions. A significant increase in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signal was evident in the left angular gyrus after listening to music, which in turn, correlated to the analgesia reports. The post-hoc seed-based functional connectivity analysis of the left angular gyrus showed found higher connectivity after listening to music with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left caudate, and decreased connectivity with right anterior cingulate cortex, right supplementary motor area, precuneus and right precentral gyrus. Pain intensity analgesia was correlated (r = .61 to the connectivity of the left angular gyrus with the right precentral gyrus. Our results show that music-induced analgesia in FM is related to top-down regulation of the pain modulatory network by the default-mode network.

  6. P300 amplitude variation is related to ventral striatum BOLD response during gain and loss anticipation: an EEG and fMRI experiment.

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Sladky, Ronald; Hahn, Andreas; Paul, Katharina; Grahl, Arvina; Küblböck, Martin; Kraus, Christoph; Hummer, Allan; Kranz, Georg S; Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Lamm, Claus

    2014-08-01

    The anticipation of favourable or unfavourable events is a key component in our daily life. However, the temporal dynamics of anticipation processes in relation to brain activation are still not fully understood. A modified version of the monetary incentive delay task was administered during separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) sessions in the same 25 participants to assess anticipatory processes with a multi-modal neuroimaging set-up. During fMRI, gain and loss anticipation were both associated with heightened activation in ventral striatum and reward-related areas. EEG revealed most pronounced P300 amplitudes for gain anticipation, whereas CNV amplitudes distinguished neutral from gain and loss anticipation. Importantly, P300, but not CNV amplitudes, were correlated to neural activation in the ventral striatum for both gain and loss anticipation. Larger P300 amplitudes indicated higher ventral striatum blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response. Early stimulus evaluation processes indexed by EEG seem to be positively related to higher activation levels in the ventral striatum, indexed by fMRI, which are usually associated with reward processing. The current results, however, point towards a more general motivational mechanism processing salient stimuli during anticipation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluating the impact of spatio-temporal smoothness constraints on the BOLD hemodynamic response function estimation: an analysis based on Tikhonov regularization

    Casanova, R; Yang, L; Hairston, W D; Laurienti, P J; Maldjian, J A

    2009-01-01

    Recently we have proposed the use of Tikhonov regularization with temporal smoothness constraints to estimate the BOLD fMRI hemodynamic response function (HRF). The temporal smoothness constraint was imposed on the estimates by using second derivative information while the regularization parameter was selected based on the generalized cross-validation function (GCV). Using one-dimensional simulations, we previously found this method to produce reliable estimates of the HRF time course, especially its time to peak (TTP), being at the same time fast and robust to over-sampling in the HRF estimation. Here, we extend the method to include simultaneous temporal and spatial smoothness constraints. This method does not need Gaussian smoothing as a pre-processing step as usually done in fMRI data analysis. We carried out two-dimensional simulations to compare the two methods: Tikhonov regularization with temporal (Tik-GCV-T) and spatio-temporal (Tik-GCV-ST) smoothness constraints on the estimated HRF. We focus our attention on quantifying the influence of the Gaussian data smoothing and the presence of edges on the performance of these techniques. Our results suggest that the spatial smoothing introduced by regularization is less severe than that produced by Gaussian smoothing. This allows more accurate estimates of the response amplitudes while producing similar estimates of the TTP. We illustrate these ideas using real data. (note)

  8. Physiological denoising of BOLD fMRI data using Regressor Interpolation at Progressive Time Delays (RIPTiDe) processing of concurrent fMRI and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Frederick, Blaise deB; Nickerson, Lisa D; Tong, Yunjie

    2012-04-15

    Confounding noise in BOLD fMRI data arises primarily from fluctuations in blood flow and oxygenation due to cardiac and respiratory effects, spontaneous low frequency oscillations (LFO) in arterial pressure, and non-task related neural activity. Cardiac noise is particularly problematic, as the low sampling frequency of BOLD fMRI ensures that these effects are aliased in recorded data. Various methods have been proposed to estimate the noise signal through measurement and transformation of the cardiac and respiratory waveforms (e.g. RETROICOR and respiration volume per time (RVT)) and model-free estimation of noise variance through examination of spatial and temporal patterns. We have previously demonstrated that by applying a voxel-specific time delay to concurrently acquired near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data, we can generate regressors that reflect systemic blood flow and oxygenation fluctuations effects. Here, we apply this method to the task of removing physiological noise from BOLD data. We compare the efficacy of noise removal using various sets of noise regressors generated from NIRS data, and also compare the noise removal to RETROICOR+RVT. We compare the results of resting state analyses using the original and noise filtered data, and we evaluate the bias for the different noise filtration methods by computing null distributions from the resting data and comparing them with the expected theoretical distributions. Using the best set of processing choices, six NIRS-generated regressors with voxel-specific time delays explain a median of 10.5% of the variance throughout the brain, with the highest reductions being seen in gray matter. By comparison, the nine RETROICOR+RVT regressors together explain a median of 6.8% of the variance in the BOLD data. Detection of resting state networks was enhanced with NIRS denoising, and there were no appreciable differences in the bias of the different techniques. Physiological noise regressors generated using

  9. Orientation-specific contextual modulation of the fMRI BOLD response to luminance and chromatic gratings in human visual cortex.

    McDonald, J Scott; Seymour, Kiley J; Schira, Mark M; Spehar, Branka; Clifford, Colin W G

    2009-05-01

    The responses of orientation-selective neurons in primate visual cortex can be profoundly affected by the presence and orientation of stimuli falling outside the classical receptive field. Our perception of the orientation of a line or grating also depends upon the context in which it is presented. For example, the perceived orientation of a grating embedded in a surround tends to be repelled from the predominant orientation of the surround. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the basis of orientation-specific surround effects in five functionally-defined regions of visual cortex: V1, V2, V3, V3A/LO1 and hV4. Test stimuli were luminance-modulated and isoluminant gratings that produced responses similar in magnitude. Less BOLD activation was evident in response to gratings with parallel versus orthogonal surrounds across all the regions of visual cortex investigated. When an isoluminant test grating was surrounded by a luminance-modulated inducer, the degree of orientation-specific contextual modulation was no larger for extrastriate areas than for V1, suggesting that the observed effects might originate entirely in V1. However, more orientation-specific modulation was evident in extrastriate cortex when both test and inducer were luminance-modulated gratings than when the test was isoluminant; this difference was significant in area V3. We suggest that the pattern of results in extrastriate cortex may reflect a refinement of the orientation-selectivity of surround suppression specific to the colour of the surround or, alternatively, processes underlying the segmentation of test and inducer by spatial phase or orientation when no colour cue is available.

  10. BOLD contrast fMRI of whole rodent tumour during air or carbogen breathing using echo-planar imaging at 1.5 T

    Landuyt, W.; Bogaert, W. van den; Lambin, P.; Hermans, R.; Bosmans, H.; Sunaert, S.; Beatse, E.; Farina, D.; Meijerink, M.; Zhang, H.; Marchal, G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of functional MR imaging (fMRI) at 1.5 T, exploiting blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, for detecting changes in whole-tumour oxygenation induced by carbogen (5% CO 2 +95% O 2 ) inhalation of the host. Adult WAG/Rij rats with rhabdomyosarcomas growing subcutaneously in the lower flank were imaged when tumours reached sizes between 1 and 11 cm 3 (n=12). Air and carbogen were alternatively supplied at 2 l/min using a snout mask. Imaging was done on a 1.5-T MR scanner using a T2*-weighted gradient-echo, echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) sequence. Analysis of the whole-tumour EPI images was based on statistical parametric maps. Voxels with and without signal intensity changes (SIC) were recorded. Significance thresholds were set at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. In continuous air breathing condition, 3 of 12 tumours showed significant negative SIC and 1 tumour had a clear-cut positive SIC. The remaining tumours showed very little or no change. When switching to carbogen breathing, the SIC were significantly positive in 10 of 12 tumours. Negative SIC were present in 4 tumours, of which three were simultaneously characterised by positive SIC. The overall analysis indicated that 6 of the 12 tumours could be considered as strong positive responders to carbogen. Our research demonstrates the applicability of fMRI GE-EPI at 1.5 T to study whole-tumour oxygenation non-invasively. The observed negative SIC during air condition may reflect the presence of transient hypoxia during these measurements. Selection of tumours on the basis of their individual response to carbogen is possible, indicating a role of such non-invasive measurements for using tailor-made treatments. (orig.)

  11. Curiosity: How to Boldly Go...

    Pyrzak, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Operating a one-ton rover on the surface of Mars requires more than just a joystick and an experiment. With 10 science instruments, 17 cameras, a radioisotope thermoelectric generator and lasers, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover NASA has sent to Mars. Combined with a 1 way light time of 4 to 20 minutes and a distributed international science and engineering team, it takes a lot of work to operate this mega-rover. The Mars Science Lab's operations team has developed an organization and process that maximizes science return and safety of the spacecraft. These are the voyages of the rover Curiosity, its 2 year mission, to determine the habitability of Gale Crater, to understand the role of water, to study the climate and geology of Mars.

  12. Asteroseismology and CO5BOLD

    Lundkvist, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    The field of asteroseismology has undergone a revolution in recent years largely due to the vast amounts of high-quality data coming from space missions such as \\textit{Kepler}. This has uncovered the need for a better understanding of the near-surface layers of solar-type stars, where vigorous...

  13. Kaarma Bold Italic / Tõnu Kaalep

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-

    2000-01-01

    Raamatukujundajast Jüri Kaarmast ja tema loomingust. Kommenteerib abikaasa Eve Kask. J. Kaarma sellest, miks temast sai raamatukujundaja, oma parimatest õpetajatest (E. Kärmas, I. Paul), töömeetodist, loomingust, uue kirjatüübi konstrueerimisest jm

  14. Kaarma Bold Italic / Tõnu Kaalep

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Raamatukujundajast Jüri Kaarmast ja tema loomingust. Kommenteerib abikaasa Eve Kask. J. Kaarma sellest, miks temast sai raamatukujundaja, oma parimatest õpetajatest (E. Kärmas, I. Paul), töömeetodist, loomingust, uue kirjatüübi konstrueerimisest jm

  15. Bold-functional MRI study of the abnormal cortex and the relationship between the inpairment of vision and the decreased activation of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia

    Wang Jian; Li Chuanming; Zhou Yang; Xie Bing; Yu Qiongwu; Wang Hui; Qiu Mingguo; Weng Xuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the activation changes on Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19 in anisometropic amblyopia and compare the features of the cortex activations before and after refractive correction on amblyopic eyes. Methods: Bold-fMRI technique on 1.5 T Simens Sonata MRI and the blocks designation mode was used. The visual stimulation task was a black and white checkerboard with frequencies of 1 cycle/degree and 8 Hz. The baseline stimulus is a white cross-line at the center of the screen with black background. No other light or influence was allowed in the scanning room. The distance between the eyes and screen was 0.6 m. The experimental group included 10 anisometropic amblyopes. TSE and EPI sequence were used for the anatomical and functional data acquisitions. For experimental group, the activation areas of the visual cortex on both eyes were consequently measured before and after refractive correction. All data were analyzed online with t-test and offline with AFNI software. The threshold value was set to 0.001. During data processing, motion correction and three-dimensional smooth were used in all data. The time-signal intensity curves and the functional images were obtained. After Talairach coordinated the function images of every one, the activation areas were measured in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19. The SPSS 12.0 software was used for statistic analysis. The difference of the cortical activations of amblyopic eyes before and after refractive correction was analyzed. The cortical activations of amblyopic eyes and the fellow eyes after refractive correction were compared. The visual acuity of the amblyopia eyes was measured. And the correlation between the lesion of cortical activation and visual acuity was analyzed. Results: It was found that the cortex was activated obviously in the calcarine cortex around, occipital lobe, LGN and temporal lobe. The activation areas of amblyopic eyes was (3.7±0.4) x 10 4 voxels, and (4.1±0.5 ) x 10 4 voxets after corrected

  16. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross

  17. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors

    Bob L. Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., >20 mm of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were >20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64% the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  18. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species.

    Sprong, H.; Wielinga, P.R.; Fonville, M.; Reusken, C.; Brandenburg, A.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts.

  19. Using the CIFIST grid of CO5BOLD 3D model atmospheres to study the effects of stellar granulation on photometric colours. I. Grids of 3D corrections in the UBVRI, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Gaia, and SDSS systems

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Castelli, F.; Gallagher, A. J.; Kučinskas, A.; Prakapavičius, D.; Cayrel, R.; Freytag, B.; Plez, B.; Homeier, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The atmospheres of cool stars are temporally and spatially inhomogeneous due to the effects of convection. The influence of this inhomogeneity, referred to as granulation, on colours has never been investigated over a large range of effective temperatures and gravities. Aim. We aim to study, in a quantitative way, the impact of granulation on colours. Methods: We use the CIFIST (Cosmological Impact of the FIrst Stars) grid of CO5BOLD (COnservative COde for the COmputation of COmpressible COnvection in a BOx of L Dimensions, L = 2, 3) hydrodynamical models to compute emerging fluxes. These in turn are used to compute theoretical colours in the UBV RI, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Gaia and SDSS systems. Every CO5BOLD model has a corresponding one dimensional (1D) plane-parallel LHD (Lagrangian HydroDynamics) model computed for the same atmospheric parameters, which we used to define a "3D correction" that can be applied to colours computed from fluxes computed from any 1D model atmosphere code. As an example, we illustrate these corrections applied to colours computed from ATLAS models. Results: The 3D corrections on colours are generally small, of the order of a few hundredths of a magnitude, yet they are far from negligible. We find that ignoring granulation effects can lead to underestimation of Teff by up to 200 K and overestimation of gravity by up to 0.5 dex, when using colours as diagnostics. We have identified a major shortcoming in how scattering is treated in the current version of the CIFIST grid, which could lead to offsets of the order 0.01 mag, especially for colours involving blue and UV bands. We have investigated the Gaia and HIPPARCOS photometric systems and found that the (G - Hp), (BP - RP) diagram is immune to the effects of granulation. In addition, we point to the potential of the RVS photometry as a metallicity diagnostic. Conclusions: Our investigation shows that the effects of granulation should not be neglected if one wants to use colours as

  20. Using the CIFIST grid of CO5BOLD 3D model atmospheres to study the effects of stellar granulation on photometric colours. II. The role of convection across the H-R diagram

    Kučinskas, A.; Klevas, J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Bonifacio, P.; Steffen, M.; Caffau, E.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: We studied the influence of convection on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs), photometric magnitudes, and colour indices of different types of stars across the H-R diagram. Methods: The 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD, averaged ⟨3D⟩, and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres were used to compute SEDs of stars on the main sequence (MS), main sequence turn-off (TO), subgiant branch (SGB), and red giant branch (RGB), in each case at two different effective temperatures and two metallicities, [M/H] = 0.0 and - 2.0. Using the obtained SEDs, we calculated photometric magnitudes and colour indices in the broad-band Johnson-Cousins UBVRI and 2MASS JHKs, and the medium-band Strömgren uvby photometric systems. Results: The 3D-1D differences in photometric magnitudes and colour indices are small in both photometric systems and typically do not exceed ± 0.03 mag. Only in the case of the coolest giants located on the upper RGB are the differences in the U and u bands able reach ≈-0.2 mag at [M/H] = 0.0 and ≈-0.1 mag at [M/H] = -2.0. Generally, the 3D-1D differences are largest in the blue-UV part of the spectrum and decrease towards longer wavelengths. They are also sensitive to the effective temperature and are significantly smaller in hotter stars. Metallicity also plays a role and leads to slightly larger 3D-1D differences at [M/H] = 0.0. All these patterns are caused by a complex interplay between the radiation field, opacities, and horizontal temperature fluctuations that occur due to convective motions in stellar atmospheres. Although small, the 3D-1D differences in the magnitudes and colour indices are nevertheless comparable to or larger than typical photometric uncertainties and may therefore cause non-negligible systematic differences in the estimated effective temperatures.

  1. Commanders’ Perception of Risk: Enabling Boldness

    2008-04-01

    individual. Soldiers are trained over time to employ their weapon systems tinder a variety of conditions in, realistic simulations and scenarios, thus...from ground combat the specialty is, where th~ leader provides the same support in combat that he would in garrison with no direct relationship to an...34 safety paperwork and activities. 73 Senior commanders must aggressively search for means to communicate their intent and the relationship between

  2. Colombia’s Bold Gamble for Peace,

    1985-02-01

    well-trained in the art of 0 negotiations, familiar with every technique, able to cut off almost every avenue of maneuver and maintain the...refer to simply as La Violencia (The Violence), a period of bitter internecine political warfare that had left 200,000 persons dead since 1948. In 1958...reject this amnesty, they lose all political pretensions. They show themselves to be traficantes do violencia (traffickers of violence) who, like

  3. "Boldness be my friend" (Shakespeare; Cymbeline).

    Altman, Jessica K; Tallman, Martin S

    2011-12-15

    Au et al report in this issue of Blood that oral arsenic trioxide (ATO) may be safely used in maintenance therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). This is a major improvement in convenience given that intravenous (IV)ATO requires daily administration for weeks at a time. In addition, the oral formulation may be less toxic. The time seems right to carefully explore the introduction of oral ATO earlier in treatment of the disease.

  4. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

    Hall ME; Jordan JH; Juncos LA; Hundley WG; Hall JE

    2018-01-01

    Michael E Hall,1,2 Jennifer H Jordan,3 Luis A Juncos,1,2 W Gregory Hundley,3 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides ana...

  5. A predation cost to bold fish in the wild

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben; Nilsson, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    in the animal kingdom. Theory predicts that individual behavioural types differ in a cost-benefit trade-off where bolder individuals benefit from greater access to resources while paying higher predation-risk costs. However, explicitly linking predation events to individual behaviour under natural conditions...

  6. Dominance rank and boldness predict social attraction in great tits

    Snijders, L.; Naguib, M.; van Oers, K.

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships can have important fitness consequences, and how well an individual is socially connected often correlates with other behavioral traits. Whether such correlations are caused by underlying individual differences in social attraction usually remains unclear, because to identify

  7. Dominance rank and boldness predict social attraction in great tits

    Snijders, Lysanne; Naguib, Marc; Oers, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships can have important fitness consequences, and how well an individual is socially connected often correlates with other behavioral traits. Whether such correlations are caused by underlying individual differences in social attraction usually remains unclear, because to identify

  8. 50 years of challenging projects and bold visions

    Matejka, K.; Kolros, A.; Rataj, J.

