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Sample records for helper component-proteinase hc-pro

  1. The helper component-proteinase of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Mlotshwa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus causes severe yield losses in cowpea, an important legume crop in semi-arid regions of Africa. We have elucidated the genomic sequence of the virus and subsequently focused our attention on the so-called helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), a

  2. Potyvirus helper component-proteinase self-interaction in the yeast two-hybrid system and delineation of the interaction domain involved.

    Urcuqui-Inchima, S; Walter, J; Drugeon, G; German-Retana, S; Haenni, A L; Candresse, T; Bernardi, F; Le Gall, O

    1999-05-25

    Using the yeast two-hybrid system, a screen was performed for possible interactions between the proteins encoded by the 5' region of potyviral genomes [P1, helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), and P3]. A positive self-interaction involving HC-Pro was detected with lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and potato virus Y (PVY). The possibility of heterologous interaction between the HC-Pro of LMV and of PVY was also demonstrated. No interaction involving either the P1 or the P3 proteins was detected. A series of ordered deletions from either the N- or C-terminal end of the LMV HC-Pro was used to map the domain involved in interaction to the 72 N-terminal amino acids of the protein, a region known to be dispensable for virus viability but necessary for aphid transmission. A similar but less detailed analysis mapped the interacting domain to the N-terminal half of the PVY HC-Pro. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Functional replacement of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro with the corresponding cistron from a diverse array of viruses in the family Potyviridae

    Stenger, Drake C.; French, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Wheat streak mosaic virus strain Sidney 81 (WSMV-Sidney 81) was systematically replaced with the corresponding cistron derived from four strains of WSMV (Type, TK1, CZ, and El Batan 3), the tritimovirus Oat necrotic mottle virus (ONMV), the rymoviruses Agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV) and Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV), or the potyviruses Tobacco etch virus (TEV) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). These HC-Pro proteins varied in amino acid sequence identity shared with HC-Pro of WSMV-Sidney 81 from high (strains of WSMV at ∼86-99%) to moderate (ONMV at 70%) to low (rymoviruses and potyviruses at ∼15-17%). Surprisingly, all chimeric viral genomes examined were capable of systemic infection of wheat upon inoculation with RNA transcripts produced in vitro. HC-Pro replacements derived from tritimoviruses did not alter host range relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, as each of these chimeric viruses was able to systemically infect wheat, oat, and corn line SDp2. These results indicate that differences in host range among tritimoviruses, including the inability of ONMV to infect wheat or the inability of WSMV strains Type and El Batan 3 to infect SDp2 corn, are not determined by HC-Pro. In contrast, all chimeric viruses bearing HC-Pro replacements derived from rymoviruses or potyviruses were unable to infect SDp2 corn and oat. Collectively, these results indicate that HC-Pro from distantly related virus species of the family Potyviridae are competent to provide WSMV-Sidney 81 with all functions necessary for infection of a permissive host (wheat) and that virus-host interactions required for systemic infection of oat and SDp2 corn are more stringent. Changes in symptom severity or mechanical transmission efficiency observed for some chimeric viruses further suggest that HC-Pro affects virulence in WSMV

  4. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs. These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent. Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1 were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S

  5. Helper component proteinase of the genus Potyvirus is an interaction partner of translation initiation factors eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E and contains a 4E binding motif.

    Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Goytia, Elisa; Haikonen, Tuuli; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2011-07-01

    The multifunctional helper component proteinase (HCpro) of potyviruses (genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) shows self-interaction and interacts with other potyviral and host plant proteins. Host proteins that are pivotal to potyvirus infection include the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and the isoform eIF(iso)4E, which interact with viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Here we show that HCpro of Potato virus A (PVA) interacts with both eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E, with interactions with eIF(iso)4E being stronger, as judged by the data of a yeast two-hybrid system assay. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay on leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana showed that HCpro from three potyviruses (PVA, Potato virus Y, and Tobacco etch virus) interacted with the eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum); interactions with eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of potato (Solanum tuberosum) were weaker. In PVA-infected cells, interactions between HCpro and tobacco eIF(iso)4E were confined to round structures that colocalized with 6K2-induced vesicles. Point mutations introduced to a 4E binding motif identified in the C-terminal region of HCpro debilitated interactions of HCpro with translation initiation factors and were detrimental to the virulence of PVA in plants. The 4E binding motif conserved in HCpro of potyviruses and HCpro-initiation factor interactions suggest new roles for HCpro and/or translation factors in the potyvirus infection cycle.

  6. The influence of cis-acting P1 protein and translational elements on the expression of Potato virus Y helper-component proteinase (HCPro) in heterologous systems and its suppression of silencing activity.

    Tena Fernández, Fátima; González, Inmaculada; Doblas, Paula; Rodríguez, César; Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Tenllado, Francisco; Praveen, Shelly; Canto, Tomas

    2013-06-01

    In the Potyvirus genus, the P1 protein is the first N-terminal product processed from the viral polyprotein, followed by the helper-component proteinase (HCPro). In silencing suppression patch assays, we found that Potato virus Y (PVY) HCPro expressed from a P1-HCPro sequence increased the accumulation of a reporter gene, whereas protein expressed from an HCPro sequence did not, even with P1 supplied in trans. This enhancing effect of P1 has been noted in other potyviruses, but has remained unexplained. We analysed the accumulation of PVY HCPro in infiltrated tissues and found that it was higher when expressed from P1-HCPro than from HCPro sequences. Co-expression of heterologous suppressors increased the steady-state level of mRNA expressed from the HCPro sequence, but not that of protein. This suggests that, in the absence of P1 upstream, either HCPro acquires a conformation that affects negatively its activity or stability, or that its translation is reduced. To test these options, we purified HCPro expressed in the presence or absence of upstream P1, and found no difference in purification pattern and final soluble state. By contrast, alteration of the Kozak context in the HCPro mRNA sequence to favour translation increased partially suppressor accumulation and activity. Furthermore, protein activity was not lower than in protein expressed from P1-HCPro sequences. Thus, a direct role for P1 on HCPro suppressor activity or stability, by influencing its conformation during translation, can be excluded. However, P1 could still have an indirect effect favouring HCPro accumulation. Our data highlight the relevance of cis-acting translational elements in the heterologous expression of HCPro. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  8. Becoming Care Helper

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    ‘positioning’ and ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies, and the empirical material consists of interviews and observations in the theoretical periods and in the traineeships. The paper suggests that a shift from identity to subjectivity may help students to deal with the diversity of ‘care helpers’ and thereby......The paper discusses the shaping of students´ identity within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on the correlation between identity construction within the theoretical periods and students´ experiences in the traineeships. In the school setting the future...... care helper is being constructed within the overall term ‘professional’, but students may meet differing ways of being care helper in the traineeships, and the paper points to an ongoing struggle about the definition of ‘being care helper’. The analysis of the identity issues mobilises the concepts...

  9. Quantitative control of Lettuce mosaic virus fitness and host defence inhibition by P1-HCPro P1-HC Pro do Lettuce mosaic virus atua de forma quantitativa na inibição da resposta de defesa do hospedeiro e adaptação viral

    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Lettuce mosaic virus isolates capable of overcoming the resistance afforded by the resistance gene mo1² in lettuce, LMV-AF199 from Brazil, and LMV-E, an European isolate, were evaluated for the rapidity and severity of symptoms induced on the lettuce variety Salinas 88 (mo1². The mosaic symptoms on Salinas 88 plants inoculated with LMV-AF199 appeared 7 days post-inoculation (dpi and 15 dpi for LMV-E. The symptoms induced by LMV-AF199 in this cultivar were also more severe than those induced by LMV-E. In order to identify the region of the viral genome responsible for this phenotype, recombinant viruses were constructed between these isolates and the phenotype of each recombinant was analysed. The region encoding proteins P1 and HcPro from LMV-AF199 was associated with the increased virulence in Salinas 88.Dois isolados de Lettuce mosaic virus capazes de contornar a resistência conferida pelo gene mo1² em alface, LMV-AF199 proveniente do Brasil e LMV-E um isolado europeu, foram avaliados quanto à rapidez e à severidade dos sintomas induzidos em alface variedade Salinas 88 (mo1². Os sintomas de mosaico induzidos pelo isolado LMV-AF-199 em Salinas 88 são mais severos e aparecem aos 7 dias após a inoculação (dpi, enquanto que para o isolado LMV-E os sintomas são visíveis somente a partir dos 15 dpi. Com o intuito de identificar a região do genoma viral responsável por este fenótipo, vírus recombinantes foram construídos entre estes dois isolados, e o fenótipo avaliado quanto a rapidez e severidade dos sintomas em Salinas-88. A região codificadora para as proteínas P1 e Hc-Pro do LMV-AF199 foi associada com o aumento da virulência deste isolado em Salinas-88.

  10. Bluetooth helper environment

    Zhang, Junbiao

    2001-10-01

    Handheld devices are gaining great popularity and becoming a common commodity on the market primarily due to their small sizes and mobile nature. However, these devices are all limited in capabilities, especially in terms of screen display, processing power, storage space and network access. Some of these limitations, such as the small screen sizes, are inherently difficult to improve given the usage model of these devices. In this paper, we propose a framework in which small handheld devices can use their environment, the devices around them, to expand their limited capabilities. Such an environment can be deployed in the office, at home for user convenience or in a public access area as a revenue generating service. A handheld device interacts with the helper environment through several essential steps including device discovery, service query, request transfer and remote control. In order to ensure the proper operation of such an environment, the framework provides essential system components for admission control, resource allocation, task scheduling and device coordination. We refer to such a framework as the device helper environment and discuss its system architecture and usage scenarios in this paper.

  11. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria

    Deveau, Aurelie [French National Insitute for Agricultural Research (INRA); Labbe, Jessy [ORNL

    2016-10-01

    This chapter focuses on the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB), a generic name given to bacteria which stimulate the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis. By extension, some bacterial strains that positively impact the functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis are also called MHB. These bacteria have applicative interests, as they indirectly improve the health and growth of tree seedlings. MHB are not restricted to a specific type of ecosystem, but are rather generalist in the way that they associate with both herbaceous and woody mycorrhizal plants from boreal, temperate, arid and tropical ecosystems. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms and their specificities will help us to know more about the ecology of the MHB. The process of acquisition varies between fungal species; while ectomycorrhizal fungi most probably recurrently acquire them from the environment, the association between bacterial endosymbionts and Glomeromycota probably dates back to very ancient times, and has since been vertically transmitted.

  12. Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus NSs Protein Supports Infection and Systemic Movement of a Potyvirus and Is a Symptom Determinant.

    Garcia-Ruiz, Hernan; Gabriel Peralta, Sergio M; Harte-Maxwell, Patricia A

    2018-03-14

    Plant viruses are inducers and targets of antiviral RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins that interfere with antiviral RNA silencing. The NSs protein is an RNA silencing suppressor in orthotospoviruses, such as the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The mechanism of RNA silencing suppression by NSs and its role in virus infection and movement are poorly understood. Here, we cloned and tagged TSWV NSs and expressed it from a GFP-tagged turnip mosaic virus (TuMV-GFP) carrying either a wild-type or suppressor-deficient (AS9) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). When expressed in cis, NSs restored pathogenicity and promoted systemic infection of suppressor-deficient TuMV-AS9-GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana . Inactivating mutations were introduced in NSs RNA-binding domain one. A genetic analysis with active and suppressor-deficient NSs, in combination with wild-type and mutant plants lacking essential components of the RNA silencing machinery, showed that the NSs insert is stable when expressed from a potyvirus. NSs can functionally replace potyviral HC-Pro, condition virus susceptibility, and promote systemic infection and symptom development by suppressing antiviral RNA silencing through a mechanism that partially overlaps that of potyviral HC-Pro. The results presented provide new insight into the mechanism of silencing suppression by NSs and its effect on virus infection.

  13. Development of Empathy in Helpers.

    Fretz, Bruce R.

    A trait measure of empathy, a skill measure of empathy and an attitude scale on psychological effectiveness were administered to both counselor trainees and "natural helpers", i.e. persons in helping relationships who have not been formally trained as mental health professionals or paraprofessionals. The results indicated that the measures of…

  14. Becoming a Helper. Third Edition.

    Corey, Marianne Schneider; Corey, Gerald

    The problems involved in becoming an effective helper and the personal difficulties of working with others are addressed. A discussion of motivations for seeking a career in the helping professions is followed by an overview of the helping process. Chapter topics include: (1) "Are the Helping Professions for You?"; (2) "Getting the Most from Your…

  15. College Females' Disclosure to Professional Helpers and Perceptions of Helpers' Characteristics

    Schneider, Lawrence J.; Lankford, Charles P.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 108 high- and 109 low-disclosing college females rated risk individuals should take in revealing personal information to six helpers and perceptions of each helper's characteristics. High-disclosure females thought clients should take greater risks with more trained helpers. (Author)

  16. Self-Help Groups and Professional Helpers.

    Balgopal, Pallassana R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Suggests innovative solutions for mutual benefits for self-help groups and the professionals. Through a derivative paradigm the role of the professional helper within self-help groups is presented. (Author/BL)

  17. Professional Identiy: Effects on Evaluation of Helper Effectiveness.

    Emener, William G.; Dowd, E. Thomas

    1978-01-01

    This study examined the ability of guidance counselors, rehabilitation counselors, and social workers to distinguish accurately low-, medium-, and high-functioning helpers, when the helpers were identified as being from the participants' own or the other two professions. Significant main effects were accounted for by helper's level of functioning.…

  18. Peer Helpers: Encouraging Kids to Confide.

    Tanaka, Gail; Reid, Kelley

    1997-01-01

    In peer-helping programs, a professional counselor or teacher trains a group of students who then help other students by listening, providing information, and referring them to others with the necessary expertise. Peer helpers can help improve the school climate by contributing to its health and security. Since 1979, Seattle's Natural Helpers…

  19. Helper effects on breeder allocations to direct care.

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Mothers receive childcare and productive assistance from allomaternal helpers in many societies. Although much effort has been aimed toward showing helper effects on maternal reproductive success, less has been directed toward highlighting the full range of potential effects on breeder behavior. I present a model of optimal maternal care with helpers, and tests of derived hypotheses with data collected among the Karo Batak-a group of Indonesian agriculturalists. To test the model's predictions I compared the effect of women receiving help from patrilateral versus matrilateral kin because those kin may provide help with different maternal responsibilities. The model predicts a decrease in maternal allocation to care that is substitutable with the helper contribution and the helper assists with that type of care; it predicts an increase in care that is nonsubstitutable with the helper contribution or substitutable care when the helper assists with other responsibilities. With the exception of one other, most models have failed to account for an increase. Analyses of time spent carrying children supported the model. With matrilateral helpers, women increased carrying; with patrilateral helpers, they decreased it. Time spent farmworking showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that matrilateral helpers effectively decrease costs, nudging optimal maternal care upward. Patterns of breastfeeding provided little support for the model. The results do, however, suggest potential proximate mechanisms by which helpers influence maternal reproductive success in cooperative breeding societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Beyond Helper Phage: Using "Helper Cells" to Select Peptide Affinity Ligands.

    M Lisa Phipps

    Full Text Available Peptides are important affinity ligands for microscopy, biosensing, and targeted delivery. However, because they can have low affinity for their targets, their selection from large naïve libraries can be challenging. When selecting peptidic ligands from display libraries, it is important to: 1 ensure efficient display; 2 maximize the ability to select high affinity ligands; and 3 minimize the effect of the display context on binding. The "helper cell" packaging system has been described as a tool to produce filamentous phage particles based on phagemid constructs with varying display levels, while remaining free of helper phage contamination. Here we report on the first use of this system for peptide display, including the systematic characterization and optimization of helper cells, their inefficient use in antibody display and their use in creating and selecting from a set of phage display peptide libraries. Our libraries were analyzed with unprecedented precision by standard or deep sequencing, and shown to be superior in quality than commercial gold standards. Using our helper cell libraries, we have obtained ligands recognizing Yersinia pestis surface antigen F1V and L-glutamine-binding periplasmic protein QBP. In the latter case, unlike any of the peptide library selections described so far, we used a combination of phage and yeast display to select intriguing peptide ligands. Based on the success of our selections we believe that peptide libraries obtained with helper cells are not only suitable, but preferable to traditional phage display libraries for selection of peptidic ligands.

  1. From interleukin-23 to T-helper 17 cells: human T-helper cell differentiation revisited

    Boniface, Katia; Blom, Bianca; Liu, Yong-Jun; de Waal Malefyt, René

    2008-01-01

    Protracted inflammation leading to dysregulation of effector T-cell responses represents a common feature of a wide range of autoimmune diseases. The interleukin-12 (IL-12)/T-helper 1 (Th1) pathway was thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of multiple chronic inflammatory diseases,

  2. Peer Helping Programs: Helper Role, Supervisor Training, and Suicidal Behavior.

    Lewis, Max W.; Lewis, Arleen C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of Washington State school counselors concerning peer helper programs. Descriptive analyses indicate that peer helper counseling programs are widely used and that they are often supervised by noncounseling professionals. The analysis also revealed greater numbers of completed suicides at those schools with the…

  3. Crisis Intervention Strategies for School-Based Helpers. Second Edition.

    Fairchild, Thomas N., Ed.

    School-based helpers are helping professionals who work within educational settings and whose training and primary responsibility is to promote the mental health of students. Few resource materials provide these helpers with needed information and practical strategies--this text tries to meet that need. The 12 chapters here cover a wide range of…

  4. Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.

    Reed, John C.

    Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

  5. Optimized quantization in Zero Leakage Helper data systems

    Stanko, T.; Andini, F.N.; Skoric, B.

    2017-01-01

    Helper data systems are a cryptographic primitive that allows for the reproducible extraction of secrets from noisy measurements. Redundancy data called helper data makes it possible to do error correction while leaking little or nothing (Zero Leakage) about the extracted secret string. We study the

  6. Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats

    Russell, A.F; Young, A.J; Spong, G; Jordan, N.R; Clutton-Brock, T.H

    2006-01-01

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper ‘fitness’ from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term. PMID:17476771

  7. Suppression induction in vivo by a T helper clone?

    Crispe, I N; Owens, T

    1985-01-01

    We have previously described a helper T cell clone which augments in vivo cytotoxic T cell responses when injected at 10(4) cells per mouse, but not at 10(5) per mouse (Crispe, I. N. et al., Immunology 1984. 52:55). To test whether this dose-response relationship was due to the induction...... of suppression, naive syngeneic mice were injected with 10(5) cloned T helper cells, and their spleen cells were subsequently assayed for suppressive activity in adoptive transfer experiments. Lymphocytes from such mice indeed suppressed an antigen-specific cytotoxic response, but only in the presence...... of the same T helper cell clone freshly added at the time of adoptive transfer. On this basis we argue that the distinction between T helper cell activity and T suppressor-inducer activity corresponds to differences in cell numbers, rather than to two separate cell lineages....

  8. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  9. Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E and eIFiso4E Are Both Required for Peanut stripe virus Infection in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Xu, Manlin; Xie, Hongfeng; Wu, Juxiang; Xie, Lianhui; Yang, Jinguang; Chi, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Peanut stripe virus (PStV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is the most important viral pathogen of cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.). The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4E, and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E, play key roles during virus infection in plants, particularly Potyvirus . In the present study, we cloned the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E homologs in peanut and named these as PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E , respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these two genes were expressed during all growth periods and in all peanut organs, but were especially abundant in young leaves and roots. These also had similar expression levels. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PStV multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) and viral protein genome-linked (VPg) both interacted with PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that there was an interaction between HC-Pro and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the cytoplasm and between VPg and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the nucleus. Silencing either PeaeIF4E or PeaeIF(iso)4E using a virus-induced gene silencing system did not significantly affect PStV accumulation. However, silencing both PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E genes significantly weakened PStV accumulation. The findings of the present study suggest that PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E play important roles in the PStV infection cycle and may potentially contribute to PStV resistance.

  10. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    Richardson, B.

    1986-01-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with 35 S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEM line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants

  11. Increased expression of T-helper cell activation markers in ...

    Ehab

    expression of these activation markers would be of value in monitoring asthma severity and the response to ... Key words: Children, atopic asthma, T-helper cell subsets, glucocorticoid inhalation, lower respiratory infections, CD45RO ...... budesonide, and placebo on mucosal inflammation and clinical indices in mild asthma.

  12. The SOS Club: A Practical Peer Helper Program.

    Scarborough, Janna L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a peer helper program developed for students in grades K-5. The program applies the concept that each student has something positive to offer the school and is responsible for providing that service. Discusses program goals and objectives, ways to gain support for the program, training, implementation, and evaluation. (RJM)

  13. Natural Helpers: A Study of Primary Caregivers among Migrant Women.

    Greenfield, Wilma L.

    Natural helpers exist even among the most oppressed populations in this country, particularly migrant women, and recognition of their helping networks can give professional caregivers access to a resource that is often more adaptive, more efficient, and more humane than many static, impersonal, and obsolete human service bureaucracies. Migrant…

  14. Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells

    J. Scott eHale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are the subset of CD4 T helper cells that are required for generation and maintenance of germinal center reactions and the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules. Tfh cells are characterized by their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6, and their capacity to migrate to the follicle and promote germinal center B cell responses. Until recently, it remained unclear whether Tfh cells differentiated into memory cells and whether they maintain their Tfh commitment at the memory phase. This review will highlight several recent studies that support the idea of Tfh-committed CD4 T cells at the memory stage of the immune response. The implication of these findings is that memory Tfh cells retain their capacity to recall their Tfh-specific effector functions upon reactivation to provide help for B cell responses and play an important role in prime and boost vaccination or during recall responses to infection. The markers that are useful for distinguishing Tfh effector and memory cells, as well as the limitations of using these markers will be discussed. Tfh effector and memory generation, lineage maintenance, and plasticity relative to other T helper lineages (Th1, Th2, Th17, etc will also be discussed. Ongoing discoveries regarding the maintenance and lineage stability versus plasticity of memory Tfh cells will improve strategies that utilize CD4 T cell memory to modulate antibody responses during prime and boost vaccination.

  15. "Little Helper" - An Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator Concept

    Mads Hvilshoj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept "autonomous industrial mobile manipulation" (AIMM based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" - an ongoing research project at Aalborg University, Denmark, concerning the development of an autonomous and flexible manufacturing assistant. The paper focuses on the contextual aspects and the working principles of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper deals with the design principles and overall hardware and software architectures of "Little Helper" from a functional and modular mechatronics point of view, in order to create a generic AIMM platform. The design challenges faced in the project is to integrate commercial off‐the‐shelf (COTS and dedicated highly integrated systems into an autonomous mobile manipulator system with the ability to perform diverse tasks in industrial environments. We propose an action based domain specific communication language for AIMM for routine and task definition, in order to lower the entry barriers for the users of the technology. To demonstrate the "Little Helper" concept a full‐scale prototype has been built and different application examples carried out. Experiences and knowledge gained from this show promising results regarding industrial integration, exploitation and maturation of the AIMM technology.

  16. Follicular helper T cell in immunity and autoimmunity

    D. Mesquita Jr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17 and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh. These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R, the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  17. Synergism between two helper cell subpopulations characterized by different radiosensitivity and nylon adherence

    Agarossi, G.; Mancini, C.; Doria, G.

    1981-01-01

    The present work extends our previous results on the radiosensitivity of the helper cell function. Two helper cell subpopulations, 1 radiosensitive and the other radioresistant, have been demonstrated in the spleen of mice at different times after priming with HRBC. The radiosensitive subpopulation increases with the increasing time interval between carrier-priming and irradiation. The 2 cell subpopulations have been further characterized by different nylon adherence properties: radioresistant helper cells adhere to nylon wool, whereas radiosensitive cells pass through. The 2 cell subpopulations were separated by x-irradiation and nylon wool filtration, and their helper activity was assessed separately or after recombination. The results favor the notion that 2 functionally independent helper T cells, as characterized by different radiosensitivity and nylon adherence, participate synergistically in the helper activity of primed spleen cells

  18. Helper contributions in the cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburra: feeding young is no laughing matter.

    Legge

    2000-05-01

    I studied the contributions of individuals to incubation and nestling feeding in a population of cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburras, Dacelo novaeguineae. In most cooperatively breeding birds where nest success is limited by nestling starvation, related helpers increase the overall level of provisioning to the nest, thus boosting the production of nondescendent kin. However, although partial brood loss is the largest cause of lost productivity in kookaburra nests, additional helpers failed to increase overall provisioning. Instead, all group members, but especially helpers, reduced their feeding contributions as group size increased. Breeders and helpers reduced the size of prey delivered, and helpers also reduced the number of feeding visits. An important benefit of helping in kookaburras may be to allow all group members to reduce their effort. Within groups, contributions to care depended on status, sex, group size and the brood size. Breeding males delivered the most food. Breeding females provisioned less than their partner, but their effort was comparable to that of male helpers. Female helpers contributed the least food. Incubation effort followed similar patterns. The relatedness of helpers to the brood had no impact on their provisioning. Across all group sizes, helpers generally brought larger items to the nest than breeders. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. [Recovering helpers in the addiction treatment system in Hungary: an interpretative phenomenological analysis].

    Kassai, Szilvia; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Rácz, József

    2015-01-01

    The work of recovering helpers who work in the addiction rehabilitation centres was studied. The aim was to investigate the process of addicts becoming recovering helpers, and to study what peer help means to them. According to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) design, subjects were selected, data were collected and analysed. 6 (5 males, 1 female), working as recovering helpers at least one year at addiction rehabilitation centres. Semi-structured life interviews were carried out and analysed according to IPA. Emerging themes from the interviews were identified and summarized, then interpreted as central themes: important periods and turning points of the life story interviews: the experience of psychoactive drugs use, the development of the addiction (which became " Turning Point No 1") then the "rock bottom" experience ("Turning Point No 2"). Then the experience of the helping process was examined: here four major themes were identified: the development of the recovering self and the helping self, the wounded helper and the skilled helper, the experience of the helping process. IPA was found to be a useful method for idiographic exploration of the development and the work of the recovering helpers. The work of the recovering helpers can be described as mentoring of the addict clients. Our experiences might be used for the training programs for recovering helpers as well as to adopt their professional role in addiction services.

  20. Direct regulation of Gata3 expression determines the T helper differentiation potential of Notch

    Amsen, Derk; Antov, Andrey; Jankovic, Dragana; Sher, Alan; Radtke, Freddy; Souabni, Abdallah; Busslinger, Meinrad; McCright, Brent; Gridley, Thomas; Flavell, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    CD4(+) T helper cells differentiate into T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 effector lineages, which orchestrate immunity to different types of microbes. Both Th1 and Th2 differentiation can be induced by Notch, but what dictates which of these programs is activated in response to Notch is not known. By using

  1. Figuring out whether they can be trusted: older widows' intentions relative to hired non-professional home-care helpers.

    Porter, Eileen J; Lasiter, Sue; Poston, Emily

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experience of older women relative to trusting hired non-professional home-care helpers. Open-ended interviews were done about the home-care experience with 25 women over three years, and 14 women (age 80-93) shared data about hiring and trusting helpers. The women perceived risks to personal safety that adversely influenced willingness to seek new helpers. After hiring a helper, the women were still trying to discern whether the helper could be trusted. Primary-care providers should enable older women to recognize and reduce the risk of having helpers and to monitor helpers' behavior, as well as assessing the psychosocial status of women who have such helpers.

  2. The role of the paid non-professional nursing helper: a review of the literature.

    Dewar, B J; Clark, J M

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research into the role of paid non-professional nursing helpers. This term refers to auxiliaries, ward clerks, healthcare assistants and support workers. The focus of the review is on work carried out on attitudes of qualified staff to the role of the helper, role descriptions and the role of the helper in different organizational modes of work. Some of the research reviewed in relation to the role description and attitudes to the helper date back to 1978. However, the emphasis of the paper is on research published in the past 3 years. The research is reviewed against the background of two theoretical frameworks, both of which are perceived to be useful in analysing the division of labour between the nurse, the patient and the helper.

  3. Helpers' Self-Assessment Biases Before and after Helping Skills Training

    Jaeken, Marine; Zech, Emmanuelle; Brison, Céline; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; Van Broeck, Nady; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that therapists are generally biased concerning their performed helping skills, as compared to judges' ratings. As clients' ratings of therapists' performance are better predictors of psychotherapy effectiveness than judges' ratings, this study examined the validity and effectiveness of a helping skills training program at reducing novice helpers' self-enhancement biases concerning their helping skills, in comparison to their clients' ratings. Helping skills were assessed by three objective measures (a knowledge multiple choice test, a video test and a role play), as well as by a self- and peer-reported questionnaire. In addition, some performed helping skills' correlates (relationship quality, session quality, and helpers' therapeutic attitudes) were assessed both by helpers and their simulated helpees. Seventy-two sophomores in psychology participated to this study, 37 being assigned to a 12-h helping skills training program, and 35 to a control group. Helpers were expected to assess the aforementioned performed helping skills and correlates as being better than their helpees' assessments at pretest, thus revealing a self-enhancement bias. At posttest, we expected that trained helpers would objectively exhibit better helping skills than untrained helpers while beginning to underestimate their performance, thus indexing a self-diminishment bias. In contrast, we hypothesized that untrained helpers would continue to overestimate their performance. Our hypotheses were only partly confirmed but results reflected a skilled-unaware pattern among trainees. Trained helpers went either from a pretest overestimation to a posttest equivalence (performed helping skills and performed therapeutic attitudes), or from a pretest equivalence to a posttest underestimation (performed session quality and performed therapeutic relationship), as compared to helpees' ratings. Results showed that trained helpers improved on all helping skills objective measures

  4. Helpers' Self-Assessment Biases Before and after Helping Skills Training.

    Jaeken, Marine; Zech, Emmanuelle; Brison, Céline; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Van Broeck, Nady; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that therapists are generally biased concerning their performed helping skills, as compared to judges' ratings. As clients' ratings of therapists' performance are better predictors of psychotherapy effectiveness than judges' ratings, this study examined the validity and effectiveness of a helping skills training program at reducing novice helpers' self-enhancement biases concerning their helping skills, in comparison to their clients' ratings. Helping skills were assessed by three objective measures (a knowledge multiple choice test, a video test and a role play), as well as by a self- and peer-reported questionnaire. In addition, some performed helping skills' correlates (relationship quality, session quality, and helpers' therapeutic attitudes) were assessed both by helpers and their simulated helpees. Seventy-two sophomores in psychology participated to this study, 37 being assigned to a 12-h helping skills training program, and 35 to a control group. Helpers were expected to assess the aforementioned performed helping skills and correlates as being better than their helpees' assessments at pretest, thus revealing a self-enhancement bias. At posttest, we expected that trained helpers would objectively exhibit better helping skills than untrained helpers while beginning to underestimate their performance, thus indexing a self-diminishment bias. In contrast, we hypothesized that untrained helpers would continue to overestimate their performance. Our hypotheses were only partly confirmed but results reflected a skilled-unaware pattern among trainees. Trained helpers went either from a pretest overestimation to a posttest equivalence (performed helping skills and performed therapeutic attitudes), or from a pretest equivalence to a posttest underestimation (performed session quality and performed therapeutic relationship), as compared to helpees' ratings. Results showed that trained helpers improved on all helping skills objective measures

  5. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells mm9 Unclassified Blood Follicular helper... T cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells mm9 Histone Blood Follicular helper T ce...,SRX100612 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells mm9 No description Blood Follicular help...er T cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells mm9 TFs and others Blood Follicular help...er T cells SRX1158860 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells mm9 TFs and others Blood Follicular help...er T cells SRX1158860 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Follicular_helper_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. Helper T lymphocyte precursor frequency analysis in alloreactivity detection

    Cukrova, V.; Dolezalova, L.; Loudova, M.; Vitek, A.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of IL-2 secreting helper T lymphocyte precursors (HTLp) frequency testing has been evaluated for detecting alloreactivity. The frequency of HTLp was approached by limiting dilution assay. High HTLp frequency was detected in 20 out of 30 HLA matched unrelated pairs (67%). The comparison of HTLp and CTLp (cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors) frequencies in HLA matched unrelated pairs showed that the two examinations are not fully alternative in detecting alloreactivity. This could suggest the utility of combined testing of both HTLp and CTLp frequencies for alloreactivity assessment. In contrast, five positive HTLp values were only found among 28 HLA genotypic identical siblings (18%). Previous CTLp limiting dilution studies showed very low or undetectable CTLp frequency results in that group. For that, HTLp assay remains to be the only cellular in vitro technique detecting alloreactivity in these combinations. (authors)

  14. Differential TCR signals for T helper cell programming.

    Morel, Penelope A

    2018-05-02

    Upon encounter with their cognate antigen naïve CD4 T cells become activated and are induced to differentiate into several possible T helper (Th) cell subsets. This differentiation depends on a number of factors including antigen presenting cells, cytokines and costimulatory molecules. The strength of the T cell receptor (TCR) signal, related to the affinity of TCR for antigen and antigen dose, has emerged as a dominant factor in determining Th cell fate. Recent studies have revealed that TCR signals of high or low strength do not simply induce quantitatively different signals in the T cells, but rather qualitatively distinct pathways can be induced based on TCR signal strength. This review examines the recent literature in this area and highlights important new developments in our understanding of Th cell differentiation and TCR signal strength. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Prolonged peritoneal gene expression using a helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Liu, Limin; Shi, Chang-Xin; Ghayur, Ayesha; Zhang, Claire; Su, Je Yen; Hoff, Catherine M; Margetts, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis. The causes of EPS are not well defined and are likely multifactorial. A suitable animal model would facilitate research into the pathophysiology and treatment of EPS. We developed a helper-dependent adenovirus that expresses both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1; HDAdTGF-beta1). Mice were administered HDAdTGF-beta1 via intraperitoneal injection and the response was compared with mice administered either first-generation adenovirus expressing TGF-beta1 (AdTGF-beta1) or control adenovirus (AdGFP). HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice continued to express the GFP reporter transgene to day 74, the end of the observation period. Transgene expression lasted less than 28 days in the animals treated with first-generation adenoviruses. Animals treated with first-generation AdTGF-beta1 demonstrated submesothelial thickening and angiogenesis at day 7, with almost complete resolution by day 28. The HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice demonstrated progressive peritoneal fibrosis with adhesion formation and encapsulation of bowels. Weight gain was significantly reduced in animals treated with HDAdTGF-beta1 compared to both the control-treated animals and the AdTGF-beta1-treated animals. Inflammation was not a major component of the fibroproliferative response. Peritoneal administration of a first-generation AdTGF-beta1 leads to transient gene expression, resulting in a resolving fibrotic response and histology similar to that seen in simple peritoneal sclerosis. Prolonged TGF-beta1 expression induced by the helper-dependent HDAdTGF-beta1 led to changes in peritoneal morphology resembling EPS. This suggests that TGF-beta1 may be a contributing factor in both simple peritoneal sclerosis and EPS. This model will be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of EPS and evaluation of potential treatment.

  16. General pathologist-helper: The new medical app about general pathology.

    Fernández-Vega, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) have become increasingly prevalent in medicine. Due to most pathologists, pathology trainees, technicians, and medical students use smartphones; apps can be a different way for general pathology education. "General pathologist-helper (GP-HELPER)" is a novel app developed as a reference tool in general pathology and especially for general pathologists, developed for Android and iOS platforms. "GP-HELPER," was created using Mobincube website platform. This tool also integrates "FORUM GP-HELPER," an external website created using Miarroba website (http://forum-gp-helper.mboards.com) and "COMMUNITY GP-HELPER" a multichannel chat created using Chatango website platform. The application was released in July 2015, and it is been periodically updated since then. The app has permanent information (offline data) about different pathology protocols (TNM latest edition, protocols regarding management of tumors of unknown primary origin, and flowcharts for some of the most difficult tumors to diagnose) and a database with more than 5000 immunohistochemistry results from different tumors. Online data have links to more than 1100 reference pathology video lectures, 250 antibodies information, more than 70 pathology association websites, 46 pathology providers, and 78 outstanding pathology journal websites. Besides this information, the app has two interactive places such as "FORUM GP-HELPER" and "COMMUNITY GP-HELPER" that let users to stay in touch everywhere and every time. Expert consult section is also available. "GP-HELPER" pretends to integrate offline and online data about pathology with two interactive external places in order to represent a reference tool for general pathologists and associate members.

  17. T-helper cytokine patterns and related antibodies in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Etaati Z

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: The changes in T-helper 1 and 2 associated antibodies and cytokines are not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and could not be considered as a predictor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  18. Changes in helper and suppressor T lymphocytes following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Newman, G.H.; Rees, G.J.G.; Jones, R.S.J.; Grove, E.A.; Preece, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in total lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, T helper and T suppressor lymphocyte numbers were studied in 22 patients with breast cancer before and after radiotherapy. T lymphocyte subsets were measured using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence microscopy. After treatment the total lymphocyte count fell significantly and was still reduced 9 months later, but the proportion of cells labelled as T lymphocytes was unchanged during this period. The helper-suppressor ratio, which was within the normal range before radiotherapy, was significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months after. Following treatment both T helper and T suppressor cell numbers were significantly reduced. T helper cell numbers remained reduced throughout the study period but T suppressor cell numbers showed a recovery to normal values 9 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Egg size investment in superb fairy-wrens: helper effects are modulated by climate

    Heinsohn, R. G.; Russell, A. F.; Kilner, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations might exhibit resilience to changing climatic conditions if they already show adaptive flexibility in their reproductive strategies. In cooperative breeders, theory predicts that mothers with helpers should provide less care when environmental conditions are favourable, but maintain high investment when conditions are challenging. Here, we test for evidence of climate-mediated flexibility in maternal investment in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. We focus on egg size because in this species egg size influences offspring size, and females reduce egg investment when there are helpers at the nest. We report that females lay larger eggs during dry, hot conditions. However, the effect of temperature is modulated by the presence of helpers: the average egg size of females with helpers is reduced during cooler conditions but increased during hot conditions relative to females without helpers. This appears to reflect plasticity in egg investment rather than among female differences. Analysis of maternal survival suggests that helped females are better able to withstand the costs of breeding in hot conditions than females without helpers. Our study suggests that females can use multiple, independent cues to modulate egg investment flexibly in a variable environment. PMID:27903872

  20. Adeno-associated virus vectors can be efficiently produced without helper virus.

    Matsushita, T; Elliger, S; Elliger, C; Podsakoff, G; Villarreal, L; Kurtzman, G J; Iwaki, Y; Colosi, P

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an efficient method for the production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the absence of helper virus. The adenovirus regions that mediate AAV vector replication were identified and assembled into a helper plasmid. These included the VA, E2A and E4 regions. When this helper plasmid was cotransfected into 293 cells, along with plasmids encoding the AAV vector, and rep and cap genes, AAV vector was produced as efficiently as when using adenovirus infection as a source of help. CMV-driven constructs expressing the E4orf6 and the 72-M(r), E2A proteins were able to functionally replace the E4 and E2A regions, respectively. Therefore the minimum set of genes required to produce AAV helper activity equivalent to that provided by adenovirus infection consists of, or is a subset of, the following genes: the E4orf6 gene, the 72-M(r), E2A protein gene, the VA RNA genes and the E1 region. AAV vector preparations made with adenovirus and by the helper virus-free method were essentially indistinguishable with respect to particle density, particle to infectivity ratio, capsimer ratio and efficiency of muscle transduction in vivo. Only AAV vector preparations made by the helper virus-free method were not reactive with anti-adenovirus sera.

  1. Subpopulation of human helper and suppressor T lymphocytes

    Venkataraman, M.; Levin, R.D.; Westerman, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Mitogen driven differentiation of normal human mononuclear cells is a well-established model for the study of antibody synthesis in man. In certain rare individuals who are clinically normal, unfractionated mononuclear cells or a mixture of purified B plus T lymphocytes differentiate into immunoglobulin producing cells in response to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) but not in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). To evaluate this observation we have irradiated T cells from such individuals to eliminate naturally occurring suppressor T cell activity and then added the irradiated T cells back to autologous B cells before culture. The B cells then responded to PWM. The original PPD responses of cells from these individuals were now significantly reduced. Although, there was no difference between PWM nonresponders and responders in the number of OKT-8 positive cells, elimination of OKT-8 positive cells in the PWM nonresponders with OKT-8 monoclonal antibody and complement resulted in a significantly increased response to PWM. This study indicates that there are suppressor T cells which specifically inhibit B cell response to PWM without affecting the PPD response. These results also show that the helper T cells involved in the PWM response are radioresistant and those involved in the PPD response are radiosensitive

  2. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation

    Evans, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity. PMID:23878131

  3. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions of theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.

  4. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation.

    Evans, Catherine M; Jenner, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity.

  5. Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice

    Hjelle Brian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV, the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. Limitations of detailed analysis of deer mouse immune responses to SNV are the lack of reagents and methods for evaluating such responses. Results We developed real-time PCR-based detection assays for several immune-related transcription factor and cytokine genes from deer mice that permit the profiling of CD4+ helper T cells, including markers of Th1 cells (T-bet, STAT4, IFNγ, TNF, LT, Th2 cells (GATA-3, STAT6, IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory T cells (Fox-p3, IL-10, TGFβ1. These assays compare the expression of in vitro antigen-stimulated and unstimulated T cells from individual deer mice. Conclusion We developed molecular methods for profiling immune gene expression in deer mice, including a multiplexed real-time PCR assay for assessing expression of several cytokine and transcription factor genes. These assays should be useful for characterizing the immune responses of experimentally- and naturally-infected deer mice.

  6. [Effects of T helper 1 cells and T helper 17 cells secreting cytokines on rat models of experimental periodontitis].

    Wang, Z X; Yang, L; Tan, J Y; Chen, L L

    2017-12-09

    Objectvie: To investigate the effects of secreting cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) of T helper 1 cells (Th1) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) on the peripheral blood and alveolar bone destruction, so as to provide a new explanation for cellular immunity-mediated alveolar bone destruction. Methods: Eighteen eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided, randomly and equally, into 3 groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, ligation group and normal control group. In the LPS group, Escherichia coli LPS was injected into the alveolar mucosa on the buccalmedian site of the left upper first molar, while the right upper first molar was injected with equal volume of physiological saline as self-controls. The injections were performed every other day for four times totally. In the ligation group, the left upper first molars were ligatured with 0.2 mm orthodontic cords, while the right upper first molars were left untreated as self-controls, and supplemented with high-sugar diet to promote the periodontitis status. The rats in normal control group were fed normally. The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-17 in peripheral blood were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method at the fourth week after the start of injection and at the eighth week after ligation. The histological of periodontal tissues were observed after hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and osteoclast count was performed under light microscope. The histological of osteoclasts were observed after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were detected by immunohistochemical assay. Results: The concentrations of IFN-γ in peripheral blood of LPS group [(185.0±50.7) ng/L] and ligation group [(202.9±60.4) ng/L] were significantly higher than that of normal control group [(106.3±17.2) ng/L]( Pperiodontitis and alveolar bone resorption could be successfully established by means of ligationand LPS injection, respectively

  7. Anti-Aspergillus human host defence relies on type 1 T helper (Th1), rather than type 17 T helper (Th17), cellular immunity

    L.Y.A. Chai (Louis); F. van de Veerdonk (Frank); R.J. Marijnissen (Renoud); S.C. Cheng (Shih-Chin); A.L. Khoo; M. Hectors (Magda); K. Lagrou (Katrien); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); J. Maertens (Johan); L.A.B. Joosten (Leo); B.J. Kullberg (Bart Jan); M.G. Netea (Mihai)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSummary Both interferon-γ-producing type 1 T helper (Th1)- and interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing Th17 cells have been proposed to be involved in anti-fungal host defence. Although invasive aspergillosis is one of the most severe human fungal infections, little is known regarding the

  8. Systemic frequencies of T helper 1 and T helper 17 cells in patients with age-related macular degeneration: A case-control study

    Singh, Amardeep; Subhi, Yousif; Nielsen, Marie Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease of the retina and a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. We investigated the systemic differences in the frequency of T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells in patients with non-exudative and exudative AMD and compared to age...

  9. Effective antigen presentation to helper T cells by human eosinophils.

    Farhan, Ruhaifah K; Vickers, Mark A; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Hall, Andrew M; Barker, Robert N; Walsh, Garry M

    2016-12-01

    Although eosinophils are inflammatory cells, there is increasing attention on their immunomodulatory roles. For example, murine eosinophils can present antigen to CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, but it remains unclear whether human eosinophils also have this ability. This study determined whether human eosinophils present a range of antigens, including allergens, to activate Th cells, and characterized their expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules required for effective presentation. Human peripheral blood eosinophils purified from non-allergic donors were pulsed with the antigens house dust mite extract (HDM), Timothy Grass extract (TG) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD), before co-culture with autologous CD4 + Th cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were measured, with eosinophil expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 determined by flow cytometry. Eosinophils pulsed with HDM, TG or PPD drove Th cell proliferation, with the response strength dependent on antigen concentration. The cytokine responses varied with donor and antigen, and were not biased towards any particular Th subset, often including combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Eosinophils up-regulated surface expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ, CD80, CD86 and CD40 in culture, increases that were sustained over 5 days when incubated with antigens, including HDM, or the major allergens it contains, Der p I or Der p II. Human eosinophils can, therefore, act as effective antigen-presenting cells to stimulate varied Th cell responses against a panel of antigens including HDM, TG or PPD, an ability that may help to determine the development of allergic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    Shamai, Michal

    2005-06-01

    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  11. Antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive

    Phillips, N.E.; Campbell, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    CBA/N mice have an X-linked immunodeficiency that includes a deficient humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). In order to study the cellular mechanisms of this deficiency we have examined helper T cell function to SRBC in an adoptive transfer system by using 2 different sources of helper T cells. When thymocytes were used as the source of helper T cell precursors in an adoptive transfer system, CBA/N thymocytes were as effective as CBA/Ca thymocytes in inducing CBA/Ca bone marrow cells to develop into both direct and indirect anti-SRBC plaque-forming cells (PFC). However, when SRBC-primed, irradiated recipient mice were used as the source of helper T cells, primed and irradiated CBA/N recipiets developed significantly fewer direct and indirect anti-SRBC PFC than similarly treated CBA/CA recipients when reconstituted with CBA/Ca bone marrow cells and challenged with SRBC. We conclude that antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive. Possible reasons for this are evaluated and discussed

  12. The figure of the helper advisor in cases of sexual abuse against people with intellectual disabilities

    Almudena MARTORELL CAFRANGA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the main barriers that people with intellectual disabilities who have suffered sexual abuse have to face when they access the Justice system. Regarding these barriers, the Victim Support Unit for People with Intellectual Disabilities of the Fundación Carmen Pardo-Valcarce proposes the inclusion in the judicial process of a helper advisor. The entry into force in 2015 of the Law 4/2015, in 27 April, the Statute of the crime victim represents an exemplary opportunity to ensure the incorporation of support proposals involving the insertion of the helper advisor in the judicial process in cases where the victim is a person with intellectual disabilities. In this paper we analyse the impact of the helper advisor, with particular emphasis on cases that have been dismissed under instruction.

  13. Essential competencies for the education of nursing assistants and care helpers in elderly care.

    Oeseburg, Barth; Hilberts, Rudi; Roodbol, Petrie F

    2015-10-01

    The Dutch health care system faces huge challenges with regard to the demand on elderly care and the competencies of professionals required to meet this demand. However, a recent study showed that the curricula in vocational education for nursing assistants and care helpers remains inadequate to prepare them for the social and healthcare needs of the elderly. To determine the essential competencies for the initial education of nursing assistants and care helpers in elderly care. First, a draft version of essential competencies for the education of nursing assistants and care helpers in elderly care (N=120) was developed and approved by experts, also members of the project steering committee. Second, a Delphi survey was conducted to determine the essential competencies. The Delphi panel consisted of eleven field experts (teachers/educational developers) working for different vocational education training colleges in the Netherlands. Ten panel members participated in a two-round consensus building process via email. A definitive set of 116 essential competencies for the initial education of nursing assistants and 42 essential competencies for the initial education of care helpers were determined. The competencies in the definitive set are more in line with social and healthcare needs of the elderly like: autonomy, daily functioning prevention of health problems, healthy ageing and wellbeing, involvement of informal care, collaboration between professionals and informal care. The main challenge now is to translate these competencies into educational programmes for vocational education training colleges for care helpers and nursing assistants. Recommendations are made for the implementation of these competencies in the Dutch vocational education training colleges for care helpers and nursing assistants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential role of non-antibiotics (helper compounds) in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections

    Martins, Marta; Dastidar, Sujata G; Fanning, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    that have been shown to be efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) and which, if used as 'helper compounds' in combination with antibiotics to which the organism is initially resistant, may produce the required cure. Although not all of the EPIs may serve a helper role owing to their toxicity, they may nevertheless...

  15. Distinct pattern of lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis is associated with different circulating T-helper and helper-like innate lymphoid cell subsets.

    Gross, Catharina C; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Hanning, Uta; Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Schwab, Nicholas; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    Distinct lesion topography in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) might be due to different antigen presentation and/or trafficking routes of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate whether distinct lesion patterns in multiple sclerosis (MS) might be associated with a predominance of distinct circulating T-helper cell subset as well as their innate counterparts. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of patients with exclusively cerebral (n = 20) or predominantly spinal (n = 12) disease manifestation. Patients with exclusively cerebral or preferential spinal lesion manifestation were associated with increased proportions of circulating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) producing T H 1 cells or interleukin (IL)-17-producing T H 17 cells, respectively. In contrast, proportions of peripheral IL-17/IL-22-producing lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi), the innate counterpart of T H 17 cells, were enhanced in RRMS patients with exclusively cerebral lesion topography. Distinct T-helper and T-helper-like innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets are associated with different lesion topography in RRMS.

  16. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization

    Routine methods for enumerating antigen-specific T-helper cells may not identify low-frequency phenotypes such as Th2 cells. We compared methods of evaluating such responses to identify tetanus toxoid- (TT) specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL10+ cells. Eight healthy subjects were given a TT booster vacci...

  17. Analysis of recombinant mycobacteria as T helper type 1 vanccines in an allergy challange model

    Janssen, R.; Kruisselbrink, A.; Hoogteyling, L.; Lamb, J.R.; Young, D.B.; Thole, J.E.R.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for development of mycobacteria as T helper type 1 (Th1) vaccines capable of induction of Th1 responses to recombinant antigens was explored in a model system based on an immunodominant peptide from house dust mite. Different recombinant mycobacterial preparations were compared for

  18. Human Rights and International Labour Law issues concerning Migrant Women Working as Domestic Helpers in China

    Peng, Q.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375803998

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the human rights and international labour law issues concerning rural migrant women workers as domestic helpers in China and offers several legislative suggestions to the Chinese government. By describing the current de facto and de jure condition of rural migrant women working

  19. The Microbiota and Epigenetic Regulation of T Helper 17/Regulatory T Cells

    Luo, Annie; Leach, Steven T; Barres, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Immune cells not only affect tissue homeostasis at the site of inflammation but also exert systemic effects contributing to multiple chronic conditions. Recent evidence clearly supports an altered T helper 17/regulatory T cell (Th17/Treg) balance leading to the development and progression of infl...

  20. Security of helper data Schemes for SRAM-PUF in multiple enrollment scenarios

    Kusters, C.J.; Ignatenko, T.; Maes, R.; van der Sluis, E.; Selimis, G.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fuzzy commitment and syndrome-based schemes are two well-known helper data schemes used to bind and generate, respectively, a secret key to/from SRAM-PUF observations. To allow the decoder to reconstruct this secret key from a new (verification) observation of an SRAM-PUF, an encoder has to generate

  1. Epidermal filaggrin deficiency mediates increased systemic T-helper 17 immune response

    Bonefeld, C. M.; Petersen, T. H.; Bandier, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cellular T-helper (Th)17 infiltrates dominate skin inflammation in filaggrin-deficient flaky tail (ft/ft) mice, and Th17 cells are found in both the skin and blood of patients with acute atopic dermatitis. However, the potential role of loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene...

  2. Sex, Attribution, and Severity Influence Intervention Decisions of Informal Helpers in Domestic Violence

    Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.

    2009-01-01

    Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…

  3. Attitudes of Future Human Service Professionals: The Effects of Victim and Helper Qualities.

    Liebkind, Karmela; Eranen, Liisa

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the attitudes of future members in human service professions toward victims, based on the qualities effected by trauma victims and their helpers. Reports that the high-trauma and poorly adapted victims elicited more negative attitudes than did the low-trauma and well-adapted victims. (CMK)

  4. [Perspective of peer helpers regarding their experience animating a self-treatment program for panic disorders].

    Perreault, Michel; Bouchard, Stéphane; Lapalme, Micheline; Laverdure, Anick; Audet, Denis; Cusson, Jean-Claude; Zacchia, Camillo; Milton, Diana; Sam Tion, Michaël; Chartier-Otis, Mariko; Marchand, André; Bélanger, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Support groups can help to reach individuals with anxiety disorders who are not or are only partly obtaining health services. The present study is based on a program that involves peer helpers as animators of a self-treatment group (Zéro-ATAQ). Their perspective has been documented in order to identify the aspects of the program which can be improved. Eleven peer helpers led the 12 sessions of the program, which was dispensed in four regions of Quebec for 32 persons having panic disorders with agoraphobia. The perspectives of ten peer animators were documented based on a semi-structured interview that took place at the end of the program, and a focus group that was held over six months later with peer animators from each of the groups. Their comments were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was conducted. All of the peer helper animators reported that they enjoyed participating in the program, that they appreciated being able to help others having an anxiety disorder, and that the program helped them in their role as animators of these types of activities. Nearly all of the peer helpers emphasized the importance of being able to count on the supervision of a professional when needed. This study revealed (1) the feasibility of implementing a program of this kind in partnership with peers, (2) the qualifications necessary to lead this type of program, (3) the requirements in terms of training and available material, and (4) the importance of supervision.

  5. Error checking and near matching in helper data systems for biometric authentication

    Papatsimpa, Charikleia; Linnartz, Jean-Paul; de Groot, Joep; Skoric, B.; Ignatenko, T.

    2014-01-01

    Helper data systems mitigate the risk that biometric templates are stolen from a biometric data base. Yet, current systems face the drawback that strong Error Correction is needed in order to mitigate variations in the measured biometric during verification. Error correction codes are not always

  6. Essential competencies for the education of nursing assistants and care helpers in elderly care

    Oeseburg, Barth; Hilberts, Rudi; Roodbol, Petrie F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Dutch health care system faces huge challenges with regard to the demand on elderly care and the competencies of professionals required to meet this demand. However, a recent study showed that the curricula in vocational education for nursing assistants and care helpers remains

  7. Central role of T helper 17 cells in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Maston, Levi D; Jones, David T; Giermakowska, Wieslawa; Howard, Tamara A; Cannon, Judy L; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yongyi; Xuan, Weimin; Resta, Thomas C; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V

    2017-05-01

    Inflammation is a prominent pathological feature in pulmonary arterial hypertension, as demonstrated by pulmonary vascular infiltration of inflammatory cells, including T and B lymphocytes. However, the contribution of the adaptive immune system is not well characterized in pulmonary hypertension caused by chronic hypoxia. CD4 + T cells are required for initiating and maintaining inflammation, suggesting that these cells could play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CD4 + T cells, specifically the T helper 17 subset, contribute to chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We compared indices of pulmonary hypertension resulting from chronic hypoxia (3 wk) in wild-type mice and recombination-activating gene 1 knockout mice (RAG1 -/- , lacking mature T and B cells). Separate sets of mice were adoptively transferred with CD4 + , CD8 + , or T helper 17 cells before normoxic or chronic hypoxic exposure to evaluate the involvement of specific T cell subsets. RAG1 -/- mice had diminished right ventricular systolic pressure and arterial remodeling compared with wild-type mice exposed to chronic hypoxia. Adoptive transfer of CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells restored the hypertensive phenotype in RAG1 -/- mice. Interestingly, RAG1 -/- mice receiving T helper 17 cells displayed evidence of pulmonary hypertension independent of chronic hypoxia. Supporting our hypothesis, depletion of CD4 + cells or treatment with SR1001, an inhibitor of T helper 17 cell development, prevented increased pressure and remodeling responses to chronic hypoxia. We conclude that T helper 17 cells play a key role in the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Knowledge and Practices About the Subject Emergency Contraception of the Pharmacists and Their Helpers in the Pharmacies in Manisa

    Ayten Taspinar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The study was carried out as descriptive to determine the knowledge and practices about the subject emergency contraception of the pharmacists and their helpers in the pharmacies in central Manisa. METHOD: The universe of the research was formed by the 113 pharmacies registered to Manisa chamber of pharmacists in the year 2008 and all the pharmacies were included in the study. 47 pharmacists and 88 helpers agreed to join the study. The research which was planned to be descriptive March-to-June 2008. A questionnaire was produced by researchers and filled in during face-to face interviews with the pharmacists and their helpers. RESULTS: The pharmacists and their helpers stated that combined pills (46.8% and 44.5% and condoms (41.5% and 42.7% the most requested family planning methods their pharmacy. It was determined that 48.9% of the pharmacists, 33% of the pharmacist’s helpers gave information to customers about their use of family planning methods, 38.3% of the pharmacists, 23.9 % of the pharmacist’s helpers gave information what to do in case of failure to use/ where to apply to. 91.5% of the pharmacists, 95.5% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that they had emergency contraception (EC purpose pills in their pharmacies. It was determined that 61.7% of the pharmacists, 28.4% of the pharmacist’s helpers had the knowledge about EC, 61.7% of the pharmacists, 52.3% of the pharmacist’s helpers could consider the EC methods true, 68.1% of the pharmacists, 70.5% of the pharmacist’s helpers gave the correct answers to the question of when the EC – purpose pills would be used. 68.1% of the pharmacists, 45.5% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that EC methods might have adverse effects, 14.9% of the pharmacists, 25% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that EC methods were protect agains to STD or not information about it, 12.8% of the pharmacists, 9.1% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that these pills might be effective after the

  9. Analysis of the frequency of mutant T-helpers as a parameter for biological dosimetry

    Mel'nov, S.B.; Minenko, V.F.; Demidchik, E.P.

    1998-01-01

    It was made the attempt of quantitatively estimation of radiation damage by the frequency of mutant T-helpers, i.e. CD4+cells, depleted of T-cell receptor (TCR). The object of the study was lymphocytes of peripheral blood of children exposed to iodine radioisotopes therapy on medical indications. The examined group consisted of 36 patients 10 -21 years old, which were injected from 0,3 to 27,6 GBq of iodine 131. The time between exposition to iodine 131 and the investigation varied from 2 months to 3 years. The results gave evidence about the existence of direct relation between the frequency of mutant T-helpers and integrated dose. The character of the relation was described on the basis of mathematical processing. It was concluded that TCR-test can be used for restoration of the biological radiation dose

  10. VICTORIA PARK: A DEMOCTRATIC PUBLIC OPEN SPACE FOR INDONESIA DOMESTIC HELPERS (TKW

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  11. Consequences of 'load-lightening' for future indirect fitness gains by helpers in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Meade, Jessica; Nam, Ki-Baek; Beckerman, Andrew P; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2010-05-01

    1. Helpers that invest energy in provisioning the offspring of related individuals stand to gain indirect fitness benefits from doing so. First, if the helper's effort is additional to that of the parents (additive) the productivity of the current breeding attempt can be increased. Secondly, if the parents reduce their workload (compensation) this can result in future indirect fitness gains to the helper via increased breeder survival; termed 'load-lightening'. 2. Long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus) have a cooperative breeding system in which helpers assist kin and parents exhibit both additive and compensatory reactions in the presence of helpers. Offspring from helped nests are heavier and more likely to recruit into the breeding population, thus helpers gain indirect fitness benefits from increasing the productivity of the current breeding attempt. Despite breeders' reduction of feeding effort in the presence of helpers, previous investigations found no subsequent increase in breeder survival. 3. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that load-lightening resulted in indirect fitness benefits for helpers. We used data from a 14-year study to investigate the provisioning rate, survival and future fecundity of male and female long-tailed tits that did and did not receive help at the nest. 4. We found an asymmetrical response to the presence of helpers at large brood sizes. Males reduced their feeding rate more than females, and this differential response was reflected in a significant increase in male survival when provisioning large broods assisted by helpers. We found no evidence of any increase in future fecundity for helped breeders. 5. The finding that males reduce their provisioning rate in the presence of helpers (at large brood sizes) to a greater degree than females, and that this is reflected in an increase in survival rate for males only, implies that the survival increase is caused by the reduction in work-rate rather than a non

  12. Does human bocavirus infection depend on helper viruses? A challenging case report

    Brockmann Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case of severe diarrhoea associated with synergistic human bocavirus type 1 (HBoV and human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6 is reported. The case supports the hypotheses that HBoV infection under clinical conditions may depend on helper viruses, or that HBoV replicates by a mechanism that is atypical for parvoviruses, or that HBoV infection can be specifically treated with cidofovir.

  13. The sustainability of Egan’s Skilled Helper Model in students’ social work practice

    Riggall, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of students’ learning of the Egan Skilled Helper model in enabling them to develop collaborative communication skills which place service-users at the centre of decision making. The paper is a follow-up to an earlier paper which found that the Egan model was helpful to students as a communication and problem management tool and that they had transferred their learning into practice. The current study involves seven students from the first study and examines ...

  14. Increased circulating follicular helper T cells with decreased programmed death-1 in chronic renal allograft rejection

    Shi, Jian; Luo, Fengbao; Shi, Qianqian; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major issue that affects long-term renal allograft survival. Since follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote the development of antigen-specific B cells in alloimmune responses, we investigated the potential roles of Tfh cells, B cells and their alloimmune-regulating molecules in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft rejection in this study. Methods The frequency of Tfh, B cells and the levels of their alloimmune-regulating molecules inc...

  15. General pathologist-helper: The new medical app about general pathology

    Iván Fernandez-Vega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smartphone applications (apps have become increasingly prevalent in medicine. Due to most pathologists, pathology trainees, technicians, and medical students use smartphones; apps can be a different way for general pathology education. “General pathologist-helper (GP-HELPER” is a novel app developed as a reference tool in general pathology and especially for general pathologists, developed for Android and iOS platforms. Materials and Methods: “GP-HELPER,” was created using Mobincube website platform. This tool also integrates “FORUM GP-HELPER,” an external website created using Miarroba website (http://forum-gp-helper.mboards.com and “COMMUNITY GP-HELPER” a multichannel chat created using Chatango website platform. Results: The application was released in July 2015, and it is been periodically updated since then. The app has permanent information (offline data about different pathology protocols (TNM latest edition, protocols regarding management of tumors of unknown primary origin, and flowcharts for some of the most difficult tumors to diagnose and a database with more than 5000 immunohistochemistry results from different tumors. Online data have links to more than 1100 reference pathology video lectures, 250 antibodies information, more than 70 pathology association websites, 46 pathology providers, and 78 outstanding pathology journal websites. Besides this information, the app has two interactive places such as “FORUM GP-HELPER” and “COMMUNITY GP-HELPER” that let users to stay in touch everywhere and every time. Expert consult section is also available. Conclusions: “GP-HELPER” pretends to integrate offline and online data about pathology with two interactive external places in order to represent a reference tool for general pathologists and associate members.

  16. Type II membrane protein CD69 regulates the formation of resting T-helper memory.

    Shinoda, K.; Tokoyoda, K.; Hanazawa, A.; Hayashizaki, K.; Zehentmeier, S.; Hosokawa, H.; Iwamura, C.; Koseki, H.; Tumes, D. J.; Radbruch, A.; Nakayama, T.

    2012-01-01

    Memory T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are crucial for the maintenance of acquired immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens. We have previously demonstrated that most memory Th lymphocytes reside and rest on stromal niches of the bone marrow (BM). Little is known, however, regarding the molecular basis for the generation and maintenance of BM memory Th lymphocytes. Here we show that CD69-deficient effector CD4 T lymphocytes fail to relocate into and persist in the BM and therefore to differentiat...

  17. Geriatric Helper: An mHealth Application to Support Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment

    Samuel Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA is a multidisciplinary diagnosis approach that considers several dimensions of fragility in older adults to develop an individualized plan to improve their overall health. Despite the evidence of its positive impact, CGA is still applied by a reduced number of professionals in geriatric care in many countries, mostly using a paper-based approach. In this context, we collaborate with clinicians to bring CGA to the attention of more healthcare professionals and to enable its easier application in clinical settings by proposing a mobile application, Geriatric Helper, to act as a pocket guide that is easy to update remotely with up-to-date information, and that acts as a tool for conducting CGA. This approach reduces the time spent on retrieving the scales documentation, the overhead of calculating the results, and works as a source of information for non-specialists. Geriatric Helper is a tool for the health professionals developed considering an iterative, User-Centred Design approach, with extensive contributions from a broad set of users including domain experts, resulting in a highly usable and accepted system. Geriatric Helper is currently being tested in Portuguese healthcare units allowing for any clinician to apply the otherwise experts-limited geriatric assessment.

  18. T helper 17.1 cells associate with multiple sclerosis disease activity: perspectives for early intervention.

    van Langelaar, Jamie; van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M; Janssen, Malou; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; Spilt, Isis M; Siepman, Theodora A; Dankers, Wendy; Verjans, Georges M G M; de Vries, Helga E; Lubberts, Erik; Hintzen, Rogier Q; van Luijn, Marvin M

    2018-05-01

    Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients. T helper memory populations single- and double-positive for C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) were functionally assessed in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid from a total of 59 patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 35 untreated patients and 24 natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and nine patients with end-stage multiple sclerosis. Within the clinically isolated syndrome group, 23 patients had a second attack within 1 year and 26 patients did not experience subsequent attacks during a follow-up of >5 years. Low frequencies of T helper 1 (Th1)-like Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3+), and not Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3-) effector memory populations in blood strongly associated with a rapid diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. In cerebrospinal fluid of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, Th1-like Th17 effector memory cells were abundant and showed increased production of interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to paired CCR6+ and CCR6-CD8+ T cell populations and their blood equivalents after short-term culturing. Their local enrichment was confirmed ex vivo using cerebrospinal fluid and brain single-cell suspensions. Across all pro-inflammatory T helper cells analysed in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis blood, Th1-like Th17 subpopulation T helper 17.1 (Th17.1; CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4

  19. Helper T cell epitope-mapping reveals MHC-peptide binding affinities that correlate with T helper cell responses to pneumococcal surface protein A.