    2005-01-01

    The article commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, paying particular attention to the department (whose current name is the Department of Nuclear Reactors) that has been educating and training specialists in the theory and technology of nuclear reactors / nuclear power engineering. Both the educational and scientific research activities of the department during the past 15 years are described. The department's fundamental responsibilities include, among other things, the operation and use of the VR-1 training reactor. The prospect of the department in the near future are also outlined. (orig.)

  9. For a bold climate strategy. Proposals for immediate action

    Berthelemy, Francois; Guillou, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    After a discussion of the content of the Paris COP21 agreement and of its limitations, the authors outline the different risks and stakes associated with the agreement implementation: commitments must be translated into actual actions, the general ambition level should allow fixed objectives to be reached, mobilisation must live on. Then, they present a set a measures to be implemented and formulate associated proposals. These measures are to be immediately implemented, and address carbon tariffing, a new design for the financial system and a mobilisation of companies for another orientation of investments. They finally outline stakes for the COP22 and beyond, notably for the implementation of a reliable transparency system, and for indispensable North-South financial flows

  10. Sex-differences and temporal consistency in stickleback fish boldness.

    Andrew J King

    Full Text Available Behavioural traits that co-vary across contexts or situations often reflect fundamental trade-offs which individuals experience in different contexts (e.g. fitness trade-offs between exploration and predation risk. Since males tend to experience greater variance in reproductive success than females, there may be considerable fitness benefits associated with "bolder" behavioural types, but only recently have researchers begun to consider sex-specific and life-history strategies associated with these. Here we test the hypothesis that male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus show high risk but potentially high return behaviours compared to females. According to this hypothesis we predicted that male fish would show greater exploration of their environment in a foraging context, and be caught sooner by an experimenter than females. We found that the time fish spent out of cover exploring their environment was correlated over two days, and males spent significantly more time out of cover than females. Also, the order in which fish were net-caught from their holding aquarium by an experimenter prior to experiments was negatively correlated with the time spent out of cover during tests, and males tended to be caught sooner than females. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the catch number prior to our experiments and nine months after, pointing towards consistent, long-term individual differences in behaviour.

  11. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    Catarina Saiote

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1 during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods.

  12. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    Arichi, T.; Varela, M.; Melendez-Calderon, A.; Allievi, A.; Merchant, N.; Tusor, N.; Counsell, S.J.; Burdet, E.; Beckmann, Christian; Edwards, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing

  13. Research progress of BOLD-functional MRI of hepatic encephalopathy

    Ni Ling; Zhang Longjiang; Lu Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from behavior abnormality, conscious disorder and even coma, is a consequence of liver dysfunction in both acute and chronic hepatic diseases. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to a subgroup of cirrhotic patients without clinical overt hepatic encephalopathy symptoms hut with abnormalities in neuro -cognitive functions. HE/MHE can have a far-reaching impact on quality of life and prognosis. The exact neuropathology mechanism was still unclear. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) has been increasingly applied for investigating the neuro-pathophysiological mechanism of HE. This paper will review the fMRI research applied on uncovering the neuropathology mechanism of HE. (authors)

  14. Mapping hypercapnia-induced cerebrovascular reactivity using BOLD MRI

    Zande, F.H.R. van der; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W.H. [Maastricht University Hospital, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2005-02-01

    Severe carotid artery stenosis or occlusion may put patients at risk for ischaemic stroke. Reduced cerebrovascular reserve capacity is a possible indicator of an imminent ischaemic event and can be determined by assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity to a vasodilative stimulus. However, little is known about the distribution of cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy individuals. In 13 healthy volunteers, dynamic T{sub 2}{sup *} MR images, acquired at alternating inspiratory pCO{sub 2} levels, showed a high percentage of signal change in grey matter, with a strong linear correlation with end-tidal pCO{sub 2}. The mean percentages of signal change for grey and white matter were 5.9{+-}1.2% and 1.9{+-}0.5%, respectively. The mean time lag between CO{sub 2} stimulus and haemodynamic response was 15{+-}4 s for grey matter and 180{+-}12 s for white matter. Parameter mapping revealed a hemispherically symmetrical and homogeneous distribution of cerebrovascular reactivity over the entire grey matter. These findings indicate that it may be feasible to detect exhausted cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with a compromised cerebral vasculature. (orig.)

  15. Bold or cautious : behavioural characteristics and dominance in great tits

    Verbeek, M.

    1998-01-01

    Social dominance affects territory acquisition, reproduction and survival in many species. It plays a major role in the life of an individual, and has important consequences for its fitness. Several factors that can influence dominance relationships between individuals have been well

  16. Bold initiative launched in Nicaragua for World Cancer Day

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A ground-breaking project to fight Nicaragua's growing cancer crisis is being launched by a partnership of international institutions to mark this year's World Cancer Day (4 February 2007). The new partnership, coordinated by the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), aims to dramatically reduce cancer deaths in Nicaragua and improve conditions for thousands of people living with cancer by mobilizing experts from across the cancer care community. 'Only a broad alliance can develop the necessary strengths and resources to avoid the cancer disaster that is looming in the developing world,' says Franco Cavalli, President of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC). 'Swiss doctors have been working to develop cancer care in Nicaragua since the 1980s and UICC is pleased to be a partner in this initiative.' Cancer is one of Latin America's three major killers - 25,000 women in the region die of cervical cancer every year. Nicaragua was selected as the first PACT Model Demonstration Site in Latin America after the government gave its full support in implementing an integrated cancer control plan. Many of Nicaragua's cancer victims are from poor communities with little access to screening and treatment facilities. Cancer strikes people in the prime of their lives, causing personal tragedy and negatively impacting the nation's future. Yet many of these cancers can be successfully treated if detected early enough. 'Patients with curable cancers are still dying unnecessarily in Nicaragua because cancer is not addressed comprehensively,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the PACT programme at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 'We have the know-how and cost-effective technologies to defeat cancer. What is needed are more financial and human resources.' Nicaragua, population 7 million, currently has one radiotherapy centre. The donation through PACT by Canada's MDS Nordion this year of a $750,000 Equinox cancer therapy system will help the country better meet its radiotherapy needs. PACT was created by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2004 for the express purpose of helping developing countries combat the growing cancer crisis. In addition to the IAEA, PACT's partners in Nicaragua currently include: The Nicaraguan Ministry of Health, the Cancer Association of Nicaragua (ANICO), the Nicaraguan National Centre for Radiotherapy, the World Health Organisation (WHO)/Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), the American Cancer Society (ACS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR), and MDS Nordion. Five further sites have been selected for model projects: Albania, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Vietnam and Yemen. The main aim of the three-year initiatives is to demonstrate that public/private alliances can significantly impact health systems in developing countries by improving cancer education, prevention and treatment. Such collaborative efforts raise the profile of cancer, stimulating donor interest. They also place cancer squarely on the international health agenda. For more information on PACT and its Model Demonstration Sites, please visit www.iaea.org/pact. (IAEA)

  17. BAOBAB (Big And Outrageously Bold Asteroid Belt) Project

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Thomas, C. A; Englander, J. A.; Ruesch, O.; Hosseini, S.; Goossens, S. J.; Mazarico, E. M.; Schmerr, N.

    2017-01-01

    One of the intriguing results of NASA's Dawn mission is the composition and structure of the Main Asteroid Belt's only known dwarf planet, Ceres [1]. It has a top layer of dehydrated clays and salts [2] and an icy-rocky mantle [3,4]. It is widely known that the asteroid belt failed to accrete as a planet by resonances between the Sun and Jupiter. About 20-30 asteroids >100 km diameter are probably differentiated protoplanets [5]. 1) how many more and which ones are fragments of protoplanets? 2) How many and which ones are primordial rubble piles left over from condensation of the solar nebula? 3) How would we go about gaining better and more complete characterization of the mass, interior structure and composition of the Main Belt asteroid population? 4) What is the relationship between asteroids and ocean worlds? Bulk parameters such as the mass, density, and porosity, are important to characterize the structure of any celestial body, and for asteroids in particular, they can shed light on the conditions in the early solar system. Asteroid density estimates exist but currently they are often based on assumed properties of taxonomic classes, or through astronomical survey data where interactions with asteroids are weak at best resulting in large measurement uncertainty. We only have direct density estimates from spacecraft encounters for a few asteroids at this time. Knowledge of the asteroids is significant not only to understand their role in solar system workings, but also to assess their potential as space resources, as impact hazards on Earth, or even as harboring life forms. And for the distant future, we want to know if the idea put forth in a contest sponsored by Physics Today, to surface the asteroids into highly reflecting, polished surfaces and use them as a massively segmented mirror for astrophysical exploration [6], is feasible.

  18. Impact Library Access with Bold Use of Color and Space

    Clark, Rosey

    2008-01-01

    Most school libraries have little funding for books, much less for redecorating. So what can a librarian do to give his or her library a makeover? This article presents a few cost-effective ways to renovate in just a few weeks. These tips include the use of colors, rearrangement of furnitures, signages, and more.

  19. Boldness affects foraging decisions in barnacle geese: an experimental approach

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Nolet, B.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Oers, van K.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals foraging in groups constantly need to make decisions, such as when to leave a group, when to join a group, and when to move collectively to another feeding site. In recent years, it has become evident that personality may affect these foraging decisions, but studies where individuals are

  20. Be Bold : An Alternative Plan for Fusion Research

    Wurden, Glen Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Government sponsored magnetic fusion energy research in the USA has been on downward trajectory since the early 1990’s. The present path is unsustainable. Indeed, our research community and national research facilities are withering from old-age and lack of investment. The present product (tokamak-centric production of electricity) does not yet work, will not be economic, and is clearly not valued or needed by our society. Even if a prototype existed at any cost, DT-based fusion energy would come too late to significantly impact the reduction of CO2 emissions in this century. This white paper outlines what “being bold” could mean with respect to the invention and application of nuclear fusion technologies, and how the USA could once again set a visionary example for the world. I present the discussion in two parts, reflecting on the NAS panel two-part assignment of a plan “with” and “without” ITER.

  1. Mapping hypercapnia-induced cerebrovascular reactivity using BOLD MRI

    Zande, F.H.R. van der; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Severe carotid artery stenosis or occlusion may put patients at risk for ischaemic stroke. Reduced cerebrovascular reserve capacity is a possible indicator of an imminent ischaemic event and can be determined by assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity to a vasodilative stimulus. However, little is known about the distribution of cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy individuals. In 13 healthy volunteers, dynamic T 2 * MR images, acquired at alternating inspiratory pCO 2 levels, showed a high percentage of signal change in grey matter, with a strong linear correlation with end-tidal pCO 2 . The mean percentages of signal change for grey and white matter were 5.9±1.2% and 1.9±0.5%, respectively. The mean time lag between CO 2 stimulus and haemodynamic response was 15±4 s for grey matter and 180±12 s for white matter. Parameter mapping revealed a hemispherically symmetrical and homogeneous distribution of cerebrovascular reactivity over the entire grey matter. These findings indicate that it may be feasible to detect exhausted cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with a compromised cerebral vasculature. (orig.)

  2. Bold Action Programs for the Disadvantaged: Elementary Reading.

    Whipple, Gertrude

    The following five characteristics of successful reading projects for the disadvantaged are discussed as a basis for appraising ESEA/Title I programs: (1) a child need-centered emphasis, (2) provision for teacher education, (3) use of multidisciplinary and paraprofessional personnel, (4) parent involvement, and (5) evaluation procedures. Current…

  3. Data from: Dominance rank and boldness predict social attraction in great tits

    Snijders, L.; Naguib, M.; Oers, van Kees

    2016-01-01

    Social relationships can have important fitness consequences, and how well an individual is socially connected often correlates with other behavioral traits. Whether such correlations are caused by underlying individual differences in social attraction usually remains unclear, because to identify

  4. The Future of Distributed Computing Systems in ATLAS: Boldly Venturing Beyond Grids

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has seen big changes over the past couple of years to accommodate new types of distributed computing resources: clouds, HPCs, volunteer computers and other external resources. While PanDA was originally designed for fairly homogeneous resources available through the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, the new resources are heterogeneous, at diverse scales and with diverse interfaces. Up to a fifth of the resources available to ATLAS are of such new types and require special techniques for integration into PanDA. In this talk, we present the nature and scale of these resources. We provide an overview of the various challenges faced, spanning infrastructure, software distribution, workload requirements, scaling requirements, workflow management, data management, network provisioning, and associated software and computing facilities. We describe the strategies for integrating these heterogeneous resources into ...

  5. To Boldly Go Where No Man has Gone Before: Seeking Gaia's Astrometric Solution with AGIS

    Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; O'Mullane, W.; Hobbs, D.

    2009-09-01

    Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission with a foreseen launch date in late 2011. Its main objective is to perform a stellar census of the 1,000 million brightest objects in our galaxy (completeness to V=20 mag) from which an astrometric catalog of micro-arcsec (μas) level accuracy will be constructed. A key element in this endeavor is the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS) - the mathematical and numerical framework for combining the ≈80 available observations per star obtained during Gaia's 5 yr lifetime into a single global astrometic solution. AGIS consists of four main algorithmic cores which improve the source astrometic parameters, satellite attitude, calibration, and global parameters in a block-iterative manner. We present and discuss this basic scheme, the algorithms themselves and the overarching system architecture. The latter is a data-driven distributed processing framework designed to achieve an overall system performance that is not I/O limited. AGIS is being developed as a pure Java system by a small number of geographically distributed European groups. We present some of the software engineering aspects of the project and show used methodologies and tools. Finally we will briefly discuss how AGIS is embedded into the overall Gaia data processing architecture.

  6. Ten Years of a National Oral Health Policy in Brazil: Innovation, Boldness, and Numerous Challenges.

    Pucca, G A; Gabriel, M; de Araujo, M E; de Almeida, F C S

    2015-10-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world to propose a universal health care system with the aim of guaranteeing delivery of all levels of health care, free of charge, to a population of over 200 million inhabitants by means of a unified health system ("Sistema Único de Saúde" [SUS]). The national policy of oral health, also known as Smiling Brazil ("Brasil Sorridente"), was implemented in 2004. Oral health was designated as 1 of the 4 priority areas of the SUS, transforming oral health care in Brazil, with the objective that the SUS achieve the integrality of care envisaged at its creation. The aim of this article is to share part of this experience in order to prompt reflection about the inclusion of oral health care in other health care systems around the world. The most significant results of Smiling Brazil can be seen in 3 areas: (1) oral health epidemiological indicators, (2) financial investment and professional development, and (3) the building of an oral health care network throughout the 10 y of the policy. The "Discovery!" article presented here portrays 10 y of evolution; however, it is important to point out that this is a process undergoing construction and that the oral health care network needs to be further expanded, refined, and solidified so that over time and through changes in the political parties in power, Smiling Brazil prevails as a perennial policy and not merely an action by a single government. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  7. A Better Way to Budget: Building Support for Bold, Student-Centered Change in Public Schools

    Levenson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    "A Better Way to Budget" provides practical, innovative advice on how to overcome the political and social pushback that often prevents district and school leaders from shifting scarce resources to the most student-centered uses. Nathan Levenson shows how school leaders can uncover the sources of potential conflicts and create a…

  8. Fortune Favours the Bold: An Agent-Based Model Reveals Adaptive Advantages of Overconfidence in War

    Johnson, Dominic D. P.; Weidmann, Nils B.; Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Overconfidence has long been considered a cause of war. Like other decision-making biases, overconfidence seems detrimental because it increases the frequency and costs of fighting. However, evolutionary biologists have proposed that overconfidence may also confer adaptive advantages: increasing ambition, resolve, persistence, bluffing opponents, and winning net payoffs from risky opportunities despite occasional failures. We report the results of an agent-based model of inter-state conflict, which allows us to evaluate the performance of different strategies in competition with each other. Counter-intuitively, we find that overconfident states predominate in the population at the expense of unbiased or underconfident states. Overconfident states win because: (1) they are more likely to accumulate resources from frequent attempts at conquest; (2) they are more likely to gang up on weak states, forcing victims to split their defences; and (3) when the decision threshold for attacking requires an overwhelming asymmetry of power, unbiased and underconfident states shirk many conflicts they are actually likely to win. These “adaptive advantages” of overconfidence may, via selection effects, learning, or evolved psychology, have spread and become entrenched among modern states, organizations and decision-makers. This would help to explain the frequent association of overconfidence and war, even if it no longer brings benefits today. PMID:21731627

  9. BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.

    Miyapuram Krishna P; Tobler Philippe N; Gregorios-Pippas Lucy; Schultz Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Monetary rewards are uniquely human. Because money is easy to quantify and present visually, it is the reward of choice for most fMRI studies, even though it cannot be handed over to participants inside the scanner. A typical fMRI study requires hundreds of trials and thus small amounts of monetary rewards per trial (e.g. 5p) if all trials are to be treated equally. However, small payoffs can have detrimental effects on performance due to their limited buying power. Hypothetical monetary rewa...

  10. BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.

    Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N; Gregorios-Pippas, Lucy; Schultz, Wolfram

    2012-01-16

    Monetary rewards are uniquely human. Because money is easy to quantify and present visually, it is the reward of choice for most fMRI studies, even though it cannot be handed over to participants inside the scanner. A typical fMRI study requires hundreds of trials and thus small amounts of monetary rewards per trial (e.g. 5p) if all trials are to be treated equally. However, small payoffs can have detrimental effects on performance due to their limited buying power. Hypothetical monetary rewards can overcome the limitations of smaller monetary rewards but it is less well known whether predictors of hypothetical rewards activate reward regions. In two experiments, visual stimuli were associated with hypothetical monetary rewards. In Experiment 1, we used stimuli predicting either visually presented or imagined hypothetical monetary rewards, together with non-rewarding control pictures. Activations to reward predictive stimuli occurred in reward regions, namely the medial orbitofrontal cortex and midbrain. In Experiment 2, we parametrically varied the amount of visually presented hypothetical monetary reward keeping constant the amount of actually received reward. Graded activation in midbrain was observed to stimuli predicting increasing hypothetical rewards. The results demonstrate the efficacy of using hypothetical monetary rewards in fMRI studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards

    Miyapuram, K.P.; Tobler, P.N.; Gregorios-Pippas, L.; Schultz, W.