    Rajesh Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the requirements for protection against pneumococcal carriage and pneumonia will greatly benefit efforts in controlling these diseases. Several proteins and polysaccharide capsule have recently been implicated in the virulence of and protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumonia. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA is highly conserved among S. pneumonia strains, inhibits complement activation, binds lactoferrin, elicits protective systemic immunity against pneumococcal infection, and is necessary for full pneumococcal virulence. Identification of PspA peptides that optimally bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA would greatly contribute to global vaccine efforts, but this is hindered by the multitude of HLA polymorphisms. Here, we have used an experimental data set of 54 PspA peptides and in silico methods to predict peptide binding to HLA and murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II. We also characterized spleen- and cervical lymph node (CLN-derived helper T lymphocyte (HTL cytokine responses to these peptides after S. pneumonia strain EF3030-challenge in mice. Individual, yet overlapping peptides, 15 amino acids in length revealed residues 199 to 246 of PspA (PspA(199-246 consistently caused the greatest IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-5 and proliferation as well as moderate IL-10 and IL-4 responses by ex vivo stimulated splenic and CLN CD4(+ T cells isolated from S. pneumonia strain EF3030-challeged F(1 (B6xBALB/c mice. IEDB, RANKPEP, SVMHC, MHCPred, and SYFPEITHI in silico analysis tools revealed peptides in PspA(199-246 also interact with a broad range of HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP allelles. These data suggest that predicted MHC class II-peptide binding affinities do not always correlate with T helper (Th cytokine or proliferative responses to PspA peptides, but when used together with in vivo validation can be a useful tool to choose candidate pneumococcal HTL epitopes.

  20. Specificity in the association of tomato black ring virus satellite RNA with helper virus.

    Oncino, C; Hemmer, O; Fritsch, C

    1995-10-20

    The satellite RNAs (sat-RNAs) associated with some isolates of tomato black ring virus (TBRV) consist of single-stranded molecules of about 1375 nucleotides, encoding a nonstructural protein of 48K which has been shown to be involved in the replication of the sat-RNA. The TBRV sat-RNAs are also dependent for their replication and for their encapsidation on the helper virus. To characterize the nature of the association between sat-RNA and helper virus, transcripts of sat-RNA from TBRV isolates C and L (respectively, of serotypes G and S) have been prepared and inoculated onto Chenopodium quinoa leaves or protoplasts. Transcript of the TBRV sat-RNA C is efficiently multiplied when coinoculated with the genomic RNAs of TBRV isolate G (used instead of TBRV isolate C, because isolate G was depleted of sat-RNA), but does not multiply with TBRV isolate L. On the other hand, transcript of the sat-RNA L is able to multiply with the cognate helper virus and, less efficiently, with grapevine chrome mosaic virus (another nepovirus, 80% similar to TBRV), but does not multiply with TBRV G. The specificity of the association resides at the level of sat-RNA replication. Analysis of the multiplication of chimeric sat-RNAs, obtained by exchanging different regions between the two sat-RNAs C and L, showed that the 5' and the 3' noncoding regions of the sat-RNA, although important for replication, are not implicated in specificity. The results suggest that the determinants of the specificity are contained in the 48K sat-RNA-encoded protein.

  1. When helping helps: autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient.

    Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, Richard M

    2010-02-01

    Self-determination theory posits that the degree to which a prosocial act is volitional or autonomous predicts its effect on well-being and that psychological need satisfaction mediates this relation. Four studies tested the impact of autonomous and controlled motivation for helping others on well-being and explored effects on other outcomes of helping for both helpers and recipients. Study 1 used a diary method to assess daily relations between prosocial behaviors and helper well-being and tested mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction. Study 2 examined the effect of choice on motivation and consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping using an experimental design. Study 3 examined the consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping for both helpers and recipients in a dyadic task. Finally, Study 4 manipulated motivation to predict helper and recipient outcomes. Findings support the idea that autonomous motivation for helping yields benefits for both helper and recipient through greater need satisfaction. Limitations and implications are discussed. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Developing a pro-regenerative biomaterial scaffold microenvironment requires T helper 2 cells.

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Estrellas, Kenneth; Allen, Brian W; Wolf, Matthew T; Fan, Hongni; Tam, Ada J; Patel, Chirag H; Luber, Brandon S; Wang, Hao; Wagner, Kathryn R; Powell, Jonathan D; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2016-04-15

    Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4-dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Dose assessment of the patient and the helper in emergency head computed tomography

    Chang, Rong-Chou; Yu, Cheng-Ching; Hsu, Fang-Yuh; Chen, Tou-Rong; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) becomes more and more important and is frequently used in modern diagnostic techniques. CT offers an effective diagnosis on lesion and pathology; however, it also delivers a radiation dose to patients. Besides, in some special emergency cases, the patient may require someone to help him in the examination room to perform the head CT, due to the patient lost intellectual and operational capacity. This study evaluated the delivered radiation dose and the risk of radiation-induced cancer for the patient and for the helper after carrying out the emergent head CT examination. A Rando phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips inside relevant organs was used to simulate the patient during head CT examination. An effective dose of 2.06 ± 0.16 mSv and 1.46 ± 0.07 mSv without and with wearing the lead apron were found respectively, considering ICRP 60 recommendation. ICRP 103 recommendations the readings would have been 1.29 ± 0.15 mSv and 0.71 ± 0.04 mSv. The effective dose determined from the dose-length product (DLP) method (2.19 mSv) was similar to the value (2.06 ± 0.16 mSv) estimated by TLD method considering the ICRP 60 recommendation (without lead apron). Assuming a 5% total risk for fatal cancer per Sv in the general population, risk of radiation-induced cancer for patients were 1.03 × 10 −2 % (without lead apron) and 7.80 × 10 −3 % (with lead apron) for ICRP 60, and were 6.45 × 10 −3 % (without lead apron) and 3.55 × 10 −3 % (with lead apron) for ICRP 103. The dose received by the helper was assessed by wearing a personal badge. The helper during emergent head CT examination may receive a personal dose equivalent (H p (10)) of 19.36 ± 5.89 μSv and 138.81 ± 101.28 μSv with and without lead apron, respectively, at distance of 0.3–1 m from the center of CT scanner. Based on the observed dose reduction of a factor of 7.17 we recommend that helpers wear lead apron in the CT examination room.

  4. Induction of non-responsiveness in human allergen-specific type 2 T helper cells.

    Yssel, H; Fasler, S; Lamb, J; de Vries, J E

    1994-12-01

    Activation of allergen-reactive human T helper (Th)2 cells in the absence of professional antigen-presenting cells, induces non-responsiveness or anergy in these cells in vitro. This induction of anergy is accompanied by phenotypic modulation and altered cytokine production. Furthermore, peptide-treated Th2 cells fail to provide B-cell help for IgE synthesis. Recent studies indicate that impaired signal transduction via the T-cell receptor may account for the lack of responsiveness to antigenic stimulation. Here, we review present knowledge on the cell biology of non-responsive or anergic Th2 cells.

  5. Mental status of the elderly receiving home health services and the associated stress of home helpers.

    Nagatomo, I; Takigawa, M

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and ninety elderly people receiving home health service were investigated. The intellectual levels, depressive state evaluated by the Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) scale, abnormal behaviors evaluated by the dementia behavior disturbance (DBD) scale, and activities of daily living (ADL) were examined. These assessments were performed by 72 skilled home helpers who also assessed the severity of their own level of stress using the Burnout scale. The intellectual level and mood-related signs, based on the CSDD scale, of the elderly living with families or with a spouse were diminished significantly as compared to the elderly living alone. The elderly living with families also performed worse on all ADL categories except for visual acuity as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone. There was no significant correlation between the Burnout scale score and age or frequency of working as a home helper. These results suggest that elderly people living with families as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone have greater mental health needs as well as more profound physical limitations.

  6. T helper cell subsets specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Hannah K Bayes

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the magnitude of antigen-specific memory T helper cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy humans and patients with cystic fibrosis.Peripheral blood human memory CD4(+ T cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells that had been infected with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The T helper response was determined by measuring proliferation, immunoassay of cytokine output, and immunostaining of intracellular cytokines.Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had robust antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa that not only contained a Th1 and Th17 component but also Th22 cells. In contrast to previous descriptions of human Th22 cells, these Pseudomonal-specific Th22 cells lacked the skin homing markers CCR4 or CCR10, although were CCR6(+. Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had similar levels of Th22 cells, but the patient group had significantly fewer Th17 cells in peripheral blood.Th22 cells specific to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are induced in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Along with Th17 cells, they may play an important role in the pulmonary response to this microbe in patients with cystic fibrosis and other conditions.

  7. Detection of tmRNA molecules on microarrays at low temperatures using helper oligonucleotides

    Palta Priit

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hybridization of synthetic Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA on a detection microarray is slow at 34°C resulting in low signal intensities. Results We demonstrate that adding specific DNA helper oligonucleotides (chaperones to the hybridization buffer increases the signal strength at a given temperature and thus makes the specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA more sensitive. No loss of specificity was observed at low temperatures compared to hybridization at 46°C. The effect of the chaperones can be explained by disruption of the strong secondary and tertiary structure of the target RNA by the selective hybridization of helper molecules. The amplification of the hybridization signal strength by chaperones is not necessarily local; we observed increased signal intensities in both local and distant regions of the target molecule. Conclusions The sensitivity of the detection of tmRNA at low temperature can be increased by chaperone oligonucleotides. Due to the complexity of RNA secondary and tertiary structures the effect of any individual chaperone is currently not predictable.

  8. NFIL3 Orchestrates the Emergence of Common Helper Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursors

    Wei Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a family of effectors that originate from a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor. However, the transcriptional program that sets the identity of the ILC lineage remains elusive. Here, we show that NFIL3 is a critical regulator of the common helper-like innate lymphoid cell progenitor (CHILP. Cell-intrinsic Nfil3 ablation led to variably impaired development of fetal and adult ILC subsets. Conditional gene targeting demonstrated that NFIL3 exerted its function prior to ILC subset commitment. Accordingly, NFIL3 ablation resulted in loss of ID2+ CHILP and PLZF+ ILC progenitors. Nfil3 expression in lymphoid progenitors was under the control of the mesenchyme-derived hematopoietin IL-7, and NFIL3 exerted its function via direct Id2 regulation in the CHILP. Moreover, ectopic Id2 expression in Nfil3-null precursors rescued defective ILC lineage development in vivo. Our data establish NFIL3 as a key regulator of common helper-like ILC progenitors as they emerge during early lymphopoiesis.

  9. Efficient Gene Delivery to Pig Airway Epithelia and Submucosal Glands Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    Huibi Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat patients with life-threatening lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. However, this strategy has to be evaluated in large animal preclinical studies in order to translate it to human applications. Because of anatomic and physiological similarities between the human and pig lungs, we utilized pig as a large animal model to examine the safety and efficiency of airway gene delivery with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors. Helper-dependent vectors carrying human CFTR or reporter gene LacZ were aerosolized intratracheally into pigs under bronchoscopic guidance. We found that the LacZ reporter and hCFTR transgene products were efficiently expressed in lung airway epithelial cells. The transgene vectors with this delivery can also reach to submucosal glands. Moreover, the hCFTR transgene protein localized to the apical membrane of both ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells, mirroring the location of wild-type CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Aerosol delivery procedure was well tolerated by pigs without showing systemic toxicity based on the limited number of pigs tested. These results provide important insights into developing clinical strategies for human CF lung gene therapy.

  10. Lactobacilli activate human dendritic cells that skew T cells toward T helper 1 polarization.

    Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Olson, Scott; Kalina, Warren V; Ruthel, Gordon; Demmin, Gretchen L; Warfield, Kelly L; Bavari, Sina; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2005-02-22

    Professional antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) are critical in regulating T cell immune responses at both systemic and mucosal sites. Many Lactobacillus species are normal members of the human gut microflora and most are regarded as safe when administered as probiotics. Because DCs can naturally or therapeutically encounter lactobacilli, we investigated the effects of several well defined strains, representing three species of Lactobacillus on human myeloid DCs (MDCs) and found that they modulated the phenotype and functions of human MDCs. Lactobacillus-exposed MDCs up-regulated HLA-DR, CD83, CD40, CD80, and CD86 and secreted high levels of IL-12 and IL-18, but not IL-10. IL-12 was sustained in MDCs exposed to all three Lactobacillus species in the presence of LPS from Escherichia coli, whereas LPS-induced IL-10 was greatly inhibited. MDCs activated with lactobacilli clearly skewed CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to T helper 1 and Tc1 polarization, as evidenced by secretion of IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 or IL-13. These results emphasize a potentially important role for lactobacilli in modulating immunological functions of DCs and suggest that certain strains could be particularly advantageous as vaccine adjuvants, by promoting DCs to regulate T cell responses toward T helper 1 and Tc1 pathways.

  11. Follicular helper T cells poise immune responses to the development of autoimmune pathology.

    Gómez-Martín, Diana; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Romo-Tena, Jorge; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Alcocer-Varela, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Follicular helper T cells (T(FH)) have been implicated as a lineage that provides sufficient help to B cells in order to become professional antibody producers. This T helper subset is characterized by a distinctive cell-surface phenotype (CD4(+)CD57(+)CXCR5(+)) and cytokine profile (IL-21, IL-6, and IL-27) as well as transcriptional program (BCL-6, ICOS, and PD-1). Evidence supports the concept that T(FH) subset development, as well as for other lineages, is dependent on microenvironment cues that modulate a particular transcriptional program, susceptible to plasticity. Recently, it has been shown that BCL-6 and IL-21 act as master regulators for the development and function of T(FH) cells. Moreover, costimulation via ICOS, as well as signaling proteins such as SAP constitute required elements of the regulatory network that modulates T(FH) functions. T(FH) dysregulation has been implicated in the development of autoimmune pathology, such as SLE. Indeed, the Sanroque mice associated to the mutation of Roquin, a ubiquitin ligase, essential for the regulation of ICOS and germinal center responses, constitutes a model that shares features with human SLE. Recently, the expansion of "circulating T(FH) cells" (CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD1(high)) has been described for a subset of SLE patients that share T(FH) dependent features of disease with Sanroque mice, such as glomerulonephritis and cytopenias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adapting a natural (lay) helpers model of change for worksite health promotion for women.

    Tessaro, I A; Taylor, S; Belton, L; Campbell, M K; Benedict, S; Kelsey, K; DeVellis, B

    2000-10-01

    Social network interventions that utilize informal systems of helping can be an important strategy for health promotion change. This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a natural (lay) helping intervention for health promotion change, specifically designed for women in small rural blue-collar worksites. One hundred and four women in four intervention worksites were recruited as natural helpers, and received health and skill-building education over an 18-month period. Qualitative evaluation showed: (1) two patterns of natural helping for women, i.e. participation due to a specific health concern with either themselves or others in their personal networks, and participation due to a larger sense of the importance of health and prevention; (2) over time natural helpers expanded the diffusion of health promotion information from close network members to co-workers and were more likely to be approached by their co-workers for information; (3) group activities at the worksite, particularly around physical activity, increased over time; and (4) because of time constraints at the workplace, written materials were a major way of spreading information to co-workers. This study shows that women can be recruited and trained to diffuse health promotion information and provide support to co-workers for health behavior change.

  13. Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide directs dendritic cell-induced T helper responses.

    Sandra J van Vliet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the world. A naturally occurring variation of the terminal carbohydrates on the lipooligosaccharide (LOS molecule correlates with altered disease states. Here, we investigated the interaction of different stable gonoccocal LOS phenotypes with human dendritic cells and demonstrate that each variant targets a different set of receptors on the dendritic cell, including the C-type lectins MGL and DC-SIGN. Neisseria gonorrhoeae LOS phenotype C constitutes the first bacterial ligand to be described for the human C-type lectin receptor MGL. Both MGL and DC-SIGN are locally expressed at the male and female genital area, the primary site of N. gonorrhoeae infection. We show that targeting of different C-type lectins with the N. gonorrhoeae LOS variants results in alterations in dendritic cell cytokine secretion profiles and the induction of distinct adaptive CD4(+ T helper responses. Whereas N. gonorrhoeae variant A with a terminal N-acetylglucosamine on its LOS was recognized by DC-SIGN and induced significantly more IL-10 production, phenotype C, carrying a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, primarily interacted with MGL and skewed immunity towards the T helper 2 lineage. Together, our results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae LOS variation allows for selective manipulation of dendritic cell function, thereby shifting subsequent immune responses in favor of bacterial survival.

  14. Morphological divergence of breeders and helpers in wild Damaraland mole-rat societies.

    Young, Andrew J; Bennett, Nigel C

    2010-11-01

    The specialization of body shape to an individual's role within society represents a pinnacle of social evolution. Although commonplace among social insects, divergence in the body shapes of breeders and helpers has to date been documented in just one social vertebrate, the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; an extraordinary species in which large colony size and frequent inbreeding may have favored the evolution of such specialization. Here, we present new evidence of morphological divergence between breeders and helpers in the Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis; a much less socially extreme species that reflects an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Using longitudinal data from wild populations, we show that dominant female Damaraland mole-rats, like many social insect queens, have a significantly more elongate body shape than subordinates. This difference arises not from a pre-existing difference in the body shapes of subordinates that do, and those that do not, become dominant, but from a modification to the growth trajectory of subordinates on dominance acquisition. Our findings reveal a wider role for morphological divergence within vertebrate societies and, as Damaraland mole-rats neither live in unusually large groups nor inbreed, suggest that circumstances favoring the evolution of such specializations may be more widespread among vertebrates than previously supposed. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. PubstractHelper: A Web-based Text-Mining Tool for Marking Sentences in Abstracts from PubMed Using Multiple User-Defined Keywords.

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    While a huge amount of information about biological literature can be obtained by searching the PubMed database, reading through all the titles and abstracts resulting from such a search for useful information is inefficient. Text mining makes it possible to increase this efficiency. Some websites use text mining to gather information from the PubMed database; however, they are database-oriented, using pre-defined search keywords while lacking a query interface for user-defined search inputs. We present the PubMed Abstract Reading Helper (PubstractHelper) website which combines text mining and reading assistance for an efficient PubMed search. PubstractHelper can accept a maximum of ten groups of keywords, within each group containing up to ten keywords. The principle behind the text-mining function of PubstractHelper is that keywords contained in the same sentence are likely to be related. PubstractHelper highlights sentences with co-occurring keywords in different colors. The user can download the PMID and the abstracts with color markings to be reviewed later. The PubstractHelper website can help users to identify relevant publications based on the presence of related keywords, which should be a handy tool for their research. http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx and http://holab.med.ncku.edu.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx.

  16. The potyviral suppressor of RNA silencing confers enhanced resistance to multiple pathogens

    Pruss, Gail J.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Bass, Troy; Li Qingshun Q.; Bowman, Lewis H.; Vance, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    Helper component-protease (HC-Pro) is a plant viral suppressor of RNA silencing, and transgenic tobacco expressing HC-Pro has increased susceptibility to a broad range of viral pathogens. Here we report that these plants also exhibit enhanced resistance to unrelated heterologous pathogens. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection of HC-Pro-expressing plants carrying the N resistance gene results in fewer and smaller lesions compared to controls without HC-Pro. The resistance to TMV is compromised but not eliminated by expression of nahG, which prevents accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), an important defense signaling molecule. HC-Pro-expressing plants are also more resistant to tomato black ring nepovirus (TBRV) and to the oomycete Peronospora tabacina. Enhanced TBRV resistance is SA-independent, whereas the response to P. tabacina is associated with early induction of markers characteristic of SA-dependent defense. Thus, a plant viral suppressor of RNA silencing enhances resistance to multiple pathogens via both SA-dependent and SA-independent mechanisms

  17. The potyviral suppressor of RNA silencing confers enhanced resistance to multiple pathogens.

    Pruss, Gail J; Lawrence, Christopher B; Bass, Troy; Li, Qingshun Q; Bowman, Lewis H; Vance, Vicki

    2004-03-01

    Helper component-protease (HC-Pro) is a plant viral suppressor of RNA silencing, and transgenic tobacco expressing HC-Pro has increased susceptibility to a broad range of viral pathogens. Here we report that these plants also exhibit enhanced resistance to unrelated heterologous pathogens. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection of HC-Pro-expressing plants carrying the N resistance gene results in fewer and smaller lesions compared to controls without HC-Pro. The resistance to TMV is compromised but not eliminated by expression of nahG, which prevents accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), an important defense signaling molecule. HC-Pro-expressing plants are also more resistant to tomato black ring nepovirus (TBRV) and to the oomycete Peronospora tabacina. Enhanced TBRV resistance is SA-independent, whereas the response to P. tabacina is associated with early induction of markers characteristic of SA-dependent defense. Thus, a plant viral suppressor of RNA silencing enhances resistance to multiple pathogens via both SA-dependent and SA-independent mechanisms.

  18. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells.

  19. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells

  20. Targeting CD4(+) T-Helper Cells Improves the Induction of Antitumor Responses in Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccination

    Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; Schuurhuis, Danita; Jacobs, Joannes F. M.; Bol, Kalijn; Schreibelt, Gerty; Mus, Roel; de Wilt, Johannes H. W.; Haanen, John B. A. G.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Croockewit, Alexandra; Blokx, Willeke A. M.; van Rossum, Michelle M.; Kwok, William W.; Adema, Gosse J.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Figdor, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relevance of directing antigen-specific CD4(+) T helper cells as part of effective anticancer immunotherapy, we investigated the immunologic and clinical responses to vaccination with dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with either MHC class I (MHC-I)-restricted epitopes alone or both MHC

  1. Recent developments in basophil research : do basophils initiate and perpetuate type 2 T-helper cell responses?

    Beek, van A.A.; Knol, E.F.; Vos, de P.; Smelt, M.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Basophils account for only 0.1–1% of all peripheral blood leukocytes. They were considered to be a redundant cell type for a long time. However, several findings show a non-redundant role for basophils in type 2 T-helper cell (Th2) immune responses in helminth infections, allergy and autoimmunity.

  2. Examining Live-In Foreign Domestic Helpers as a Coping Resource for Family Caregivers of People With Dementia in Singapore.

    Basnyat, Iccha; Chang, Leanne

    2017-09-01

    In Singapore, the responsibility of caring for persons with dementia falls on family members who cope with a long-term caregiver burden, depending on available support resources. Hiring foreign domestic workers to alleviate caregiver burden becomes a prevalent coping strategy that caregivers adopt. This strategy allows caregivers to provide home care as part of fulfilling family obligations while managing the caregiver burden. This study aimed to investigate primary caregivers' relationship with hired support and its impact on coping with caregiver burden. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers who hired live-in domestic helpers to take care of their family members with dementia. The findings revealed that caregivers perceived the normative obligations to provide home care to family members with dementia. They sought support from domestic helpers to cope with physical and mental burnout, disruption of normal routines, and avoidance of financial strain. A mutual-support relationship was built between caregivers and domestic helpers through trust and interdependence. The presence of domestic helpers as a coping resource reveals the positive outcomes of problem-, emotional-, and diversion-focused coping. This study illustrates that coping strategies are employed in different ways depending on the needs of caregivers, access to infrastructure, cultural expectations, and available resources.

  3. Bad Influence?--An Investigation into the Purported Negative Influence of Foreign Domestic Helpers on Children's Second Language English Acquisition

    Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…

  4. IL-7 and CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1 Infection

    Francesca Chiodi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 was previously shown to upregulate the expression of molecules important for interaction of CD4+ T cells with B cells. It is poorly studied whether IL-7 has a role in the biology of T follicular helper (Tfh cells and whether IL-7 dysregulates the expression of B-cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells. We review the literature and provide arguments in favor of IL-7 being involved in the biology of human Tfh cells. The CD127 IL-7 receptor is expressed on circulating Tfh and non-Tfh cells, and we show that IL-7, but not IL-6 or IL-21, upregulates the expression of CD70 and PD-1 on these cells. We conclude that IL-7, a cytokine whose level is elevated during HIV-1 infection, may have a role in increased expression of B cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells and lead to abnormal B cell differentiation.

  5. Gene Therapy with Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors: Current Advances and Future Perspectives

    Philip Ng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant Adenoviral vectors represent one of the best gene transfer platforms due to their ability to efficiently transduce a wide range of quiescent and proliferating cell types from various tissues and species. The activation of an adaptive immune response against the transduced cells is one of the major drawbacks of first generation Adenovirus vectors and has been overcome by the latest generation of recombinant Adenovirus, the Helper-Dependent Adenoviral (HDAd vectors. HDAds have innovative features including the complete absence of viral coding sequences and the ability to mediate high level transgene expression with negligible chronic toxicity. This review summarizes the many aspects of HDAd biology and structure with a major focus on in vivo gene therapy application and with an emphasis on the unsolved issues that these vectors still presents toward clinical application.

  6. Adoptive cancer immunotherapy using DNA-demethylated T helper cells as antigen-presenting cells

    Kirkin, Alexei F.; Dzhandzhugazyan, Karine N.; Guldberg, Per

    2018-01-01

    In cancer cells, cancer/testis (CT) antigens become epigenetically derepressed through DNA demethylation and constitute attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Here we report that activated CD4+ T helper cells treated with a DNA-demethylating agent express a broad repertoire of endogenous CT...... antigens and can be used as antigen-presenting cells to generate autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells. In vitro, activated CTLs induce HLA-restricted lysis of tumor cells of different histological types, as well as cells expressing single CT antigens. In a phase 1 trial of 25...... patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, cytotoxic lymphocytes homed to the tumor, with tumor regression ongoing in three patients for 14, 22, and 27 months, respectively. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed. This proof-of-principle study shows that tumor-reactive effector cells can...

  7. Innate scavenger receptor-A regulates adaptive T helper cell responses to pathogen infection

    Xu, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Jin, Xin; Song, Xian; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Li, Yong; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaowei; Liu, Feng; Bai, Hui; Chen, Qi; Su, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The pattern recognition receptor (PRR) scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has an important function in the pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases and in innate immune responses to pathogen infections. However, little is known about the role of SR-A in the host adaptive immune responses to pathogen infection. Here we show with mouse models of helminth Schistosoma japonicum infection and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation that SR-A is regulated by pathogens and suppresses IRF5 nuclear translocation by direct interaction. Reduced abundance of nuclear IRF5 shifts macrophage polarization from M1 towards M2, which subsequently switches T-helper responses from type 1 to type 2. Our study identifies a role for SR-A as an innate PRR in regulating adaptive immune responses. PMID:28695899

  8. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A

    2015-01-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells...... that in Westernized societies reduced exposure during early childhood to pathogenic microorganisms favours the development of atopic allergy. Pregnancy is normally associated with Th2 skewing, which persists for some months in the neonate before Th1/Th2 realignment occurs. In this review, we consider...... the immunophysiology of Th2 immune skewing during pregnancy. In particular, we explore the possibility that altered and increased patterns of exposure to certain chemicals have served to accentuate this normal Th2 skewing and therefore further promote the persistence of a Th2 bias in neonates. Furthermore, we propose...

  9. Determinants of job satisfaction in foreign domestic helpers caring for people with dementia in Hong Kong.

    Bai, Xue; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Natalie Y T; Ho, Florence K Y

    2013-09-01

    The job satisfaction of live-in foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) may influence their caring motivation and the quality of care they provide, which may in turn affect the health status of care recipients. This study identifies the factors affecting job satisfaction of FDHs caring for people with dementia in Hong Kong, focusing especially on the role of FDHs' adaptation status, job self-efficacy and care recipients' situation. A total of 152 FDHs taking care of people with dementia were recruited from 6 day care centres for elderly people in Hong Kong when they attended with their care recipients. Data were collected from February to August 2011 and the response rate was 95%. Participants completed questionnaires which included measures of care recipients' dementia severity and disruptive behaviours, FDHs' demographic factors, personal adaptation status, caregiving self-efficacy and job satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to analyse the data. The results showed that longer stay in Hong Kong, better fluency in Cantonese (local dialect), greater satisfaction in living conditions, higher caregiving self-efficacy and less disruptive behaviour of care recipients were independently associated with stronger job satisfaction in FDHs looking after people with dementia. On the basis of these findings, we would suggest that employers should consider helpers who have been in Hong Kong for a longer period of time and speak fluent Cantonese, and have previous experience of taking care of people with dementia. In addition, FDHs caring for people with dementia may benefit from carer training which improves their self-efficacy in dementia care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Being Both Helpers and Victims: Health Professionals' Experiences of Working During a Natural Disaster.

    Hugelius, Karin; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Örtenwall, Per; Gifford, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    In November 2013, the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the Philippines. The typhoon caused severe damage to the medical facilities and many injuries and deaths. Health professionals have a crucial role in the immediate disaster response system, but knowledge of their experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster is limited. Aim The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster. Eight health professionals were interviewed five months after the disaster. The interviews were analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutic methods. The main theme, being professional and survivor, described both positive and negative emotions and experiences from being both a helper, as part of the responding organization, and a victim, as part of the surviving but severely affected community. Sub-themes described feelings of strength and confidence, feelings of adjustment and acceptance, feelings of satisfaction, feelings of powerless and fear, feelings of guilt and shame, and feelings of loneliness. Being a health professional during a natural disaster was a multi-faceted, powerful, and ambiguous experience of being part of the response system at the same time as being a survivor of the disaster. Personal values and altruistic motives as well as social aspects and stress-coping strategies to reach a balance between acceptance and control were important elements of the experience. Based on these findings, implications for disaster training and response strategies are suggested. Hugelius K , Adolfsson A , Örtenwall P , Gifford M . Being both helpers and victims: health professionals' experiences of working during a natural disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):117-123.

  11. Loss of circulating CD4 T cells with B cell helper function during chronic HIV infection.

    Kristin L Boswell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between follicular T helper cells (TFH and B cells in the lymph nodes and spleen has a major impact on the development of antigen-specific B cell responses during infection or vaccination. Recent studies described a functional equivalent of these cells among circulating CD4 T cells, referred to as peripheral TFH cells. Here, we characterize the phenotype and in vitro B cell helper activity of peripheral TFH populations, as well as the effect of HIV infection on these populations. In co-culture experiments we confirmed CXCR5+ cells from HIV-uninfected donors provide help to B cells and more specifically, we identified a CCR7(highCXCR5(highCCR6(highPD-1(high CD4 T cell population that secretes IL-21 and enhances isotype-switched immunoglobulin production. This population is significantly decreased in treatment-naïve, HIV-infected individuals and can be recovered after anti-retroviral therapy. We found impaired immunoglobulin production in co-cultures from HIV-infected individuals and found no correlation between the frequency of peripheral TFH cells and memory B cells, or with neutralization activity in untreated HIV infection in our cohort. Furthermore, we found that within the peripheral TFH population, the expression level of TFH-associated genes more closely resembles a memory, non-TFH population, as opposed to a TFH population. Overall, our data identify a heterogeneous population of circulating CD4 T cells that provides in vitro help to B cells, and challenges the origin of these cells as memory TFH cells.

  12. Dysfunction of irradiated thymus for the development of helper T cells

    Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Hirokawa, K.; Nishikawa, S.; Imanishi, J.; Katsura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The development of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells in an intact or irradiated thymus was investigated. C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) mice were whole body-irradiated, or were irradiated with shielding over either the thymus or right leg and tail, and were transferred with 1.5 X 10(7) bone marrow cells from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1). At various days after reconstitution, thymus cells from the recipient mice were harvested and a peanut agglutinin low-binding population was isolated. This population was further treated with anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement to remove host-derived cells and was assayed for the frequency of cytotoxic T cell precursors (CTLp) and for the activity of helper T cells (Th). In the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated mice, Th activity reached normal control level by day 25, whereas CTLp frequency remained at a very low level during these days. In the thymus of whole body-irradiated mice, generation of CTLp was highly accelerated while that of Th was retarded, the period required for reconstitution being 25 days and more than 42 days for CTLp and Th, respectively. Preferential development of CTLp was also seen in right leg- and tail-shielded (L-T-shielded) and irradiated recipients. Histological observation indicated that Ia+ nonlymphoid cells were well preserved in the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated recipients, whereas in L-T-shielded and irradiated recipients, such cells in the medulla were markedly reduced in number. These results suggest strongly that the generation of Th but not CTLp is dependent on radiosensitive thymic component(s), and that such components may represent Ia+ cells themselves in the medulla or some microenvironment related to Ia+ cells

  13. Differentiation of human B lymphocyte subpopulations induced by an alloreactive helper T-cell clone

    Anderson, S.J.; Hummell, D.S.; Lawton, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    We have used cloned alloreactive helper T cells to determine if direct T cell-B cell interaction can induce differentiation of human peripheral blood B cells which do not respond to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). T-cell clone 2F8 was derived from a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction. 2F8 cells are T3+T4+T8-IL-2R+ and proliferate in response to irradiated stimulator cells, but not autologous cells, in the absence of exogenous interleukin-2. 2F8 cells provide allospecific help for polyclonal proliferation and differentiation of B cells in the absence of any other stimulus. The magnitude of this response is comparable to that of the response of the same B cells to PWM and fresh autologous T cells. 2F8 cells could also provide nonspecific help for unrelated donor B cells in the presence of PWM, with no requirement for costimulation by irradiated stimulator cells. Allospecific stimulation of B cells was completely inhibited by antibodies to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) framework determinants and was abrogated by 1000-rad irradiation. Cloned 2F8 T cells stimulated differentiation of both small, high-density B cells and larger B cells, generating up to 30% plasma cells with either fraction. B cells forming rosettes with mouse erythrocytes were also induced to differentiate by the helper T cell clone. As found previously, neither small, high-density B cells nor mouse rosette+ B cells responded well to PWM. Direct interaction with allospecific T cells induces differentiation of a broader spectrum of B cells than soluble growth and differentiation factors in conjunction with polyclonal activators such as PWM and protein A containing staphylococci

  14. Effects of sustained sleep restriction on mitogen-stimulated cytokines, chemokines and T helper 1/ T helper 2 balance in humans.