    2012-01-01

    Monetary rewards are uniquely human. Because money is easy to quantify and present visually, it is the reward of choice for most fMRI studies, even though it cannot be handed over to participants inside the scanner. A typical fMRI study requires hundreds of trials and thus small amounts of monetary

  12. To Boldly Go: America's Next Era in Space. Sustaining Life on the Earth

    2004-01-01

    Dr. France Cordova, NASA's Chief Scientist, opened this, the sixth seminar in the Administrator's Seminar Series, by introducing NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin. Mr Goldin welcomed the attendees and set the stage for Dr. Cordova's introduction of the first speaker, Dr. Robert Kates of Brown University. Dr. Kates primary concerns are global environmental changes, world hunger, and the size of the population. Human changes, he said, rival the changes of nature. Changes in the size of world population affect the need for more agricultural products, therefore more land for growing food, which leads to deforestation, which affects rainfall, and therefore the water supply which is in increased demand. Human ingenuity can reduce some shortages but generally doesn't keep up with increased demand for life-sustaining essentials. These problems require the concern of intergovernmental organizations, treaties and activities, as well as transnational corporations, and non-governmental and private, volunteer organizations. Next Dr. Diana Liverman of Pennsylvania State University spoke on human interactions regarding climate and society. She considered the effect of changes in land use on climate, using Mexico as an example. Mexicans changed from raising much wheat to raising more fruits and vegetables. This was in response to the demands of the market. The results were more industry, population growth, greater income, drought (because the new crops required more water), and conflicts over water supplies. Dr. Charles Kennel of the Office of Mission to Planet Earth joined Dr.s Cordova, Kates, and Liverman for the question and answer session that followed.

  13. Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.

  14. Cincinnati's Bold New Venture: A Unified K-12 Reading/Communication Arts Program.

    Green, Reginald Leon

    1989-01-01

    Describes a unified reading/communication arts program in the Cincinnati Public School System which uses new basal texts, support materials, and a customized instructional system for each grade level, integrating listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking skills into a unified language approach. Discusses intervention strategies,…

  15. Pretreatment Differences in BOLD Response to Emotional Faces Correlate with Antidepressant Response to Scopolamine.

    Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Szczepanik, Joanna; Khanna, Ashish; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-03-28

    Faster acting antidepressants and biomarkers that predict treatment response are needed to facilitate the development of more effective treatments for patients with major depressive disorders. Here, we evaluate implicitly and explicitly processed emotional faces using neuroimaging to identify potential biomarkers of treatment response to the antimuscarinic, scopolamine. Healthy participants (n=15) and unmedicated-depressed major depressive disorder patients (n=16) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover infusion study using scopolamine (4 μg/kg). Before and following scopolamine, blood oxygen-level dependent signal was measured using functional MRI during a selective attention task. Two stimuli comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Participants attended to one stimulus component and performed a matching task. Face emotion was modulated (happy/sad) creating implicit (attend-houses) and explicit (attend-faces) emotion processing conditions. The pretreatment difference in blood oxygen-level dependent response to happy and sad faces under implicit and explicit conditions (emotion processing biases) within a-priori regions of interest was correlated with subsequent treatment response in major depressive disorder. Correlations were observed exclusively during implicit emotion processing in the regions of interest, which included the subgenual anterior cingulate (Pemotional faces prior to treatment reflect the potential to respond to scopolamine. These findings replicate earlier results, highlighting the potential for pretreatment neural activity in the middle occipital cortices and subgenual anterior cingulate to inform us about the potential to respond clinically to scopolamine. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Striatal BOLD response reflects the impact of herd information on financial decisions

    Christopher J Burke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Like other species, humans are sensitive to the decisions and actions of conspecifics, which can lead to herd behavior and undesirable outcomes such as stock market bubbles and bank runs. However, how the brain processes this socially derived influence is only poorly understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned participants as they made decisions on whether to buy stocks after observing others’ buying decisions. We demonstrate that activity in the ventral striatum, an area heavily implicated in reward processing, tracked the degree of influence on participants’ decisions arising from the observation of other peoples’ decisions. The signal did not track non-human, non-social control decisions. These findings lend weight to the notion that the ventral striatum is involved in the processing of complex social aspects of decision-making and identify a possible neural basis for herd behavior.

  17. ESIP: Boldly going towards ESIP 2.0 and your phone

    The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) was formed in 2006 to evaluate changes in the health of the Gulf of Maine ecosystems through the use of indicators. ESIP’s initial approach to indicator development focused on seven ecosystem themes, w...

  18. The Possible Role of CO2 in Producing A Post-Stimulus CBF and BOLD Undershoot

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Devor, Anna; Akin, Ata; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehending the underlying mechanisms of neurovascular coupling is important for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases related to uncoupling. Moreover, it elucidates the casual relation between the neural signaling and the hemodynamic responses measured with various imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There are mainly two hypotheses concerning this mechanism: a metabolic hypothesis and a neurogenic hypothesis. We have modified recent models of neurovascular coupling adding the effects of both NO (nitric oxide) kinetics, which is a well-known neurogenic vasodilator, and CO2 kinetics as a metabolic vasodilator. We have also added the Hodgkin–Huxley equations relating the membrane potentials to sodium influx through the membrane. Our results show that the dominant factor in the hemodynamic response is NO, however CO2 is important in producing a brief post-stimulus undershoot in the blood flow response that in turn modifies the fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent post-stimulus undershoot. Our results suggest that increased cerebral blood flow during stimulation causes CO2 washout which then results in a post-stimulus hypocapnia induced vasoconstrictive effect. PMID:20027233

  19. To Boldly Go. America's Next Era in Space: New Frontiers in Climate Research

    1995-01-01

    Dr. France Cordova, NASA's Chief Scientist, chaired this, the fourth seminar in the NASA Administrator's Seminar Series. She introduced NASA Administrator, Daniel S. Goldin, who greeted the attendees, and in his opening remarks said that human beings have a need to understand the what and why of the forces of nature and of people, and the stresses on the planet Earth. The first speaker, Dr. Ellen Mosley-Thompson of Ohio State University discussed the many things that scientists have learned from ice cores obtained in Peru and the Antarctic. The next speaker, Dr. Michael McElroy of Harvard University, is active in environmental research. He noted that insurance companies need to know more about the physics and chemistry of weather in order to avoid bankruptcy; that the greenhouse effect, which is good because it reflects heat, is being changed, and we don't know the rules. In the discussion that followed, Goldin asked if the present technology for measuring circulation of air and water and contents of the atmosphere is worth the cost. Drs. McElroy and Mosley-Thompson noted that the historic record in an ice core is endangered by ice melts; that in the last 10 years we've learned that tropics change; that the water vapor in the tropics is critical right now; that clouds absorb short-wave radiation; and that there is a need to improve measurements of atmospheric contents, the development of models, and the understanding of basic physics. We also need to understand parameters for detecting climate change, water, water temperature, and be able to provide fundamental information. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  20. Item Girls and Objects of Dreams: Why Indian Censors Agree to Bold Scenes in Bollywood Films

    Tatiana Szurlej

    2017-07-01

    Bollywood films are often called musicals, but the examples show that all the songs, not only item numbers and dream sequences, play quite a different role in Indian movies than in the classic Hollywood musicals. There is a very deep logic lying behind film production, and popular Indian cinema uses its songs to show everything that is impossible to show in the story. Filmmakers know very well that songs are the element of fantasy, which when used in a story about everyday life, can show things that are impossible in natural experience.

  1. Dynamic range in BOLD modulation: lifespan aging trajectories and association with performance.

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Boylan, Maria A; Rieck, Jenny R; Foster, Chris M; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of dynamic range of modulation to cognitive difficulty has been proposed as a salient predictor of cognitive aging. Here, we examine in 171 adults (aged 20-94 years) the effects of age on dynamic modulation of blood oxygenation-level dependent activation to difficulty in parametrically increasing working memory (WM) load (0-, 2-, 3-, and 4-back conditions). First, we examined parametric increases and decreases in activation to increasing WM load (positive modulation effect and negative modulation effect). Second, we examined the effect of age on modulation to difficulty (WM load) to identify regions that differed with age as difficulty increased (age-related positive and negative modulation effects). Weakened modulation to difficulty with age was found in both the positive modulation (middle frontal, superior/inferior parietal) and negative modulation effect (deactivated) regions (insula, cingulate, medial superior frontal, fusiform, and parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, and lateral occipital cortex). Age-related alterations to positive modulation emerged later in the lifespan than negative modulation. Furthermore, these effects were significantly coupled in that greater upmodulation was associated with lesser downmodulation. Importantly, greater fronto-parietal upmodulation to difficulty and greater downmodulation of deactivated regions were associated with better task accuracy and upmodulation with better WM span measured outside the scanner. These findings suggest that greater dynamic range of modulation of activation to cognitive challenge is in service of current task performance, as well as generalizing to cognitive ability beyond the scanner task, lending support to its utility as a marker of successful cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Development as Freedom': Moving Economics Beyond Commodities - The Cautious Boldness of Amartya Sen

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Amartya Sen’s 1998 Nobel Prize and his recent synthesis of his views in Development as Freedom provide an opportunity to assess his intellectual contribution and style. The paper identifies entitlements analysis and capabilities analysis as the areas which make him stand out

  3. Turkey’s Rising Influence and Increasing Political Boldness: Implications for Its Relationship with NATO

    2017-03-31

    Three. Pursuing Security in the Middle East and Leadership in the West 15 Chapter Four. Changes in the Domestic Political Landscape 21 Chapter...economic integration, immigration and border control, national sovereignty, respect for democratic norms, and more. However, questions remain. Are...the Soviet blockade of West Berlin and its covert support for the communist overthrow of the democratically elected government of Czechoslovakia

  4. Inefficient preparatory fMRI-BOLD network activations predict working memory dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia

    Anja eBaenninger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally coherent networks (TCNs assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia.Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 & load 5 in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs – default mode network (DMN, dorsal attention network (dAN, left and right working memory networks (WMNs – and three EEG bands – theta, alpha, and beta.In healthy controls, there was a load dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal-midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task.Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback targeting pre-states could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain.

  5. PHYCAA: Data-driven measurement and removal of physiological noise in BOLD fMRI

    Churchill, Nathan W.; Yourganov, Grigori; Spring, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    , autocorrelated physiological noise sources with reproducible spatial structure, using an adaptation of Canonical Correlation Analysis performed in a split-half resampling framework. The technique is able to identify physiological effects with vascular-linked spatial structure, and an intrinsic dimensionality...... with physiological noise, and real data-driven model prediction and reproducibility, for both block and event-related task designs. This is demonstrated compared to no physiological noise correction, and to the widely used RETROICOR (Glover et al., 2000) physiological denoising algorithm, which uses externally...

  6. Boldness traits, not dominance, predict exploratory flight range and homing behaviour in homing pigeons.

    Portugal, Steven J; Ricketts, Rhianna L; Chappell, Jackie; White, Craig R; Shepard, Emily L; Biro, Dora

    2017-08-19

    Group living has been proposed to yield benefits that enhance fitness above the level that would be achieved through living as solitary individuals. Dominance hierarchies occur commonly in these social assemblages, and result, by definition, in resources not being evenly distributed between group members. Determinants of rank within a dominance hierarchy can be associated with morphological characteristics, previous experience of the individual, or personality traits such as exploration tendencies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether greater exploration and positive responses to novel objects in homing pigeons ( Columba livia ) measured under laboratory conditions were associated with (i) greater initial exploration of the local area around the home loft during spontaneous exploration flights (SEF), (ii) faster and more efficient homing flights when released from further afield, and (iii) whether the traits of greater exploration and more positive responses to novel objects were more likely to be exhibited by the more dominant individuals within the group. There was no relationship between laboratory-based novel object exploration and position within the dominance hierarchy. Pigeons that were neophobic under laboratory conditions did not explore the local area during SEF opportunities. When released from sites further from home, neophobic pigeons took longer routes to home compared to those birds that had not exhibited neophobic traits under laboratory conditions, and had spontaneously explored to a greater extent. The lack of exploration in the neophobic birds is likely to have resulted in the increased costs of homing following release: unfamiliarity with the landscape likely led to the greater distances travelled and less efficient routes taken. Birds that demonstrated a lack of neophobia were not the dominant individuals inside the loft, and thus would have less access to resources such as food and potentially mates. However, a lack of neophobia makes the subordinate position possible, because subordinate birds that incur high travel costs would become calorie restricted and lose condition. Our results address emerging questions linking individual variation in behaviour with energetics and fitness consequences.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Limits of 2D-TCA in detecting BOLD responses to epileptic activity.

    Khatamian, Yasha Borna; Fahoum, Firas; Gotman, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional temporal clustering analysis (2D-TCA) is a relatively new functional MRI (fMRI) based technique that breaks blood oxygen level dependent activity into separate components based on timing and has shown potential for localizing epileptic activity independently of electroencephalography (EEG). 2D-TCA has only been applied to detect epileptic activity in a few studies and its limits in detecting activity of various forms (i.e. activation size, amplitude, and frequency) have not been investigated. This study evaluated 2D-TCA's ability to detect various forms of both simulated epileptic activity and EEG-fMRI activity detected in patients. When applied to simulated data, 2D-TCA consistently detected activity in 6min runs containing 5 spikes/run, 10 spikes/run, and one 5s long event with hemodynamic response function amplitudes of at least 1.5%, 1.25%, and 1% above baseline respectively. When applied to patient data, while detection of interictal spikes was inconsistent, 2D-TCA consistently produced results similar to those obtained by EEG-fMRI when at least 2 prolonged interictal events (a few seconds each) occurred during the run. However, even for such cases it was determined that 2D-TCA can only be used to validate localization by other means or to create hypotheses as to where activity may occur, as it also detects changes not caused by epileptic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of intranasal insulin application on the hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose ingestion

    van Opstal, Anna M.; Akintola, Abimbola A.; Elst, Marjan van der

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a crucial structure in the brain that responds to metabolic cues and regulates energy homeostasis. Patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a lack of hypothalamic neuronal response after glucose ingestion, which is suggested to be an underlying cause of the disease. In this s......The hypothalamus is a crucial structure in the brain that responds to metabolic cues and regulates energy homeostasis. Patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a lack of hypothalamic neuronal response after glucose ingestion, which is suggested to be an underlying cause of the disease...... effect. Our data provide proof of concept for future experiments testing the potential of intranasal application of insulin to ameliorate defective homeostatic control in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  9. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Christina Wierenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11 and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12 performed a validated stop signal task (SST during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit trials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during inhibitory and error processing may represent a behavioral characteristic in AN that is independent of the state of recovery.

  10. Big and Open Linked Data (BOLD) in Research, Policy and Practice

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Kuk, G.

    2016-01-01

    The value of data as a new economic asset class is seldom realized on its own. With less reliance on self-administered survey, it offers new insights into behaviors and patterns. Yet it is a huge undertaking of bringing together multiple actors from different disciplines and diverse practices to

  11. The BOLD-fMRI study of behavior inhibition in chronic heroin addicts

    Yuan Fei; Yuan Yi; Liu Yinshe; Zhao Jun; Weng Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity and the response inhibition deficits of the chronic heroin users using event-related functional MRI (stop-signal task). Methods: Seventeen individuals with heroin dependence and 17 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI scan while executing stop -signal task after anatomical scanning in 3.0 T scanner. The AFNI package was used for fMRI data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Results: The behavioral data showed that the stop signal reaction rime (SSRT) of heroin users was significantly longer than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in activation of the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area between two groups. Comparing to the control group, heroin users had weaker activation in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex, but stronger activation in bilateral striatum and amygdala while behavioral inhibition needed. Conclusion: The results suggest that heroin users have significant changes within impulsivity and inhibitory network, where the right prefrontal cortex is considered as main region for inhibition, while the anterior cingulated cortex is associated with error monitoring, and the amygdale controls impulsivity and emotion. (authors)

  12. Effects of Tasks on BOLD Signal Responses to Sentence Contrasts: Review and Commentary

    Caplan, David; Gow, David

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of syntactic processing have been interpreted as identifying the neural locations of parsing and interpretive operations. However, current behavioral studies of sentence processing indicate that many operations occur simultaneously with parsing and interpretation. In this review, we point to issues that arise in…

  13. Detection and Characterization of Single-Trial fMRI BOLD Responses : Paradigm Free Mapping

    Gaudes, Cesar Caballero; Petridou, Natalia; Dryden, Ian L.; Bai, Li; Francis, Susan T.; Gowland, Penny A.

    This work presents a novel method of mapping the brain's response to single stimuli in space and time without prior knowledge of the paradigm timing: paradigm free mapping (PFM). This method is based on deconvolution of the hemodynamic response from the voxel time series assuming a linear response

  14. Have CT--will travel: to boldly go where no scan has gone before.

    Schwamm, Lee H; Starkman, Sidney

    2013-01-08

    In 1962, a new English rock-and-roll band named The Beatles signed a recording contract with Electric & Music Industries (EMI). The Beatles were so financially successful that EMI was able to fund research and development in other divisions of the company; in particular, the work of an enterprising young engineer named Godfrey Hounsfield. His groundbreaking work in x-ray imaging produced the first commercially available head-only CT scanner, and a Nobel Prize.

  15. Cerebral Asymmetry of fMRI-BOLD Responses to Visual Stimulation

    Hougaard, Anders; Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry of a wide range of functions is a hallmark of the human brain. The visual system has traditionally been thought of as symmetrically distributed in the brain, but a growing body of evidence has challenged this view. Some highly specific visual tasks have been shown to depend......MRI) in 54 healthy subjects during stimulation with a black and white checkerboard visual stimulus. While carefully excluding possible non-physiological causes of left-to-right bias, we compared the activation of the left and the right cerebral hemispheres and related this to grey matter volume, handedness...... was correlated with subject age, suggesting a shift towards the left hemisphere with increasing age. Our findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance of these areas, which could lend support to the generally observed leftward visual attentional bias and to the left hemifield advantage for some visual...

  16. Erich Frey and associates: a bold contribution to South African silver ...

    He incorporated materials other than precious stones (such as wood and ivory) in his designs and explored these materials' natural form, texture and colour in composing their precious metal settings. By making use of semi-precious stones he helped stimulate the development of a gemmological industry in the country.

  17. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  18. Comparison of methods for detecting nondeterministic BOLD fluctuation in fMRI.

    Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kantola, Juha-Heikki; Jauhiainen, Jukka; Tervonen, Osmo

    2004-02-01

    Functional MR imaging (fMRI) has been used in detecting neuronal activation and intrinsic blood flow fluctuations in the brain cortex. This article is aimed for comparing the methods for analyzing the nondeterministic flow fluctuations. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), cross correlation (CC), spatial principal component analysis (sPCA), and independent component analysis (sICA) were compared. 15 subjects were imaged at 1.5 T. Three quantitative measures were compared: (1) The number of subjects with identifiable fluctuation, (2) the volume, and (3) mean correlation coefficient (MCC) of the detected voxels. The focusing on cortical structures and the overall usability were qualitatively assessed. sICA was spatially most accurate but time consuming, robust, and detected voxels with high temporal synchrony. The CC and FFT were fast suiting primary screening. The CC detected highest temporal synchrony but the subjective detection for reference vector produced excess variance of the detected volumes. The FFT and sPCA were not spatially accurate and did not detect adequate temporal synchrony of the voxels.

  19. AIRMEN AS BOLD RISK TAKERS REDEFINING RISK TO ACHIEVE OPERATIONAL AGILITY

    2017-04-15

    scenarios27, and emotion tends to cloud perceptions of risk.28 Also, as the frequency of feedback on a given situation increases, aversion to loss...are not brand new or emerging technology such that there is still limited intelligence on them—do not significantly increase operational risk. Those

  20. Soviet-American Art Exchanges during the Thaw: from Bold Openings to Hasty Retreats

    Mikkonen, Simo

    2013-01-01

    [Introduction] East-West artistic connections during the Cold War were a complex range of phenomena including the circulation of works of art, travelling by art professionals, the exchange of practices and the adoption of art currents from the other side of the Iron Curtain. The Cold War has also been said to have influenced the arts and artistic processes in a number of ways. Yet, art has always shunned political borders, wavering between the guidance of individual and government...

  1. SharePoint 2010 at Work Tricks, Traps, and Bold Opinions

    Miller, Mark; Anderson, Marc; Rogers, Laura; Abraham, Kerri; Buren, Sadalit; Mastykarz, Waldek; Alexander, Eric; Bautz, Alexander; Howard, Jim; Allen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    If you're a SharePoint site manager or administrator, you finally have a handy single-source reference to help you through the tough SharePoint learning curve. Written by Mark Miller and his stable of well-known contributors at EndUserSharePoint.com, this book contains the most helpful articles from this popular site-fully updated for SharePoint 2010. Each chapter focuses on core issues that vex SharePoint administrators when it comes to setting up and managing sites. You'll learn tried-and-true solutions for creating charts and graphs, joining views in SharePoint lists, building a SharePoin

  2. BOLD response to motion verbs in left posterior middle temporal gyrus during story comprehension

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Vuust, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action...... knowledge. It has also been found that motion verbs cause activation in LPMT. In this experiment we investigated whether this effect could be replicated in a setting resembling real life language comprehension, i.e. without any overt behavioral task during passive listening to a story. During f......, clauses containing motion verbs were accompanied by a robust activation of LPMT with no other significant effects, consistent with the hypothesis that this brain region is important for processing motion knowledge, even during naturalistic language comprehension conditions....

  3. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer.

    Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Skewes, Joshua; Dietz, Martin; Møller, Arne; Jensen, Martin S; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wiech, Katja; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70-89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during religious prayer in a large parietofrontal network relative to the secular condition. Naloxone had no significant effect on ratings or neural activity. Our results thus indicate that, under these conditions, pain modulation by prayer is not opioid-dependent. Further studies should employ an optimized design to explore whether reduced engagement of the frontoparietal system could indicate that prayer may attenuate pain through a reduction in processing of pain stimulus saliency and prefrontal control rather than through known descending pain inhibitory systems.

  4. Cognitive Functioning in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A BOLD-fMRI Study.

    Guo, Lili; Bai, Genji; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Daoyan; Zheng, Jiyong; Xu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to analyze the association between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (re-fMRI) and cognitive function (including language, executive, and memory functions) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, which will help to explore the mechanism of brain function in patients. 15 TLE patients and 15 non-TLE patients were recruited. All subjects underwent neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation. Changes in verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), full intelligence quotient (FIQ), and memory quotient (MQ) were compared between two groups. Re-fMRI data were also collected from two groups to evaluate these changes. Each individual score of neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation were higher in control group, which was statistically different (all P temporal gyrus back, right superior temporal gyrus, left cerebellum, left angular gyrus, left wedge anterior lobe, and left central back; while the negatively activated brain regions were left prefrontal, right cerebellum, right corner back, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the language task, the activated brain regions of the TLE patients were right prefrontal lobe, the lateral temporal gyri, the left cerebellum, left cornu laterale gyrus, left precuneus, and the left postcentral gyrus, whereas the negatively activated brain areas were the left prefrontal cortex, the right cerebellum, right cornu laterale gyrus, and the right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the executive task, epilepsy patients showed activation difference in right prefrontal and right frontal lobe and right brain, left superior temporal gyrus, and right cerebellum anterior lobe compared with the control group; no negatively activated differences in brain areas. During the memory task, the difference lay in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral wedge anterior lobe while the negatively activated brain areas were the left inferior frontal gyrus and postcentral gyrus. The cognitive functioning is related to the functional connectivity within the cortex. There is a significant difference in the activation of brain areas during different tasks between the TLE patients and the non-TLE patients.

  5. BOLD Response to Motion Verbs in Left Posterior Middle Temporal Gyrus during Story Comprehension

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Hojlund; Vuust, Peter; Dohn, Anders; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action knowledge. It has also been found that motion verbs cause…

  6. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  8. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer

    Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Dietz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping....... Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline...... was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70–89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during...

  9. Marketing Today's Academic Library: A Bold New Approach to Communicating with Students

    Mathews, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In "Marketing Today's Academic Library", the author uses his vast experience to speak directly to the academic library practitioner about matching services with user needs. This book proposes new visions and ideas, challenging the traditional way of thinking and providing a framework to target users more precisely. Most library marketing intended…

  10. Gender differences in BOLD activation to face photographs and video vignettes.

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Zhu, David C

    2009-07-19

    Few neuroimaging studies have reported gender differences in response to human emotions, and those that have examined such differences have utilized face photographs. This study presented not only human face photographs of positive and negative emotions, but also video vignettes of positive and negative social human interactions in an attempt to provide a more ecologically appropriate stimuli paradigm. Ten male and 10 female healthy right-handed young adults were shown positive and negative affective social human faces and video vignettes to elicit gender differences in social/emotional perception. Conservative ROI (region of interest) analysis indicated greater male than female activation to positive affective photos in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, all in the right hemisphere. No significant ROI gender differences were observed to negative affective photos. Male greater than female activation was seen in ROIs of the left posterior cingulate and the right inferior temporal gyrus to positive social videos. Male greater than female activation occurred in only the left middle temporal ROI for negative social videos. Consistent with previous findings, males were more lateralized than females. Although more activation was observed overall to video compared to photo conditions, males and females appear to process social video stimuli more similarly to one another than they do for photos. This study is a step forward in understanding the social brain with more ecologically valid stimuli that more closely approximates the demands of real-time social and affective processing.

  11. Larger Neural Responses Produce BOLD Signals That Begin Earlier in Time

    Serena eThompson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI analyses commonly rely on the assumption that the temporal dynamics of hemodynamic response functions (HRFs are independent of the amplitude of the neural signals that give rise to them. The validity of this assumption is particularly important for techniques that use fMRI to resolve sub-second timing distinctions between responses, in order to make inferences about the ordering of neural processes. Whether or not the detailed shape of the HRF is independent of neural response amplitude remains an open question, however. We performed experiments in which we measured responses in primary visual cortex (V1 to large, contrast-reversing checkerboards at a range of contrast levels, which should produce varying amounts of neural activity. Ten subjects (ages 22-52 were studied in each of two experiments using 3 Tesla scanners. We used rapid, 250 msec, temporal sampling (repetition time, or TR and both short and long inter-stimulus interval (ISI stimulus presentations. We tested for a systematic relationship between the onset of the HRF and its amplitude across conditions, and found a strong negative correlation between the two measures when stimuli were separated in time (long- and medium-ISI experiments, but not the short-ISI experiment. Thus, stimuli that produce larger neural responses, as indexed by HRF amplitude, also produced HRFs with shorter onsets. The relationship between amplitude and latency was strongest in voxels with lowest mean-normalized variance (i.e., parenchymal voxels. The onset differences observed in the longer-ISI experiments are likely attributable to mechanisms of neurovascular coupling, since they are substantially larger than reported differences in the onset of action potentials in V1 as a function of response amplitude.

  12. A Bold New Timeless Classic: Fukunaga’s Partial Reading of Jane Eyre

    John Engle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With its first person narrator, radical tonal changes, and wild blend of genres (autobiography, romance, Gothic melodrama, Christian exemplum, etc., Brontë’s Jane Eyre is a case study in the difficulties of cinematic adaptation, as the filmmaker attempts to balance "fidelity" with contemporary relevance and entertainment value. This article examines Cary Fukunaga’s 2011 version, and in particular certain orientations animating his necessarily "partial" reading of the novel. Chief among these is the decision to begin the film when Jane leaves Thornfield; recounting much of the story in discontinuous flashback, the film manages simultaneously to admit Jane’s narrative voice while eliminating its potentially distracting nature. Fukunaga’s other choices include the toning down of the novel’s lurid Gothic quality, its overt romanticism, and—today an overly familiar romantic comedy stereotype—the teasing interplay between the two protagonists. Communicating in a compact language of visual symbol, he also uses the original’s "religious plot" as a tool for modern character analysis.

  13. The BOLD signal in the amygdala does not differentiate between dynamic facial expressions

    van der Gaag, Christiaan; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Keysers, Christian

    The amygdala has been considered to be essential for recognizing fear in other people's facial expressions. Recent studies shed doubt on this interpretation. Here we used movies of facial expressions instead of static photographs to investigate the putative fear selectivity of the amygdala using

  14. To boldly go… : designing an agent-based intercultural training tool

    Degens, N.

    2014-01-01

    People from all over the world must live and work together in today’s society. Such integration is not always a smooth process, and interactions with people from other cultures may lead to misunderstandings or even outright conflicts.

    In the last few years, researchers and practitioners

  15. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  16. Load Modulation of BOLD Response and Connectivity Predicts Working Memory Performance in Younger and Older Adults

    Nagel, Irene E.; Preuschhof, Claudia; Li, Shu-Chen; Nyberg, Lars; Backman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) performance have rarely been related to individual differences in the functional responsivity of the WM brain network. By neglecting person-to-person variation, comparisons of network activity between younger and older adults using functional imaging techniques often confound differences in activity…

  17. Post-synthetic transformation of a Zn( ii ) polyhedral coordination network into a new supramolecular isomer of HKUST-1

    Chen, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Nankai University; Tianjin 300071; P. R. China; College of Pharmacy; Wojtas, Lukasz [Department of Chemistry; University of South Florida; 4202 East Fowler Avenue; Tampa; USA; Ma, Shengqian [Department of Chemistry; University of South Florida; 4202 East Fowler Avenue; Tampa; USA; Zaworotko, Michael J. [Department of Chemistry & Environmental Sciences, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick; Limerick; Republic of Ireland; Zhang, Zhenjie [College of Chemistry, Nankai University; Tianjin; P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Nankai University

    2017-01-01

    A Zn-based porphyrin containing metal–organic material (<bold>porphMOM-1bold>) was post-synthetically transformed into a Cu-based porphyrin-encapsulating metal–organic material (<bold>porph@HKUST-1-βbold>).>HKUST-1-βbold>is a new supramolecular isomer of<bold>HKUST-1bold>.

  18. Reproducibility of MRI renal artery blood flow and BOLD measurements in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy controls.

    Khatir, Dinah S; Pedersen, Michael; Jespersen, Bente; Buus, Niels H

    2014-11-01

    Determine the reproducibility of renal artery blood flow (RABF) and blood-oxygenation level dependent (R2 *) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and healthy controls. RABF and R2 * were measured in 11 CKD patients and 9 controls twice with 1- to 2-week interval. R2 * in the cortex and medulla were determined after breathing atmospheric air and 100% oxygen. Reproducibility was evaluated by coefficients of variation (CV), limits of agreements and intra-class coefficient calculated by variance components by maximum likelihood modeling. Single-kidney RABF (mL/min) for patients was: 170 ± 130 and 186 ± 137, and for controls: 365 ± 119 and 361 ± 107 (P Renal cortical R2 * was: 13.6 ± 0.9 and 13.5 ± 1.2 in patients (CV = 8.0%), and 13.8 ± 1.6 and 14.0 ± 1.5 in controls (CV = 5.6%), while medullary R2 *(s(-1) ) was: 26.9 ± 2.0 and 27.0 ± 4.0 (CV = 8.0%) in patients, and 26.0 ± 2.4 and 26.1 ± 2.1 (CV = 3.6%) in controls, for first and second scans, respectively. In both groups R2 * in medulla decreased after breathing 100% oxygen. The reproducibility was high for both RABF and R2 * in patients and controls, particularly in the cortex. Inhalation of 100% oxygen reduced medullary R2 *. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The bold and the beautiful. Influence of body size of televised media models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exposure to televised thin and average size models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake were examined. Normal weight female students (N=104) were exposed to a 30-min movie clip featuring beautiful girls. Half of them viewed the movie clip in normal screen size (4:3) and the

  20. The Evaluation of Preprocessing Choices in Single-Subject BOLD fMRI Using NPAIRS Performance Metrics

    Stephen, LaConte; Rottenberg, David; Strother, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    to obtain cross-validation-based model performance estimates of prediction accuracy and global reproducibility for various degrees of model complexity. We rely on the concept of an analysis chain meta-model in which all parameters of the preprocessing steps along with the final statistical model are treated...

  1. Measures Collected on the USMA Class of 1998 as Part of the Baseline Officer Longitudinal Data Set (BOLDS)

    Milan, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    ...: cognitive aptitude, complex problem-solving skills, tacit knowledge of military leadership, temperament, motivation, leadership style, leadership performance, physical fitness, cognitive-emotional...

  2. Comparison of semantic and episodic memory BOLD fMRI activation in predicting cognitive decline in older adults.

    Hantke, Nathan; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Breting, Leslie M Guidotti; Butts, Alissa; Seidenberg, Michael; Carson Smith, J; Durgerian, Sally; Lancaster, Melissa; Matthews, Monica; Sugarman, Michael A; Rao, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that task-activated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can predict future cognitive decline among healthy older adults. The present fMRI study examined the relative sensitivity of semantic memory (SM) versus episodic memory (EM) activation tasks for predicting cognitive decline. Seventy-eight cognitively intact elders underwent neuropsychological testing at entry and after an 18-month interval, with participants classified as cognitively "Stable" or "Declining" based on ≥ 1.0 SD decline in performance. Baseline fMRI scanning involved SM (famous name discrimination) and EM (name recognition) tasks. SM and EM fMRI activation, along with Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status, served as predictors of cognitive outcome using a logistic regression analysis. Twenty-seven (34.6%) participants were classified as Declining and 51 (65.4%) as Stable. APOE ε4 status alone significantly predicted cognitive decline (R(2) = .106; C index = .642). Addition of SM activation significantly improved prediction accuracy (R(2) = .285; C index = .787), whereas the addition of EM did not (R(2) = .212; C index = .711). In combination with APOE status, SM task activation predicts future cognitive decline better than EM activation. These results have implications for use of fMRI in prevention clinical trials involving the identification of persons at-risk for age-associated memory loss and Alzheimer's disease.

  3. A Truly Bold Idea for U.S. J&MC Education: Sincerely Trying True Excellence for Once

    Claussen, Dane S.

    2012-01-01

    On June 4 this year, Howard Finberg of the Poynter Institute gave a speech called "The Future of Journalism Education" at the European Journalism Centre's twentieth anniversary celebration in Maastricht, the Netherlands, in which he presented the results of a survey of journalists and journalism professors about the value of a journalism degree,…

  4. Bold-Independent Computational Entropy Assesses Functional Donut-Like Structures in Brain fMRI Images.

    Peters, James F; Ramanna, Sheela; Tozzi, Arturo; İnan, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for the measurement of information level in fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) neural data sets, based on image subdivision in small polygons equipped with different entropic content. We show how this method, called maximal nucleus clustering (MNC), is a novel, fast and inexpensive image-analysis technique, independent from the standard blood-oxygen-level dependent signals. MNC facilitates the objective detection of hidden temporal patterns of entropy/information in zones of fMRI images generally not taken into account by the subjective standpoint of the observer. This approach befits the geometric character of fMRIs. The main purpose of this study is to provide a computable framework for fMRI that not only facilitates analyses, but also provides an easily decipherable visualization of structures. This framework commands attention because it is easily implemented using conventional software systems. In order to evaluate the potential applications of MNC, we looked for the presence of a fourth dimension's distinctive hallmarks in a temporal sequence of 2D images taken during spontaneous brain activity. Indeed, recent findings suggest that several brain activities, such as mind-wandering and memory retrieval, might take place in the functional space of a four dimensional hypersphere, which is a double donut-like structure undetectable in the usual three dimensions. We found that the Rényi entropy is higher in MNC areas than in the surrounding ones, and that these temporal patterns closely resemble the trajectories predicted by the possible presence of a hypersphere in the brain.

  5. Preventive Diplomacy and Peacekeeping in Sub Saharan Africa: The Liberian Crisis, and ECOMOG: a Bold Attempt at Regional Peacekeeping

    Diallo, Abdoulaye

    1997-01-01

    .... The Liberian civil war and the lower attention span of the world powers on the evolution of that conflict provide an indication of the trend of the restructuring occurring within the international system...

  6. Government of the Republic of the Philippines - Moro Islamic Liberation Front Peace Talks: A Bold Move to Counter Terrorism

    Amarille, Roland C

    2006-01-01

    .... There is an urgent need for these talks to succeed. A successful settlement between the two groups will bring peace and economic progress to the country, and contain terrorism in Southeast Asia...

  7. An efficient multi-stage algorithm for full calibration of the hemodynamic model from BOLD signal responses

    Zambri, Brian; Djellouli, Rabia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    We propose a computational strategy that falls into the category of prediction/correction iterative-type approaches, for calibrating the hemodynamic model introduced by Friston et al. (2000). The proposed method is employed to estimate consecutively the values of the biophysiological system parameters and the external stimulus characteristics of the model. Numerical results corresponding to both synthetic and real functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements for a single stimulus as well as for multiple stimuli are reported to highlight the capability of this computational methodology to fully calibrate the considered hemodynamic model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of acutely administered MDMA on subjective and BOLD-fMRI responses to favourite and worst autobiographical memories.