    John Axelsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that acute sleep deprivation disrupts cellular immune responses by shifting T helper (Th cell activity towards a Th2 cytokine profile. Since little is known about more long-term effects, we investigated how five days of sleep restriction would affect pro-inflammatory, chemotactic, Th1- and Th2 cytokine secretion. METHODS: Nine healthy males participated in an experimental sleep protocol with two baseline sleep-wake cycles (sleep 23.00-07.00 h followed by 5 days with restricted sleep (03.00-07.00 h. On the second baseline day and on the fifth day with restricted sleep, samples were drawn every third hour for determination of cytokines/chemokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL -1β, IL-2, IL-4 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 after in vitro stimulation of whole blood samples with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA. Also leukocyte numbers, mononuclear cells and cortisol were analysed. RESULTS: 5-days of sleep restriction affected PHA-induced immune responses in several ways. There was a general decrease of IL-2 production (p<.05. A shift in Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was also evident, as determined by a decrease in IL2/IL4 ratio. No other main effects of restricted sleep were shown. Two significant interactions showed that restricted sleep resulted in increased TNF-α and MCP-1 in the late evening and early night hours (p's<.05. In addition, all variables varied across the 24 h day. CONCLUSIONS: 5-days of sleep restriction is characterized by a shift towards Th2 activity (i.e. lower 1L-2/IL-4 ratio which is similar to the effects of acute sleep deprivation and psychological stress. This may have implications for people suffering from conditions characterized by excessive Th2 activity like in allergic disease, such as asthma, for whom restricted sleep could have negative consequences.

  15. Tobacco etch virus protein P1 traffics to the nucleolus and associates with the host 60S ribosomal subunits during infection.

    Martínez, Fernando; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The genus Potyvirus comprises a large group of positive-strand RNA plant viruses whose genome encodes a large polyprotein processed by three viral proteinases. P1 protein, the most amino-terminal product of the polyprotein, is an accessory factor stimulating viral genome amplification whose role during infection is not well understood. We infected plants with Tobacco etch virus (TEV; genus Potyvirus) clones in which P1 was tagged with a fluorescent protein to track its expression and subcellular localization or with an affinity tag to identify host proteins involved in complexes in which P1 also takes part during infection. Our results showed that TEV P1 exclusively accumulates in infected cells at an early stage of infection and that the protein displays a dynamic subcellular localization, trafficking in and out of the nucleus and nucleolus during infection. Inside the nucleolus, P1 particularly targets the dense granular component. Consistently, we found functional nucleolar localization and nuclear export signals in TEV P1 sequence. Our results also indicated that TEV P1 physically interacts with the host 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes and specifically binds to the 60S ribosomal subunits during infection. In vitro translation assays of reporter proteins suggested that TEV P1 stimulates protein translation, particularly when driven from the TEV internal ribosome entry site. These in vitro assays also suggested that TEV helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) inhibits protein translation. Based on these findings, we propose that TEV P1 stimulates translation of viral proteins in infected cells. In this work, we researched the role during infection of tobacco etch virus P1 protease. P1 is the most mysterious protein of potyviruses, a relevant group of RNA viruses infecting plants. Our experiments showed that the viral P1 protein exclusively accumulates in infected cells at an early stage of infection and moves in and out of the nucleus of infected cells, particularly

  16. Generation and characterization of peptide-specific, MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T cell lines from unprimed T cells under microculture conditions.

    Sambhara, S R; Upadhya, A G; Miller, R G

    1990-06-12

    We describe a microculture system for the generation of CTL and T helper cells against peptides. Tryptic digest and cyanogen bromide fragments of chicken ovalbumin and synthetic peptides of ovalbumin (323-339) and influenza virus (NP 365-380) were used to generate CTL and T helper lines from unprimed T cells. These lines were both peptide-specific and MHC-restricted. The relative ease of generating peptide-specific, MHC-restricted CTL and helper T cell lines with as few as 10(6) unprimed lymphocytes can be an efficient method of detecting potential immunogenic determinants of an antigen.

  17. CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS AT DISTINCT DIFFERENTIATION STAGES OF T-HELPERS FROM PERIPHERAL BLOOD

    I. V. Kudryavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression of chemokine receptors (CCR4, CCR6, CXCR3 and CXCR5 on T-helper (Th cells at various levels of differentiation in a group of healthy volunteers (n = 52 was assessed on the basis of CD45RA and CD62L expression, using the eight-color flow cytometry. It was found that the “naive” T helper cells (N with CD45RA+CD62L+ phenotype express CXCR3 (4.94±0.39%, and CXCR5 (3.63±0.25%. About 50% of central memory T helpers (CD45RA–CD62L+, CM were CXCR3 positive, and 43.72±1.27% of CM cells expressed CCR6, whereas CXCR5 and CCR4 levels were about 30%. Furthermore, CXCR3 was expressed by 76.76±0.75% of the CD3+CD4+CD45RA–CD62L– (EM population, and similar values were obtained for CCR6, while the relative abundance of CXCR5+ cells decreased to 13.68±0.50%, and CCR4 levels did not change and accounted for 33.26±1.13% positive cells. Likewise, co-expression of the chemokine receptors was studied for the abovementioned subpopulations of T helper cells. Among the CXCR5– Th, Th1 cells were identified as CXCR3+CCR6–CCR4– (this subset also contained Th9, and CXCR3+CCR6+CCR4– subsets, referred to as Th1/Th17. Th2 were detected on the basis of CCR4 expression in absence of all other chemokine receptors. In addition to the mentioned Th1/Th17 populations, Th 17 cells were found in the subsets of Th17 CXCR3–CCR6+CCR4– and CXCR3–CR6+CCR4+. The latter also contained a Th22 population. Follicular Th cell populations (CXCR5+ consisted of, at least, six different subsets: CXCR3–CCR6–CCR4– (Tfh/Tfh2, CXCR3–CCR6–CCR4+ (Tfh2, CXCR3-CCR6+CCR4–(Tfh17, CXCR3–CCR6+CCR4+ (Tfh17, CXCR3+CCR6–CCR4– (Tfh1 and CXCR3+CCR6+CCR4–(Tfh1/Tfh17. The cells with Th1/Th9 and Th1/Th17 phenotypes dominated among CM (about 13%, whereas their relative abundance within EM increased to 22.37±1.69% and 31.69±1.52%, respectively. The amounts of Th2 were 8.15±0.46% within CM, and only 1.72±0.15% for EM population. For the cells

  18. Females increase reproductive investment in response to helper-mediated improvements in allo-feeding, nest survival, nestling provisioning and post-fledging survival in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus

    Lloyd, P.; Andrew, Taylor W.; du Plessis, Morné A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In many cooperatively-breeding species, the presence of one or more helpers improves the reproductive performance of the breeding pair receiving help. Helper contributions can take many different forms, including allo-feeding, offspring provisioning, and offspring guarding or defence. Yet, most studies have focussed on single forms of helper contribution, particularly offspring provisioning, and few have evaluated the relative importance of a broader range of helper contributions to group reproductive performance. We examined helper contributions to multiple components of breeding performance in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus, a facultative cooperative breeder. We also tested a prediction of increased female investment in reproduction when helpers improve conditions for rearing young. Helpers assisted the breeding male in allo-feeding the incubating female, increasing allo-feeding rates. Greater allo-feeding correlated with greater female nest attentiveness during incubation. Nest predation was substantially lower among pairs breeding with a helper, resulting in a 74% increase in the probability of nest survival. Helper contributions to offspring provisioning increased nestling feeding rates, resulting in a reduced incidence of nestling starvation and increased nestling mass. Nestling mass had a strong, positive effect on post-fledging survival. Controlling for female age and habitat effects, annual production of fledged young was 130% greater among pairs breeding with a helper, and was influenced most strongly by helper correlates with nest survival, despite important helper effects on offspring provisioning. Females breeding with a helper increased clutch size, supporting the prediction of increased female investment in reproduction in response to helper benefits. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  19. The positive bystander effect: passive bystanders increase helping in situations with high expected negative consequences for the helper.

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention in situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper in case of intervention were high (i.e., when the bike thief looks fierce) compared to situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper were low (i.e., when the bike thief does not look fierce). In contrast, no such effect for high vs. low expected negative consequences was observed when no additional bystander observed the critical situation. The results are discussed in light of previous laboratory findings on expected negative consequences and bystander intervention.

  20. Tracking by flow cytometry antigen-specific follicular helper T cells in wild-type animals after protein vaccination.

    Chakarov, Svetoslav; Fazilleau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a valuable technology used in immunology to characterize and enumerate the different cell subpopulations specific for a nonself-antigen in the context of an ongoing immune response. Among them, follicular helper T cells are the cognate regulators of B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Thus, tracking them is of high interest especially in the context of protein vaccination. For this purpose, transgenic antigen-receptor mouse models have been largely used. It is now clear that transgenic models are not always the best means to study the dynamics of the immune response since they can modify the response. In this chapter, we describe how to track endogenous antigen-specific follicular helper T cells by flow cytometry after protein vaccination in nonmodified wild-type animals, which ultimately provides a comprehensive way to enumerate, characterize, and isolate these particular cells in vivo.

  1. The role of social environment on parental care: offspring benefit more from the presence of female than male helpers.

    Brouwer, Lyanne; van de Pol, Martijn; Cockburn, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Investment in offspring depends on the costs and benefits to the carer, which can vary with sex and social status. Investment also depends on the effort of others by allowing for compensation (load-lightening), with biparental care studies showing that this depends on the state and type of the other carer. By contrast, studies on cooperative breeders have solely focussed on the effects of group size rather than its composition (i.e. social environment). Here we propose and provide the first test of the 'Social Environment' hypothesis, that is, how the characteristics (here the sex) of other helpers present in the group affect parental care and how this in turn affects offspring fitness in cooperatively breeding red-winged fairy-wrens (Malurus elegans). Breeders provisioned nestlings at a higher rate than helpers, but there was no sex difference in provisioning rate. Compensation to increasing group size varied little with sex and status, but strongly depended on social environment. All group members reduced their provisioning rates in response to an increasing number of male (load-lightening), but not female helpers (additive care). As a result, nestlings received more food and grew faster in the presence of female helpers. The increased nestling growth did convey a fitness advantage due to a higher post-fledging survival to adulthood. Our study provides the first evidence that parental care can depend on social environment. This could be an important overlooked aspect to explain variation in parental care in cooperative breeders in general and in particular the enormous variation between the sexes, which we reveal in a literature overview. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  2. Gene Therapy of T Helper Cells in HIV Infection. Mathematical Model of the Criteria for Clinical Effect

    Lund, Ole; Lund, Ole søgaard; Gram, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of the criteria for gene therapy of T helper cells to have a clinical effect on HIV infection. Our main results are that the therapy should be designed to give the transduced cells a significant but not necessarily total protection against HIV-induced cell...... deaths, and to avoid the production of viral mutants that are insensitive to gene therapy. The transduced cells will not survive if the gene therapy only blocks the spread of virus....

  3. T-Helper Subsets Cytokine Production in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Diverting Influences and Impact on Graft Outcome

    Hassan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests the existence of functionally polarized human T-helper responses based on their profile of cytokine secretion. Human T-helper cell clones can be divided into two mutually exclusive subsets, T-helper cell 1 (Th1 and T-helper cell 2 (Th2. Substantial work in several animal models has demonstrated that allograft rejection is associated with enhanced Th1 activity and tolerance with enhanced Th2. Some studies have not been consistent with this association. In this study, gamma interferon (INF-y and interleukin 4 (IL-4 levels (as indicators of Th1 and Th2 activity, respectively were assayed in supernatant of cultured peripheral lymphocytes. The levels of these cytokines were compared between a study group of 26 stable kidney transplant recipients immunosuppressed with cyclosporine A, corticosteroids and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, and a control group of 10 healthy blood donors. The mean INF-γ and IL-4 levels in the control group were considered as the cutoff levels for comparison. Our results showed that 25/26 of the study patients (96% had low levels of INF-γ compared to 4/10 of the control subjects (40%, (P< 0.05. However, the IL-4 level was high in 10/26 of the study patients (38% and 3/10 of the control subjects (30%, not a statistically significant difference, (P>0.05. In conclusion: These results suggest that well-established graft tolerance may be mediated via depressed Th1 activity rather than enhanced Th2 activity.

  4. Biophysical characterization data of the artificial protein Octarellin V.1 and binding test with its X-ray helpers

    Maximiliano Figueroa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The artificial protein Octarellin V.1 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2016.05.004 [1] was obtained through a direct evolution process over the de novo designed Octarellin V (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(0201206-8 [2]. The protein has been characterized by circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques, in order to obtain data related to its thermo and chemical stability. Moreover, the data for the secondary structure content studied by circular dichroism and infra red techniques is reported for the Octarellin V and V.1. Two crystallization helpers, nanobodies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2014.039 [3] and αRep (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2010.09.048 [4], have been used to create stable complexes. Here we present the data obtained of the binding characterization of the Octarellin V.1 with the crystallization helpers by isothermal titration calorimetry. Keywords: Artificial proteins, Circular dichroism, Crystallization helpers, Infra red spectroscopy, Protein design, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

  5. Preschoolers' social and moral judgments of third-party helpers and hinderers align with infants' social evaluations.

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments explored preschoolers' social preferences and moral judgments of prosocial and antisocial others. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-olds (N=74) observed helping and hindering scenarios previously used to explore sociomoral evaluation in preverbal infants. Whereas 3-year-olds in Experiment 1 did not reliably distinguish between the helper and hinderer when reporting social preferences or moral judgments, both 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the helper, judged the helper to be "nicer" than the hinderer, selectively allocated punishment to the hinderer, and were able to justify their punishment allocations. A simplified procedure and the addition of comprehension questions in Experiment 2 (N=24) improved 3-year-olds' performance, suggestive that their performance in Experiment 1 was likely due to processing or memory difficulties rather than an inability to engage in explicit social and moral evaluation. These studies reveal that young children readily interpret helping and hindering scenarios as socially and morally relevant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  7. Social evaluation of intentional, truly accidental, and negligently accidental helpers and harmers by 10-month-old infants.

    Woo, Brandon M; Steckler, Conor M; Le, Doan T; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2017-11-01

    Whereas adults largely base their evaluations of others' actions on others' intentions, a host of research in developmental psychology suggests that younger children privilege outcome over intention, leading them to condemn accidental harm. To date, this question has been examined only with children capable of language production. In the current studies, we utilized a non-linguistic puppet show paradigm to examine the evaluation of intentional and accidental acts of helping or harming in 10-month-old infants. In Experiment 1 (n=64), infants preferred intentional over accidental helpers but accidental over intentional harmers, suggestive that by this age infants incorporate information about others' intentions into their social evaluations. In Experiment 2 (n=64), infants did not distinguish "negligently" accidental from intentional helpers or harmers, suggestive that infants may find negligent accidents somewhat intentional. In Experiment 3 (n=64), we found that infants preferred truly accidental over negligently accidental harmers, but did not reliably distinguish negligently accidental from truly accidental helpers, consistent with past work with adults and children suggestive that humans are particularly sensitive to negligently accidental harm. Together, these results imply that infants engage in intention-based social evaluation of those who help and harm accidentally, so long as those accidents do not stem from negligence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. T Helper 17 Cells Interplay with CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in Regulation of Inflammations and Autoimmune Diseases

    Mai, Jietang; Wang, Hong; Yang#, Xiao-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a recently identified CD4+ T helper subset that has been implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Th17, along with CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and other newly emergent T helper subsets, Th9 and Tfh, have expanded the Th1-Th2 paradigm. Although this newly proposed six-subset paradigm significantly improved our understanding on the differentiation of CD4+ T helper cell subsets and the regulation of T helper cells in inflammation and autoimmunity, many questions remain to be answered. In this overview, we will briefly review the following issues: a) Old Th1-Th2 paradigm versus new multi-subset paradigm; b) Structural features of IL-17 family cytokines; c) Th17 cells; d) Effects of IL-17 on various cell types and tissues; e) IL-17 receptor and signaling pathways; f) Th17-mediated inflammations; and g) Protective mechanisms of IL-17 in infections. Lastly, we will look into the interaction of Th17 and Treg in autoimmune diseases and inflammation: Th17 cells interplay with Tregs. Regulation of autoimmunity and inflammation lies in the interplays of the different T helper subsets, therefore, better understanding of these subsets’ interactions with one another would greatly improve our approaches in developing therapy to combat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:20515737

  9. Theory and experimental validation of SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Porter, Jason M.

    2005-06-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as lamp number, power, position, and separation distance. Thermal radiation is the dominant mechanism of heat transfer and the SPLASH model solves a radiation enclosure problem to estimate temperature distributions in a shroud providing the boundary condition of interest. Irradiance distribution on a specified viewing plane is also estimated. This document provides the theoretical development for the underlying model. A series of tests were conducted to characterize SPLASH's ability to analyze lamp and shroud systems. The comparison suggests that SPLASH succeeds as a design tool. Simplifications made to keep the model tractable are demonstrated to result in estimates that are only approximately as uncertain as many of the properties and characteristics of the operating environment.

  10. Repetitive intradermal bleomycin injections evoke T-helper cell 2 cytokine-driven pulmonary fibrosis.

    Singh, Brijendra; Kasam, Rajesh K; Sontake, Vishwaraj; Wynn, Thomas A; Madala, Satish K

    2017-11-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are major T-helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, using a novel repetitive intradermal bleomycin model in which mice develop extensive lung fibrosis and a progressive decline in lung function compared with saline-treated control mice, we investigated profibrotic functions of Th2 cytokines. To determine the role of IL-13 signaling in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, wild-type, IL-13, and IL-4Rα-deficient mice were treated with bleomycin, and lungs were assessed for changes in lung function and pulmonary fibrosis. Histological staining and lung function measurements demonstrated that collagen deposition and lung function decline were attenuated in mice deficient in either IL-13 or IL-4Rα-driven signaling compared with wild-type mice treated with bleomycin. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that IL-13 and IL-4Rα-driven signaling are involved in excessive migration of macrophages and fibroblasts. Notably, our findings demonstrated that IL-13-driven migration involves increased phospho-focal adhesion kinase signaling and F-actin polymerization. Importantly, in vivo findings demonstrated that IL-13 augments matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP9 activity that has also been shown to increase migration and invasiveness of fibroblasts in the lungs during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for Th2-cytokine signaling that includes excessive migration and protease activity involved in severe fibrotic lung disease.

  11. T Follicular Helper Cells and B Cell Dysfunction in Aging and HIV-1 Infection.

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; de Armas, Lesley; Rinaldi, Stefano; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4 T cells that provide critical signals to antigen-primed B cells in germinal centers to undergo proliferation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation to generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells during an immune response. The quantity and quality of Tfh cells therefore must be tightly controlled to prevent immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmunity and, on the other hand, immune deficiency. Both Tfh and B cell perturbations appear during HIV infection resulting in impaired antibody responses to vaccines such as seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine, also seen in biologic aging. Although many of the HIV-associated defects improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART), excess immune activation and antigen-specific B and T cell responses including Tfh function are still impaired in virologically controlled HIV-infected persons on ART. Interestingly, HIV infected individuals experience increased risk of age-associated pathologies. This review will discuss Tfh and B cell dysfunction in HIV infection and highlight the impact of chronic HIV infection and aging on Tfh-B cell interactions.

  12. CD301b⁺ dermal dendritic cells drive T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity.

    Kumamoto, Yosuke; Linehan, Melissa; Weinstein, Jason S; Laidlaw, Brian J; Craft, Joseph E; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-17

    Unlike other types of T helper (Th) responses, whether the development of Th2 cells requires instruction from particular subset of dendritic cells (DCs) remains unclear. By using an in vivo depletion approach, we have shown that DCs expressing CD301b were required for the generation of Th2 cells after subcutaneous immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) along with papain or alum. CD301b⁺ DCs are distinct from epidermal or CD207⁺ dermal DCs (DDCs) and were responsible for transporting antigen injected subcutaneously with Th2-type adjuvants. Transient depletion of CD301b⁺ DCs resulted in less effective accumulation and decreased expression of CD69 by polyclonal CD4⁺ T cells in the lymph node. Moreover, despite intact cell division and interferon-γ production, CD301b⁺ DC depletion led to blunted interleukin-4 production by OVA-specific OT-II transgenic CD4⁺ T cells and significantly impaired Th2 cell development upon infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. These results reveal CD301b⁺ DDCs as the key mediators of Th2 immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Follicular Helper T Cells are Essential for the Elimination of Plasmodium Infection

    Damián Pérez-Mazliah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ follicular helper T (Tfh cells have been shown to be critical for the activation of germinal center (GC B-cell responses. Similar to other infections, Plasmodium infection activates both GC as well as non-GC B cell responses. Here, we sought to explore whether Tfh cells and GC B cells are required to eliminate a Plasmodium infection. A CD4 T cell-targeted deletion of the gene that encodes Bcl6, the master transcription factor for the Tfh program, resulted in complete disruption of the Tfh response to Plasmodium chabaudi in C57BL/6 mice and consequent disruption of GC responses and IgG responses and the inability to eliminate the otherwise self-resolving chronic P. chabaudi infection. On the other hand, and contrary to previous observations in immunization and viral infection models, Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM-Associated Protein (SAP-deficient mice were able to activate Tfh cells, GC B cells, and IgG responses to the parasite. This study demonstrates the critical role for Tfh cells in controlling this systemic infection, and highlights differences in the signals required to activate GC B cell responses to this complex parasite compared with those of protein immunizations and viral infections. Therefore, these data are highly pertinent for designing malaria vaccines able to activate broadly protective B-cell responses.

  14. Treatment of osteoarthritis using a helper-dependent adenoviral vector retargeted to chondrocytes

    Merry ZC Ruan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a joint disease characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage, subchondral bone remodeling, and secondary inflammation. It is among the top three causes of chronic disability, and currently there are no treatment options to prevent disease progression. The localized nature of OA makes it an ideal candidate for gene and cell therapy. However, gene and cell therapy of OA is impeded by inefficient gene transduction of chondrocytes. In this study, we developed a broadly applicable system that retargets cell surface receptors by conjugating antibodies to the capsid of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDVs. Specifically, we applied this system to retarget chondrocytes by conjugating an HDV to an α-10 integrin monoclonal antibody (a10mab. We show that a10mab-conjugated HDV (a10mabHDV-infected chondrocytes efficiently in vitro and in vivo while detargeting other cell types. The therapeutic index of an intra-articular injection of 10mabHDV-expressing proteoglycan 4 (PRG4 into a murine model of post-traumatic OA was 10-fold higher than with standard HDV. Moreover, we show that PRG4 overexpression from articular, superficial zone chondrocytes is effective for chondroprotection in postinjury OA and that α-10 integrin is an effective protein for chondrocyte targeting.

  15. Increased circulating follicular helper T cells with decreased programmed death-1 in chronic renal allograft rejection.

    Shi, Jian; Luo, Fengbao; Shi, Qianqian; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying

    2015-11-03

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major issue that affects long-term renal allograft survival. Since follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote the development of antigen-specific B cells in alloimmune responses, we investigated the potential roles of Tfh cells, B cells and their alloimmune-regulating molecules in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft rejection in this study. The frequency of Tfh, B cells and the levels of their alloimmune-regulating molecules including chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS), programmed death-1 (PD-1), ICOSL, PDL-1 and interleukin-21 (IL-21), of peripheral blood were comparatively measured in 42 primary renal allograft recipients within 1-3 years after transplantation. Among them, 24 patients had definite chronic rejection, while other 18 patients had normal renal function. Tfh-cell ratio was significantly increased with PD-1 down-regulation in the patients with chronic renal allograft rejection, while B cells and the alloimmune-regulating molecules studied did not show any appreciable change in parallel. The patients with chronic renal allograft rejection have a characteristic increase in circulating Tfh cells with a decrease in PD-1 expression. These pathological changes may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic renal allograft rejection and can be useful as a clinical index for monitoring conditions of renal transplant.

  16. Mycorrhization helper bacteria: a case of specificity for altering ectomycorrhiza architecture but not ectomycorrhiza formation.

    Aspray, Thomas J; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Jones, Julie E; Whipps, John M; Garbaye, Jean; Bending, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    Mycorrhization helper bacteria (MHB), isolated from phylogenetically distinct ectomycorrhizal symbioses involving Lactarius rufus, Laccaria bicolor or Suillus luteus, were tested for fungus specificity to enhance L. rufus-Pinus sylvestris or L. bicolor-P. sylvestris mycorrhiza formation. As MHB isolated from the L. rufus and S. luteus mycorrhiza were originally characterised using a microcosm system, we assessed their ability to enhance mycorrhiza formation in a glasshouse system in order to determine the extent to which MHB are system-specific. Paenibacillus sp. EJP73, an MHB for L. rufus in the microcosm, significantly enhanced L. bicolor mycorrhiza formation in the glasshouse, demonstrating that the MHB effect of this bacterium is neither fungus-specific nor limited to the original experimental system. Although the five MHB strains studied were unable to significantly enhance L. rufus mycorrhiza formation, two of them did have a significant effect on dichotomous short root branching by L. rufus. The effect was specific to Paenibacillus sp. EJP73 and Burkholderia sp. EJP67, the two strains isolated from L. rufus mycorrhiza, and was not associated with auxin production. Altered mycorrhiza architecture rather than absolute number of mycorrhizal roots may be an important previously overlooked parameter for defining MHB effects.

  17. The transcription factor KLF2 restrains CD4⁺ T follicular helper cell differentiation.

    Lee, June-Yong; Skon, Cara N; Lee, You Jeong; Oh, Soohwan; Taylor, Justin J; Malhotra, Deepali; Jenkins, Marc K; Rosenfeld, M Geoffrey; Hogquist, Kristin A; Jameson, Stephen C

    2015-02-17

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for efficient B cell responses, yet the factors that regulate differentiation of this CD4(+) T cell subset are incompletely understood. Here we found that the KLF2 transcription factor serves to restrain Tfh cell generation. Induced KLF2 deficiency in activated CD4(+) T cells led to increased Tfh cell generation and B cell priming, whereas KLF2 overexpression prevented Tfh cell production. KLF2 promotes expression of the trafficking receptor S1PR1, and S1PR1 downregulation is essential for efficient Tfh cell production. However, KLF2 also induced expression of the transcription factor Blimp-1, which repressed transcription factor Bcl-6 and thereby impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Furthermore, KLF2 induced expression of the transcription factors T-bet and GATA3 and enhanced Th1 differentiation. Hence, our data indicate KLF2 is pivotal for coordinating CD4(+) T cell differentiation through two distinct and complementary mechanisms: via control of T cell localization and by regulation of lineage-defining transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Follicular Helper CD4+ T Cells in Human Neuroautoimmune Diseases and Their Animal Models

    Xueli Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH cells play a fundamental role in humoral immunity deriving from their ability to provide help for germinal center (GC formation, B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, and antibody production in secondary lymphoid tissues. TFH cells can be identified by a combination of markers, including the chemokine receptor CXCR5, costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD-1, transcription repressor Bcl-6, and cytokine IL-21. It is difficult and impossible to get access to secondary lymphoid tissues in humans, so studies are usually performed with human peripheral blood samples as circulating counterparts of tissue TFH cells. A balance of TFH cell generation and function is critical for protective antibody response, whereas overactivation of TFH cells or overexpression of TFH-associated molecules may result in autoimmune diseases. Emerging data have shown that TFH cells and TFH-associated molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroautoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS, neuromyelitis optica (NMO/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD, and myasthenia gravis (MG. This review summarizes the features of TFH cells, including their development, function, and roles as well as TFH-associated molecules in neuroautoimmune diseases and their animal models.

  19. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context.

  20. Antigen-specific tolerance of human alpha1-antitrypsin induced by helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Cerullo, V; McCormack, W; Seiler, M; Mane, V; Cela, R; Clarke, C; Rodgers, J R; Lee, B

    2007-12-01

    As efficient and less toxic virus-derived gene therapy vectors are developed, a pressing problem is to avoid immune response to the therapeutic gene product. Secreted therapeutic proteins potentially represent a special problem, as they are readily available to professional antigen-presenting cells throughout the body. Some studies suggest that immunity to serum proteins can be avoided in some mouse strains by using tissue-specific promoters. Here we show that expression of human alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) was nonimmunogenic in the immune-responsive strain C3H/HeJ, when expressed from helper-dependent (HD) vectors using ubiquitous as well as tissue-specific promoters. Coadministration of less immunogenic HD vectors with an immunogenic first-generation vector failed to immunize, suggesting immune suppression rather than immune stealth. Indeed, mice primed with HD vectors were tolerant to immune challenge with hAAT emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Such animals developed high-titer antibodies to coemulsified human serum albumin, showing that tolerance was antigen specific. AAT-specific T cell responses were depressed in tolerized animals, suggesting that tolerance affects both T and B cells. These results are consistent with models of high-dose tolerance of B cells and certain other suppressive mechanisms, and suggest that a high level of expression from HD vectors can be sufficient to induce specific immune tolerance to serum proteins.

  1. Induction of NFATc2 expression by interleukin 6 promotes T helper type 2 differentiation.

    Diehl, Sean; Chow, Chi-Wing; Weiss, Linda; Palmetshofer, Alois; Twardzik, Thomas; Rounds, Laura; Serfling, Edgar; Davis, Roger J; Anguita, Juan; Rincón, Mercedes

    2002-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is produced by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has been previously shown that APC-derived IL-6 promotes the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into effector T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we have studied the molecular mechanism for IL-6-mediated Th2 differentiation. During the activation of CD4+ T cells, IL-6 induces the production of IL-4, which promotes the differentiation of these cells into effector Th2 cells. Regulation of IL-4 gene expression by IL-6 is mediated by nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), as inhibition of NFAT prevents IL-6-driven IL-4 production and Th2 differentiation. IL-6 upregulates NFAT transcriptional activity by increasing the levels of NFATc2. The ability of IL-6 to promote Th2 differentiation is impaired in CD4+ T cells that lack NFATc2, demonstrating that NFATc2 is required for regulation of IL-4 gene expression by IL-6. Regulation of NFATc2 expression and NFAT transcriptional activity represents a novel pathway by which IL-6 can modulate gene expression.

  2. Type II membrane protein CD69 regulates the formation of resting T-helper memory.

    Shinoda, Kenta; Tokoyoda, Koji; Hanazawa, Asami; Hayashizaki, Koji; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Iwamura, Chiaki; Koseki, Haruhiko; Tumes, Damon J; Radbruch, Andreas; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2012-05-08

    Memory T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are crucial for the maintenance of acquired immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens. We have previously demonstrated that most memory Th lymphocytes reside and rest on stromal niches of the bone marrow (BM). Little is known, however, regarding the molecular basis for the generation and maintenance of BM memory Th lymphocytes. Here we show that CD69-deficient effector CD4 T lymphocytes fail to relocate into and persist in the BM and therefore to differentiate into memory cells. Consequently, CD69-deficient CD4 T cells fail to facilitate the production of high-affinity antibodies and the generation of BM long-lived plasma cells in the late phase of immune responses. Thus, CD69 is critical for the generation and maintenance of professional memory Th lymphocytes, which can efficiently help humoral immunity in the late phase. The deficit of immunological memory in CD69-deficient mice also highlights the essential role of BM for the establishment of Th memory.

  3. Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation

    Victoria Ryg-Cornejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops only after years of repeated exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Despite the key role antibodies play in protection, the cellular processes underlying the slow acquisition of immunity remain unknown. Using mouse models, we show that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers (GCs in the spleen. We demonstrate that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper (Tfh cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Despite high expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21, precursor Tfh cells induced during infection displayed low levels of PD-1 and CXCR5 and co-expressed Th1-associated molecules such as T-bet and CXCR3. Blockade of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ or T-bet deletion restored Tfh cell differentiation and GC responses to infection. Thus, this study demonstrates that the same pro-inflammatory mediators that drive severe malaria pathology have detrimental effects on the induction of protective B cell responses.