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Wall, M B; Erritzoe, D; Kaelen, M; Ferguson, B; De Meer, I; Tanner, M; Bloomfield, M; Williams, T M; Bolstridge, M; Stewart, L; Morgan, C J; Newbould, R D; Feilding, A; Curran, H V; Nutt, D J

    2014-04-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine-releaser that is widely used as a recreational drug. Preliminary work has supported the potential of MDMA in psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying its putative efficacy are, however, poorly understood. Psychotherapy for PTSD usually requires that patients revisit traumatic memories, and it has been argued that this is easier to do under MDMA. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effect of MDMA on recollection of favourite and worst autobiographical memories (AMs). Nineteen participants (five females) with previous experience with MDMA performed a blocked AM recollection (AMR) paradigm after ingestion of 100 mg of MDMA-HCl or ascorbic acid (placebo) in a double-blind, repeated-measures design. Memory cues describing participants' AMs were read by them in the scanner. Favourite memories were rated as significantly more vivid, emotionally intense and positive after MDMA than placebo and worst memories were rated as less negative. Functional MRI data from 17 participants showed robust activations to AMs in regions known to be involved in AMR. There was also a significant effect of memory valence: hippocampal regions showed preferential activations to favourite memories and executive regions to worst memories. MDMA augmented activations to favourite memories in the bilateral fusiform gyrus and somatosensory cortex and attenuated activations to worst memories in the left anterior temporal cortex. These findings are consistent with a positive emotional-bias likely mediated by MDMA's pro-monoaminergic pharmacology.

  9. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea Solea) Reared in Captivity

    Mas-Munoz, J.; Komen, J.; Schneider, O.; Visch, S.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected

  10. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act

  11. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women.

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2014-02-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-'hot' vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-'hot') associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli.

  12. Mapping effective connectivity in the human brain with concurrent intracranial electrical stimulation and BOLD-fMRI.

    Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Magnotta, Vincent A; Kruger, Anton; Griffiths, Timothy D; Lemieux, Louis; Carmichael, David W; Petkov, Christopher I; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Kovach, Christopher K; Sutterer, Matthew J; Adolphs, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain function requires knowledge of how one brain region causally influences another. This information is difficult to obtain directly in the human brain, and is instead typically inferred from resting-state fMRI. Here, we demonstrate the safety and scientific promise of a novel and complementary approach: concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI (es-fMRI) at 3T in awake neurosurgical patients with implanted depth electrodes. We document the results of safety testing, actual experimental setup, and stimulation parameters, that safely and reliably evoke activation in distal structures through stimulation of amygdala, cingulate, or prefrontal cortex. We compare connectivity inferred from the evoked patterns of activation with that estimated from standard resting-state fMRI in the same patients: while connectivity patterns obtained with each approach are correlated, each method produces unique results. Response patterns were stable over the course of 11min of es-fMRI runs. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD: es-fMRI in awake humans yields unique information about effective connectivity, complementing resting-state fMRI. Although our stimulations were below the level of inducing any apparent behavioral or perceptual effects, a next step would be to use es-fMRI to modulate task performances. This would reveal the acute network-level changes induced by the stimulation that mediate the behavioral and cognitive effects seen with brain stimulation. es-fMRI provides a novel and safe approach for mapping effective connectivity in the human brain in a clinical setting, and will inform treatments for psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders that use deep brain stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. To Boldly Go Where No Learner Has Gone Before: Independent Inquiry, Educational Technology, and Society in Science Fiction

    Andrews, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Possibilities for a different form of education have provided rich sources of inspiration for science fiction writers. Isaac Asimov, Orson Scott Card, Neal Stephenson, Octavia Butler, and Vernor Vinge, among others, have all projected their own visions of what education could be. These visions sometimes engage with technologies that are currently…

  14. The solar photospheric abundance of carbon : Analysis of atomic carbon lines with the CO5BOLD solar model

    Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Bonifacio, P.; Faraggiana, R.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Kamp, I.; Ayres, T. R.

    Context. The analysis of the solar spectra using hydrodynamical simulations, with a specific selection of lines, atomic data, and method for computing deviations from local thermodynamical equilibrium, has led to a downward revision of the solar metallicity, Z. We are using the latest simulations

  15. ESTUDO EXPERIMENTAL E NUMÉRICO DE CONECTORES DE CISSALHAMENTO DO TIPO STUD BOLD EM VIGAS MISTAS

    da Silva, Welington Vital; Sobrinho, Brunno Emidio; Siqueira, João Paulo de Almeida; Macedo, Thiago Araujo; Bessa, Marco Aurelio Souza; Santos, Juliana Cardoso

    2017-01-01

      Resumo. As estruturas em aço-concreto são extremamente utilizadas na construção civil no Brasil devido às vantagens que são obtidas com o aproveitamento das propriedades desses materiais. Nessas estruturas o perfil de aço trabalha em conjunto com o concreto e a interação entre eles é garantida com o uso de conectores de cisalhamento. Os conectores são elementos metálicos cujas funções são transferir o fluxo de cisalhamento e restringir a separação vertical do conjunto misto. É de grande imp...

  16. An efficient multi-stage algorithm for full calibration of the hemodynamic model from BOLD signal responses

    Zambri, Brian

    2017-02-22

    We propose a computational strategy that falls into the category of prediction/correction iterative-type approaches, for calibrating the hemodynamic model introduced by Friston et al. (2000). The proposed method is employed to estimate consecutively the values of the biophysiological system parameters and the external stimulus characteristics of the model. Numerical results corresponding to both synthetic and real functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements for a single stimulus as well as for multiple stimuli are reported to highlight the capability of this computational methodology to fully calibrate the considered hemodynamic model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing consistency of R2* and T2*-weighted BOLD analysis of resting state fetal fMRI

    Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Anna I.; Gatenby, Christopher; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Dighe, Manjiri; Studholme, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Understanding when and how resting state brain functional activity begins in the human brain is an increasing area of interest in both basic neuroscience and in the clinical evaluation of the brain during pregnancy and after premature birth. Although fMRI studies have been carried out on pregnant women since the 1990's, reliable mapping of brain function in utero is an extremely challenging problem due to the unconstrained fetal head motion. Recent studies have employed scrubbing to exclude parts of the time series and whole subjects from studies in order to control the confounds of motion. Fundamentally, even after correction of the location of signals due to motion, signal intensity variations are a fundamental limitation, due to coil sensitivity and spin history effects. An alternative technique is to use a more parametric MRI signal derived from multiple echoes that provides a level of independence from basic MRI signal variation. Here we examine the use of R2* mapping combined with slice based multi echo geometric distortion correction for in-utero studies. The challenges for R2* mapping arise from the relatively low signal strength of in-utero data. In this paper we focus on comparing activation detection in-utero using T2W and R2* approaches. We make use a subset of studies with relatively limited motion to compare the activation patterns without the additional confound of significant motion. Results at different gestational ages indicate comparable agreement in many activation patterns when limited motion is present, and the detection of some additional networks in the R2* data, not seen in the T2W results.

  18. Regional differences in the CBF and BOLD responses to hypercapnia: a combined PET and fMRI study

    Rostrup, Egill; Law, I; Blinkenberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Previous fMRI studies of the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia have shown signal change in cerebral gray matter, but not in white matter. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare (15)O PET and T *(2)-weighted MRI during a hypercapnic challenge. The measurements were perf...

  19. Influences of High-Level Features, Gaze, and Scene Transitions on the Reliability of BOLD Responses to Natural Movie Stimuli

    Lu, Kun-Han; Hung, Shao-Chin; Wen, Haiguang; Marussich, Lauren; Liu, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Complex, sustained, dynamic, and naturalistic visual stimulation can evoke distributed brain activities that are highly reproducible within and across individuals. However, the precise origins of such reproducible responses remain incompletely understood. Here, we employed concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and eye tracking to investigate the experimental and behavioral factors that influence fMRI activity and its intra- and inter-subject reproducibility during repeated movie stimuli. We found that widely distributed and highly reproducible fMRI responses were attributed primarily to the high-level natural content in the movie. In the absence of such natural content, low-level visual features alone in a spatiotemporally scrambled control stimulus evoked significantly reduced degree and extent of reproducible responses, which were mostly confined to the primary visual cortex (V1). We also found that the varying gaze behavior affected the cortical response at the peripheral part of V1 and in the oculomotor network, with minor effects on the response reproducibility over the extrastriate visual areas. Lastly, scene transitions in the movie stimulus due to film editing partly caused the reproducible fMRI responses at widespread cortical areas, especially along the ventral visual pathway. Therefore, the naturalistic nature of a movie stimulus is necessary for driving highly reliable visual activations. In a movie-stimulation paradigm, scene transitions and individuals’ gaze behavior should be taken as potential confounding factors in order to properly interpret cortical activity that supports natural vision. PMID:27564573

  20. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women

    de Jong, Peter J.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people’s attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile–vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-‘hot’ vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-‘hot’) associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli. PMID:23051899

  1. Decomposition of BOLD Activity into Tuned and Untuned Components Reveals Cohabitation of Stimulus and Choice Information in V1

    Kyoung Whan Choe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on V1 report top-down modulation of input-driven responses of sensory neurons, implying that exogenous sensory drives and endogenous top-down drives jointly determine V1 responses. By measuring fMRI responses in conjunction with a classification task on ambiguous ring stimuli, we sought to understand how V1 carries out its encoding operation on afferent currents while being adaptively modulated by top-down currents associated with perceptual tasks. Population activity of V1, as in its raw eccentricity profiles, failed to resolve the threshold differences between the ring stimuli due to large moment-to-moment fluctuations. The analysis of variance indicated that stimulus-evoked responses explain only one-fifth of the total variance and fMRI responses were highly correlated among eccentricity-bins, implying that a substantial fraction of V1 responses fluctuate as a whole. This led us to decompose the raw fMRI responses into untuned and tuned components: average response across eccentricity-bins and residual responses from the average, respectively, the former varying only in time and the latter varying in both space and time. The tuned responses revealed the veridical encoding operation of V1 by readily distinguishing between the ring stimuli, which was impossible with the raw fMRI responses. In contrast, the untuned were correlated with two major aspects of choice behavior—inter-trial variability in response time and inter-subject variability in response bias. We propose that this cohabitation of stimulus and choice information in V1 indicates the presence of top-down exertion of gain modulation on the early processing stage by the high-tier stage that accumulates evidence for perceptual choices.

  2. To boldly go where no relationship has gone before: commentary on interpersonal relationships in the digital age.

    Okdie, Bradley M; Ewoldsen, David R

    2018-04-19

    Individuals have a need to maintain positive social interactions and with the advent of new media technologies, there are a myriad ways individuals can satisfy this need by engaging socially in mediated (non-face-to-face) communication, hence the need for a special issue on Relationships in the Digital Age. The articles in this special issue reflect the need to answer theoretical questions brought forth by the increased tendency for individuals to create and maintain interpersonal relationships through mediated forms of communication. The commentary highlights the need for increased research on mediated interpersonal relationships by psychologists and discusses how the articles in the issue can be used to answer theoretical questions about mediated interpersonal communication. The article ends with speculation on how media may create social spaces that may be advantageous for some individuals.

  3. Test-retest reliability of evoked BOLD signals from a cognitive-emotive fMRI test battery.

    Plichta, Michael M; Schwarz, Adam J; Grimm, Oliver; Morgen, Katrin; Mier, Daniela; Haddad, Leila; Gerdes, Antje B M; Sauer, Carina; Tost, Heike; Esslinger, Christine; Colman, Peter; Wilson, Frederick; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-04-15

    Even more than in cognitive research applications, moving fMRI to the clinic and the drug development process requires the generation of stable and reliable signal changes. The performance characteristics of the fMRI paradigm constrain experimental power and may require different study designs (e.g., crossover vs. parallel groups), yet fMRI reliability characteristics can be strongly dependent on the nature of the fMRI task. The present study investigated both within-subject and group-level reliability of a combined three-task fMRI battery targeting three systems of wide applicability in clinical and cognitive neuroscience: an emotional (face matching), a motivational (monetary reward anticipation) and a cognitive (n-back working memory) task. A group of 25 young, healthy volunteers were scanned twice on a 3T MRI scanner with a mean test-retest interval of 14.6 days. FMRI reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) applied at three different levels ranging from a global to a localized and fine spatial scale: (1) reliability of group-level activation maps over the whole brain and within targeted regions of interest (ROIs); (2) within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes and (3) within-subject reliability of individual voxels in the target ROIs. Results showed robust evoked activation of all three tasks in their respective target regions (emotional task=amygdala; motivational task=ventral striatum; cognitive task=right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortices) with high effect sizes (ES) of ROI-mean summary values (ES=1.11-1.44 for the faces task, 0.96-1.43 for the reward task, 0.83-2.58 for the n-back task). Reliability of group level activation was excellent for all three tasks with ICCs of 0.89-0.98 at the whole brain level and 0.66-0.97 within target ROIs. Within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes across sessions was fair to good for the reward task (ICCs=0.56-0.62) and, dependent on the particular ROI, also fair-to-good for the n-back task (ICCs=0.44-0.57) but lower for the faces task (ICC=-0.02-0.16). In conclusion, all three tasks are well suited to between-subject designs, including imaging genetics. When specific recommendations are followed, the n-back and reward task are also suited for within-subject designs, including pharmaco-fMRI. The present study provides task-specific fMRI reliability performance measures that will inform the optimal use, powering and design of fMRI studies using comparable tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dataset for: An efficient multi-stage algorithm for full calibration of the hemodynamic model from BOLD signal responses

    Djellouli, Rabia

    2017-01-01

    We propose a computational strategy that falls into the category of prediction/correction iterative-type approaches, for calibrating the hemodynamic model introduced by Friston et al. (2000). The proposed method is employed to estimate consecutively the values of the biophysiological system parameters and the external stimulus characteristics of the model. Numerical results corresponding to both synthetic and real functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements for a single stimulus as well as for multiple stimuli are reported to highlight the capability of this computational methodology to fully calibrate the considered hemodynamic model.

  5. Effect of Phase-Encoding Reduction on Geometric Distortion and BOLD Signal Changes in fMRI

    Golestan karami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Echo-planar imaging (EPI is a group of fast data acquisition methods commonly used in fMRI studies. It acquires multiple image lines in k-space after a single excitation, which leads to a very short scan time. A well-known problem with EPI is that it is more sensitive to distortions due to the used encoding scheme. Source of distortion is inhomogeneity in the static B0 field that causes more geometric distortion in phase encoding direction. This inhomogeneity is induced mainly by the magnetic susceptibility differences between various structures within the object placed inside the scanner, often at air-tissue or bone-tissue interfaces. Methods of reducing EPI distortion are mainly based on decreasing steps of the phase encoding. Reducing steps of phase encoding can be applied by reducing field of view, slice thickness, and/or the use of parallel acquisition technique. Materials and Methods We obtained three data acquisitions with different FOVs including: conventional low resolution, conventional high resolution, and zoomed high resolution EPIs. Moreover we used SENSE technique for phase encoding reduction. All experiments were carried out on three Tesla scanners (Siemens, TIM, and Germany equipped with 12 channel head coil. Ten subjects participated in the experiments. Results The data were processed by FSL software and were evaluated by ANOVA. Distortion was assessed by obtaining low displacement voxels map, and calculated from a field map image. Conclusion We showed that image distortion can be reduced by decreasing slice thickness and phase encoding steps. Distortion reduction in zoomed technique resulted the lowest level, but at the cost of signal-to-noise loss. Moreover, the SENSE technique was shown to decrease the amount of image distortion, efficiently.

  6. Gross and Fine Structure of Pion Production Excitation Functions in {bold {ital p}}-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    Jakobsson, B.; Berg, M.; Carlen, L.; Elmer, R.; Fokin, A.; Ghetti, R.; Martensson, J.; Noren, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Whitlow, H.J. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, C.; Ericsson, G.; Romanski, J.; van Veldhuizen, E.J.; Westerberg, L. [The Svedberg Laboratory and Department of Neutron Physics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Julien, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France); Skeppstedt, O. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyboe, K.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Amirelmi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Guttormsen, M.; Lo/vho/iden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bellini, V.; Palazzolo, F.; Sperduto, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bondorf, J.P.; Mishustin, I. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Avdeichikov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Lozhkin, O.V.; Murin, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St.Petersburg (Russia)

    1997-05-01

    Slow ramping of the CELSIUS storage ring has been utilized to measure the yield of charged pions in proton and heavy ion induced collisions with continuously varying beam energy. Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck predictions, including Fermi momenta of nucleons in nuclei, follow the general shape of the p-nucleus excitation functions quite well except for a general overestimation of the backward emission. For heavy ion reactions the calculated yield also falls off faster with decreasing beam energy than the data. No statistically significant narrow resonances are observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Fortune favours the bold: a higher predator reduces the impact of a native but not an invasive intermediate predator.

    Barrios-O'Neill, Daniel; Dick, Jaimie T A; Emmerson, Mark C; Ricciardi, Anthony; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Alexander, Mhairi E; Bovy, Helene C

    2014-05-01

    Emergent multiple predator effects (MPEs) might radically alter predictions of predatory impact that are based solely on the impact of individuals. In the context of biological invasions, determining if and how the individual-level impacts of invasive predators relates to their impacts in multiple-individual situations will inform understanding of how such impacts might propagate through recipient communities. Here, we use functional responses (the relationship between prey consumption rate and prey density) to compare the impacts of the invasive freshwater mysid crustacean Hemimysis anomala with a native counterpart Mysis salemaai when feeding on basal cladoceran prey (i) as individuals, (ii) in conspecific groups and (iii) in conspecific groups in the presence of a higher fish predator, Gasterosteus aculeatus. In the absence of the higher predator, the invader consumed significantly more basal prey than the native, and consumption was additive for both mysid species - that is, group consumption was predictable from individual-level consumption. Invaders and natives were themselves equally susceptible to predation when feeding with the higher fish predator, but an MPE occurred only between the natives and higher predator, where consumption of basal prey was significantly reduced. In contrast, consumption by the invaders and higher predator remained additive. The presence of a higher predator serves to exacerbate the existing difference in individual-level consumption between invasive and native mysids. We attribute the mechanism responsible for the MPE associated with the native to a trait-mediated indirect interaction, and further suggest that the relative indifference to predator threat on the part of the invader contributes to its success and impacts within invaded communities. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  8. Towards prognostic biomarkers from BOLD fluctuations to differentiate a first epileptic seizure from new-onset epilepsy

    Gupta, Lalit; Janssens, Rick; Vlooswijk, Mariëlle C.G.; Rouhl, Rob P.W.; de Louw, Anton; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Besseling, René M.H.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne H.; Hilkman, Danny M.; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of epilepsy cannot be reliably made prior to a patient's second seizure in most cases. Therefore, adequate diagnostic tools are needed to differentiate subjects with a first seizure from those with a seizure preceding the onset of epilepsy. The objective was to explore

  9. Back from the Brink: How a Bold Vision and a Focus on Resources Can Drive System Improvement. Executive Summary

    Education Resource Strategies, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This executive summary describes a case study that implemented the framework School System 20/20 to examine how Lawrence Public Schools (Massachusetts) is transforming its policies and structures to better align resources with student and teacher needs. Education Resource Strategies' (ERS') School System 20/20 is a set of conditions and practices…

  10. Processamento de imagens BOLD de ressonância magnética do músculo

    Pereira, Ana Rita Lindo dos Santos Justo

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção de Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Biomédica A presente dissertação foi desenvolvida com a colaboração da Faculdade de Motricidade Humana (FMH/UTL) e a Clínica de Ressonância Magnética de Caselas. A presente dissertação de mestrado pretende avaliar as alterações fisiológicas de vários músculos da perna quando submetidos a exercício físico intenso, através da técnica de resson...

  11. Government of the Republic of the Philippines - Moro Islamic Liberation Front Peace Talks: A Bold Move to Counter Terrorism

    Amarille, Roland C

    2006-01-01

    .... The government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) are presently engaged in peace talks to thresh out their related concerns and resolve their problems...

  12. Hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose intake and hypothalamic volume are similar in anorexia nervosa and healthy control subjects

    Anna M Van Opstal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN. The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods. 10 women aged 18-30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI <23 kg/m2 women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local grey volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry.Results. No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in grey matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally.Conclusions. We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls.

  13. BOLD MRI response to hypercapnic hyperoxia in patients with meningiomas: correlation with Gadolinium-DTPA uptake rate.

    Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Schuuring, J.; Bernsen, P.; Bernsen, H.J.J.A.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Heerschap, A.

    2004-01-01

    Because meningiomas tend to recur after (partial) surgical resection, radiotherapy is increasingly being applied for the treatment of these tumors. Radiation dose levels are limited, however, to avoid radiation damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The radiosensitivity of tumors can be improved

  14. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  15. Legibility of Sans Serif Type for Use as Body Copy in Computer Mediated Communication.

    Geske, Joel

    A study examined type legibility on computer screens to determine type styles and type sizes that are most legible. Subjects, 107 college students, tested legibility of Helvetica type in 3 different sizes and 3 different faces. Results indicated no significant differences for legibility of Helvetica 12, 10, and 9 point type in the normal typeface…

  16. Correlated inter-regional variations in low frequency local field potentials and resting state BOLD signals within S1 cortex of monkeys.

    Wilson, George H; Yang, Pai-Feng; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min

    2016-08-01

    The hypothesis that specific frequency components of the spontaneous local field potentials (LFPs) underlie low frequency fluctuations of resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) signals was tested. The previous analyses of rsfMRI signals revealed differential inter-regional correlations among areas 3a, 3b, and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized monkeys (Wang et al. [2013]: Neuron 78:1116-1126). Here LFP band(s) which correlated between S1 regions, and how these inter-regional correlation differences covaried with rsfMRI signals were examined. LFP signals were filtered into seven bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma low, gamma high, and gamma very high), and then a Hilbert transformation was applied to obtain measures of instantaneous amplitudes and temporal lags between regions of interest (ROI) digit-digit pairs (areas 3b-area 1, area 3a-area 1, area 3a-area 3b) and digit-face pairs (area 3b-face, area 1-face, and area 3a-face). It was found that variations in the inter-regional correlation strengths between digit-digit and digit-face pairs in the delta (1-4 Hz), alpha (9-14 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), and gamma (31-50 Hz) bands parallel those of rsfMRI signals to varying degrees. Temporal lags between digit-digit area pairs varied across LFP bands, with area 3a mostly leading areas 1/2 and 3b. In summary, the data demonstrates that the low and middle frequency range (1-50 Hz) of spontaneous LFP signals similarly covary with the low frequency fluctuations of rsfMRI signals within local circuits of S1, supporting a neuronal electrophysiological basis of rsfMRI signals. Inter-areal LFP temporal lag differences provided novel insights into the directionality of information flow among S1 areas at rest. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2755-2766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Application of fMRI to obesity research: differences in reward pathway activation measured with fMRI BOLD during visual presentation of high and low calorie foods

    Tsao, Sinchai; Adam, Tanja C.; Goran, Michael I.; Singh, Manbir

    2012-03-01

    The factors behind the neural mechanisms that motivate food choice and obesity are not well known. Furthermore, it is not known when these neural mechanisms develop and how they are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. This study uses fMRI together with clinical data to shed light on the aforementioned questions by investigating how appetite-related activation in the brain changes with low versus high caloric foods in pre-pubescent girls. Previous studies have shown that obese adults have less striatal D2 receptors and thus reduced Dopamine (DA) signaling leading to the reward-deficit theory of obesity. However, overeating in itself reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity and thus reward sensitivity. The results of this study will show how early these neural mechanisms develop and what effect the drastic endocrinological changes during puberty has on these mechanisms. Our preliminary results showed increased activations in the Putamen, Insula, Thalamus and Hippocampus when looking at activations where High Calorie > Low Calorie. When comparing High Calorie > Control and Low Calorie > Control, the High > Control test showed increased significant activation in the frontal lobe. The Low > Control also yielded significant activation in the Left and Right Fusiform Gyrus, which did not appear in the High > Control test. These results indicate that the reward pathway activations previously shown in post-puberty and adults are present in pre-pubescent teens. These results may suggest that some of the preferential neural mechanisms of reward are already present pre-puberty.

  18. Spatial distribution of resting-state BOLD regional homogeneity as a predictor of brain glucose uptake: A study in healthy aging.

    Bernier, Michaël; Croteau, Etienne; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Cunnane, Stephen C; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2017-04-15

    Positron emission tomography using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) is the primary imaging modality used to measure glucose metabolism in the brain (CMRGlu). CMRGlu has been used as a biomarker of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, but the complexity and invasive nature of PET often limits its use in research. There is therefore great interest in developing non-invasive metrics for estimating brain CMRGlu. We therefore investigated resting state fMRI metrics such as regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional global connectivity (Closeness) with multiple analytical approaches to determine their relationship to CMRGlu. We investigated this relation in two distinct cognitively healthy populations separated by age (27 young adults and 35 older adults). Overall, we found that both regionally and across participants, ReHo strongly correlated with CMRGlu in healthy young and older adults. Moreover, ReHo demonstrated the same age-related differences as CMRGlu throughout all cortical regions, particularly in the default network and frontal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Kandhkelgaon Story: a bold bid by women in Kandhkelgaon Village, Saintala Block, Bolangir District, to break out of their poverty trap

    Haylor, G.; Tripathi, S.D.; Satpathy, B.K.; Behera, D.

    2005-01-01

    One third of the people on earth who are described as living in absolute poverty are found today in India. “These people,” says Mr B K Satpathy, “are caught in a poverty trap’.” “Poverty trap?” we ask. “These are creative weavers; their cloth has a distinctive style, but those who supply their thread also take away and sell the cloth, paying just a small labor cost for each saree. If they are skilled and work hard this amounts to only 25-30 rupees (60-70 US cents) per day.” Under this arrange...

  20. A comprehensive DNA barcode database for Central European beetles with a focus on Germany: adding more than 3500 identified species to BOLD.

    Hendrich, Lars; Morinière, Jérôme; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Hebert, Paul D N; Hausmann, Axel; Köhler, Frank; Balke, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Beetles are the most diverse group of animals and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. In many countries, they are well established for environmental impact assessment, but even in the well-studied Central European fauna, species identification can be very difficult. A comprehensive and taxonomically well-curated DNA barcode library could remedy this deficit and could also link hundreds of years of traditional knowledge with next generation sequencing technology. However, such a beetle library is missing to date. This study provides the globally largest DNA barcode reference library for Coleoptera for 15 948 individuals belonging to 3514 well-identified species (53% of the German fauna) with representatives from 97 of 103 families (94%). This study is the first comprehensive regional test of the efficiency of DNA barcoding for beetles with a focus on Germany. Sequences ≥500 bp were recovered from 63% of the specimens analysed (15 948 of 25 294) with short sequences from another 997 specimens. Whereas most specimens (92.2%) could be unambiguously assigned to a single known species by sequence diversity at CO1, 1089 specimens (6.8%) were assigned to more than one Barcode Index Number (BIN), creating 395 BINs which need further study to ascertain if they represent cryptic species, mitochondrial introgression, or simply regional variation in widespread species. We found 409 specimens (2.6%) that shared a BIN assignment with another species, most involving a pair of closely allied species as 43 BINs were involved. Most of these taxa were separated by barcodes although sequence divergences were low. Only 155 specimens (0.97%) show identical or overlapping clusters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Consistent boldness behaviour in early emerging fry of domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style

    Vaz-Serrano, J.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. L.; Gjøen, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using......Individual variation in the way animals cope with stressors has been documented in a number of animal groups. In general, two distinct sets of behavioural and physiological responses to stress have been described: the proactive and the reactive coping styles. Some characteristics of stress coping...... hunger, in the present study. This observation was repeated five months after emergence, demonstrating behavioural consistency over time in this trait. However, in other traits of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, such as social status, resting metabolism or post stress cortisol concentrations...

  2. Area-specific information processing in prefrontal cortex during a probabilistic inference task: a multivariate fMRI BOLD time series analysis.

    Charmaine Demanuele

    Full Text Available Discriminating spatiotemporal stages of information processing involved in complex cognitive processes remains a challenge for neuroscience. This is especially so in prefrontal cortex whose subregions, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC, anterior cingulate (ACC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices are known to have differentiable roles in cognition. Yet it is much less clear how these subregions contribute to different cognitive processes required by a given task. To investigate this, we use functional MRI data recorded from a group of healthy adults during a "Jumping to Conclusions" probabilistic reasoning task.We used a novel approach combining multivariate test statistics with bootstrap-based procedures to discriminate between different task stages reflected in the fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent signal pattern and to unravel differences in task-related information encoded by these regions. Furthermore, we implemented a new feature extraction algorithm that selects voxels from any set of brain regions that are jointly maximally predictive about specific task stages.Using both the multivariate statistics approach and the algorithm that searches for maximally informative voxels we show that during the Jumping to Conclusions task, the DLPFC and ACC contribute more to the decision making phase comprising the accumulation of evidence and probabilistic reasoning, while the OFC is more involved in choice evaluation and uncertainty feedback. Moreover, we show that in presumably non-task-related regions (temporal cortices all information there was about task processing could be extracted from just one voxel (indicating the unspecific nature of that information, while for prefrontal areas a wider multivariate pattern of activity was maximally informative.We present a new approach to reveal the different roles of brain regions during the processing of one task from multivariate activity patterns measured by fMRI. This method can be a valuable tool to assess how area-specific processing is altered in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, and in healthy subjects carrying different genetic polymorphisms.

  3. Big Sky Legacy. In Montana, Small Schools Aren't a Bold New Idea. They're a Way of Life.

    Boss, Suzie

    2000-01-01

    Two-thirds of Montana's school districts are rural, and most students attend schools with enrollments under 300. Such recent trends as peer tutoring, multigrade classrooms, and project-based learning have always been practiced in these small schools. One small community's successful effort to save its school, classroom practices in one-room…

  4. Ontario’s Bold Move to Create Jobs and Growth: Impact of the 2009 Ontario Budget and Other Recent Tax Measures on Investment, Jobs and Incomes

    Jack M. Mintz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available • The 2009 Ontario Budget measures, together with other recent tax changes, will have a profound impact on Ontario’s competitiveness by lowering the tax burden on new business investment. • Within ten years, Ontario will benefit from: – increased capital investment of $47 billion; – increased annual incomes of up to 8.8%, or $29.4 billion; and – an estimated 591,000 net new jobs. This paper documents the impact of the 2009 Ontario Budget and other recent tax changes on capital investment, jobs, and incomes in the province. In the March 2009 Budget, Ontario announced it will harmonize its sales tax with the federal goods and services tax (GST as well as reduce corporate and personal taxes. The Budget measures will have a profound impact on the willingness of business to invest in Ontario since corporate tax rate reductions and the adoption of the federal GST base would result in the virtual elimination of taxes on capital goods and business intermediate inputs once fully phased in. Since 1980, when I began modelling the impact of taxes on investment, this is the largest change ever seen in a single budget, leading to the sharpest reduction in the tax burden on capital investment in any one province. Coupled with federal reductions in corporate taxes and Ontario’s already legislated elimination of all remaining capital taxes,1 Ontario will see its effective tax rate on new investments by medium and large businesses plummet from 33.6% in 2009 to 23.7% in 2010 and then to 18.5% by 2018. The province will then have an effective tax rate on non-resource investments that is similar to most other provinces, including Alberta, British Columbia, and Quebec. Ontario will also improve its international competitiveness dramatically with a lower tax burden on new investment compared with the average of 20 major industrialized and emerging economies. Small businesses will also benefit substantially from the 2009 Budget. The effective tax rate on small business investment will fall by more than half, from 28.6% to 13.3%, due to the one percentage point reduction in the corporate tax rate and sales tax harmonization. Sales tax harmonization will have a large impact since the Ontario retail sales tax especially hurts investment in machinery that Ontario’s small businesses use intensively. Within ten years, the lower tax burden on investment will lead to increases in capital investment of $47 billion and in annual incomes of between 4.4% and 8.8%, and to the creation of an estimated 591,000 net new jobs.

  5. BMI not WHR modulates BOLD fMRI responses in a sub-cortical reward network when participants judge the attractiveness of human female bodies.

    Ian E Holliday

    Full Text Available In perceptual terms, the human body is a complex 3d shape which has to be interpreted by the observer to judge its attractiveness. Both body mass and shape have been suggested as strong predictors of female attractiveness. Normally body mass and shape co-vary, and it is difficult to differentiate their separate effects. A recent study suggested that altering body mass does not modulate activity in the reward mechanisms of the brain, but shape does. However, using computer generated female body-shaped greyscale images, based on a Principal Component Analysis of female bodies, we were able to construct images which covary with real female body mass (indexed with BMI and not with body shape (indexed with WHR, and vice versa. Twelve observers (6 male and 6 female rated these images for attractiveness during an fMRI study. The attractiveness ratings were correlated with changes in BMI and not WHR. Our primary fMRI results demonstrated that in addition to activation in higher visual areas (such as the extrastriate body area, changing BMI also modulated activity in the caudate nucleus, and other parts of the brain reward system. This shows that BMI, not WHR, modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and we infer that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in eating disordered individuals.

  6. How do anthropogenic contaminants (ACs) affect behaviour? Multi-level analysis of the effects of copper on boldness in hermit crabs.

    White, Stephen J; Briffa, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Natural animal populations are increasingly exposed to human impacts on the environment, which could have consequences for their behaviour. Among these impacts is exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. Any environmental variable that influences internal state could impact behaviour across a number of levels: at the sample mean, at the level of among-individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') and at the level of within-individual variation in behaviour (intra-individual variation, 'IIV'). Here we examined the effect of exposure to seawater-borne copper on the startle response behaviour of European hermit crabs, Pagurus bernhardus across these levels. Copper exposure rapidly led to longer startle responses on average, but did not lead to any change in repeatability indicating that individual differences were present and equally consistent in the presence and absence of copper. There was no strong evidence that copper exposure led to changes in IIV. Our data show that exposure to copper for 1 week produces sample mean level changes in the behaviour of hermit crabs. However, there is no evidence that this exposure led to changes in repeatability through feedback loops.

  7. Ameerika ja Nõukogude Liidu kunstivahetus sulaajal: uhketest avamistest rutakate taandumisteni = Soviet-American art exchanges during the thaw: from bold openings to hasty retreats / Simo Mikkonen

    Mikkonen, Simo, 1978-

    2013-01-01

    Nõukogude Liidu valmidusest kultuurivahetuseks, vahetuste iseloomust ja nendega kaasnenud piirangutest. Ameerika ja Nõukogude kunstiprofessionaalide koostööst vahetusprojektide korraldamisel ning nende tegutsemisvabaduse määrast poliitilise surve all. Alfred Barri rollist näitustevahetuse elluviimisel.

  8. Age-Related Changes in BOLD Activation Pattern in Phonemic Fluency Paradigm: An Investigation of Activation, Functional Connectivity and Psychophysiological Interactions.

    La, Christian; Garcia-Ramos, Camille; Nair, Veena A; Meier, Timothy B; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with decline of cognitive functions. However, even before those declines become noticeable, the neural architecture underlying those mechanisms has undergone considerable restructuring and reorganization. During performance of a cognitive task, not only have the task-relevant networks demonstrated reorganization with aging, which occurs primarily by recruitment of additional areas to preserve performance, but the task-irrelevant network of the "default-mode" network (DMN), which is normally deactivated during task performance, has also consistently shown reduction of this deactivation with aging. Here, we revisited those age-related changes in task-relevant (i.e., language system) and task-irrelevant (i.e., DMN) systems with a language production paradigm in terms of task-induced activation/deactivation, functional connectivity, and context-dependent correlations between the two systems. Our task fMRI data demonstrated a late increase in cortical recruitment in terms of extent of activation, only observable in our older healthy adult group, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, with recruitment of the contralateral hemisphere, but also other regions from the network previously underutilized. Our middle-aged individuals, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, presented lower levels of activation intensity and connectivity strength, with no recruitment of additional regions, possibly reflecting an initial, uncompensated, network decline. In contrast, the DMN presented a gradual decrease in deactivation intensity and deactivation extent (i.e., low in the middle-aged, and lower in the old) and similar gradual reduction of functional connectivity within the network, with no compensation. The patterns of age-related changes in the task-relevant system and DMN are incongruent with the previously suggested notion of anti-correlation of the two systems. The context-dependent correlation by psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated an independence of these two systems, with the onset of task not influencing the correlation between the two systems. Our results suggest that the language network and the DMN may be non-dependent systems, potentially correlated through the re-allocation of cortical resources, and that aging may affect those two systems differently.