  4. Cell viability of mycorrhiza helper bacteria solid inoculant in different carrier material

    Asyiah, Iis Nur; Hindersah, Reginawanti; Harni, Rita

    2018-02-01

    Roots of food crops are colonized by nonpathogenic mycorrhizal fungi which show natural ability to control plant pathogen. Mycorrhizal establishment in plant roots is affected by rhizobacteria, known as mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB), which has synergetic effects on mycorrhizal associations. Laboratory experiment has been conducted to assess the best carrier material to develop well-qualified MHB of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis solid inoculant. Carrier materials were 100 mesh organic matter of agricultural waste. Different spore concentration of both bacterial liquid inoculants were grown on three kinds of 100-mesh organic matter and stored at room temperature up to 90 days. Cell viability of both MHB were counted by serial dilution plate method by using specific medium. The results showed that sugar cane baggase ash was the best carrier material to maintain cell viability for both MHB. However, the population of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in sugar cane baggase ash were slightly decreased after 90 days. The use of sugarcane baggase ash for solid MHB inoculant development could be suggested.

  5. Differential gene expression by integrin β7+ and β7- memory T helper cells

    Yang Yee

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell adhesion molecule integrin α4β7 helps direct the migration of blood lymphocytes to the intestine and associated lymphoid tissues. We hypothesized that β7+ and β7- blood memory T helper cells differ in their expression of genes that play a role in the adhesion or migration of T cells. Results RNA was prepared from β7+ and β7- CD4+ CD45RA- blood T cells from nine normal human subjects and analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays. Of 21357 genes represented on the arrays, 16 were more highly expressed in β7+ cells and 18 were more highly expressed in β7- cells (≥1.5 fold difference and adjusted P + memory/effector T cells than on β7- cells. Conclusions Memory/effector T cells that express integrin β7 have a distinct pattern of expression of a set of gene transcripts. Several of these molecules can affect cell adhesion or chemotaxis and are therefore likely to modulate the complex multistep process that regulates trafficking of CD4+ memory T cell subsets with different homing behaviors.

  6. Autoimmune Memory T Helper 17 Cell Function and Expansion Are Dependent on Interleukin-23

    Christopher J. Haines

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-23 (IL-23 is essential for the differentiation of pathogenic effector T helper 17 (Th17 cells, but its role in memory Th17 cell responses is unclear. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, we report that memory Th17 cells rapidly expanded in response to rechallenge and migrated to the CNS in high numbers, resulting in earlier onset and increased severity of clinical disease. Memory Th17 cells were generated from IL-17+ and RORγt+ precursors, and the stability of the Th17 cell phenotype depended on the amount of time allowed for the primary response. IL-23 was required for this enhanced recall response. IL-23 receptor blockade did not directly impact IL-17 production, but did impair the subsequent proliferation and generation of effectors coexpressing the Th1 cell-specific transcription factor T-bet. In addition, many genes required for cell-cycle progression were downregulated in Th17 cells that lacked IL-23 signaling, showing that a major mechanism for IL-23 in primary and memory Th17 cell responses operates via regulation of proliferation-associated pathways.

  7. The Transcription Factor c-Maf Promotes the Differentiation of Follicular Helper T Cells

    Fabienne Andris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (Tfh have been identified as the primary cell subpopulation regulating B cell responses in germinal centers, thus supporting high-affinity antibody production. Among the transcription factors orchestrating Tfh cell differentiation and function, the role played by the proto-oncogene c-Maf remains poorly characterized. We report herein that selective loss of c-Maf expression in the T cell compartment results in defective development of Tfh cells in response to both antigen/adjuvant vaccinations and commensal intestinal bacteria. Accordingly, c-Maf expression in T cells was essential for the development and high-affinity antibody secretion in vaccinated animals. c-Maf was expressed early, concomitantly to BCL6, in Tfh cell precursors and found to regulate Tfh fate in a cell-autonomous fashion. Altogether, our findings reveal a novel, non-redundant, function for c-Maf in the differentiation of Tfh cells and the regulation of humoral immune responses to T-cell-dependent antigens.

  8. Innate Functions of Immunoglobulin M Lessen Liver Gene Transfer with Helper-Dependent Adenovirus

    Unzu, Carmen; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

  9. Innate functions of immunoglobulin M lessen liver gene transfer with helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Carmen Unzu

    Full Text Available The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors.

  10. Role of interleukin (IL)-17 and T-helper (Th)17 cells in cancer.

    Song, Yang; Yang, Jian Ming

    2017-11-04

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, is reported to be significantly generated by a distinct subset of CD4 + T-cells, upgrading cancer-elicited inflammation and preventing cancer cells from immune surveillance. T-helper (Th)17 cells produced from naive CD4 + T cells have recently been renowned and generally accepted, gaining eminence in cancer studies and playing the effective role in context of cancer. Th17 cells are the main source of IL-17-secreting cells, It was found that other cell types produced this cytokine as well, including Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), δγT cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells and Natural killer (NK) cells. Th17-associated cytokines give impetus to tumor progression, or inducing angiogenesis and metastasis. This review demonstrates an understanding on how the pro- or antitumor function of Th17 cells and IL-17 may change cancer progression, leading to the appearance of complex and pivotal biologic activities in tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. T Follicular Helper-Like Cells Are Involved in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Jun Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE have been proved to be T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Recent researches indicate that humoral immunity is also involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. T follicular helper (Tfh cells are critical for B cell differentiation and antibody production. However, the role of Tfh cells in MS and EAE remains unclear. Here, we found elevated frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ Tfh-like cells in both MS patients and EAE. In EAE mice, Tfh-like cells, together with B cells, were found in the ectopic lymphoid structures in spinal cords. Moreover, Tfh-like cells promoted the antibody production via IL-21/IL-21R and CD40 ligand/CD40 interaction and the synergy effect of STAT3 and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway inside B cells. Moreover, adoptive transfer of Tfh-like cells could increase the severity and delay the remission of EAE. In conclusion, our data indicate that Tfh-like cells contribute to the pathogenesis of EAE.

  12. CD28 Costimulation of T Helper 1 Cells Enhances Cytokine Release In Vivo

    Daniela Langenhorst

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared to naive T cells, differentiated T cells are thought to be less dependent on CD28 costimulation for full activation. To revisit the role of CD28 costimulation in mouse T cell recall responses, we adoptively transferred in vitro generated OT-II T helper (Th 1 cells into C57BL/6 mice (Thy1.2+ and then either blocked CD28–ligand interactions with Fab fragments of the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb E18 or deleted CD28 expression using inducible CD28 knock-out OT-II mice as T cell donors. After injection of ovalbumin protein in adjuvant into the recipient mice we observed that systemic interferon (IFNγ release strongly depended on CD28 costimulation of the Th1 cells, while secondary clonal expansion was not reduced in the absence of CD28 costimulation. For human memory CD4+ T cell responses we also noted that cytokine release was reduced upon inhibition of CD28 costimulation. Together, our data highlight the so far underestimated role of CD28 costimulation for the reactivation of fully differentiated CD4+ T cells.

  13. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Xiaojun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  14. Distribution of Peripheral Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica.

    Xiaojun Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design.In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis.Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis.

  15. Role of distinct CD4(+) T helper subset in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Dunfang; Han, Qi; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Xu, Yi; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Qianming

    2016-07-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases with T-cell-mediated immune pathogenesis. In subepithelial and lamina propria of OLP local lesions, the presence of CD4(+) T helper (CD4(+) Th) cells appeared as the major lymphocytes. These CD4(+) T lymphocytes can differentiate into distinct Th cell types such as Th1, Th2, Treg, Th17, Th22, Th9, and Tfh within the context of certain cytokines environment. Growing evidence indicated that Th1/Th2 imbalance may greatly participate into the cytokine network of OLP immunopathology. In addition, Th1/Th2 imbalance can be regulated by the Treg subset and also greatly influenced by the emerging novel CD4(+) Th subset Th17. Furthermore, the presence of novel subsets Th22, Th9 and Tfh in OLP patients is yet to be clarified. All these Th subsets and their specific cytokines may play a critical role in determining the character, extent and duration of immune responses in OLP pathogenesis. Therefore, we review the roles of distinct CD4(+) Th subsets and their signature cytokines in determining disease severity and susceptibility of OLP and also reveal the novel therapeutic strategies based on T lymphocytes subsets in OLP treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  17. SU-E-T-218: The IHE-RO Helper Tool: Demonstrating the Connectivity Issues Solved by IHE-RO.

    Kapoor, Rishabh; Yeung, Daniel; Kumar, Sabari Ajay; Alex, Daley; Kapur, Priyanka; Palta, Jatinder

    2012-06-01

    To develop a Web-based application (IHE-RO Helper) to allow comprehensive review of the interconnectivity and interoperability of various radiotherapy devices established through testing sanctioned by the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise-Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO). IHE-RO is an initiative sponsored by ASTRO to improve the way computer based systems in radiation oncology share information using well-defined data exchange standards (DICOM / HL7). At the IHE-RO Connectathon events over the last 4 years, 11 vendors with 14 different products have successfully tested and identified solutions to connectivity problems in treatment planning, simulation and delivery. Because the test results are highly technical, the interconnectivity issues amongst the RT devices may get overlooked by the end users. The IHE-RO helper tool is designed to operate in simple clinical terms with queries and presentations organized based on treatment techniques and clinical features that are familiar to the practitioners. For example, if you are planning to purchase a treatment planning system capable of generating plans (e.g. Stereotactic treatments) and are concerned whether the TPS can successfully transfer such data to your treatment management system (TMS) and subsequently to your treatment delivery system (TDS), the IHE-RO Helper can identify the connectivity requirements and list vendors that have successfully passed an IHE-RO Connectathon and validated their solution to the specific requirements. The IHE-RO helper tool provides a graphical and textual user interface to effectively demonstrate the solved interconnectivity problems between TPS, TMS and TDS. A report is also provided that explains the interconnectivity problems and its solutions. The IHE-RO helper is an effective tool to clearly identify vendor products that are IHE-RO compliant, thereby encourages vendor participation in testing and validation. Such a tool will be invaluable in procurement of new equipment to ensure a

  18. CD147 modulates the differentiation of T-helper 17 cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Jian; Li, Yu; Yin, Zhen-Jie; Lv, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The role of CD147 in regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cell-to-cell contact of activated CD14 + monocytes with CD4 + T cells, and the modulatory role of CD147 on T-helper 17 (Th17) cells differentiation in patients with RA. Twenty confirmed active RA patients and twenty normal controls were enrolled. CD4 + T cells and CD14 + monocytes were purified by magnetic beads cell sorting. Cells were cultured under different conditions in CD4 + T cells alone, direct cell-to-cell contact co-culture of CD4 + and CD14 + cells, or indirect transwell co-culture of CD4 + /CD14 + cells in response to LPS and anti-CD3 stimulation with or without anti-CD147 antibody pretreatments. The proportion of IL-17-producing CD4 + T cells (defined as Th17 cells) was determined by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, and IL-1β in the supernatants of cultured cells were measured by ELISA. The optimal condition for in vitro induction of Th17 cells differentiation was co-stimulation with 0.1 μg/mL of LPS and 100 ng/mL of anti-CD3 for 3 days under direct cell-to-cell contact co-culture of CD4 + and CD14 + cells. Anti-CD147 antibody reduced the proportion of Th17 cells, and also inhibited the productions of IL-17, IL-6, and IL-1β in PBMC culture from RA patients. The current results revealed that Th17 differentiation required cell-to-cell contact with activated monocytes. CD147 promoted the differentiation of Th17 cells by regulation of cytokine production, which provided the evidence for pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for RA. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of helper-dependent canine adenovirus vectors in a 3D human CNS model

    Simão, Daniel; Pinto, Catarina; Fernandes, Paulo; Peddie, Christopher J.; Piersanti, Stefania; Collinson, Lucy M.; Salinas, Sara; Saggio, Isabella; Schiavo, Giampietro; Kremer, Eric J.; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M.

    2017-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach with enormous potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Viral vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) present attractive features for gene delivery strategies in the human brain, by preferentially transducing neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent brain structures, have a 30-kb cloning capacity and have low innate and induced immunogenicity in pre-clinical tests. For clinical translation, in-depth pre-clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety in a human setting is primordial. Stem cell-derived human neural cells have a great potential as complementary tools by bridging the gap between animal models, which often diverge considerably from human phenotype, and clinical trials. Herein, we explore helper-dependent CAV-2 (hd-CAV-2) efficacy and safety for gene delivery in a human stem cell-derived 3D neural in vitro model. Assessment of hd-CAV-2 vector efficacy was performed at different multiplicities of infection, by evaluating transgene expression and impact on cell viability, ultrastructural cellular organization and neuronal gene expression. Under optimized conditions, hd-CAV-2 transduction led to stable long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity. hd-CAV-2 preferentially transduced neurons, while human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) showed increased tropism towards glial cells. This work demonstrates, in a physiologically relevant 3D model, that hd-CAV-2 vectors are efficient tools for gene delivery to human neurons, with stable long-term transgene expression and minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:26181626

  20. Polarization of T-helper lymphocytes toward the Th2 phenotype in uremic patients.

    Libetta, C; Rampino, T; Dal Canton, A

    2001-08-01

    T-helper (Th) lymphocytes consist of Th1 and Th2 subsets. Th1 cells are effectors of cell-mediated immunity and secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which recruits new Th1 cells in cooperation with interleukin-12 (IL-12; produced by monocytes) and inhibits Th2 differentiation. Th2 cells produce IL-4 and IL-10, which inhibit IFN-gamma secretion and cell immunity. We investigated whether the impaired immune response in uremia is associated with an altered balance of Th1/Th2. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on conservative treatment (CRF patients), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis therapy (ESRD-HD patients), and healthy controls (CON). CD4(+) cells were isolated from PBMCs by negative selection using a magnetic labeling system. PBMCs and purified CD4(+) cells were cultured in Iscove's medium and Iscove's medium plus mitogens (phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide). IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured in supernatant. The constitutive release of IL-4 and IL-10 by PBMCs and CD4(+) cells of CRF and ESRD-HD patients was increased by five to eight times in comparison with CON (P CON, 115.8 pg/2 x10(6) cells; CRF, 81.8 pg/2 x10(6) cells; ESRD-HD, 9.3 pg/2 x10(6) cells; CD4(+) cells: CON, 358.0 pg/5 x 10(5) cells; CRF, 165.4 pg/5 x 10(5) cells; ESRD-HD, 43.5 pg/5 x 10(5) cells). The ability of PBMCs of ESRD-HD patients to secrete IFN-gamma was recovered after IL-4 and IL-10 neutralization. Uremia is associated with a prevalence of Th1 over Th2 cells and a configuration of cytokine network that depresses cell-mediated immunity.

  1. T helper-independent activation of human CD8+ cells: the role of CD28 costimulation.

    Van Gool, S W; Zhang, Y; Kasran, A; de Boer, M; Ceuppens, J L

    1996-07-01

    The concept that activation of MHC class I-restricted CD8+ cells entirely depends on help from MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells has recently been supplemented with an alternative model in which CD8+ cells can directly be activated by MHC class I-expressing professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), which are able to deliver an accessory signal. The authors analysed the role of CD28-mediated costimulation for T helper cell-independent activation of purified human CD8+ T cells in two different in vitro models. Freshly isolated CD8+ cells could be activated (proliferation, IL-2 production and cytotoxic activity) by anti-CD3-presenting Fc gamma R+ mouse cells transfected with the human CD28 ligand, CD80, as the only accessory signal. On the other hand, activation of CD8+ cells by allogeneic MHC class I on EBV-transformed B cells, which express two different CD28 ligands, CD80 and CD86, also proceeded very efficiently (proliferation, cytotoxic activity and CD25 expression), but was either not, or only partially, blocked by anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 MoAb or CTLA-4Ig. This indicates that other costimulatory signals are also effective, and that CD28 triggering is not absolutely required for initial T-cell activation. CsA and CD80/CD86-blocking agents were synergistic in completely inhibiting activation of CD8+ cells in the MLR with allogeneic B-cell lines. This combination also induced non-responsiveness of CD8+ cells upon restimulation in the absence of blocking agents. Therefore, although professional APC can apparently provide multiple costimulatory signals for direct activation of CD8+ T cells, the signal derived from CD80/CD86 is unique in providing CsA-resistance.

  2. Role of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule in T helper cell responses

    Jan E. de Vries

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CDw150 is a 70 kDa glycoprotein. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is constitutively expressed on memory T cells, CD56+ T cells, a subset of T cell receptor γδ+ cells, immature thymocytes and, at low levels, on a proportion of peripheral blood B cells. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is rapidly upregulated on all T and B cells after activation. Engagement of SLAM by F(ab’2 fragments of an anti-SLAM monoclonal antibody (mAb A12 enhances antigen-specific T cell proliferation. In addition, mAb A12 was directly mitogenic for T cell clones and activated T cells. T cell proliferation induced by mAb A12 is independent of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-12 and IL-15, but is cyclosporin A sensitive. Ligation of SLAM during antigen-specific T cell proliferation resulted in upregulation of interferon (IFN-γ production, even by allergen-specific T helper cell (Th 2 clones, whereas the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 production were only marginally affected. The mAb A12 was unable to induce IL-4 and IL-5 production by Th1 clones. Co-stimulation of skin-derived Der P1-specific Th2 cells from patients with atopic dermatitis via SLAM resulted in the generation of a population of IFN-γ-producing cells, thereby reverting their phenotype to a Th0 pattern. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is a high-affinity self ligand mediating homophilic cell interaction. In addition, soluble SLAM enhances both T and B cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicate that SLAM molecules act both as receptors and ligands that are not only involved in T cell expansion but also drive the expanding T cells during immune responses into the Th0/Th1 pathway. This suggests that signaling through SLAM plays a role in directing Th0/Th1 development.

  3. T Helper Cells in the Immunopathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis – Current Trends

    Krasimirova E.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by skin and multiorgan involvement with alterations in both the innate and adaptive immunities. The hallmark of the disease is widespread fibrosis engaging the skin and multiple internal organs, as well as the musculoskeletal system. There is mounting evidence that T cells are key players in the pathogenesis of scleroderma. The current review discusses the role of the different T helper (Th lymphocyte subsets in the processes of inflammation and fibrosis, characteristics for the pathogenesis of the disease. Cytokines produced by Th cell populations have a major effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the context of favoring/inhibiting the vasculopathy and the fibrosis spread. The Th2 pro-fibrotic cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 have been shown to induce collagen synthesis by fibroblasts, whereas IFN-γ demonstrates an inhibitory effect. Increased Th17 cells are present in the scleroderma skin infiltrates. The combination of IL-17, IFN-γ and TGF-β levels in CD45RO and CD45RA cells from patients with SSc is useful to distinguish between the limited and the diffuse phenotype of the disease. There are accumulating data for functional and numerical alterations in the Tregs in SSc. High levels of TNF-α which might reduce the suppressive ability of Tregs have been described. According to some studies, the number of Tregs in scleroderma skin biopsies has been decreased against the normal absolute number of Tregs in peripheral blood of the same patients, which suggests suppressed immunomodulatory response. Other studies reported increased frequency of Tregs in peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis and established a correlation with disease activity. The main immunological challenge remains the identification of the trigger of the autoimmune response in SSc, the causes for preferential Th2-type cell responses and the immunological differences between the

  4. Mapping the T helper cell response to acid α-glucosidase in Pompe mice.

    Nayak, Sushrusha; Sivakumar, Ramya; Cao, Ou; Daniell, Henry; Byrne, Barry J; Herzog, Roland W

    2012-06-01

    Pompe disease is a neuromuscular disease caused by an inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). The resulting accumulation of glycogen causes muscle weakness with the severe form of the disease resulting in death by cardiorespiratory failure in the first year of life. The only available treatment, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant GAA (rhGAA), is severely hampered by antibody responses that reduce efficacy and cause immunotoxicities. Currently, Pompe mice represent the only pre-clinical model for development of new treatments and for immunological studies. While antibody formation following ERT in this model has been described, the underlying T cell response has not been studied. In order to define the T helper response to rhGAA in Pompe mice, immunodominant CD4(+) T cell epitopes were mapped in GAA(-/-) 129SVE mice using ELISpot. Additionally, cytokine responses and antibody formation against rhGAA during ERT were measured. Among the three CD4(+) T cell epitopes identified, only epitope IFLGPEPKSVVQ, predicted to be the strongest MHC II binder, consistently contributed to IL-4 production. Frequencies of IL-4 producing T cells were considerably higher than those of IL-17 or IFN-γ producing cells, suggesting a predominantly Th2 cell mediated response. This is further supported by IgG1 being the prevalent antibody subclass against rhGAA during ERT and consistent with prior reports on IgE formation and anaphylaxis in this model. These results will facilitate mechanistic studies of the immune response to rhGAA in Pompe mice during development of new therapies and tolerance protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Strain-specific helper T cell profile in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Stanisavljević, Suzana; Đedović, Neda; Vujičić, Milica; Saksida, Tamara; Jevtić, Bojan; Milovanović, Boško; Momčilović, Miljana; Miljković, Đorđe; Stojanović, Ivana

    2017-10-01

    C57BL/6, BALB/c and NOD mice are among the most frequently used strains in autoimmunity research. NOD mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) and they are prone to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Both diseases can be routinely induced in C57BL/6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice. Also, C57BL/6 mice are generally considered T helper (Th)1-biased and BALB/c Th2-biased mice. Having in mind increasingly appreciated role of gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells in autoimmunity, especially in relation to gut Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, our aim was to determine if there are differences in proportion of CD4 + T cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of these mouse strains. Lower proportion of Treg was observed in NOD PP, Th2 cells dominated in BALB/c mice in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP), while Th1 cells prevailed in C57BL/6 MLN. Intradermal immunization of mice with complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in significant difference in Th cell distribution in GALT of NOD mice. Differences were less pronounced in C57BL/6 mice, while GALT of BALB/c mice was almost unresponsive to the immunization. The observed strain- and tissue-dependent changes in Treg proportion after the immunization was probably a consequence of different CCR2 or CCR6-related migration patterns and/or in situ Treg proliferation. In conclusion, NOD, a highly autoimmunity-prone mouse strain, exhibits more profound GALT-related immune response upon immunization compared to the strains that are less prone to autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Listeria arpJ gene modifies T helper type 2 subset differentiation.

    Kanoh, Makoto; Maruyama, Saho; Shen, Hua; Matsumoto, Akira; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Przybilla, Karin; Gouin, Edith; Cossart, Pascale; Goebel, Werner; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-15

    Although the T-cell subset differentiation pathway has been characterized extensively from the view of host gene regulation, the effects of genes of the pathogen on T-cell subset differentiation during infection have yet to be elucidated. Especially, the bacterial genes that are responsible for this shift have not yet been determined. Utilizing a single-gene-mutation Listeria panel, we investigated genes involved in the host-pathogen interaction that are required for the initiation of T-cell subset differentiation in the early phase of pathogen infection. We demonstrate that the induction of T helper types 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) subsets are separate phenomena and are mediated by distinct Listeria genes. We identified several candidate Listeria genes that appear to be involved in the host-Listeria interaction. Among them, arpJ is the strongest candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 subset induction. Furthermore, the analysis utilizing arpJ-deficient Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) revealed that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (Tnfsf) 9-TNF receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf) 9 interaction inhibits the Th2 response during Lm infection. arpJ is the candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 T-cell subset induction. The arpJ gene product influences the expression of Tnfsf/Tnfrsf on antigen-presenting cells and inhibits the Th2 T-cell subset differentiation during Listeria infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Development of Patient Transfer Techniques based on Postural-stability Principles for the Care Helpers in Nursing Homes and Evaluation of Effectiveness].

    Ma, Ryewon; Jung, Dukyoo

    2016-02-01

    This study was done to develop a postural-stability patient transfer technique for care helpers in nursing homes and to evaluate its effectiveness. Four types of patient transfer techniques (Lifting towards the head board of the bed, turning to the lateral position, sitting upright on the bed, transferring from wheel chair to bed) were practiced in accordance with the following three methods; Care helpers habitually used transfer methods (Method 1), patient transfer methods according to care helper standard textbooks (Method 2), and a method developed by the author ensuring postural-stability (Method 3). The care helpers' muscle activity and four joint angles were measured. The collected data were analyzed using the program SPSS Statistic 21.0. To differentiate the muscle activity and joint angle, the Friedman test was executed and the post-hoc analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Muscle activity was significantly lower during Method 3 compared to Methods 1 and 2. In addition, the joint angle was significantly lower for the knee and shoulder joint angle while performing Method 3 compared to Methods 1 and 2. Findings indicate that using postural-stability patient transfer techniques can contribute to the prevention of musculoskeletal disease which care helpers suffer from due to physically demanding patient care in nursing homes.

  8. Expression features of follicular helper T cells in peripheral blood in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    WANG Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression features of follicular helper T (Tfh cells in peripheral blood in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods A total of 53 CHB patients who were admitted to Department of Hepatology in Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Xinjiang Medical University from March 2016 to March 2017 were enrolled. Fasting venous blood samples were collected in the morning, and flow cytometry was used to measure Tfh and its subsets in peripheral blood. A total of 48 healthy individuals were enrolled as controls. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the LSD-t test was used for further comparison between any two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups. The chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation. Results The CHB group had significant higher percentages of CD4+ ICOS+, CD4+ CXCR5+, and CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ Tfh cells than the control group (Z=-4.319, P<0.001; t=3.742, P<0.001; t=15.948, P<0.001. There were no significant differences in the percentages of CD4+ ICOS+, CD4+ CXCR5+, and CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ Tfh cells between the CHB patients with different immune stages, i.e., low-level replication, immune tolerance, and immune clearance (all P>0.05. CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ was not correlated with HBsAg quantitation or HBV DNA. Conclusion Tfh cells are involved in the immune response mediated by hepatitis B virus, and they exert an anti-HBV effect by regulating humoral immune response.

  9. Follicular helper T cells in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Costantino, Alicia Beatriz; Acosta, Cristina Del Valle; Onetti, Laura; Mussano, Eduardo; Cadile, Ignacio Isaac; Ferrero, Paola Virginia

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by the presence of different autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. CD4T cells expressing CXCR5, referred as follicular helper T cells (Tfh), collaborate with B cells to produce antibodies. Differential expression of CXCR3 and CCR6 within CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells defines three mayor subsets: CXCR3 + CCR6 - (Tfh1), CXCR3 - CCR6 - (Tfh2) and CXCR3 - CCR6 + (Tfh17). The aim of the study was to assess whether there is an association between the percentage of these cells and RA and whether there is a correlation with disease activity. Twenty-four RA patients, 22 healthy controls (HC) and 16 undifferentiated arthritis (UA) patients were included. Percentage of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells and their subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. No differences were found in the percentages of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells in the comparison of RA vs HC or RA vs UA patients. Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17 subsets showed no differences either. There was no correlation between CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells, Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17, and Disease Activity Score in twenty-eight joints (DAS28) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Surprisingly, there was a positive correlation between Tfh17 cells and C-reactive protein. Finally, there was no correlation between CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells, or their subsets, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin, or between the cells and RF. There were no differences between the percentages of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells and their subsets in peripheral blood of RA patients and the percentages of cells in the control groups. This finding does not rule out a pathogenic role of these cells in the development and activity of RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  10. T Helper Lymphocyte and Mast Cell Immunohistochemical Pattern in Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity

    Giuseppe Losurdo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS is a gluten-related emerging condition. Since few data about NCGS histopathology is available, we assessed the markers of lymphocyte and innate immunity activation. Materials and Methods. We retrieved duodenal biopsy samples of patients with NCGS diagnosis according to the Salerno criteria. We selected specimens of positive (seropositive celiac disease/Marsh 1-2 stage and negative (normal microscopic picture controls. Immunohistochemistry for CD3 (intraepithelial lymphocytes-IELs, CD4 (T helper lymphocytes, CD8 (T cytotoxic lymphocytes, and CD1a/CD117 (Langerhans/mast cells was performed. ANOVA plus Bonferroni’s tests were used for statistical analysis. Results. Twenty NCGS, 16 celiac disease, and 16 negative controls were selected. CD3 in NCGS were higher than negative controls and lower than celiac disease (18.5 ± 6.4, 11.9 ± 2.8, and 40.8 ± 8.1 IELs/100 enterocytes; p<0.001. CD4 were lower in NCGS than controls and celiac disease (31.0 ± 22.1, 72.5 ± 29.5, and 103.7 ± 15.7 cells/mm2; p<0.001. CD8 in NCGS were similar to negative controls, but lower than celiac disease (14.0 ± 7.4 and 34.0 ± 7.1 IELs/100 enterocytes, p<0.001. CD117 were higher in NCGS than celiac disease and negative controls (145.8 ± 49.9, 121.3 ± 13.1, and 113.5 ± 23.4 cells/mm2; p=0.009. Conclusions. The combination of CD4 and CD117, as well as IEL characterization, may be useful to support a clinical diagnosis of NCGS.

  11. Replication-deficient mutant Herpes Simplex Virus-1 targets professional antigen presenting cells and induces efficient CD4+ T helper responses.

    Fiorentini, Simona; Marconi, Peggy; Avolio, Manuela; Marini, Elena; Garrafa, Emirena; Caracciolo, Sonia; Rossi, Daniele; Bozac, Alexandra; Becker, Pablo D; Gentili, Francesca; Facchetti, Fabio; Guzman, Carlos A; Manservigi, Roberto; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2007-07-01

    Both neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-cells are necessary to control a viral infection. However, vigorous T helper responses are essential for their elicitation and maintenance. Here we show that a recombinant replication-deficient Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 vector encoding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 matrix protein p17 (T0-p17) was capable of infecting professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) in vitro and in vivo. The injection of T0-p17 in the mouse dermis generated a strong p17-specific CD4+ T helper response preceding both p17-specific humoral and effector T cell responses. Moreover, we show that T0-p17 infection did not interfere with the endogenous processing of the transgene encoded antigen, since infected APCs were able to evoke a strong recall response in vitro. Our results demonstrate that replication-deficient HSV vectors can be appealing candidates for the development of vaccines able to trigger T helper responses.

  12. Variability and transmission by Aphis glycines of North American and Asian Soybean mosaic virus isolates.

    Domier, L L; Latorre, I J; Steinlage, T A; McCoppin, N; Hartman, G L

    2003-10-01

    The variability of North American and Asian strains and isolates of Soybean mosaic virus was investigated. First, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products representing the coat protein (CP)-coding regions of 38 SMVs were analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Second, the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence variability of the P1-coding region of 18 SMVs and the helper component/protease (HC/Pro) and CP-coding regions of 25 SMVs were assessed. The CP nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were the most similar and predicted phylogenetic relationships similar to those obtained from RFLP analysis. Neither RFLP nor sequence analyses of the CP-coding regions grouped the SMVs by geographical origin. The P1 and HC/Pro sequences were more variable and separated the North American and Asian SMV isolates into two groups similar to previously reported differences in pathogenic diversity of the two sets of SMV isolates. The P1 region was the most informative of the three regions analyzed. To assess the biological relevance of the sequence differences in the HC/Pro and CP coding regions, the transmissibility of 14 SMV isolates by Aphis glycines was tested. All field isolates of SMV were transmitted efficiently by A. glycines, but the laboratory isolates analyzed were transmitted poorly. The amino acid sequences from most, but not all, of the poorly transmitted isolates contained mutations in the aphid transmission-associated DAG and/or KLSC amino acid sequence motifs of CP and HC/Pro, respectively.

  13. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results

    Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

  14. Construction of adeno-associated virus packaging plasmids and cells that directly select for AAV helper functions.

    Whiteway, Alistair; Deru, Wale; Prentice, H Grant; Anderson, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV) has promise for use as a gene therapy vector. Potential problems in the production of rAAV stocks are both the limited amount of recombinant virus that is produced by traditional methods and the possibility of wild-type replication competent adeno-associated virus (wtAAV) contamination. The presence of these contaminants is largely dependent upon the helper plasmid used. Whilst wtAAV is not a pathogen, the presence of these contaminants is undesirable as they may affect experiments concerning the biology of rAAV. Additionally as protocols using rAAV with altered tropism are becoming more prevalent, it is important that no recombination be permitted that may cause the creation of a replication competent AAV with modified (targeting) capsids. Many experimental protocols require the generation of large amounts of high titre rAAV stocks. We describe the production of several AAV helper plasmids and cell lines designed to achieve this goal. These plasmids possess split AAV rep and cap genes to eliminate the production of wtAAV and they possess a selection mechanism which is operatively linked to expression from the AAV cap gene. This allows positive selection of those cells expressing the highest level of the structural capsid proteins and therefore those cells which yield the highest amount of rAAV.

  15. Migration of allosensitized helper but not cytolytic T-lymphocyte clones is inhibited by prostaglandin E2

    Jordan, M.L.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that random migration of one clone of C57BL/6 anti DBA/2 helper lymphocytes is significantly inhibited by physiologic concentrations of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). The present studies were designed to determine if lymphocyte locomotor responses to PGE 2 are dictated by (1) clone effector function and/or (2) the presence of specific cell surface binding sites for PGE 2 . Random locomotion of eight different lymphocyte clones (all C57BL/6 anti DBA/2) was studied in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Clone function was characterized as helper (H, n = 3), cytolytic (C, n = 4) or cytolytic only in the presence of lectin (L, n = 1). Random migration of all H clones was consistently inhibited by PGE 2 . However, none of the clones possessing a lytic mechanism (C or L) were inhibited by even the highest (1000 ng/ml) concentration of PGE 2 tested. Incubation of clones with 3 H-PGE 2 in the presence of excess unlabelled PGE 2 did not demonstrate specific binding of PGE 2 to either H or C clones. The authors conclude that (1) the effects of PGE 2 on lymphocyte random migration are effector function specific and (2) these responses do not appear to be mediated by specialized cell surface receptors for PGE 2 . Subset specific locomotor responses to PGE 2 may constitute a mechanism whereby lymphocytes with distinct effector functions may differentially accumulate at sites of inflammation

  16. JAK inhibition induces silencing of T Helper cytokine secretion and a profound reduction in T regulatory cells.

    Keohane, Clodagh; Kordasti, Shahram; Seidl, Thomas; Perez Abellan, Pilar; Thomas, Nicholas S B; Harrison, Claire N; McLornan, Donal P; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2015-10-01

    CD4(+) T cells maintain cancer surveillance and immune tolerance. Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a driver of clonal evolution in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that T cells play an important role in their pathogenesis. Treatment with JAK inhibitors (JAKi) results in improvements in MPN-associated constitutional symptoms as well as reductions in splenomegaly. However, effects of JAKi on T cells in MPN are not well established and the baseline immune signature remains unclear. We investigated the frequency and function of CD4(+) T cell subsets in 50 MPN patients at baseline as well as during treatment with either ruxolitinib or fedratinib in a subset. We show that CD4(+)  CD127(low)  CD25(high)  FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells are reduced in MPN patients compared to healthy controls and that this decrease is even more pronounced following JAKi therapy. Moreover, we show that after 6 months of treatment the number of T helper (Th)-17 cells increased. We also describe a functional 'silencing' of T helper cells both in vivo and in vitro and a blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines from these cells. This profound effect of JAKi on T cell function may underlay augmented rates of atypical infections that have been reported with use of these drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Structural and Nonstructural Viral Proteins Are Targets of T-Helper Immune Response against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Mir, Carmen; Gebe, John A; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Proper antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides that are bound to HLA class II molecules, which are exposed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The helper immune response is critical for the control and the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection, a virus with severe health risk in infected pediatric, immunocompromised, and elderly populations. In this study, using a mass spectrometry analysis of complex HLA class II-bound peptide pools that were isolated from large amounts of HRSV-infected cells, 19 naturally processed HLA-DR ligands, most of them included in a complex nested set of peptides, were identified. Both the immunoprevalence and the immunodominance of the HLA class II response to HRSV were focused on one nonstructural (NS1) and two structural (matrix and mainly fusion) proteins of the infective virus. These findings have clear implications for analysis of the helper immune response as well as for antiviral vaccine design. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Intestinal IgA responses to Giardia muris in mice depleted of helper T lymphocytes and in immunocompetent mice.

    Heyworth, M F

    1989-04-01

    Immunocompetent mice infected with Giardia muris generate an intestinal antibody response to this parasite and clear G. muris infection. Previous work has shown that G. muris infection is prolonged in mice that have been depleted of helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes by treatment with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the murine CD4 antigen. The aim of the present study was to compare the intestinal anti-Giardia antibody response in immunocompetent mice and in mice depleted of helper T (Th) lymphocytes by treatment with anti-CD4 mAb. Immunocompetent mice generated an IgA response to G. muris, as judged by the presence of IgA on Giardia trophozoites harvested from the intestine of these animals more than 10 days after the start of the infection. The anti-Giardia IgA response was impaired in mice depleted of Th lymphocytes, as judged by virtual absence of immunofluorescent staining of trophozoites from these animals for surface-bound IgA. Clearance of G. muris infection was impaired by treatment of mice with anti-CD4 mAb. The results suggest that Th (CD4+) lymphocytes are important for the generation of a local IgA response against G. muris trophozoites in the mouse intestine and that IgA anti-trophozoite antibody may contribute to the clearance of G. muris from the intestine of immunocompetent mice.

  19. Splenic T helper cell type 1 cytokine profile and extramedullary haematopoiesis in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

    Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice develop a severe, chronic, and lethal IBD 3-6 months after engraftment of gut wall from immunocompetent congenic donors, induced by donor-derived CD4+ T cells migrating from the graft. We have investigated intracellular T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines in the spleens of gut wall-transpla......Scid mice develop a severe, chronic, and lethal IBD 3-6 months after engraftment of gut wall from immunocompetent congenic donors, induced by donor-derived CD4+ T cells migrating from the graft. We have investigated intracellular T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines in the spleens of gut wall...

  20. CCR3, CCR5, CCR8 and CXCR3 expression in memory T helper cells from allergic rhinitis patients, asymptomatically sensitized and healthy individuals

    Holse, Mille; Assing, Kristian; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Chemokine receptors have been suggested to be preferentially expressed on CD4+ T cells with CCR3 and CCR8 linked to the T helper (Th) 2 subset and CCR5 and CXCR3 to the Th1 subset, however this remains controversial....

  1. Walking Our Talk in the Neighborhoods: Partnerships between Professionals and Natural Helpers. Building Community Partnerships in Child Welfare, Part Three. Family to Family: Tools for Rebuilding Foster Care.

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    The Family to Family initiative has encouraged states to reconceptualize, redesign, and reconstruct their foster care systems. By 1996, the initiative was being implemented in five states, five Georgia counties, and Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes some of the ways natural helpers can assist professionals achieve the necessary…

  2. Bacterial CpG-DNA activates dendritic cells in vivo: T helper cell-independent cytotoxic T cell responses to soluble proteins.

    Sparwasser, T; Vabulas, R M; Villmow, B; Lipford, G B; Wagner, H

    2000-12-01

    Receptors for conserved molecular patterns associated with microbial pathogens induce synthesis of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in immature dendritic cells (DC), as do antigen-reactive CD4 T helper cells via CD40 signaling. Once activated, antigen-presenting DC may activate CD8 T cell responses in a T helper cell-independent fashion. Using immunostimulatory CpG-oligonucleotides (ODN) mimicking bacterial CpG-DNA, we tested whether CpG-DNA bypasses the need for T helper cells in CTL responses towards proteins by directly activating antigen-presenting DC to transit into professional APC. We describe that immature DC in situ constitutively process soluble proteins and generate CD8 T cell determinants yet CD8 T cell responses remain abortive. Induction of primary antigen-specific CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated responses becomes initiated in wild-type as well as T helper cell-deficient mice, provided soluble protein and CpG-ODN are draining into the same lymph node. Specifically we show that CpG-ODN trigger antigen-presenting immature DC within the draining lymph node to acutely up-regulate co-stimulatory molecules and produce IL-12. These results provide new insights for generating in vivo efficient CTL responses to soluble proteins which may influence vaccination strategies.

  3. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E.; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-01-01

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine

  4. What on "irf" is this gene 4? Irf4 transcription-factor-dependent dendritic cells are required for T helper 2 cell responses in murine skin.

    Flutter, Barry; Nestle, Frank O

    2013-10-17

    Interferon regulatory factors play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of immunity. In this issue of Immunity, Kumamoto et al. (2013) and Gao et al. (2013) identify an Irf4-dependent migratory dendritic cell subset required for T helper 2 cell polarization following cutaneous challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. When Foreign Domestic Helpers Care for and About Older People in Their Homes: I Am a Maid or a Friend.

    Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L; Leung, Doris; Ku, Ben H B

    2018-01-01

    We examine the lived experiences of foreign domestic helpers (FDH) working with community-dwelling older people in Hong Kong. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 female FDHs, and thematically analyzed. The theme inescapable functioning commodity represented the embodied commodification of FDHs to be functional for older people in home care. Another theme, destined reciprocity of companionship , highlighted the FDHs' capacity to commit to home care and be concerned about older people. The waxing and waning of the possibilities of commodified companionship indicated the intermittent capacity of FDHs to find meaning in their care, in which performative nature for functional purposes and emotional engagement took turns to be the foci in migrant home care. This study addresses the transition of FDHs from task-oriented relation to companions of older people through care work. Discussion draws on the development of a kin-like relationship between FDHs and older people with emotional reciprocity grounded in moral values.

  6. When Foreign Domestic Helpers Care for and About Older People in Their Homes: I Am a Maid or a Friend

    Ken H. M. Ho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the lived experiences of foreign domestic helpers (FDH working with community-dwelling older people in Hong Kong. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 female FDHs, and thematically analyzed. The theme inescapable functioning commodity represented the embodied commodification of FDHs to be functional for older people in home care. Another theme, destined reciprocity of companionship , highlighted the FDHs’ capacity to commit to home care and be concerned about older people. The waxing and waning of the possibilities of commodified companionship indicated the intermittent capacity of FDHs to find meaning in their care, in which performative nature for functional purposes and emotional engagement took turns to be the foci in migrant home care. This study addresses the transition of FDHs from task-oriented relation to companions of older people through care work. Discussion draws on the development of a kin-like relationship between FDHs and older people with emotional reciprocity grounded in moral values.

  7. Artificially synthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP): preparation and immunological analysis of vaccine efficacy.

    Masuko, Kazutaka; Wakita, Daiko; Togashi, Yuji; Kita, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Nishimura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the immunologic mechanisms of artificially synthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP), which indicated a great vaccine efficacy in human cancers, we prepared ovalbumin (OVA)-H/K-HELP by conjugating killer and helper epitopes of OVA-model tumor antigen via a glycine-linker. Vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with OVA-H/K-HELP (30 amino acids) but not with short peptides mixture of class I-binding peptide (8 amino-acids) and class II-binding peptide (17 amino-acids) combined with adjuvant CpG-ODN (cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides), induced higher numbers of OVA-tetramer-positive CTL with concomitant activation of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) Th1 cells. However, replacement of glycine-linker of OVA-H/K-HELP with other peptide-linker caused a significant decrease of vaccine efficacy of OVA-H/K-HELP. In combination with adjuvant CpG-ODN, OVA-H/KHELP exhibited greater vaccine efficacy compared with short peptides vaccine, in both preventive and therapeutic vaccine models against OVA-expressing EG-7 tumor. The elevated vaccine efficacy of OVAH/K-HELP might be derived from the following mechanisms: (i) selective presentation by only professional dendritic cells (DC) in vaccinated draining lymph node (dLN); (ii) a long-term sustained antigen presentation exerted by DC to stimulate both CTL and Th1 cells; (iii) formation of three cells interaction among DC, Th and CTL. In comparative study, H/K-HELP indicated stronger therapeutic vaccine efficacy compared with that of extended class I synthetic long peptide, indicating that both the length of peptide and the presence of Th epitope peptide were crucial aspects for preparing artificially synthesized H/K-HELP vaccine. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Definition of herpes simplex virus type 1 helper activities for adeno-associated virus early replication events.

    Nathalie Alazard-Dany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as Adenovirus or Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1; whereas, in the absence of a helper virus, it establishes a latent infection. Previous studies demonstrated that the ternary HSV-1 helicase/primase (HP complex (UL5/8/52 and the single-stranded DNA-Binding Protein (ICP8 were sufficient to induce AAV-2 replication in transfected cells. We independently showed that, in the context of a latent AAV-2 infection, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein was able to activate rep gene expression. The present study was conducted to integrate these observations and to further explore the requirement of other HSV-1 proteins during early AAV replication steps, i.e. rep gene expression and AAV DNA replication. Using a cellular model that mimics AAV latency and composite constructs coding for various sets of HSV-1 genes, we first confirmed the role of ICP0 for rep gene expression and demonstrated a synergistic effect of ICP4 and, to a lesser extent, ICP22. Conversely, ICP27 displayed an inhibitory effect. Second, our analyses showed that the effect of ICP0, ICP4, and ICP22 on rep gene expression was essential for the onset of AAV DNA replication in conjunction with the HP complex and ICP8. Third, and most importantly, we demonstrated that the HSV-1 DNA polymerase complex (UL30/UL42 was critical to enhance AAV DNA replication to a significant level in transfected cells and that its catalytic activity was involved in this process. Altogether, this work represents the first comprehensive study recapitulating the series of early events taking place during HSV-1-induced AAV replication.

  9. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation-induced T helper Cell Function

    Gridley, Daila S.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to radiation above levels normally encountered on Earth can occur during wartime, accidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, and detonation of 'dirty bombs' by terrorists. Relatively high levels of radiation exposure can also occur in certain occupations (low-level waste sites, nuclear power plants, nuclear medicine facilities, airline industry, and space agencies). Depression or dysfunction of the highly radiosensitive cells of the immune system can lead to serious consequences, including increased risk for infections, cancer, hypersensitivity reactions, poor wound healing, and other pathologies. The focus of this research was on the T helper (Th) subset of lymphocytes that secrete cytokines (proteins), and thus control many actions and interactions of other cell types that make up what is collectively known as the immune system. The Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Program is concerned with mechanisms altered by exposure to high energy photons (x- and gamma-rays), protons and electrons. This study compared, for the first time, the low-dose effects of two of these radiation forms, photons and protons, on the response of Th cells, as well as other cell types with which they communicate. The research provided insights regarding gene expression patterns and capacity to secrete potent immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive cytokines, some of which are implicated in pathophysiological processes. Furthermore, the photon versus proton comparison was important not only to healthy individuals who may be exposed, but also to patients undergoing radiotherapy, since many medical centers in the United States, as well as worldwide, are now building proton accelerators. The overall hypothesis of this study was that whole-body exposure to low-dose photons (gamma-rays) will alter CD4+ Th cell function. We further proposed that exposure to low-dose proton radiation will induce a different pattern of gene and functional changes compared to

  10. Nuclear receptors of the NR4a family are not required for the development and function of follicular T helper cells.

    Ma, Weiwei; Zhao, Ruozhu; Yang, Runqing; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xin; Wu, Longyan; Qi, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells promote germinal center (GC) reaction and high-affinity antibody production. The molecular mechanisms that regulate development and function of Tfh cells are not fully understood. Here we report that ligand-independent nuclear receptors of the Nr4a family are highly expressed in Tfh cells. In a well-established adoptive transfer model, enforced expression of Nr4a receptors reduces helper T cell expansion but apparently increased the T cell capacity to promote the GC response. On the other hand, deletion of all Nr4a receptors in T cells did not significantly affect expansion or differentiation of Tfh cells or the development of GC reaction. These findings suggest that Nr4a receptors may promote but are not necessary for Tfh development or function in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Homology Requirements for Efficient, Footprintless Gene Editing at the CFTR Locus in Human iPSCs with Helper-dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    Donna J Palmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors mediate high efficiency gene editing in induced pluripotent stem cells without needing a designer nuclease thereby avoiding off-target cleavage. Because of their large cloning capacity of 37 kb, helper-dependent adenoviral vectors with long homology arms are used for gene editing. However, this makes vector construction and recombinant analysis difficult. Conversely, insufficient homology may compromise targeting efficiency. Thus, we investigated the effect of homology length on helper-dependent adenoviral vector targeting efficiency at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator locus in induced pluripotent stem cells and found a positive correlation. With 23.8 and 21.4 kb of homology, the frequencies of targeted recombinants were 50–64.6% after positive selection for vector integration, and 97.4–100% after negative selection against random integrations. With 14.8 kb, the frequencies were 26.9–57.1% after positive selection and 87.5–100% after negative selection. With 9.6 kb, the frequencies were 21.4 and 75% after positive and negative selection, respectively. With only 5.6 kb, the frequencies were 5.6–16.7% after positive selection and 50% after negative selection, but these were more than high enough for efficient identification and isolation of targeted clones. Furthermore, we demonstrate helper-dependent adenoviral vector-mediated footprintless correction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations through piggyBac excision of the selectable marker. However, low frequencies (≤ 1 × 10−3 necessitated negative selection for piggyBac-excision product isolation.

  12. Replication-deficient mutant Herpes Simplex Virus-1 targets professional antigen presenting cells and induces efficient CD4+ T helper responses.

    Fiorentini, Simona; Marconi, Peggy; Avolio, Manuela; Marini, Elena; Garrafa, Emirena; Caracciolo, Sonia; Rossi, Daniele; Bozac, Alexandra; Becker, Pablo D; Gentili, Francesca; Facchetti, Fabio; Guzman, Carlos A; Manservigi, Roberto; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    Both neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-cells are necessary to control a viral infection. However, vigorous T helper responses are essential for their elicitation and maintenance. Here we show that a recombinant replication-deficient Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 vector encoding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 matrix protein p17 (T0-p17) was capable of infecting professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) in vitro and in vivo. The injection of T0-p17 in the mouse dermis generate...

  13. Antigen-specific T8+ human clone of cells with a nonspecific augmenting function on the T4 cell-B cell helper interaction

    Brines, R.D.; Sia, D.Y.; Lehner, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors isolated a T8 + T3 + Ia + clone of cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy subject. The clone was expanded and maintained with autologous feed cells, interleukin 2, and a streptococcal antigen. The T8 + clone of cells responded specifically to the streptococcal antigen, in the absence of accessory cells,and released a soluble factor. Both the cloned cells and the corresponding soluble factor expressed augmenting helper but not suppressor activity. The augmenting helper activity for B cell antibody synthesis was demonstrable only in the presence of autologous T 4 cells. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure antibodies. Although stimulation of the T8 + cloned cells was antigen-specific, the resulting soluble factor elicited nonspecific antibody synthesis in the presence of T4 and B cells. The T8 + cloned cell-derived factor was adsorbed by B cells but not by T4 cells. Preliminary studies suggest that the factor has the properties of a B cell growth factor. They suggest that the T8 + population consists of functionally heterogeneous cell subsets, some that have suppressor function and others that augment the T4 + helper-inducer activity in B cell antibody synthesis

  14. They need to be recognized as a person in everyday life: Teachers' and helpers' experiences of teacher-student relationships in upper secondary school.

    Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Binder, Per-Einar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how teachers and helpers experience that teacher-student relationship (TSR) is developed and promoted in upper secondary school.We also explored their experiences of qualities of TSR with students with mental health problems or at risk of dropping out. The study used a qualitative and participative approach; key stakeholders were included as co-researchers. Focus group interviews were held with 27 teachers and helpers. A thematic analysis was conducted. The participants' descriptions of important experiential dimensions of TSR were clustered around four themes: (1) to be recognized as a person with strengths and challenges in everyday life, (2) collaborative relationships between students and teachers, (3) flexible boundaries in the relationship between teachers and students and (4) organization of classes and procedures set the stage for TSR. Collaborative, emotional and contextual qualities were found important to the development of TSR in upper secondary school. Experiences of negative qualities of TSR can contribute to push students out of school. Teachers and helpers experience that TSR may have the potential to play a role in promoting mental health in students' everyday life.

  15. Regulatory T-cell and T-helper 17 balance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia progression and autoimmune cytopenias.

    Lad, Deepesh P; Varma, Subhash; Varma, Neelam; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Bose, Parveen; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    The reasons for progression and autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are not entirely clear, with previous studies suggesting a role for regulatory T-cells (Treg). In this study we prospectively studied Treg (CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low), interleukin-10 (IL-10) producing Treg and T-helper 17 (Th17) (CD3+CD4+IL-17+) cells in 40 treatment-naive patients with CLL. The percentage of Th17 and not Treg cells was significantly higher in the AIC cohort than in those without AIC (pcells are responsible for AIC of CLL. Analysis of lymph-node aspirates showed that the percentage of Treg and IL-10 expression in Treg and not Th17 was significantly higher than in peripheral blood (pcells play a major role in the microenvironment where disease progression occurs. This shows the importance of maintaining the Treg:Th17 equilibrium, for imbalance leads to CLL progression or AIC.

  16. Evaluation of the 113Online Suicide Prevention Crisis Chat Service: Outcomes, Helper Behaviors and Comparison to Telephone Hotlines.

    Mokkenstorm, Jan K; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Huisman, Annemiek; Wiebenga, Jasper; Gilissen, Renske; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Smit, Johannes H

    2017-06-01

    Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studied, replicating the use of measures that were developed to study telephone crisis calls. Reaching a relatively young population of predominantly females with severe suicidality and (mental) health problems, chat outcomes for this group were found to be comparable to those found for crisis calls to U.S. Lifeline Centers in 2003-2004, with similar but not identical associations with specific helpers' styles and attitudes. Our findings support a positive effect of the 113Online chat service, to be enhanced by practice standards addressing an apparent lack of focus on the central issue of suicidality during chats, as well as by the development of best practices specific for online crisis intervention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. A Rabbit Model for Testing Helper-Dependent Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy for Vein Graft Atherosclerosis

    Lianxiang Bi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery bypass vein grafts are a mainstay of therapy for human atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, the long-term patency of vein grafts is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Gene therapy, directed at the vein graft wall, is a promising approach for preventing vein graft atherosclerosis. Because helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd efficiently transduces grafted veins and confers long-term transgene expression, HDAd is an excellent candidate for delivery of vein graft-targeted gene therapy. We developed a model of vein graft atherosclerosis in fat-fed rabbits and demonstrated long-term (≥20 weeks persistence of HDAd genomes after graft transduction. This model enables quantitation of vein graft hemodynamics, wall structure, lipid accumulation, cellularity, vector persistence, and inflammatory markers on a single graft. Time-course experiments identified 12 weeks after transduction as an optimal time to measure efficacy of gene therapy on the critical variables of lipid and macrophage accumulation. We also used chow-fed rabbits to test whether HDAd infusion in vein grafts promotes intimal growth and inflammation. HDAd did not increase intimal growth, but had moderate—yet significant—pro-inflammatory effects. The vein graft atherosclerosis model will be useful for testing HDAd-mediated gene therapy; however, pro-inflammatory effects of HdAd remain a concern in developing HDAd as a therapy for vein graft disease.

  18. A Rabbit Model for Testing Helper-Dependent Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy for Vein Graft Atherosclerosis.

    Bi, Lianxiang; Wacker, Bradley K; Bueren, Emma; Ham, Ervin; Dronadula, Nagadhara; Dichek, David A

    2017-12-15

    Coronary artery bypass vein grafts are a mainstay of therapy for human atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, the long-term patency of vein grafts is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Gene therapy, directed at the vein graft wall, is a promising approach for preventing vein graft atherosclerosis. Because helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) efficiently transduces grafted veins and confers long-term transgene expression, HDAd is an excellent candidate for delivery of vein graft-targeted gene therapy. We developed a model of vein graft atherosclerosis in fat-fed rabbits and demonstrated long-term (≥20 weeks) persistence of HDAd genomes after graft transduction. This model enables quantitation of vein graft hemodynamics, wall structure, lipid accumulation, cellularity, vector persistence, and inflammatory markers on a single graft. Time-course experiments identified 12 weeks after transduction as an optimal time to measure efficacy of gene therapy on the critical variables of lipid and macrophage accumulation. We also used chow-fed rabbits to test whether HDAd infusion in vein grafts promotes intimal growth and inflammation. HDAd did not increase intimal growth, but had moderate-yet significant-pro-inflammatory effects. The vein graft atherosclerosis model will be useful for testing HDAd-mediated gene therapy; however, pro-inflammatory effects of HdAd remain a concern in developing HDAd as a therapy for vein graft disease.

  19. Morphine Suppresses T helper Lymphocyte Differentiation to Th1 Type Through PI3K/AKT Pathway.

    Mao, Mao; Qian, Yanning; Sun, Jie

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of morphine on T helper lymphocyte differentiation and PI3K/AKT pathway mechanism, CD4+ lymphocytes were treated by phorbol-myristate-acetate (25 ng/ml) (PMA) plus ionomycin (1 μg/ml) in the presence of various concentrations of morphine (25, 50, 100, 200 ng/ml) for 4 h. Th1 and Th2 subsets, supernatant cytokines, and PI3K, AKT, and protein kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) levels were detected. The Th1 cell percentage, Th1-derived cytokines, and ratio of Th1/Th2 decreased in the presence of morphine in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Th2 cell percentage kept stable after morphine treatment. The phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT decreased, but the phosphorylation of PKC-θ did not change in the presence of morphine. The decreased percentage of Th1 cells and ratio of Th1/Th2 was recovered by naloxone concentration-dependently. Morphine can inhibit the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes and decrease the ratio of Th1/Th2 via the pathway of PI3K/AKT. The effect can be inhibited by naloxone.

  20. An allospecific murine T helper clone which can help both T and B cell responses in vitro and in vivo

    Crispe, I N; Gascoigne, N R; Owens, T

    1984-01-01

    . Here we describe an in vitro and in vivo study of this problem, using a Th clone, designated MTH-1. The clone carries the cell surface markers Thy-1 and L3T4a, but lacks Lyt-2. It recognizes a minor alloantigen shared by DBA/2, B10.D2 and NZB spleen cells, and such recognition is restricted by H-2Ed...... in the polyclonal activation and maturation of the B cells to secrete immunoglobulin; also, antigen-primed B cells are augmented in their in vivo synthesis of specific antibody to the Thy-1 X 1 alloantigen by around 10(5) MTH-1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest a single Th clone can help both B cells......Both B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes respond to signals from the T helper (Th) compartment, and such signals are mediated by a number of biochemically distinct factors. This raises the question whether help for B cells and T cells is a function of one or several different kinds of Th cell...

  1. β-Arrestin-2-Dependent Signaling Promotes CCR4-mediated Chemotaxis of Murine T-Helper Type 2 Cells.

    Lin, Rui; Choi, Yeon Ho; Zidar, David A; Walker, Julia K L

    2018-06-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disease that leads to significant healthcare costs and reduction in quality of life. Although many cell types are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, CD4 + T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cells are centrally involved. We previously reported that the asthma phenotype is virtually absent in ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice that lack global expression of β-arrestin (β-arr)-2 and that CD4 + T cells from these mice displayed significantly reduced CCL22-mediated chemotaxis. Because CCL22-mediated activation of CCR4 plays a role in Th2 cell regulation in asthmatic inflammation, we hypothesized that CCR4-mediated migration of CD4 + Th2 cells to the lung in asthma may use β-arr-dependent signaling. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of various signaling inhibitors on CCL22-induced chemotaxis using in vitro-polarized primary CD4 + Th2 cells from β-arr2-knockout and wild-type mice. Our results show, for the first time, that CCL22-induced, CCR4-mediated Th2 cell chemotaxis is dependent, in part, on a β-arr2-dependent signaling pathway. In addition, we show that this chemotactic signaling mechanism involves activation of P-p38 and Rho-associated protein kinase. These findings point to a proinflammatory role for β-arr2-dependent signaling and support β-arr2 as a novel therapeutic target in asthma.

  2. Effects of low molecular weight heparin on the polarization and cytokine profile of macrophages and T helper cells in vitro.

    Bruno, Valentina; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Rubér, Marie; Berg, Göran; Piccione, Emilio; Jenmalm, Maria C; Ernerudh, Jan

    2018-03-08

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is widely used in recurrent miscarriage treatment. The anti-coagulant effects are established, while immunological effects are not fully known. Our aim was to assess LMWH effects on activation and polarization of central regulatory immune cells from healthy women, and on placenta tissues from women undergoing elective abortions. Isolated blood monocytes and T helper (Th) cells under different activation and polarizing conditions were cultured with or without LMWH. Flow cytometry showed that LMWH exposure induced increased expression of HLA-DR and CD206 in macrophages. This phenotype was associated with increased secretion of Th17-associated CCL20, and decreased secretion of CCL2 (M2-associated) and CCL22 (Th2), as measured by multiplex bead array. In accordance, LMWH exposure to Th cells reduced the proportion of CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T-cells, intensified IFN-γ secretion and showed a tendency to increase the lymphoblast proportions. Collectively, a mainly pro-inflammatory effect was noted on two essential tolerance-promoting cells. Although the biological significancies of these in vitro findings are uncertain and need to be confirmed in vivo, they suggest the possibility that immunological effects of LMWH may be beneficial mainly at an earlier gestational age to provide an appropriate implantation process in women with recurrent miscarriage.

  3. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals T Helper Cells Synthesizing Steroids De Novo to Contribute to Immune Homeostasis

    Bidesh Mahata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available T helper 2 (Th2 cells regulate helminth infections, allergic disorders, tumor immunity, and pregnancy by secreting various cytokines. It is likely that there are undiscovered Th2 signaling molecules. Although steroids are known to be immunoregulators, de novo steroid production from immune cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we demonstrate production of the steroid pregnenolone by Th2 cells in vitro and in vivo in a helminth infection model. Single-cell RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR analysis suggest that pregnenolone synthesis in Th2 cells is related to immunosuppression. In support of this, we show that pregnenolone inhibits Th cell proliferation and B cell immunoglobulin class switching. We also show that steroidogenic Th2 cells inhibit Th cell proliferation in a Cyp11a1 enzyme-dependent manner. We propose pregnenolone as a “lymphosteroid,” a steroid produced by lymphocytes. We speculate that this de novo steroid production may be an intrinsic phenomenon of Th2-mediated immune responses to actively restore immune homeostasis.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis directs T helper 2 cell differentiation by inducing interleukin-1β production in dendritic cells.

    Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Chatterjee, Samit; Prasad, Durbaka Vijay Raghva; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2012-09-28

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), resides and replicates within phagocytes and persists in susceptible hosts by modulating protective innate immune responses. Furthermore, M. tuberculosis promotes T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses by altering the balance of T cell polarizing cytokines in infected cells. However, cytokines that regulate Th2 cell differentiation during TB infection remain unknown. Here we show that IL-1β, produced by phagocytes infected by virulent M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv, directs Th2 cell differentiation. In sharp contrast, the vaccine strain bacille Calmette-Guérin as well as RD-1 and ESAT-6 mutants of H37Rv failed to induce IL-1β and promote Th2 cell differentiation. Furthermore, ESAT-6 induced IL-1β production in dendritic cells (DCs), and CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with infected DCs differentiated into Th2 cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that IL-1β induced by RD-1/ESAT-6 plays an important role in the differentiation of Th2 cells, which in turn facilitates progression of TB by inhibiting host protective Th1 responses.

  5. T Follicular Helper Cells Promote a Beneficial Gut Ecosystem for Host Metabolic Homeostasis by Sensing Microbiota-Derived Extracellular ATP.

    Perruzza, Lisa; Gargari, Giorgio; Proietti, Michele; Fosso, Bruno; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Faliti, Caterina Elisa; Rezzonico-Jost, Tanja; Scribano, Daniela; Mauri, Laura; Colombo, Diego; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Moregola, Annalisa; Mooser, Catherine; Pesole, Graziano; Nicoletti, Mauro; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D; Guglielmetti, Simone; Grassi, Fabio

    2017-03-14

    The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor regulates T follicular helper (Tfh) cell abundance in the Peyer's patches (PPs) of the small intestine; deletion of P2rx7, encoding for P2X7, in Tfh cells results in enhanced IgA secretion and binding to commensal bacteria. Here, we show that Tfh cell activity is important for generating a diverse bacterial community in the gut and that sensing of microbiota-derived extracellular ATP via P2X7 promotes the generation of a proficient gut ecosystem for metabolic homeostasis. The results of this study indicate that Tfh cells play a role in host-microbiota mutualism beyond protecting the intestinal mucosa by induction of affinity-matured IgA and suggest that extracellular ATP constitutes an inter-kingdom signaling molecule important for selecting a beneficial microbial community for the host via P2X7-mediated regulation of B cell help. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. T Follicular Helper Cells Promote a Beneficial Gut Ecosystem for Host Metabolic Homeostasis by Sensing Microbiota-Derived Extracellular ATP

    Lisa Perruzza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor regulates T follicular helper (Tfh cell abundance in the Peyer’s patches (PPs of the small intestine; deletion of P2rx7, encoding for P2X7, in Tfh cells results in enhanced IgA secretion and binding to commensal bacteria. Here, we show that Tfh cell activity is important for generating a diverse bacterial community in the gut and that sensing of microbiota-derived extracellular ATP via P2X7 promotes the generation of a proficient gut ecosystem for metabolic homeostasis. The results of this study indicate that Tfh cells play a role in host-microbiota mutualism beyond protecting the intestinal mucosa by induction of affinity-matured IgA and suggest that extracellular ATP constitutes an inter-kingdom signaling molecule important for selecting a beneficial microbial community for the host via P2X7-mediated regulation of B cell help.