  9. “To boldly go where no series has gone before”. Star Trek - The Original Series in Italia: il linguaggio della tecno-scienza, il doppiaggio, il fandom

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay consists of a critical analysis of the Italian dubbing of Star Trek. The Original Series (1966-1969, which was partially translated and shown on Italian television between 1979 and 1981. The study of the dubbing is approached considering translation as a complex cultural phenomenon (drawing on studies such as Even-Zohar and Venuti's, and using the case of Star Trek also as an example of broader phenomena and dynamics, namely the presence of American science fiction series on Italian television, and the difficult relationship in Italy between humanistic and scientific cultures (here, Pierpaolo Antonello's contributions are the milestones, to which the essay attributes the noticeable simplification and flattening the techno-scientific language undergoes during translation in the Star Trek episodes considered. This general tendency to simplify (and even remove technical and scientific terminology in the Italian version can be explained by two main factors: the idea that Italian viewers are less well educated scientifically than Americans, and limited investment (in terms of both financial and professional resources, on the part of the TV channel and dubbing company (TMC and ADC. Both these aspects reveal a perception of a television series as merely a commodity product, typical of the years preceding the current new golden age of American series, but still not unknown in contemporary Italy (as has been shown in other cases, by studies such those by Buonomo, Izzo and Scarpino, and Ranzato. The analysis of the Italian dubbing of Star Trek in the present essay is accompanied by a preliminary overview of the translation and airing of American science fiction series in Italy between the 1950s and the 1970s, and by a survey of the fortunes of these series across different media over the same period. Star Trek, at the center of one the biggest and most profitable contemporary cultural franchises, and one of the most well organized fandoms (studied also by Henry Jenkins on more than one occasion, arrived in Italy too with its novelizations and derivative products. The Italian fandom proved to be both remarkably devoted and uncommonly well-informed from the cultural and scientific point of view: after protesting loudly about the poor quality of The Original Series dubbing, the Italian Star Trek Club obtained the right to oversee the translations of many of the subsequent series and publications.

  10. Measuring vascular reactivity with resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations: A potential alternative to the breath-holding challenge?

    Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Christen, Thomas; Moseley, Michael E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Wright, Clinton B; Tamura, Manjula K; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (P a CO 2 ) levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients. In this study, we evaluated two approaches for obtaining vascular reactivity information using blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data: physiological fluctuation regression and coefficient of variation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. We studied a cohort of 28 older adults (69 ± 7 years) and found that six of them (21%) could not perform the breath-holding protocol, based on an objective comparison with an idealized respiratory waveform. In the subjects that could comply, we found a strong linear correlation between data extracted from spontaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal fluctuations and the blood oxygenation level-dependent percentage signal change during breath-holding challenge ( R 2  = 0.57 and 0.61 for resting-state physiological fluctuation regression and resting-state coefficient of variation methods, respectively). This technique may eliminate the need for subject cooperation, thus allowing the evaluation of vascular reactivity in a wider range of clinical and research conditions in which it may otherwise be impractical.

  11. Acute caffeine administration impact on working memory-related brain activation and functional connectivity in the elderly: a BOLD and perfusion MRI study.

    Haller, S; Rodriguez, C; Moser, D; Toma, S; Hofmeister, J; Sinanaj, I; Van De Ville, D; Giannakopoulos, P; Lovblad, K-O

    2013-10-10

    In young individuals, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine receptors and vasoconstriction has direct repercussions on task-related activations, changes in functional connectivity, as well as global vascular effects. To date, no study has explored the effect of caffeine on brain activation patterns during highly demanding cognitive tasks in the elderly. This prospective, placebo-controlled crossover design comprises 24 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 68.8 ± 4.0 years, 17 females) performing a 2-back working memory (WM) task in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses include complimentary assessment of task-related activations (general linear model, GLM), functional connectivity (tensorial independent component analysis, TICA), and baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling). Despite a reduction in whole-brain global perfusion (-22.7%), caffeine-enhanced task-related GLM activation in a local and distributed network is most pronounced in the bilateral striatum and to a lesser degree in the right middle and inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral insula, left superior and inferior parietal lobule as well as in the cerebellum bilaterally. TICA was significantly enhanced (+8.2%) in caffeine versus placebo in a distributed and task-relevant network including the pre-frontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the ventral premotor cortex and the parietal cortex as well as the occipital cortex (visual stimuli) and basal ganglia. The inverse comparison of placebo versus caffeine had no significant difference. Activation strength of the task-relevant-network component correlated with response accuracy for caffeine yet not for placebo, indicating a selective cognitive effect of caffeine. The present findings suggest that acute caffeine intake enhances WM-related brain activation as well as functional connectivity of blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI in elderly individuals. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE EFFECT OF SPORT SPONSORSHIP ON BRAND EQUITY : Does the sponsorship of Usain Bold help Puma to increase their brand equity?

    Schmid, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Sponsorship has become increasingly popular as a marketing tool in recent years. It is one of the most used tools and especially sport sponsorship is often used to promote their products and to reach their targeting customers. Because of its popularity and the lack of research on how sport sponsorship influences the brand equity of a company, the author decided to do further investigation about this topic. The principle aim of this bachelor thesis was to investigate if sport sponsorship h...

  13. The development of a Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action (SELMA) tool for Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD): study protocol.

    Souza, João Paulo; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Bohren, Meghan A; Mugerwa, Kidza; Fawole, Bukola; Moscovici, Leonardo; Alves, Domingos; Perdona, Gleici; Oliveira-Ciabati, Livia; Vogel, Joshua P; Tunçalp, Özge; Zhang, Jim; Hofmeyr, Justus; Bahl, Rajiv; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-05-26

    The partograph is currently the main tool available to support decision-making of health professionals during labour. However, the rate of appropriate use of the partograph is disappointingly low. Apart from limitations that are associated with partograph use, evidence of positive impact on labour-related health outcomes is lacking. The main goal of this study is to develop a Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action (SELMA) tool. The primary objectives are: to identify the essential elements of intrapartum monitoring that trigger the decision to use interventions aimed at preventing poor labour outcomes; to develop a simplified, monitoring-to-action algorithm for labour management; and to compare the diagnostic performance of SELMA and partograph algorithms as tools to identify women who are likely to develop poor labour-related outcomes. A prospective cohort study will be conducted in eight health facilities in Nigeria and Uganda (four facilities from each country). All women admitted for vaginal birth will comprise the study population (estimated sample size: 7,812 women). Data will be collected on maternal characteristics on admission, labour events and pregnancy outcomes by trained research assistants at the participating health facilities. Prediction models will be developed to identify women at risk of intrapartum-related perinatal death or morbidity (primary outcomes) throughout the course of labour. These predictions models will be used to assemble a decision-support tool that will be able to suggest the best course of action to avert adverse outcomes during the course of labour. To develop this set of prediction models, we will use up-to-date techniques of prognostic research, including identification of important predictors, assigning of relative weights to each predictor, estimation of the predictive performance of the model through calibration and discrimination, and determination of its potential for application using internal validation techniques. This research offers an opportunity to revisit the theoretical basis of the partograph. It is envisioned that the final product would help providers overcome the challenging tasks of promptly interpreting complex labour information and deriving appropriate clinical actions, and thus increase efficiency of the care process, enhance providers' competence and ultimately improve labour outcomes. Please see related articles ' http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-015-0027-6 ' and ' http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-015-0028-5 '.

  14. Elusiyan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(1):27-33

    USER

    -276. 22. Sticher O, Afifi-Yazar FU. (1979). Minecoside and verminoside, two new iridoid glucosides from Veronica officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae). Helvetica Chimica Acta, 62 (56): 535-539. 23. Tietze LF. (1983). Secologanin, a biogenetic key ...

  15. Flåtbårne infektioner i Danmark

    Jensen, Bo Bødker; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of Denmark. Besides Borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis, Candidatus Neoehrlichia...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15903-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 2 ( EU435859 ) Dicranosepsis distincta voucher su18 cytochrome o... 34 5.2 2 ( EU435856 ) Dicranosepsis cf....34 5.2 2 ( EF216252 ) Drosophila helvetica voucher YNU00006 cytochrome ... 34 5.2

  17. Lifetime Measurement of the 21bold'>+ State in bold'>C20

    Petri, M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Paschalis, S.; Starosta, K.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Cartegni, L.; Clark, R. M.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Dewald, A.; Gade, A.; Grinyer, G. F.; Gros, S.; Hackstein, M.; Jeppesen, H. B.; Lee, I. Y.; McDaniel, S.; Miller, D.; Rajabali, M. M.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Rother, W.; Voss, P.; Walsh, K. A.; Weisshaar, D.; Wiedeking, M.; Brown, B. A.

    2011-08-01

    Establishing how and when large N/Z values require modified or new theoretical tools is a major quest in nuclear physics. Here we report the first measurement of the lifetime of the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state in the near-dripline nucleus {sup 20}C. The deduced value of {tau}{sub 2{sup +}{sub 1}} = 9.8 ± 2.8(stat){sup +0.5}{sub -1.1}(syst) ps gives a reduced transition probability of B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1}{yields}0{sup +}{sub g.s.}) = 7.5{sup +3.0}{sub -1.7}(stat){sup +1.0}{sub -0.4}(syst) e{sup 2}fm{sup 4} in good agreement with a shell model calculation using isospin-dependent effective charges.

  18. Métodos de secagem e rendimento dos extratos de folhas de Plectranthus barbatus (boldo-da-terra e P. ornatus (boldo-miúdo Methods estimated drying and percentage of extracts in leaves of Plectranthus barbatus (Brazilian bold and P. ornatus (false bold

    T.S. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus sp. pertence à família Lamiaceae e inclui cerca de 300 espécies. Duas delas, P. barbatus (PB e P. ornatus (PO destacam-se pelo interesse medicinal. As principais substâncias encontradas em Plectranthus sp. são os diterpenóides, óleos essenciais e compostos fenólicos. A melhor forma de utilizar as folhas de PB e PO é a fresco; porém, na comercialização há necessidade de recorrer a processos de secagem. Entretanto, isto pode interferir no princípio ativo, desta forma, estudos para determinar o melhor método gravimétrico são importantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar qual o melhor método de secagem, onde haja maior perda de água possível, e calcular os rendimentos dos extratos visando avaliar se o método gravimétrico interfere na quantidade de extrato produzido. Desta forma, utilizou-se quatro métodos de secagem e após evaporação do solvente, fez-se o cálculo do rendimento dos extratos secos. O percentual de água foi superior em PB e PO (média geral de 90,12±8,22%. Dentre as secagens, em estufa de ventilação forçada (EVF foi mais eficiente em PB (88,87% e em estufa convencional (ECO foi melhor em PO (95,13%. O maior rendimento do extrato seco em PB foi na secagem em camada delgada (CD (20,96%, enquanto que em PO foi ECO (41,34%. Não houve correlação entre o método de secagem e o rendimento de extrato obtido.Plectranthus sp. belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes about 300 species. Two of them, P. barbatus (PB and P. ornatus (PO, have medicinal interest. The main substances found in Plectranthus sp. are the diterpenoids, essential oils and phenolic compounds. The best way to use the leaves of PB and PO is cool; but for marketing there is a need of resort to drying processes. However, this may interfere on the values of active principle; thus, studies to determine the best gravimetric methods are important. The objective of this study was to evaluate the best method of drying, where there the greater loss of water possible, and calculate the percentage of the extracts to assess whether the gravimetric method interferes with the amount of extract produced. To this was done by drying four different methods ventilated dry (EVF, conventional drying (ECO, microwave (MCO and layer thing (CD and after evaporation of the solvent, was made the calculation the percentage of the dried extract. The water content was higher in PB and PO (overall average of 90.12±8.22%. Among the drying, EVF was more efficient for PB (88.87% and ECO was better for PO (95.13%. The highest content of dry extract was for PB in to CD (20.96%, whereas for PO was in to ECO (41.34%. There is no relationship between the drying method and in the quantity of extract obtained.

  19. A unique, intuitive, creative, innovative, bold scientist in endless quest of the truth and a giant in high-altitude medicine: Prof. Dr. Gustavo Zubieta-Castillo, "The Parvatha Guru" (May 20, 1926-September 17, 2015

    Gustavo Zubieta-Calleja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Professor Gustavo Zubieta-Castillo - The Mountain Guru, Bolivian visionary, loved art and science. He was a word class pioneer and defender of life and medicine at high altitude. In 1964, after his observations of the perfused heart in dogs, he affirmed that the hearts of high-altitude residents are much more resistant to hypoxia than those at sea level. He clarified misconceptions about lung diseases at high altitude, which were improperly termed "loss of adaptation." His original and unique views on what was called chronic mountain sickness (CMS, a term he proposed be discarded and be rather expressed as polyerythrocythemia (as a more precise symptomatic description of multiple pathologies in the hypoxic environment of high altitude. He created the "triple hypoxia syndrome," an essential description to explain the momentary decrease of PaO 2 in polyerythrocythemic patients. His concepts of hypoxia gave rise to the formulation of the high-altitude adaptation formula. On his obituary, legendary respiratory physiologist Prof. John B. West stated, "He was a remarkable man and our discipline has lost a giant." Renowned Environmental scientist Prof. Thuppil Venkatesh, a long-time friend of Prof. Gustavo Sr., stated, "We lost one of the most valuable and precious personalities… a great loss to the world scientific community." Prof. Gustavo′s son Prof. Dr. Gustavo Zubieta Calleja is also a renowned pulmonologist like his legendary father and keeping his illustrious father′s legacy with pride and honor at his "High Altitude Pulmonary and Pathology Institute," La Paz, Bolivia.

  20. Decreased resting-state BOLD regional homogeneity and the intrinsic functional connectivity within dorsal striatum is associated with greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making and BMI change at 6-month follow up.

    Gao, Xiao; Liang, Qianlin; Wu, Guorong; She, Ying; Sui, Nan; Chen, Hong

    2018-04-30

    Increasing animal models as well as brain imaging studies among human suggest an association between substance-related impulsivity in decision-making and decreased function of dorsal striatum. However, the resting-state intrinsic functional organization of dorsal striatum underlying food-choice impulsivity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to measure brain activity among adult females. Subjects underwent the food rating task, during which they rated each food item according to their subjective perception of its taste (from Dislike it very much to Like it very much), its long term effect on health (from very unhealthy to very healthy) and decision strength to eat it (from Strong no to Strong yes). Behaviorally, impulsivity in food-choice was indexed by the decision strength of the palatable high-calorie food rather than of the low-caloric food. Results on rs-fMRI showed that greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making was inversely correlated with spontaneous regional homogeneity in the dorsal striatum (dorsal caudate), as well as the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the dorsal caudate seed and the rostral putamen. Furthermore, the caudate-putamen rs-FC inversely predicted BMI change at six-month follow-up. These findings may suggest the insensitivity to reward signals in dorsal caudate in decision-making coupled with an imbalance between goal-directed behaviors (modulated by dorsal caudate) and habitual actions (modulated by putamen) underlying impulsivity and future weight gain. In sum, these findings extend our understanding on the neural basis of food-related impulsivity, and provide evidence for the dorsal striatum as one of the landmarks in over eating and weight change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving the spatial accuracy in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect: benefits from parallel imaging and a 32-channel head array coil at 1.5 Tesla.

    Fellner, C; Doenitz, C; Finkenzeller, T; Jung, E M; Rennert, J; Schlaier, J

    2009-01-01

    Geometric distortions and low spatial resolution are current limitations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The aim of this study was to evaluate if application of parallel imaging or significant reduction of voxel size in combination with a new 32-channel head array coil can reduce those drawbacks at 1.5 T for a simple hand motor task. Therefore, maximum t-values (tmax) in different regions of activation, time-dependent signal-to-noise ratios (SNR(t)) as well as distortions within the precentral gyrus were evaluated. Comparing fMRI with and without parallel imaging in 17 healthy subjects revealed significantly reduced geometric distortions in anterior-posterior direction. Using parallel imaging, tmax only showed a mild reduction (7-11%) although SNR(t) was significantly diminished (25%). In 7 healthy subjects high-resolution (2 x 2 x 2 mm3) fMRI was compared with standard fMRI (3 x 3 x 3 mm3) in a 32-channel coil and with high-resolution fMRI in a 12-channel coil. The new coil yielded a clear improvement for tmax (21-32%) and SNR(t) (51%) in comparison with the 12-channel coil. Geometric distortions were smaller due to the smaller voxel size. Therefore, the reduction in tmax (8-16%) and SNR(t) (52%) in the high-resolution experiment seems to be tolerable with this coil. In conclusion, parallel imaging is an alternative to reduce geometric distortions in fMRI at 1.5 T. Using a 32-channel coil, reduction of the voxel size might be the preferable way to improve spatial accuracy.

  2. Science bodies set out vision in drive for greater funding: a bold and ambitious programme has fostered an unprecedented level of co-operation among the seven public-sectors

    Cookson, C

    2004-01-01

    "The seven research councils have set out their vision for science over the next 10 to 20 years. In the physical sciences, they emphasise international collaboration to "investigate the most basic aspects of matter and energy", while the main challenge in biology is understanding the human brain" (1 page).

  3. Measurement of top quark polarization in tt¯ leptonbold'>+bold'>jets final states

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brochmann, M.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cuth, J.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franc, J.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schott, M.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shkola, O.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2017-01-09

    We present a measurement of top quark polarization in t ¯ t pair production in p ¯ p collisions at √ s = 1.96 TeV using data corresponding to 9.7 fb -1 of integrated luminosity recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We consider final states containing a lepton and at least three jets. The polarization is measured through the distribution of lepton angles along three axes: the beam axis, the helicity axis, and the transverse axis normal to the t ¯ t production plane. This is the first measurement of top quark polarization at the Tevatron using lepton + jet final states and the first measurement of the transverse polarization in t ¯ t production. The observed distributions are consistent with standard model predictions of nearly no polarization.

  4. 76 FR 19684 - Automotive Fuel Ratings Certification and Posting

    2011-04-08

    ... Helvetica Black font but rather allow any legible block type font because Microsoft Word does not offer... content, size, color, and font of the label. \\9\\ ASTM International, formerly known as the American... type of biomass-based diesel.\\36\\ The commenters asserted that disclosing the presence of renewable...

  5. Spotted fever group rickettsiae detected in immature stages of ticks parasitizing on Iberian endemic lizard Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878

    Kubelová, M.; Papoušek, I.; Bělohlávek, T.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Široký, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2015), s. 711-714 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Spotted fever group rickettsiae * Rickettsia monacensis * Rickettsia helvetica * Ixodes ricinus * Lacerta schreiberi Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  6. Rickettsiae in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 135-138 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia spp. * Rickettsia helvetica * Rickettsia monacensis * Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  7. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and live cell imaging of novel fluorescent duocarmycin analogs.

    Tietze, Lutz F; Behrendt, Frank; Pestel, Galina F; Schuberth, Ingrid; Mitkovski, Mišo

    2012-11-01

    For a better understanding of the mode of action of duocarmycin and its analogs, the novel fluorescent duocarmycin derivatives 13-15 and 17b-19b were synthesized, and their bioactivity as well as their cellular uptake investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in live-cell imaging experiments. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how

  9. Is sarcoidosis a rickettsiosis? An archival study

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Milman, Nils; Andersen, Claus B

    2011-01-01

    Based on earlier research, Rickettsia helvetica could possibly be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Rickettsiae are transmitted to humans by a tick vector, Ixodes ricinus; this tick is highly prevalent in Northern Europe. We aimed to investigate the association between evidence...... of rickettsiae and sarcoidosis in histological samples....

  10. Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp

    Dubská, L.; Literák, I.; Kverek, P.; Roubalová, Eva; Kocianova, E.; Taragelova, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-268 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia garinii * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia helvetica * Babesia sp. EU1 * Common nightingale Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000556

  11. Boekbespreking

    Meijden, van der Ruud

    2001-01-01

    H. Haeupler & T. Muer, Bildatlas der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands, Eugen Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart. 2000, 759 pag., >4000 kleurenfoto’s + detailtekeningen en -foto’s, ƒ 185, ISBN 3-8001-3364-4. Dit magistrale fotoboek overtreft de toch ook prachtige Flora Helvetica (zie Gorteria 22: 170).

  12. Effect of Typeface on Iconic Storage Capacity.

    Hoffman, Valerie

    Various aspects of iconic memory have been studied in the past. Two tachistoscopic experiments were conducted to examine how legibility of a stimulus affects a subject's ability to recall brief visual presentation. The studies used letter arrays set in four different typefaces (Helvetica, Cooper Black Outline, Electronic, Old English). In the…

  13. Is sarcoidosis a rickettsiosis? An archival study

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Milman, Nils; Andersen, Claus B

    2011-01-01

    Based on earlier research, Rickettsia helvetica could possibly be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Rickettsiae are transmitted to humans by a tick vector, Ixodes ricinus; this tick is highly prevalent in Northern Europe. We aimed to investigate the association between evidence...

  14. Using Python to Program LEGO MINDSTORMS® Robots: The PyNXC Project

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Helvetica; margin: 0px">Helvetica, sans-serif" size="2" class="Apple-style-span">Helvetica" size="3" class="Apple-style-span">

    Helvetica, sans-serif" size="2" class="Apple-style-span">Helvetica" size="3" class="Apple-style-span">

    LEGO MINDSTORMS® NXT (Lego Group, 2006 is a perfect platform for introducing programming concepts, and is generally targeted toward children from age 8-14.  The language which ships with the MINDSTORMS®, called NXTg, is a graphical language based on LabVIEW (Jeff Kodosky, 2010.  Although there is much value in graphical languages, such as LabVIEW, a text-based alternative can be targeted at an older audiences and serve as part of a more general introduction to modern computing.  Other languages, such as NXC (Not Exactly C (Hansen, 2010 and PbLua (Hempel, 2010, fit this description.  Here we introduce PyNXC, a subset of the Python language which can be used to program the NXT MINDSTORMS®.  We present results using PyNXC, comparisons with other languages, and some challenges and future possible extensions.


     

  15. Search for supersymmetry in final states with jets, missing transverse momentum and one isolated lepton in sbold'>=7TeV pp collisions using 1fbbold'>-1 of ATLAS data

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C. -M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; D’Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Debbe, R.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. 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M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an update of a search for supersymmetry in final states containing jets, missing transverse momentum, and one isolated electron or muon, using 1.0 fb - 1 of proton-proton collision data at √ s = 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in the first half of 2011. The analysis is carried out in four distinct signal regions with either three or four jets and variations on the (missing) transverse momentum cuts, resulting in optimized limits for various supersymmetry models. No excess above the standard model background expectation is observed. Limits are set on the visible cross section of new physics within the kinematic requirements of the search. The results are interpreted as limits on the parameters of the minimal supergravity framework, limits on cross sections of simplified models with specific squark and gluino decay modes, and limits on parameters of a model with bilinear R -parity violation.

  16. Synthesis, structural characterization and scalable preparation of new amino-zinc borates

    Imer, M. R. [Departamento Estrella Campos; Facultad de Química; Universidad de la República; Montevideo; Uruguay; González, M. [Departamento Estrella Campos; Facultad de Química; Universidad de la República; Montevideo; Uruguay; Veiga, N. [Departamento Estrella Campos; Facultad de Química; Universidad de la República; Montevideo; Uruguay; Kremer, C. [Departamento Estrella Campos; Facultad de Química; Universidad de la República; Montevideo; Uruguay; Suescun, L. [Laboratorio de Cristalografía; Química del Estado Sólido y Materiales; Cátedra de Física; DETEMA; Facultad de Química; Arizaga, L. [Departamento Estrella Campos; Facultad de Química; Universidad de la República; Montevideo; Uruguay

    2017-01-01

    Zinc borates are important materials. We report the preparation of three novel ones: [Zn(NH3)3B4O5(OH)4]·H2O (<bold>ZB1bold>), Zn3(H2B3O7)2·2NH3·4H2O (<bold>ZB2bold>), and [Zn(NH3)4][B4O5(OH)4]·4H2O (<bold>ZB3bold>).

  17. Prevalence and diversity of human pathogenic rickettsiae in urban versus rural habitats, Hungary.

    Szekeres, Sándor; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Rigó, Krisztina; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses belong to the important emerging infectious diseases worldwide. We investigated the potential human exposure to rickettsiae by determining their presence in questing ticks collected in an urban park of Budapest and a popular hunting and recreational forest area in southern Hungary. Differences were found in the infectious risk between the two habitats. Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica were identified with sequencing in questing Ixodes ricinus, the only ticks species collected in the city park. Female I. ricinus had a particularly high prevalence of R. helvetica (45%). Tick community was more diverse in the rural habitat with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks having especially high percentage (58%) of Rickettsia raoultii infection. We conclude that despite the distinct eco-epidemiological traits, the risk (hazard and exposure) of acquiring human pathogenic rickettsial infections in both the urban and the rural study sites exists.

  18. Pengaruh Tipografi pada Era Massimo Vignelli terhadap Tipografi Michael Bierut

    Irwan Harnoko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Vignelli is a senior graphic designer lived in New York, as a vocal modernism against post-modernism. His statement firmly opposing post-modernism in several occasions: interview in Helvetica the movie, typeradio, talkshow, and some articles in Looking Closer or AIGA Journal. Graphic design works of Massimo Vignelli reflected his characteristic, which is firmly choosing typeface. Typefaces of Vignelly are around 5 typefaces: Bodoni, Helvetica, Times Roman, Century, and Futura. The article uses formal analysis method. The writers collected materials about Michael Bierut, Massimo VIgnelli and Tibor Kalman from books and websites. The writers compare the typeface opinion of Massimo Vignelli (modernism designer, Michael Bierut designer (transition era designer from modernism to post-modernism, and Tibor Kalman (a designer in A Century of Graphic Design, as the influencer of Bierut’s betrayal over Vignelli. 

  19. Imidazopyridine-based inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3: synthesis and evaluation of amide isostere replacements of the carboxamide scaffold.

    Yngve, Ulrika; Söderman, Peter; Svensson, Mats; Rosqvist, Susanne; Arvidsson, Per I

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we explored the effect of bioisostere replacement in a series of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors based on the imidazopyridine core. The synthesis and biological evaluation of a number of novel sulfonamide, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and thiazole derivates as amide bioisosteres, as well as a computational rationalization of the obtained results are reported. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia......, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia...

  1. Genetic variability of Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from continental and island areas of the Russian Far East.

    Igolkina, Y; Bondarenko, E; Rar, V; Epikhina, T; Vysochina, N; Pukhovskaya, N; Tikunov, A; Ivanov, L; Golovljova, I; Ivanov, М; Tikunova, N

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia spp. are intracellular Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods. Two potentially pathogenic rickettsiae, Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae and Rickettsia helvetica, have been found in unfed adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and genetic variability of Rickettsia spp. in I. persulcatus ticks collected from different locations in the Russian Far East. In total, 604 adult I. persulcatus ticks collected from four sites in the Khabarovsk Territory (continental area) and one site in Sakhalin Island were examined for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Nested PCR with species-specific primers and sequencing were used for genotyping of revealed rickettsiae. The overall prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected in different sites varied from 67.9 to 90.7%. However, the proportion of different Rickettsia species observed in ticks from Sakhalin Island significantly differed from that in ticks from the Khabarovsk Territory. In Sakhalin Island, R. helvetica prevailed in examined ticks, while Candidatus R. tarasevichiae was predominant in the Khabarovsk Territory. For gltA and ompB gene fragments, the sequences obtained for Candidatus R. tarasevichiae from all studied sites were identical to each other and to the known sequences of this species. According to sequence analysis of gltA, оmpB and sca4 genes, R. helvetica isolates from Sakhalin Island and the Khabarovsk Territory were identical to each other, but they differed from R. helvetica from other regions and from those found in other tick species. For the first time, DNA of pathogenic Rickettsia heilongjiangensis was detected in I. persulcatus ticks in two sites from the Khabarovsk Territory. The gltA, ompA and оmpB gene sequences of R. heilongjiangensis were identical to or had solitary mismatches with the corresponding sequences of R. heilongjiangensis found in other tick species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  2. Search for contact interactions and large extra dimensions in dilepton events from pp collisions at sbold'>=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colas, J.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C. -M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cuthbert, C.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; D’Orazio, A.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; de Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delemontex, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dinut, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Dressnandt, N.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Duguid, L.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edson, W.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M. J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fowler, A. J.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Goddard, J. 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I.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-01-04

    A search for nonresonant new phenomena, originating from either contact interactions or large extra spatial dimensions, has been carried out using events with two isolated electrons or muons. These events, produced at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at √ s = 7 TeV , were recorded by the ATLAS detector. The data sample, collected throughout 2011, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 and 5.0 fb -1 in the e+ e- and μ+ μ- channels, respectively. No significant deviations from the Standard Model expectation are observed. Using a Bayesian approach, 95% confidence level lower limits ranging from 9.0 to 13.9 TeV are placed on the energy scale of ℓ ℓ q q contact interactions in the left-left isoscalar model. Lower limits ranging from 2.4 to 3.9 TeV are also set on the string scale in large extra dimension models. After combining these limits with results from a similar search in the diphoton channel, slightly more stringent limits are obtained.

  3. Das pressões às ousadias: o confronto entre a descentralização tutelada e a gestão em rede no SUS From pressure to boldness: the conflict between decentralization and network management in SUS

    Leonardo Trevisan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vista no tempo, a implantação do SUS vem enfrentando descompassos gerenciais. Primeiro, as pressões, sempre maiores, por reforma do Estado que minimalize custos, afetam a proposta de atendimento universal do sistema. Depois, a difícil convivência entre o princípio da descentralização com o conceito de rede, aqui entendida não só como ligação entre esferas diferenciadas de gestão, mas como o modo pelo qual o acesso a um direito é exercido em rede, desde o planejamento. Por outro lado, decisões operacionais sobre a saúde foram descentralizadas, mas o processo de repasse das verbas para efetivar tais decisões não foi. No aspecto administrativo, a descentralização da gestão de saúde sofreu solução de continuidade com a edição da Norma Operacional de Assistência à Saúde no 01/2001. No aspecto gerencial, a implantação do conceito de rede, a arma mais eficiente para enfrentar a verticalização de estruturas decisórias, enfrenta "gargalos" operacionais e financeiros (implantação do "cartão eletrônico" que impedem os atores das diferentes organizações de falarem a mesma "linguagem", o meio mais eficaz para gerar "vínculos" interorganizacionais.Taken into perspective, the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS has been facing managerial problems. First, because the increasing pressures for state reforms that will minimize costs affect the system's concept of universal care. Second, it is hard to balance the decentralization principle with the network concept, understood here not only as the link between different management spheres but also as how one can exercise his or her right in a network, from the planning stage on. On the other hand, operational decisions on healthcare were decentralized but the fund flow was not. Administratively speaking, the decentralization of healthcare management suffered an interruption when the Healthcare Operational Guideline n. 01/2001 came into effect. From the managerial standpoint, the introduction of the network concept, the strongest weapon against verticalization of the decision making process, faces operational and financial constraints (the implementation of electronic tokens that keep the different organizations from 'speaking the same language', which is the most effective way to create inter-organizational 'bonds'.

  4. Inclusive Search for Supersymmetry Using Razor Variables in pp Collisions at sbold'>=7TeV

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L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. 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A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Draeger, J.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Mura, B.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Choudhury, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mehta, P.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Heo, S. G.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. 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A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Gokieli, R.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Liu, Z. K.; Lu, Y. J.; Mekterovic, D.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Plager, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Akgun, B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yumiceva, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny III, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-08-01

    An inclusive search is presented for new heavy particle pairs produced in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC using 4.7 +/- 0.1 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity. The selected events are analyzed in the 2D razor space of MR, an event-by-event indicator of the heavy particle mass scale, and R, a dimensionless variable related to the missing transverse energy. The third-generation sector is probed using the event heavy-flavor content. The search is sensitive to generic supersymmetry models with minimal assumptions about the superpartner decay chains. No excess is observed in the number of events beyond that predicted by the standard model. Exclusion limits are derived in the CMSSM framework as well as for simplified models. Within the CMSSM parameter space considered, gluino masses up to 800 GeV and squark masses up to 1.35 TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level depending on the model parameters. The direct production of pairs of stop or sbottom quarks is excluded for masses as high as 400 GeV.

  5. Mapping human preictal and ictal haemodynamic networks using simultaneous intracranial EEG-fMRI

    Umair J. Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    In conclusion, icEEG-fMRI allowed us to reveal BOLD changes within and beyond the SOZ linked to very localised ictal fluctuations in beta and gamma activity measured in the amygdala and hippocampus. Furthermore, the BOLD changes within the SOZ structures were better captured by the quantitative models, highlighting the interest in considering seizure-related EEG fluctuations across the entire spectrum.

  6. Correction: Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    There are errors in the fourth and fifth sentences of the Abstract. The correct sentences are: Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship

  7. Correction: Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA (vol 9, e99250, 2014)

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    There are errors in the fourth and fifth sentences of the Abstract. The correct sentences are: Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship

  8. An Introduction to Normalization and Calibration Methods in Functional MRI

    Liu, Thomas T.; Glover, Gary H.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Greve, Douglas N.; Brown, Gregory G.

    2013-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal is often interpreted as a measure of neural activity. However, because the BOLD signal reflects the complex interplay of neural, vascular, and metabolic processes, such an interpretation is not always valid. There is growing evidence that changes…

  9. High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials.

    Shi, Zhaoyue; Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Tung-Lin; Mishra, Arabinda; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C

    2017-05-16

    Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9.4 T and local field potentials (LFPs), using 98-channel microelectrode arrays, in functionally distinct primary somatosensory areas 3b and 1 in nonhuman primates. Anatomic images of LFP and BOLD were coregistered within 0.10 mm accuracy. We found that the point spread functions (PSFs) of BOLD and LFP responses were comparable in the stimulus condition, and both estimates of activations were slightly more spatially constrained than local correlations at rest. The magnitudes of stimulus responses in area 3b were stronger than those in area 1 and extended in a medial to lateral direction. In addition, the reproducibility and stability of stimulus-evoked activation locations within and across both modalities were robust. Our work suggests that the intrinsic resolution of BOLD is not a limiting feature in practice and approaches the intrinsic precision achievable by multielectrode electrophysiology.

  10. Brief Report: Anomalous Neural Deactivations and Functional Connectivity during Receptive Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Functional MRI Study

    Karten, Ariel; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Neural mechanisms that underlie language disability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with reduced excitatory processes observed as positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses. However, negative BOLD responses (NBR) associated with language and inhibitory processes have been less studied in ASD. In this study,…

  11. SLAG, LIMESTONE, AND UREA APPLICATION IN LATOSOL CULTIVATED WITH RICE APLICAÇÃO DE ESCÓRIA SIDERÚRGICA, CALCÁRIO E UREIA EM LATOSSOLO CULTIVADO COM ARROZ

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Slag is a calcium silicate and silicon source, whose corrective action on soil is similar to the limestone one. Despite its corrective and fertilizing potential, there is little information about its effects on soil chemical attributes. The study evaluated the effects of the slag, limestone, and urea application on the chemical attributes of a Brazilian Oxisol cultivated with rice. The treatments consisted of two corrective agents sources (limestone and slag, with three doses (1.3 g dm-3, 2.6 g dm-3, and 5,2 g dm-3; three N doses (80 mg dm-3, 160 mg dm-3, and 320 mg dm-3, applied as urea; and a control, arranged in randomized blocks, in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Ninety days after the soil incubation and 120 days after planting, soil samples were collected for chemical analysis. The slag was efficient in correcting soil acidity, and nitrogen fertilization contributed to increment acidity in the soil cultivated with rice, decreasing base saturation, as well as the Ca and Mg content. The slag application improved silicon availability, however, when associate to the nitrogen fertilization, the silicon content in the soil did not change.

    Helvetica, sans-serif;">A escória de siderurgia é um silicato de cálcio e fonte de silício, que tem ação corretiva da acidez do solo semelhante à do calcário. Apesar do seu grande potencial de uso como corretivo e fertilizante, existem poucas informações sobre seus efeitos nos atributos químicos do solo. O estudo foi realizado com a cultura do arroz, objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos da aplicação da escória de siderurgia, calcário e ureia nas alterações dos atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de duas fontes de materiais corretivos (calcário e esc

  12. NUTRIÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA DE MILHO SUBMETIDO A CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO SULFATADA MAIZE NUTRITION AND DRY MATTER YIELD UNDER LIMING AND SULFUR FERTILIZATION

    Aretusa Daniela Resende Mendes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Helvetica, sans-serif;">A calagem é uma prática indispensável para obtenção de altos rendimentos das culturas, em solos tropicais ácidos. Objetivou-se avaliar a nutrição e produção de matéria seca de milho, em solo submetido a calagem estimada por três métodos de cálculo e adubação sulfatada. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação, em tubos de PVC, com uma planta por tubo. Utilizou-se Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (LVd, sob vegetação nativa. Foi aplicado calcário dolomítico, tipo filler, nas doses de 4,2 Mg haHelvetica, sans-serif;">-1Helvetica, sans-serif;">; 6,7 Mg haHelvetica, sans-serif;">-1Helvetica, sans-serif;">; e 8,0 Mg haHelvetica, sans-serif;">-1Helvetica, sans-serif;">, calculadas pelo método do alumínio trocável, cálcio e magnésio; método da elevação da saturação por bases; e método do tampão SMP, respectivamente, além do tratamento sem aplicação de calcário, combinados com três doses de S (10 mg dm

  13. Are Fearless Dominance Traits Superfluous in Operationalizing Psychopathy? Inc