  7. Helper T cell subpopulations from women are more susceptible to the toxic effect of sodium arsenite in vitro

    Vega, Libia; Montes de Oca, Pavel; Saavedra, Rafael; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic is known to produce inhibition as well as induction of proliferative responses in animal and human cells depending on the doses. Despite the amount of information on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic exposure in different animal models, little is known in humans. Arsenic susceptibility of lymphocyte subpopulations (T helper (Th), CD4+; T cytotoxic (Tc), CD8+) and whether arsenic effects are gender related are still to be determined. This work evaluated the in vitro toxicity of sodium arsenite on human T lymphocyte subpopulations from men and women. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy young men and women were treated with sodium arsenite (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM). We assessed cell viability, cell proliferation, and the proportion of Th and Tc cells after 48 or 72 h of arsenic exposure in resting and phytohemagglutinin M (PHA)-activated PBMC. We observed that sodium arsenite at 1 μM was more toxic for Th than for Tc cells in PBMC from women. Besides, T lymphocytes from women were more affected by the cell proliferation inhibition induced by arsenic, suggesting that women could be more susceptible to the toxic and immunotoxic effects caused by arsenic exposure

  8. The Role of Protein Modifications of T-Bet in Cytokine Production and Differentiation of T Helper Cells

    Sera Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T-Bet (T-box protein expressed in T cells, also called as TBX21 was originally cloned as a key transcription factor involved in the commitment of T helper (Th cells to the Th1 lineage. T-Bet directly activates IFN-γ gene transcription and enhances development of Th1 cells. T-Bet simultaneously modulates IL-2 and Th2 cytokines in an IFN-γ-independent manner, resulting in an attenuation of Th2 cell development. Numerous studies have demonstrated that T-bet plays multiple roles in many subtypes of immune cells, including B cell, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK cells, NK T cells, and innate lymphoid cells. Therefore, T-bet is crucial for the development and coordination of both innate and adaptive immune responses. To fulfill these multiple roles, T-bet undergoes several posttranslational protein modifications, such as phosphorylation at tyrosine, serine, and threonine residues, and ubiquitination at lysine residues, which affect lineage commitment during Th cell differentiation. This review presents a current overview of the progress made in understanding the roles of various types of T-bet protein modifications in the regulation of cytokine production during Th cell differentiation.

  9. Antigen entrapped in the escheriosomes leads to the generation of CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response.

    Syed, Faisal M; Khan, Masood A; Nasti, Tahseen H; Ahmad, Nadeem; Mohammad, Owais

    2003-06-02

    In previous study, we demonstrated the potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) lipid liposomes (escheriosomes) to undergo membrane-membrane fusion with cytoplasmic membrane of the target cells including professional antigen presenting cells. Our present study demonstrates that antigen encapsulated in escheriosomes could be successfully delivered simultaneously to the cytosolic as well as endosomal processing pathways of antigen presenting cells, leading to the generation of both CD4(+) T-helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. In contrast, encapsulation of same antigen in egg phosphatidyl-choline (egg PC) liposomes, just like antigen-incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) complex, has inefficient access to the cytosolic pathway of MHC I-dependent antigen presentation and failed to generate antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. However, both egg PC liposomes as well as escheriosomes-encapsulated antigen elicited strong humoral immune response in immunized animals but antibody titre was significantly higher in the group of animals immunized with escheriosomes-encapsulated antigen. These results imply usage of liposome-based adjuvant as potential candidate vaccine capable of eliciting both cell-mediated as well as humoral immune responses. Furthermore, antigen entrapped in escheriosomes stimulates antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation and also enhances the level of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 in the immunized animals.

  10. The lupus susceptibility gene Pbx1 regulates the balance between follicular helper T cell and regulatory T cell differentiation

    Choi, Seung-Chul; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Titov, Anton A.; Seay, Howard R.; Li, Shiwu; Brusko, Todd M.; Croker, Byron P.; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Morel, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Pbx1 controls chromatin accessibility to a large number of genes and is entirely conserved between mice and humans. The Pbx1-d dominant negative isoform is more frequent in the CD4+ T cells from lupus patients than from healthy controls. Pbx1-d is associated with the production of autoreactive T cells in mice carrying the Sle1a1 lupus susceptibility locus. Transgenic expression of Pbx1-d in CD4+ T cells reproduced the phenotypes of Sle1a1 mice, with increased inflammatory functions of CD4+ T cells and impaired regulatory T cell homeostasis. Pbx1-d Tg also expanded the number of follicular helper T cells in a cell-intrinsic and antigen-specific manner that was enhanced in recall responses, and resulted in TH1-biased antibodies. Moreover, Pbx1-d Tg CD4+ T cells upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-21 and miR-155, which have been implicated in Treg and TFH cell homeostasis. Our results suggest that Pbx1-d impacts lupus development by regulating effector T cell differentiation and promoting TFH cells at the expense of Treg cells. In addition, our results identify Pbx1 as a novel regulator of CD4+ T cell effector function. PMID:27296664

  11. Helper-dependent adenovirus achieve more efficient and persistent liver transgene expression in non-human primates under immunosuppression.

    Unzu, C; Melero, I; Hervás-Stubbs, S; Sampedro, A; Mancheño, U; Morales-Kastresana, A; Serrano-Mendioroz, I; de Salamanca, R E; Benito, A; Fontanellas, A

    2015-11-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDA) vectors constitute excellent gene therapy tools for metabolic liver diseases. We have previously shown that an HDA vector encoding human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) corrects acute intermittent porphyria mice. Now, six non-human primates were injected in the left hepatic lobe with the PBGD-encoding HDA vector to study levels and persistence of transgene expression. Intrahepatic administration of 5 × 10(12) viral particles kg(-1) (10(10) infective units kg(-1)) of HDA only resulted in transient (≈14 weeks) transgene expression in one out of three individuals. In contrast, a more prolonged 90-day immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, rituximab and steroids) extended meaningful transgene expression for over 76 weeks in two out of two cases. Transgene expression under immunosuppression (IS) reached maximum levels 6 weeks after HDA administration and gradually declined reaching a stable plateau within the therapeutic range for acute porphyria. The non-injected liver lobes also expressed the transgene because of vector circulation. IS controlled anticapsid T-cell responses and decreased the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Re-administration of HDA-hPBGD at week +78 achieved therapeutically meaningful transgene expression only in those animals receiving IS again at the time of this second vector exposure. Overall, immunity against adenoviral capsids poses serious hurdles for long-term HDA-mediated liver transduction, which can be partially circumvented by pharmacological IS.

  12. Reduced TET2 function leads to T-cell lymphoma with follicular helper T-cell-like features in mice

    Muto, H; Sakata-Yanagimoto, M; Nagae, G; Shiozawa, Y; Miyake, Y; Yoshida, K; Enami, T; Kamada, Y; Kato, T; Uchida, K; Nanmoku, T; Obara, N; Suzukawa, K; Sanada, M; Nakamura, N; Aburatani, H; Ogawa, S; Chiba, S

    2014-01-01

    TET2 (Ten Eleven Translocation 2) is a dioxygenase that converts methylcytosine (mC) to hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC). TET2 loss-of-function mutations are highly frequent in subtypes of T-cell lymphoma that harbor follicular helper T (Tfh)-cell-like features, such as angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (30–83%) or peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (10–49%), as well as myeloid malignancies. Here, we show that middle-aged Tet2 knockdown (Tet2 gt/gt ) mice exhibit Tfh-like cell overproduction in the spleen compared with control mice. The Tet2 knockdown mice eventually develop T-cell lymphoma with Tfh-like features after a long latency (median 67 weeks). Transcriptome analysis revealed that these lymphoma cells had Tfh-like gene expression patterns when compared with splenic CD4-positive cells of wild-type mice. The lymphoma cells showed lower hmC densities around the transcription start site (TSS) and higher mC densities at the regions of the TSS, gene body and CpG islands. These epigenetic changes, seen in Tet2 insufficiency-triggered lymphoma, possibly contributed to predated outgrowth of Tfh-like cells and subsequent lymphomagenesis. The mouse model described here suggests that TET2 mutations play a major role in the development of T-cell lymphoma with Tfh-like features in humans

  13. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.

  14. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines.

    Libraty, Daniel H; Zhang, Lei; Woda, Marcia; Acosta, Luz P; Obcena, Anamae; Brion, Job D; Capeding, Rosario Z

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1) immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2-3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) producing spot-forming cells (SFC) to tetanus toxoid 2-3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1-3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/Ionomycin was higher in 2-3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2-3 months later.

  15. FOXP3 Expression in GARP-Transduced Helper T Cells Is Not Associated with FOXP3 TSDR Demethylation.

    Kehrmann, Jan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Buer, Jan; Probst-Kepper, Michael

    2011-10-01

    AIM: Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) represents a human regulatory CD4+ CD25(hi) FOXP3+ T (T(reg)) cell-specific receptor that controls FOXP3. Ectopic expression of GARP in helper T (T(h)) cells has been shown to be sufficient for the induction of FOXP3 and generation of a stable regulatory phenotype. Since expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells is epigenetically controlled by a conserved motif, the so-called T(reg)-specific demethylated region (TSDR), we asked whether GARP-mediated upregulation of FOXP3 in Th cells is similarly accompanied by demethylation of the TSDR. METHODS: DNA methylation of the FOXP3 TSDR was analyzed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. RESULTS: Although GARP-transduced T(h) cells exhibit constitutive FOXP3 expression and a regulatory phenotype, the FOXP3 TSDR is completely methylated as in naive T(h) cells. GARP-mediated FOXP3 upregulation in T(h) cells is not associated with T(reg)-specific demethylation of the FOXP3 TSDR. CONCLUSION: Although GARP-engineered T(h) cells exhibit stable FOXP3 expression and a phenotypic reprogramming towards T(reg) cells in vitro, these cells do not completely mimic the epigenotype of natural T(reg) cells. Thus, concepts based on the genetic modification of T(h) cells as cellular therapies to treat autoimmune diseases or to control transplantation tolerance should be critically tested before any clinical application.

  16. Reciprocal modulation of helper Th1 and Th17 cells by the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug terbutaline.

    Carvajal Gonczi, Catalina M; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Mahdieh; East, Ashley; Martire, Erika; Maurice-Ventouris, Meagane H I; Darlington, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Catecholamine hormones are powerful regulators of the immune system produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). They regulate the adaptive immune system by altering T-cell differentiation into T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell subsets, but the effect on Th17 cells is not known. Th17 cells, defined, in part, by chemokine receptor CCR6 and cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A, are crucial for mediating certain pathogen-specific responses and are linked with several autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated that a proportion of human Th17 cells express beta 2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to catecholamines. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which were obtained from venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers, with anti-cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and anti-CD28 and with a β2-agonist drug, terbutaline (TERB), augmented IL-17A levels (P < 0.01) in the majority of samples. TERB reduced interferon gamma (IFNγ) indicating that IL-17A and IFNγ are reciprocally regulated. Similar reciprocal regulation was observed with dbcAMP. Proliferation of Th cells was monitored by carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester labeling and flow cytometry with antibody staining for CD3 and CD4. TERB increased proliferation by a small but significant margin (P < 0.001). Next, Th17 cells (CD4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + ) were purified using an immunomagnetic positive selection kit, which removes all other mononuclear cells. TERB increased IL-17A from purified Th17 cells, which argues that TERB acts directly on Th17 cells. Thus, hormone signals from the SNS maintain a balance of Th cells subtypes through the β2AR. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. T-helper immune phenotype may underlie 'paradoxical' tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy-related psoriasiform dermatitis.

    Moy, A P; Murali, M; Kroshinsky, D; Horn, T D; Nazarian, R M

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutics targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α are effective for psoriasis; however, in patients treated for other disorders, psoriasis may worsen and psoriasiform dermatitis (PsoD) may arise. T helper (Th) cytokines in psoriasis upregulate keratin (K)17, which modulates TNF-α transduction, leading to vascular adhesion molecule upregulation and lymphocytic extravasation. We investigated Th phenotype and expression of K17, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD. Skin biopsies from patients with psoriasis unresponsive to TNF-α inhibitor therapy (n = 11), PsoD-related to TNF-α inhibition (n = 9), untreated psoriasis (n = 9) or atopic dermatitis (AD; n = 9) were immunohistochemically analysed for Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th22. Expression of K17, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was also examined. Anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD showed decreased Th1 : Th2 raio and increased Th17 : Th1 ratio compared with untreated psoriasis. Anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis had significantly fewer Th1 (4% vs. 12%) and more Th17 (51% vs. 20%) cells than untreated psoriasis. No difference in Th22 cells was identified. K17 was present in all cases of untreated psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD, 91% of anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis, and only 22% of AD. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in anti-TNF-α-related PsoD was akin to untreated psoriasis, but decreased in anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis. These findings further the current understanding of the anti-TNF-α-related psoriasiform phenotype and support a rationale for therapeutic targeting of interleukin-17 and TNF-α in combination. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. T Helper 17 Promotes Induction of Antigen-Specific Gut-Mucosal Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes following Adenovirus Vector Vaccination

    Masahisa Hemmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Few current vaccines can establish antigen (Ag-specific immune responses in both mucosal and systemic compartments. Therefore, development of vaccines providing defense against diverse infectious agents in both compartments is of high priority in global health. Intramuscular vaccination of an adenovirus vector (Adv has been shown to induce Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs in both systemic and gut-mucosal compartments. We previously found that type I interferon (IFN signaling is required for induction of gut-mucosal, but not systemic, CTLs following vaccination; however, the molecular mechanism involving type I IFN signaling remains unknown. Here, we found that T helper 17 (Th17-polarizing cytokine expression was down-regulated in the inguinal lymph nodes (iLNs of Ifnar2−/− mice, resulting in the reduction of Ag-specific Th17 cells in the iLNs and gut mucosa of the mice. We also found that prior transfer of Th17 cells reversed the decrease in the number of Ag-specific gut-mucosal CTLs in Ifnar2−/− mice following Adv vaccination. Additionally, prior transfer of Th17 cells into wild-type mice enhanced the induction of Ag-specific CTLs in the gut mucosa, but not in systemic compartments, suggesting a gut mucosa-specific mechanism where Th17 cells regulate the magnitude of vaccine-elicited Ag-specific CTL responses. These data suggest that Th17 cells translate systemic type I IFN signaling into a gut-mucosal CTL response following vaccination, which could promote the development of promising Adv vaccines capable of establishing both systemic and gut-mucosal protective immunity.

  19. Failure of itraconazole to prevent T-helper type 2 cell immune deviation: Implications for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Steinke, John W; Liu, Lixia; Negri, Julie; Borish, Larry; Payne, Spencer C

    2016-11-01

    T-helper (Th) type 2 cell inflammation is the hallmark of several disease processes, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and some forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Itraconazole has been used as both an antifungal and an anti-inflammatory agent, with some success in many of these diseases, in part, by altering Th2 cytokine expression by T cells. It is not known whether this merely reflects inhibition of established Th2-like cells or the inhibition of differentiation of naive T cells into Th2-like cells. To evaluate the role of itraconazole in the differentiation of naive T cells during activation. Naive CD45RA+ T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers. Th1 and Th2 type cells were differentiated in the presence of varying concentrations of itraconazole. After stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 beads, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution was performed to evaluate proliferation and intracellular cytokine staining for interleukin (IL) 4 and interferon (IFN) gamma within proliferating T cells was measured along with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for secreted IL-5, IL-13, and IFN gamma. Itraconazole had no effect on proliferation of unbiased, Th1, or Th2 cells. Similarly, there was no effect of itraconazole on either intracellular cytokine staining of IL-4 and IFN gamma or secreted cytokine expression of IFN gamma, IL-5, and IL-13 in any of the cell populations. Itraconazole did not alter the ability of naive T cells to proliferate or secrete cytokines under Th1 or Th2 deviating conditions in vitro. As such, reported inhibition of Th2-like lymphocyte function by itraconazole reflected action on mature effector cells and may have underscored why antifungal treatment failed in many clinical trials of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

  20. Expansion of mycobacterium-reactive gamma delta T cells by a subset of memory helper T cells.

    Vila, L M; Haftel, H M; Park, H S; Lin, M S; Romzek, N C; Hanash, S M; Holoshitz, J

    1995-04-01

    Human gamma delta T cells expressing the V gamma 9/V delta 2 T-cell receptor have been previously found to proliferate in response to certain microorganisms and to expand throughout life, presumably because of extrathymic activation by foreign antigens. In vitro expansion of V gamma 9/V delta 2 cells by mycobacteria has been previously shown to be dependent on accessory cells. In order to gain an insight into the mechanisms involved in the expansion of these cells, we have undertaken to identify the peripheral blood subset of cells on which proliferation of V gamma 9/V delta 2 cells in response to mycobacteria is dependent. Contrary to their role in antigen presentation to alpha beta T cells, professional antigen-presenting cells, such as monocytes, B cells, and dendritic cells, were unable to provide the cellular support for the expansion of V gamma 9/V delta 2 cells. Selective depletion of T-cell subsets, as well as the use of highly purified T-cell populations, indicated that the only subset of peripheral blood cells that could expand V gamma 9/V delta 2 cells were CD4+ CD45RO+ CD7- alpha beta T cells. These cells underwent distinct intracellular signaling events after stimulation with the mycobacterial antigen. Expansion of V gamma 9/V delta 2 cells by alpha beta T cells was dependent on cell-cell contact. This is the first evidence that a small subset of the memory helper T-cell population is exclusively responsible for the peripheral expansion of V gamma 9/V delta 2 cells. These data illustrate a unique aspect of antigen recognition by gamma delta T cells and provide new means to study their immune defense role.

  1. Captopril increases the intensity of monocyte infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and induces human T helper type 17 cells.

    Coelho dos Santos, J S; Menezes, C A S; Villani, F N A; Magalhães, L M D; Scharfstein, J; Gollob, K J; Dutra, W O

    2010-12-01

    The anti-hypertensive drug captopril is used commonly to reduce blood pressure of patients with severe forms of Chagas disease, a cardiomyopathy caused by chronic infection with the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Captopril acts by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the vasopressor metallopeptidase that generates angiotensin II and promotes the degradation of bradykinin (BK). Recent studies in mice models of Chagas disease indicated that captopril can potentiate the T helper type 1 (Th1)-directing natural adjuvant property of BK. Equipped with kinin-releasing cysteine proteases, T. cruzi trypomastigotes were shown previously to invade non-professional phagocytic cells, such as human endothelial cells and murine cardiomyocytes, through the signalling of G protein-coupled bradykinin receptors (B(2) KR). Monocytes are also parasitized by T. cruzi and these cells are known to be important for the host immune response during infection. Here we showed that captopril increases the intensity of T. cruzi infection of human monocytes in vitro. The increased parasitism was accompanied by up-regulated expression of ACE in human monocytes. While T. cruzi infection increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 by monocytes significantly, compared to uninfected cells, T. cruzi infection in association with captopril down-modulated IL-10 expression by the monocytes. Surprisingly, studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that addition of the ACE inhibitor in association with T. cruzi increased expression of IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells in a B(2) KR-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggest that captopril might interfere with host-parasite equilibrium by enhancing infection of monocytes, decreasing the expression of the modulatory cytokine IL-10, while guiding development of the proinflammatory Th17 subset. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) IL-17a(+)) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Repopulated antigen presenting cells induced an imbalanced differentiation of the helper T cells in whole body gamma irradiated mice

    Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Kee [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of cancer patients, although it may be protected by several antioxidant agents against free radicals, often induces chronic sequelae such as inflammation (allergic inflammation). This is a limiting factor for radiotherapy. Following radiotherapy, the inflammation or injury can occur in any organ with a high radiosensitivity such as the lung, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach and intestine. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation initiates inflammation is, however, poorly understood. In recent studies, it was suggested that a factor for irradiation-induced inflammation might be the over production of IL-4 that enhances fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. During the early stages after irradiation, type 2 of the helper T cells might be the major source of IL-4, and later on there seems to be an activation of the other IL-4 producing cell types, e.q. macrophages or mast cells. This is interesting because inflammation is classically seen to be dominated by Th1 cells secreting IFN-{gamma}. In the previous study, we were interested in the enhancement of the IL-4 and the IgE production during the development of immune cells after {gamma}-irradiation. We were able to deduce that IL-4 production was increased because of the shifted differentiation of the naive Th cells by the repopulated antigen presenting cells after irradiation. The aim of the present study was to precisely define whether antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of whole body irradiation-treated mice could influence the shifted differentiation of the Th cells. This view can be demonstrated by confirming that the shifted functional status of the Th cells is induced by the altered function of the repopulated macrophages after whole body irradiation (WBI)

  4. Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Mwangi, Waithaka; Hernandez, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-α treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells is dependent on TGF-β but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3 + CD25 + T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-α treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

  5. The Ratio of Blood T Follicular Regulatory Cells to T Follicular Helper Cells Marks Ectopic Lymphoid Structure Formation While Activated Follicular Helper T Cells Indicate Disease Activity in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Fonseca, Valter R; Romão, Vasco C; Agua-Doce, Ana; Santos, Mara; López-Presa, Dolores; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, João Eurico; Graca, Luis

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether the balance of blood follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells can provide information about ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We prospectively recruited 56 patients clinically suspected of having SS. Sixteen of these patients subsequently fulfilled the American-European Consensus Group criteria for SS and were compared to 16 patients with non-SS sicca syndrome. Paired blood and minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsy samples were analyzed to study Tfr cells and subsets of Tfh cells in both compartments. Patients with primary SS had normal Tfh cell counts in peripheral blood; however, activated programmed death 1-positive (PD-1+) inducible costimulator-positive (ICOS+) Tfh cells in peripheral blood were strongly associated with disease activity assessed by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (r = 0.8547, P = 0.0008). Conversely, the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio indicated ectopic lymphoid structure formation in MSGs, being strongly associated with B cell, CD4+ T cell, and PD-1+ICOS+ T cell infiltration in MSGs, and was especially increased in patients with focal sialadenitis. Further analysis showed that the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio allowed discrimination between SS patients and healthy donors with excellent accuracy and was a strong predictor of SS diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 12.96, P = 0.028) and the presence of focal sialadenitis (OR 10, P = 0.022) in patients investigated for sicca symptoms, thus highlighting the potential clinical value of this marker. The blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio and PD-1+ICOS+ Tfh cells constitute potential novel biomarkers for different features of primary SS. While the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio is associated with ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, activated Tfh cells indicate disease activity. © 2018, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  7. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T Follicular-Like Helper Cell and Memory B Cell Responses to Human Papillomavirus Vaccines

    Matsui, Ken; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Kemp, Troy J.; Baseler, Michael W.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2015-01-01

    Through the interaction of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and B cells, efficacious vaccines can generate high-affinity, pathogen-neutralizing antibodies, and memory B cells. Using CXCR5, CXCR3, CCR6, CCR7, PD1, and ICOS as markers, Tfh-like cells can be identified in the circulation and be classified into three functionally distinct subsets that are PD1+ICOS+, PD1+ ICOS-, or PD1-ICOS-. We used these markers to identify different subsets of CXCR5+CD4+ Tfh-like cells in response to highly immunogenic and efficacious vaccines for human papillomaviruses (HPV): Cervarix and Gardasil. In this small study, we used PBMC samples from 11 Gardasil recipients, and 8 Cervarix recipients from the Vaccine Research Center 902 Study to examine the induction of circulating Tfh-like cells and IgD-CD38HiCD27+ memory B cells by flow cytometry. PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3+CCR6-CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh1-like) cells were induced and peaked on Day (D) 7 post-first vaccination, but not as much on D7 post-third vaccination. We also observed a trend toward increase in PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3-CCR6-CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh2-like) cells for both vaccines, and PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3-CCR6+CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh17-like) subset was induced by Cervarix post-first vaccination. There were also minimal changes in the other cellular subsets. In addition, Cervarix recipients had more memory B cells post-first vaccination than did Gardasil recipients at D14 and D30. We found frequencies of memory B cells at D30 correlated with anti-HPV16 and 18 antibody titers from D30, and the induction levels of memory B cells at D30 and PD1+ICOS+Tfh1-like cells at D7 post-first vaccination correlated for Cervarix. Our study showed that induction of circulating CXCR5+CD4+ Tfh-like subsets can be detected following immunization with HPV vaccines, and potentially be useful as a marker of immunogenicity of vaccines. However, further investigations should be extended to different cohorts with larger sample size to better understand the functions of these T cells, as well as

  8. Induction of Interleukin-10 Producing Dendritic Cells As a Tool to Suppress Allergen-Specific T Helper 2 Responses

    Stefan Schülke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are gatekeepers of the immune system that control induction and polarization of primary, antigen-specific immune responses. Depending on their maturation/activation status, the molecules expressed on their surface, and the cytokines produced DCs have been shown to either elicit immune responses through activation of effector T cells or induce tolerance through induction of either T cell anergy, regulatory T cells, or production of regulatory cytokines. Among the cytokines produced by tolerogenic DCs, interleukin 10 (IL-10 is a key regulatory cytokine limiting und ultimately terminating excessive T-cell responses to microbial pathogens to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Because of their important role in preventing autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, allergic reactions, or in controlling chronic inflammation DCs have become an interesting tool to modulate antigen-specific immune responses. For the treatment of allergic inflammation, the aim is to downregulate allergen-specific T helper 2 (Th2 responses and the associated clinical symptoms [allergen-driven Th2 activation, Th2-driven immunoglobulin E (IgE production, IgE-mediated mast cell and basophil activation, allergic inflammation]. Here, combining the presentation of allergens by DCs with a pro-tolerogenic, IL-10-producing phenotype is of special interest to modulate allergen-specific immune responses in the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the reported strategies to induce DC-derived IL-10 secretion for the suppression of allergen-specific Th2-responses with a focus on IL-10 treatment, IL-10 transduction, and the usage of both whole bacteria and bacteria-derived components. Interestingly, while IL-10-producing DCs induced either by IL-10 treatment or IL-10 transduction are arrested in an immature/semi-mature state, treatment of DCs with live or killed bacteria as well as isolated bacterial components results in the induction of

  9. Identification of candidate vaccine antigens of bovine hemoparasites Theileria parva and Babesia bovis by use of helper T cell clones.

    Brown, W C; Zhao, S; Logan, K S; Grab, D J; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1995-03-01

    Current vaccines for bovine hemoparasites utilize live attenuated organisms or virulent organisms administered concurrently with antiparasitic drugs. Although such vaccines can be effective, for most hemoparasites the mechanisms of acquired resistance to challenge infection with heterologous parasite isolates have not been clearly defined. Selection of potentially protective antigens has traditionally made use of antibodies to identify immunodominant proteins. However, numerous studies have indicated that induction of high antibody titers neither predicts the ability of an antigen to confer protective immunity nor correlates with protection. Because successful parasites have evolved antibody evasion tactics, alternative strategies to identify protective immunogens should be used. Through the elaboration of cytokines, T helper 1-(Th1)-like T cells and macrophages mediate protective immunity against many intracellular parasites, and therefore most likely play an important role in protective immunity against bovine hemoparasites. CD4+ T cell clones specific for soluble or membrane antigens of either Theileria parva schizonts or Babesia bovis merozoites were therefore employed to identify parasite antigens that elicit strong Th cell responses in vitro. Soluble cytosolic parasite antigen was fractionated by gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography or hydroxylapatite chromatography, or a combination thereof, and fractions were tested for the ability to induce proliferation of Th cell clones. This procedure enabled the identification of stimulatory fractions containing T. parva proteins of approximately 10 and 24 kDa. Antisera raised against the purified 24 kDa band reacted with a native schizont protein of approximately 30 kDa. Babesia bovis-specific Th cell clones tested against fractionated soluble Babesia bovis merozoite antigen revealed the presence of at least five distinct antigenic epitopes. Proteins separated by gel filtration revealed four patterns of

  10. Twice as many helpers

    Liversage, Anika

    2017-01-01

    In research on ethnic minority families, the topics of marriage migration and filial support to the elderly have generally been studied separately. This article argues that the two phenomena are linked, as older immigrants are better able to receive family support when children-in-law arrive as m...

  11. Canine Companions and Helpers

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article highlights dog breeds that are popular in the United States and explores the health benefits and services that dogs provide to people. The article also discusses dog shows and dogs in popular culture.

  12. Feedback For Helpers

    Stromer, Walter F.

    1975-01-01

    The author offers some feedback to those in the helping professions in three areas: (1) forms and letters; (2) jumping to conclusions; and (3) blaming and belittling, in hopes of stimulating more feedback as well as more positive ways of performing their services. (HMV)

  13. Good Apple Homework Helper.

    Cipriano, Jeri S.

    This book, designed for students in grades 4 to 6, provides advice to help them do homework independently and successfully. Part 1, "Developing Good Habits," presents exercises and tips on organization and time management, including a self-inventory of homework habits, assistance in goal setting, and designing a personal schedule. Part 2, "Getting…

  14. CD21+ (B2 antigen+) cell decrement and CD4+CD29+ (helper-inducer) cell increment suggest an activation of cell immune reactivity in multiple sclerosis.

    Gambi, D; Porrini, A M; Giampietro, A; Macor, S

    1991-08-01

    Two-color flow cytometric analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes of 35 untreated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 17 other medical disease (OMD) patients and 14 healthy control (HC) subjects was performed to evaluate the levels of different T and B cell subpopulations. In MS patients we observed an increase in CD4+CD29+ helper-inducer cells but this increase was not related to the different phases of the disease. We hypothesize that this change is related to the reduction of CD21+ cells expressing B2 antigen, a 140 kDa molecule disappearing after B cell activation. An increased level of CD4+CD45RA- (helper-inducer-like cells) and a reduction of CD4+CD29- (suppressor-inducer-like cells) were also present in our patients. These findings demonstrate an immune 'disequilibrium' in MS, which is linked with an increased level of CD25+ cells expressing the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor. IL-2, besides being a T cell growth factor, is also a B cell growth factor. These data let us hypothesize that an activation of the immune response is present in MS.

  15. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production.

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these "type 2 immune response-related" cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Generation of TCR-Expressing Innate Lymphoid-like Helper Cells that Induce Cytotoxic T Cell-Mediated Anti-leukemic Cell Response.

    Ueda, Norihiro; Uemura, Yasushi; Zhang, Rong; Kitayama, Shuichi; Iriguchi, Shoichi; Kawai, Yohei; Yasui, Yutaka; Tatsumi, Minako; Ueda, Tatsuki; Liu, Tian-Yi; Mizoro, Yasutaka; Okada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Akira; Nakanishi, Mahito; Senju, Satoru; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki; Kaneko, Shin

    2018-06-05

    CD4 + T helper (Th) cell activation is essential for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against malignancy. We reprogrammed a Th clone specific for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)-derived b3a2 peptide to pluripotency and re-differentiated the cells into original TCR-expressing T-lineage cells (iPS-T cells) with gene expression patterns resembling those of group 1 innate lymphoid cells. CD4 gene transduction into iPS-T cells enhanced b3a2 peptide-specific responses via b3a2 peptide-specific TCR. iPS-T cells upregulated CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in response to interleukin-2 and interleukin-15. In the presence of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) peptide, antigen-specific dendritic cells (DCs) conditioned by CD4-modified CD40L high iPS-T cells stimulated WT1-specific CTL priming, which eliminated WT1 peptide-expressing CML cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CD4 modification of CD40L high iPS-T cells generates innate lymphoid helper-like cells inducing bcr-abl-specific TCR signaling that mediates effectiveanti-leukemic CTL responses via DC maturation, showing potential for adjuvant immunotherapy against leukemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Roquin Suppresses the PI3K-mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit T Helper Cell Differentiation and Conversion of Treg to Tfr Cells.

    Essig, Katharina; Hu, Desheng; Guimaraes, Joao C; Alterauge, Dominik; Edelmann, Stephanie; Raj, Timsse; Kranich, Jan; Behrens, Gesine; Heiseke, Alexander; Floess, Stefan; Klein, Juliane; Maiser, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; Hrabĕ de Angelis, Martin; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Noessner, Elfriede; Brocker, Thomas; Huehn, Jochen; Krug, Anne B; Zavolan, Mihaela; Baumjohann, Dirk; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2017-12-19

    Roquin proteins preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here we showed that deletion of Roquin-encoding alleles specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells also caused the activation of conventional T cells. Roquin-deficient Treg cells downregulated CD25, acquired a follicular Treg (Tfr) cell phenotype, and suppressed germinal center reactions but could not protect from colitis. Roquin inhibited the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway by upregulation of Pten through interfering with miR-17∼92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR, and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced Akt-mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, whereas inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient T cells corrected enhanced Tfh and Th17 or reduced iTreg cell differentiation. Thereby, Roquin-mediated control of PI3K-mTOR signaling prevents autoimmunity by restraining activation and differentiation of conventional T cells and specialization of Treg cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    JoĂŤl Pestel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-GuĂŠrin (BCG is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  19. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Kaźmierczak, Dominik; Donevski, Stefan; Biet, Franck; Pestel, Joël; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  20. Genetic control of cell-mediated lympholysis to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified murine syngeneic cells. Expression of Ir gene function at the cytotoxic precursor and helper cell

    Fujiwara, H.; Shearer, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The present study investigates some of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the defect in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified H-2/sup b/ self components in C57Bl/6(H-2/sup b/) or (C57BL/6 x C3H/He)(H-2/sup b/ x H-2/sup k/)F 1 mice. C3H/He, C57BL/6, and (C57BL/6 x C3H/He)F 1 mice were immunized to TNP-modified self by skin painting with trinitrochlorobenzene, and their spleen cells were used a) for in vitro secondary sensitization to syngeneic spleen cells conjugated with limiting concentrations of trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNP-self) or b) as a source of radioresistant helper cells for augmenting the TNP-self CTL response generated by spleen cells from unimmunized C3H/He, C57Bl/6, and F 1 mice. The results indicate that strong or weak in vitro secondary CTL responses could be obtained in the H-2/sup k/ or H-2/sup b/ strain, respectively. This strain-dependent genetic difference was also observed in (H-2/sup b/ x H-2/sup k/)F 1 mice. These results permit the detection of the Ir gene defect in the anti-TNP-H-2/sup b/ self CTL response at both the helper and cytotoxic precursor cell levels

  1. IL-6 Production by TLR-Activated APC Broadly Enhances Aged Cognate CD4 Helper and B Cell Antibody Responses In Vivo.

    Brahmakshatriya, Vinayak; Kuang, Yi; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Xia, Jingya; Zhang, Wenliang; Vong, Allen Minh; Swain, Susan L

    2017-04-01

    Naive CD4 T cell responses, especially their ability to help B cell responses, become compromised with aging. We find that using APC pretreated ex vivo with TLR agonists, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and CpG, to prime naive CD4 T cells in vivo, restores their ability to expand and become germinal center T follicular helpers and enhances B cell IgG Ab production. Enhanced helper responses are dependent on IL-6 production by the activated APC. Aged naive CD4 T cells respond suboptimally to IL-6 compared with young cells, such that higher doses are required to induce comparable signaling. Preactivating APC overcomes this deficiency. Responses of young CD4 T cells are also enhanced by preactivating APC with similar effects but with only partial IL-6 dependency. Strikingly, introducing just the activated APC into aged mice significantly enhances otherwise compromised Ab production to inactivated influenza vaccine. These findings reveal a central role for the production of IL-6 by APC during initial cognate interactions in the generation of effective CD4 T cell help, which becomes greater with age. Without APC activation, aging CD4 T cell responses shift toward IL-6-independent Th1 and CD4 cytotoxic Th cell responses. Thus, strategies that specifically activate and provide Ag to APC could potentially enhance Ab-mediated protection in vaccine responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these “type 2 immune response-related” cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed. PMID:26044597

  3. Enhanced IgG4 production by follicular helper 2 T cells and the involvement of follicular helper 1 T cells in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    Akiyama, Mitsuhiro; Yasuoka, Hidekata; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kaneko, Yuko; Kondo, Harumi; Kassai, Yoshiaki; Koga, Keiko; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Morita, Rimpei; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2016-07-13

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of circulating follicular helper T (Tfh) cell subsets in helping B cells in patients with active, untreated IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and determine their relationship with disease activity. Seventeen consecutive patients with active, untreated IgG4-RD, 20 with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), 5 with multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), and 12 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Tfh cell subset function was evaluated by co-culture with naïve B cells in vitro. Activated Tfh cell subsets were defined as a CCR7(low)PD-1(high) subset among Tfh cell subsets. Disease activity was evaluated by IgG4-RD responder index (IgG4-RD RI) score. The number of Tfh2 cells was significantly higher in IgG4-RD compared to pSS, MCD, or HC, and correlated with serum IgG4 level or the number of plasmablasts. In vitro, Tfh2 cells more efficiently induced the differentiation of naïve B cells into plasmablasts compared to Tfh1 or Tfh17 cells. Of note, while IgG production in culture supernatants of Tfh2 cells was comparable between IgG4-RD and HC, IgG4 production was significantly higher with Tfh2 cells from patients with IgG4-RD than in those from HC. Accordingly, the IgG4:IgG ratio in culture supernatants was also significantly higher with Tfh2 cells from IgG4-RD compared to HC. Moreover, the number of activated Tfh2 cells was higher in IgG4-RD compared to pSS, MCD, or HC, and strongly correlated with IgG4-RD RI score in the baseline active phase. Particularly, the number of activated Tfh2 cells was associated with the number of affected organs and serum IgG4 level. Importantly, the number of activated Tfh2 cells was decreased after glucocorticoid treatment and paralleled disease improvement. Moreover, the number of activated Tfh1 cells was also increased in IgG4-RD compared to pSS, MCD, or HC, correlating with IgG4-RD RI score, but not with serum IgG4 level. Tfh2 cells, but not Tfh1 or Tfh17 cells, induce the differentiation of

  4. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part H. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #25--Household Appliance Mechanic; #26--Lineworker; #27--Painter Helper, Spray; #28--Painter, Brush; #29--Carpenter Apprentice.

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fifth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Household Appliance Mechanic; Lineworker; Painter Helper, Spray; Painter, Brush; and Carpenter Apprentice. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE…

  5. The influence of flexible management practices on the sharing of experiential knowledge in the workplace: a case study of food service helpers.

    Ledoux, Elise; Cloutier, Esther; Fournier, Pierre-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the job knowledge and prudent knowledge of experienced workers constitute a wealth that needs to be shared in workplaces to promote worker integration, job retention and occupational health and safety. It appears, however, that certain management practices undermine this knowledge sharing process. This case study of food service helpers in institutional food service departments is part of a research project aimed at comparing the impact of different work organization methods on knowledge sharing in the workplace on the basis of case studies carried out in several organizations. The results of this case study reveal that by destabilizing and weakening the work teams, flexible management practices create an environment that is not conducive to experiential knowledge sharing.

  6. Saponins from soy bean and mung bean inhibit the antigen specific activation of helper T cells by blocking cell cycle progression.

    Lee, Suk Jun; Bae, Joonbeom; Kim, Sunhee; Jeong, Seonah; Choi, Chang-Yong; Choi, Sang-Pil; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Jung, Woon-Won; Imm, Jee-Young; Kim, Sae Hun; Chun, Taehoon

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of helper T (Th) cells with saponins from soy bean and mung bean prevented their activation by inhibiting cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. However, the saponins did not affect the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (A(b)) and co-stimulatory molecule (CD86) on professional antigen-presenting cells. Instead, the saponins directly inhibited Th cell proliferation by blocking the G(1) to S phase cell cycle transition. Moreover, blocking of the cell cycle by the saponins was achieved by decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and constitutive expression of p27(KIP1). Saponins also increased stability of p27(KIP1) in Th cells after antigenic stimulation.

  7. Skewed Helper T-Cell Responses to IL-12 Family Cytokines Produced by Antigen-Presenting Cells and the Genetic Background in Behcet’s Disease

    Jun Shimizu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet’s disease (BD is a multisystemic inflammatory disease and is characterized by recurrent attacks on eyes, brain, skin, and gut. There is evidence that skewed T-cell responses contributed to its pathophysiology in patients with BD. Recently, we found that Th17 cells, a new helper T (Th cell subset, were increased in patients with BD, and both Th type 1 (Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation signaling pathways were overactivated. Several researches revealed that genetic polymorphisms in Th1/Th17 cell differentiation signaling pathways were associated with the onset of BD. Here, we summarize current findings on the Th cell subsets, their contribution to the pathogenesis of BD and the genetic backgrounds, especially in view of IL-12 family cytokine production and pattern recognition receptors of macrophages/monocytes.

  8. Construction of genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage for simultaneous phage display of gold binding peptide 1 and nuclear matrix protein 22 ScFv antibody.

    Fatemi, Farnaz; Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Mazlomi, Mohammad Ali; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2017-11-01

    The most common techniques of antibody phage display are based on the use of M13 filamentous bacteriophages. This study introduces a new genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage displaying multiple copies of a known gold binding peptide on p8 coat proteins. The recombinant helper phages were used to rescue a phagemid vector encoding the p3 coat protein fused to the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) ScFv antibody. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the expression of gold binding peptide 1 (GBP1) on major coat protein p8 significantly enhances the gold-binding affinity of M13 phages. The recombinant bacteriophages at concentrations above 5×10 4 pfu/ml red-shifted the UV-vis absorbance spectra of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); however, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was not changed by the wild type bacteriophages at concentrations up to 10 12 pfu/ml. The phage ELISA assay demonstrated the high affinity binding of bifunctional bacteriophages to NMP22 antigen at concentrations of 10 5 and 10 6 pfu/ml. Thus, the p3 end of the bifunctional bacteriophages would be able to bind to specific target antigen, while the AuNPs were assembled along the coat of virus for signal generation. Our results indicated that the complex of antigen-bacteriophages lead to UV-vis spectral changes of AuNPs and NMP22 antigen in concentration range of 10-80μg/ml can be detected by bifunctional bacteriophages at concentration of 10 4 pfu/ml. The ability of bifunctional bacteriophages to bind to antigen and generate signal at the same time, makes this approach applicable for identifying different antigens in immunoassay techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. HaCaT Keratinocytes and Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes Have Different Transcriptional Profiles of Cornified Envelope-Associated Genes to T Helper Cell Cytokines

    Seo, Min-Duk; Kang, Tae Jin; Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    HaCaT cells are the immortalized human keratinocytes and have been extensively used to study the epidermal homeostasis and its pathophysiology. T helper cells play a role in various chronic dermatological conditions and they can affect skin barrier homeostasis. To evaluate whether HaCaT cells can be used as a model cell system to study abnormal skin barrier development in various dermatologic diseases, we analyzed the gene expression profile of epidermal differentiation markers of HaCaT cells in response to major T helper (Th) cell cytokines, such as IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17A and IL-22. The gene transcriptional profile of cornified envelope-associated proteins, such as filaggrin, loricrin, involucrin and keratin 10 (KRT10), in HaCaT cells was generally different from that in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). This suggests that HaCaT cells have a limitation as a model system to study the pathophysiological mechanism associated with the Th cell cytokine-dependent changes in cornified envelope-associated proteins which are essential for normal skin barrier development. In contrast, the gene transcription profile change of human β2-defensin (HBD2) in response to IFNγ, IL-4 or IL-17A in HaCaT cells was consistent with the expression pattern of NHKs. IFNγ also up-regulated transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) gene transcription in both HaCaT cells and NHKs. As an alternative cell culture system for NHKs, HaCaT cells can be used to study molecular mechanisms associated with abnormal HBD2 and TGM2 expression in response to IFNγ, IL-4 or IL-17A. PMID:24116291

  10. P2X7 receptor drives Th1 cell differentiation and controls the follicular helper T cell population to protect against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria.

    Érika Machado de Salles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of protective immunity is crucial to improve vaccine strategies to eradicate malaria. However, it is still unclear whether recognition of damage signals influences the immune response to Plasmodium infection. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP accumulates in infected erythrocytes and is released into the extracellular milieu through ion channels in the erythrocyte membrane or upon erythrocyte rupture. The P2X7 receptor senses extracellular ATP and induces CD4 T cell activation and death. Here we show that P2X7 receptor promotes T helper 1 (Th1 cell differentiation to the detriment of follicular T helper (Tfh cells during blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. The P2X7 receptor was activated in CD4 T cells following the rupture of infected erythrocytes and these cells became highly responsive to ATP during acute infection. Moreover, mice lacking the P2X7 receptor had increased susceptibility to infection, which correlated with impaired Th1 cell differentiation. Accordingly, IL-2 and IFNγ secretion, as well as T-bet expression, critically depended on P2X7 signaling in CD4 T cells. Additionally, P2X7 receptor controlled the splenic Tfh cell population in infected mice by promoting apoptotic-like cell death. Finally, the P2X7 receptor was required to generate a balanced Th1/Tfh cell population with an improved ability to transfer parasite protection to CD4-deficient mice. This study provides a new insight into malaria immunology by showing the importance of P2X7 receptor in controlling the fine-tuning between Th1 and Tfh cell differentiation during P. chabaudi infection and thus in disease outcome.

  11. Effect of ginseng polysaccharides and dendritic cells on the balance of Th1/Th2 T helper cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Ma, Junjie; Liu, Huiping; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of thorascopic administration.of ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) plus dendritic cells (DC) on T helper cell type 1/T helper cell type 2 (Th1/Th2) balance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 96 NSCLC patients were divided evenly into two groups. The control group was treated with DCs alone and the treatment group was treated with DCs plus GPS. After DCs and GPS were administered thoracoscopically, once a week, 4 times for 30 days, the patients' quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire before and after treatment. Serum interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-2 and IL-5 were examined before and after treatments. The level of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/ IL-5) increased in both treatment groups, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and FACT-L scores decreased (P GPS group than in the control group (P L scores and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) were higher in the control group than in the DCs + GPS group (P GPS had a greater effect on NSCLC patients' immune function as compared with DCs alone. This was evident by increased expression of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/IL-5), as well as by decreased FACT-L scores and the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5).

  12. Redundant Notch1 and Notch2 signaling is necessary for IFNγ secretion by T helper 1 cells during infection with Leishmania major.

    Floriane Auderset

    Full Text Available The protective immune response to intracellular parasites involves in most cases the differentiation of IFNγ-secreting CD4(+ T helper (Th 1 cells. Notch receptors regulate cell differentiation during development but their implication in the polarization of peripheral CD4(+ T helper 1 cells is not well understood. Of the four Notch receptors, only Notch1 (N1 and Notch2 (N2 are expressed on activated CD4(+ T cells. To investigate the role of Notch in Th1 cell differentiation following parasite infection, mice with T cell-specific gene ablation of N1, N2 or both (N1N2(ΔCD4Cre were infected with the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. N1N2(ΔCD4Cre mice, on the C57BL/6 L. major-resistant genetic background, developed unhealing lesions and uncontrolled parasitemia. Susceptibility correlated with impaired secretion of IFNγ by draining lymph node CD4(+ T cells and increased secretion of the IL-5 and IL-13 Th2 cytokines. Mice with single inactivation of N1 or N2 in their T cells were resistant to infection and developed a protective Th1 immune response, showing that CD4(+ T cell expression of N1 or N2 is redundant in driving Th1 differentiation. Furthermore, we show that Notch signaling is required for the secretion of IFNγ by Th1 cells. This effect is independent of CSL/RBP-Jκ, the major effector of Notch receptors, since L. major-infected mice with a RBP-Jκ deletion in their T cells were able to develop IFNγ-secreting Th1 cells, kill parasites and heal their lesions. Collectively, we demonstrate here a crucial role for RBP-Jκ-independent Notch signaling in the differentiation of a functional Th1 immune response following L. major infection.

  13. Murine Adseverin (D5), a Novel Member of the Gelsolin Family, and Murine Adseverin Are Induced by Interleukin-9 in T-Helper Lymphocytes

    Robbens, Johan; Louahed, Jamila; De Pestel, Kathleen; Van Colen, Inge; Ampe, Christophe; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Renauld, Jean-Christophe

    1998-01-01

    We identified a number of upregulated genes by differential screening of interleukin-9-stimulated T-helper lymphocytes. Interestingly, two of these messengers encode proteins that are similar to proteins of the gelsolin family. The first displays a typical structure of six homologous domains and shows a high level of identity (90%) with bovine adseverin (or scinderin) and may therefore be considered the murine adseverin homolog. The second encodes a protein with only five segments. Sequence comparison shows that most of the fifth segment and a short amino-terminal part of the sixth segment (amino acids 528 to 628 of adseverin) are missing, and thus, this form may represent an alternatively spliced product derived from the same gene. The corresponding protein is called mouse adseverin (D5). We expressed both proteins in Escherichia coli and show that mouse adseverin displays the typical characteristics of all members of the gelsolin family with respect to actin binding (capping, severing, and nucleation) and its regulation by Ca2+. In contrast, mouse adseverin (D5) fails to nucleate actin polymerization, although like mouse adseverin and gelsolin, it severs and caps actin filaments in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Adseverin is present in all of the tissues and most of the cell lines tested, although at low concentrations. Mouse adseverin (D5) was found only in blood cells and in cell lines derived from T-helper lymphocytes and mast cells, where it is weakly expressed. In a gel filtration experiment, we demonstrated that mouse adseverin forms a 1:2 complex with G actin which is stable only in the presence of Ca2+, while no stable complex was observed for mouse adseverin (D5). PMID:9671468

  14. Induction of Th1-Biased T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Chronic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Defines Functionally Distinct Germinal Center Tfh Cells.

    Velu, Vijayakumar; Mylvaganam, Geetha Hanna; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Hong, Jung Joo; Iyer, Smita S; Gumber, Sanjeev; Ibegbu, Chris C; Villinger, Francois; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-09-01

    Chronic HIV infection is associated with accumulation of germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the lymphoid tissue. The GC Tfh cells can be heterogeneous based on the expression of chemokine receptors associated with T helper lineages, such as CXCR3 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), and CCR6 (Th17). However, the heterogeneous nature of GC Tfh cells in the lymphoid tissue and its association with viral persistence and Ab production during chronic SIV/HIV infection are not known. To address this, we characterized the expression of CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6 on GC Tfh cells in lymph nodes following SIVmac251 infection in rhesus macaques. In SIV-naive rhesus macaques, only a small fraction of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6. However, during chronic SIV infection, the majority of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, whereas the proportion of CCR4(+) cells did not change, and CCR6(+) cells decreased. CXCR3(+), but not CXCR3(-), GC Tfh cells produced IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) and IL-21 (Tfh cytokine), whereas both subsets expressed CD40L following stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated an accumulation of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells within the hyperplastic follicles during chronic SIV infection. CXCR3(+) GC Tfh cells also expressed higher levels of ICOS, CCR5, and α4β7 and contained more copies of SIV DNA compared with CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells. However, CXCR3(+) and CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells delivered help to B cells in vitro for production of IgG. These data demonstrate that chronic SIV infection promotes expansion of Th1-biased GC Tfh cells, which are phenotypically and functionally distinct from conventional GC Tfh cells and contribute to hypergammaglobulinemia and viral reservoirs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Rat eosinophils stimulate the expansion of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a T-helper 1 profile

    Garro, Ana P; Chiapello, Laura S; Baronetti, José L; Masih, Diana T

    2011-01-01

    Experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats has been shown to have similarities with human cryptococcosis, revealing a strong granulomatous response and a low susceptibility to dissemination. Moreover, it has been shown that eosinophils are components of the inflammatory response to C. neoformans infections. In this in vitro study, we demonstrated that rat peritoneal eosinophils phagocytose opsonized live yeasts of C. neoformans, and that the phenomenon involves the engagement of FcγRII and CD18. Moreover, our results showed that the phagocytosis of opsonized C. neoformans triggers eosinophil activation, as indicated by (i) the up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC class II and costimulatory molecules, and (ii) an increase in interleukin (IL)-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. However, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) synthesis by eosinophils was down-regulated after interaction with C. neoformans. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes isolated from spleens of infected rats and cultured with C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils proliferate in an MHC class II- and class I-dependent manner, respectively, and produce important amounts of T-helper 1 (Th1) type cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in the absence of T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine synthesis. In summary, the present study demonstrates that eosinophils act as fungal antigen-presenting cells and suggests that C. neoformans-loaded eosinophils might participate in the adaptive immune response. PMID:21039463

  16. A shift in the collagen V antigenic epitope leads to T helper phenotype switch and immune response to self-antigen leading to chronic lung allograft rejection.

    Tiriveedhi, V; Angaswamy, N; Brand, D; Weber, J; Gelman, A G; Hachem, R; Trulock, E P; Meyers, B; Patterson, G; Mohanakumar, T

    2012-01-01

    Immune responses to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and self-antigen collagen V (Col-V) have been proposed in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, BOS) following human lung transplantation (LTx). In this study, we defined the role for the shift in immunodominant epitopes of Col-V in inducing T helper phenotype switch leading to immunity to Col-V and BOS. Sera and lavage from BOS(+) LTx recipients with antibodies to Col-V were analysed. Two years prior to BOS, patients developed antibodies to both Col-V,α1(V) and α2(V) chains. However, at clinical diagnosis of BOS, antibodies became restricted to α1(V). Further, lung biopsy from BOS(+) patients bound to antibodies to α1(V), indicating that these epitopes are exposed. Fourteen Col-V peptides [pep1-14, pep1-4 specific to α1(V), pep5-8 to α1,2(V) and pep9-14 to α2(V)] which bind to HLA-DR4 and -DR7, demonstrated that prior to BOS, pep 6, 7, 9, 11 and 14 were immunodominant and induced interleukin (IL)-10. However, at BOS, the response switched to pep1, 4 and 5 and induced interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-17 responses, but not IL-10. The T helper (Th) phenotype switch is accompanied by decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) in the lavage. LTx recipients with antibodies to α1(V) also demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation with decreased MMP inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), suggesting that MMP activation may play a role in the exposure of new Col-V antigenic epitopes. We conclude that a shift in immunodominance of self-antigenic determinants of Col-V results in induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 with loss of tolerance leading to autoimmunity to Col-V, which leads to chronic lung allograft rejection. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Transcriptional Response of Human Neurospheres to Helper-Dependent CAV-2 Vectors Involves the Modulation of DNA Damage Response, Microtubule and Centromere Gene Groups.

    Stefania Piersanti

    Full Text Available Brain gene transfer using viral vectors will likely become a therapeutic option for several disorders. Helper-dependent (HD canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2 are well suited for this goal. These vectors are poorly immunogenic, efficiently transduce neurons, are retrogradely transported to afferent structures in the brain and lead to long-term transgene expression. CAV-2 vectors are being exploited to unravel behavior, cognition, neural networks, axonal transport and therapy for orphan diseases. With the goal of better understanding and characterizing HD-CAV-2 for brain therapy, we analyzed the transcriptomic modulation induced by HD-CAV-2 in human differentiated neurospheres derived from midbrain progenitors. This 3D model system mimics several aspects of the dynamic nature of human brain. We found that differentiated neurospheres are readily transduced by HD-CAV-2 and that transduction generates two main transcriptional responses: a DNA damage response and alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes. Future investigations on the biochemistry of processes highlighted by probe modulations will help defining the implication of HD-CAV-2 and CAR receptor binding in enchaining these functional pathways. We suggest here that the modulation of DNA damage genes is related to viral DNA, while the alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes is possibly enchained by the interaction of the HD-CAV-2 fibre with CAR.

  18. Efficient delivery and stable gene expression in a hematopoietic cell line using a chimeric serotype 35 fiber pseudotyped helper-dependent adenoviral vector

    Balamotis, Michael Andrew; Huang, Katie; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2004-01-01

    Certain human cell populations have remained difficult to infect with human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 because of their lack of coxsackievirus B-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Native adenovirus fiber compositions, although diverse, cannot infect all tissue types. Recently, a chimeric Ad5/35 fiber was created, which displays an altered tropism from Ad5. We incorporated this chimeric fiber into a helper-dependent (HD) adenovirus vector system and compared HD to E1-deleted (E1Δ) vectors by transgene expression, cell transduction efficiency, and cytotoxicity. K562 cells were infected ∼50 times more efficiently with the chimeric Ad5/35 fiber compared with the Ad5 fiber. Short-term transgene expression was sustained longer from HD Ad5/35 than E1Δ Ad5/35 vector after in vitro infection of actively dividing K562 cells. Rapid loss of transgene expression from E1Δ Ad5/35 infection was not due to the loss of vector genomes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), or cytotoxicity, but rather through a putative silencing mechanism

  19. Two types of T helper cells in mice: Differences in cellular immune functions and cytokine secretion - selective reduction of one type after total lymphoid irradiation

    Bass, H.Z.

    1989-01-01

    As observed from a large panel of mouse T helper clones, there are at least two subsets of CD4 + T cells that both differ in function and demonstrate distinct patterns of cytokine secretion after antigen or mitogen stimulation. Th1 cells synthesize IL-2, INF-γ and lymphotoxin. They produce a DTH reaction in the footpads of naive mice. In addition, Th1 cells are required for the generation of CTL, and they appear to augment IgG2a antibody production. In contrast, by secreting IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, Th2 cells play an essential role in humoral immunity. TLI consists of high dose, fractionated irradiation delivered selectively to the major lymphoid tissues. Four to six weeks after TLI, the CD4 + cells of the treated mice (counted as a percentage of the total spleen lymphocytes) recover to the similar levels as those in normal BALB/c mice. These CD4 + cells can help normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP-KLH in adoptive cell transfer experiments, but the same cells are inactive in the MLR, and they fail to transfer DTH in TNP-KLH primed syngeneic BALB/c mice

  20. Pre-employment medical examination of Indonesian domestic helpers in a private clinic in Johor Bahru--an eight year review.

    Leong, C C

    2006-12-01

    On review of 3117 patients' records (all were female Indonesian foreign workers over the span of eight years (1997 to 2004 in a private clinic in Johor Bahru, 223 cases (7.2%) were found to have various medical problems. These 3117 foreigners were to be employed as domestic helpers in Malaysia. They were examined upon arrival in Johor Bahru even though our government did not require this pre-requisite (before 1st August 2005) as they were examined and certified fit in their country of origin before embarking to Malaysia. The proportion of female Indonesian foreign workers who were afflicted with category 1 conditions was 55.6% (which rendered them unfit for employment) and category 2 conditions was 44.4%. The medical problem detected most frequently was hypertension. Sixty-one (80.3%) out of 76 workers had stage 2 hypertension (JNC 7 report). Pulmonary tuberculosis ranked second in this review and is a category 1 condition. This paper supports the recent move by the Malaysian Ministry of Health to implement mandatory medical examinations for all foreign workers arriving in Malaysia within one month of arrival regardless of whether or not they are certified fit in their countries of origin.

  1. A noncognate interaction with anti-receptor antibody-activated helper T cells induces small resting murine B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody

    Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    on resting B cells (even in the presence of intact F23.1 antibody), but could induce antibody secretion by anti-Ig-preactivated B cells. Both F23.1+ clones (E9.D4 and 4.35F2) and one F23.1- clone (D2.2) could synergize with supernatants from activated E9.D4 T cells to induce B cell activation. F(ab')2......Culture of small resting allogeneic B cells (of an irrelevant haplotype) with two clones of T helper (Th) cells that were activated by the F23.1 anti-T cell receptor antibody led to the activation of B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody. Th cell supernatants by themselves had no effect...... fragments of F23.1 induced E9.D4 to activate B cells as efficiently as intact F23.1 and B cell populations that had been incubated with F23.1 were not activated when cultured with E9.D4, although T cells recognized cell-presented F23.1 and were weakly activated. Reduction of the density of F23.1 adsorbed...

  2. Induction of Robust B Cell Responses after Influenza mRNA Vaccination Is Accompanied by Circulating Hemagglutinin-Specific ICOS+ PD-1+ CXCR3+ T Follicular Helper Cells

    Gustaf Lindgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that protective levels of antibodies to hemagglutinin were induced after two immunizations of modified non-replicating mRNA encoding influenza H10 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP in non-human primates. While both intradermal (ID and intramuscular (IM administration induced protective titers, ID delivery generated this response more rapidly. Circulating H10-specific memory B cells expanded after each immunization, along with a transient appearance of plasmablasts. The memory B cell pool waned over time but remained detectable throughout the 25-week study. Following prime immunization, H10-specific plasma cells were found in the bone marrow and persisted over time. Germinal centers were formed in vaccine-draining lymph nodes along with an increase in circulating H10-specific ICOS+ PD-1+ CXCR3+ T follicular helper cells, a population shown to correlate with high avidity antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccination in humans. Collectively, this study demonstrates that mRNA/LNP vaccines potently induce an immunological repertoire associated with the generation of high magnitude and quality antibodies.

  3. LKB1 inhibition of NF-κB in B cells prevents T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center formation.

    Walsh, Nicole C; Waters, Lynnea R; Fowler, Jessica A; Lin, Mark; Cunningham, Cameron R; Brooks, David G; Rehg, Jerold E; Morse, Herbert C; Teitell, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    T-cell-dependent antigenic stimulation drives the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells, but how B cells regulate this process is unclear. We show that LKB1 expression in B cells maintains B-cell quiescence and prevents the premature formation of germinal centers (GCs). Lkb1-deficient B cells (BKO) undergo spontaneous B-cell activation and secretion of multiple inflammatory cytokines, which leads to splenomegaly caused by an unexpected expansion of T cells. Within this cytokine response, increased IL-6 production results from heightened activation of NF-κB, which is suppressed by active LKB1. Secreted IL-6 drives T-cell activation and IL-21 production, promoting T follicular helper (TFH ) cell differentiation and expansion to support a ~100-fold increase in steady-state GC B cells. Blockade of IL-6 secretion by BKO B cells inhibits IL-21 expression, a known inducer of TFH -cell differentiation and expansion. Together, these data reveal cell intrinsic and surprising cell extrinsic roles for LKB1 in B cells that control TFH -cell differentiation and GC formation, and place LKB1 as a central regulator of T-cell-dependent humoral immunity. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. CD4+ T cell-derived novel peptide Thp5 induces interleukin-4 production in CD4+ T cells to direct T helper 2 cell differentiation.

    Khan, Mohd Moin; Chatterjee, Samit; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Pandey, Nishant Kumar; Singh, Yogesh; Tousif, Sultan; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Van Kaer, Luc; Das, Jyoti; Das, Gobardhan

    2012-01-20

    The differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells requires production of the cytokine IL-4 in the local microenvironment. It is evident that naïve/quiescently activated CD4(+) T cells produce the IL-4 that drives Th2 cell differentiation. Because early production of IL-4 in naïve T cells leads to preferential Th2 cell differentiation, this process needs to be tightly regulated so as to avoid catastrophic and misdirected Th2 cell differentiation. Here, we show that Thp5, a novel peptide with structural similarity to vasoactive intestinal peptide, regulates production of early IL-4 in newly activated CD4(+) T cells. Induction of IL-4 in CD4(+) T cells by Thp5 is independent of the transcription factor STAT6 but dependent on ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, cytokines (IL-12 and TGF-β) that promote the differentiation of Th1 or Th17 cells inhibit Thp5 induction, thus suppressing Th2 cell differentiation. We further showed that Thp5 enhances Th2 responses and exacerbates allergic airway inflammation in mice. Taken together, our findings reveal that early activated CD4(+) T cells produce Thp5, which plays a critical role as a molecular switch in the differentiation of Th cells, biasing the response toward the Th2 cell phenotype.

  5. De novo generation of helper virus-satellite chimera RNAs results in disease attenuation and satellite sequence acquisition in a host-dependent manner.

    Pyle, J D; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2018-01-15

    Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) is a helper RNA virus for satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and a satellite virus (SPMV). Here, we describe modifications that occur at the 3'-end of a satRNA of PMV, satS. Co-infections of PMV+satS result in attenuation of the disease symptoms induced by PMV alone in Brachypodium distachyon and proso millet. The 375 nt satS acquires ~100-200 nts from the 3'-end of PMV during infection and is associated with decreased abundance of the PMV RNA and capsid protein in millet. PMV-satS chimera RNAs were isolated from native infections of St. Augustinegrass and switchgrass. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the chimeric RNAs clustered according to the host species from which they were isolated. Additionally, the chimera satRNAs acquired non-viral "linker" sequences in a host-specific manner. These results highlight the dynamic regulation of viral pathogenicity by satellites, and the selective host-dependent, sequence-based pressures for driving satRNA generation and genome compositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Phytochemical Bergenin Enhances T Helper 1 Responses and Anti-Mycobacterial Immunity by Activating the MAP Kinase Pathway in Macrophages

    Debprasad Chattopadhyay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the greatest health concerns worldwide, which has hindered socioeconomic development in certain parts of the world for many centuries. Although current TB therapy, “Directly Observed Treatment Short-course,” is effective, it is associated with unwanted side effects and the risk for the generation of drug-resistant organisms. The majority of infected individuals successfully confine the mycobacterial organisms and remain asymptotic unless immune responses are perturbed. Thus, host immunity can protect against TB and immunomodulation is therefore an attractive therapeutic option. Previous studies have shown that TNF-α and Nitric Oxide (NO in conjunction with IFN-γ-producing T helper 1 (Th1 cells play critical roles in host protection against TB. Here, we show that bergenin, a phytochemical isolated from tender leaves of Shorea robusta, activates the MAP kinase and ERK pathways and induces TNF-α, NO and IL-12 production in infected macrophages. We further show that bergenin induces Th1 immune responses and potently inhibits bacillary growth in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These findings identify bergenin as a potential adjunct to TB therapy.

  7. Multivalent presentation of MPL by porous silicon microparticles favors T helper 1 polarization enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin nanoliposomes.

    Meraz, Ismail M; Hearnden, Claire H; Liu, Xuewu; Yang, Marie; Williams, Laura; Savage, David J; Gu, Jianhua; Rhudy, Jessica R; Yokoi, Kenji; Lavelle, Ed C; Serda, Rita E

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and proinflammatory monocytes, and the depletion of resident macrophages and mast cells at the injection site. Injection of microparticle-bound MPL resulted in enhanced secretion of the T helper 1 associated cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α by peritoneal exudate and lymph node cells in response to secondary stimuli while decreasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. MPL-pSi microparticles independently exhibited anti-tumor effects and enhanced tumor suppression by low dose doxorubicin nanoliposomes. Intravascular injection of the MPL-bound microparticles increased serum IL-1β levels, which was blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. The microparticles also potentiated tumor infiltration by dendritic cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and F4/80+ macrophages, however, a specific reduction was observed in CD204+ macrophages.

  8. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency.

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-02-15

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine model of MHCII deficiency (RFX5- or CIITA-deficient mice) that residual MHCII expression by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is sufficient to support activation of adoptively transferred Th cells. Furthermore, upon transplantation of WT thymic epithelium, we observed development of endogenous Th cells with restoration of Th-cell-dependent antibody responses and immunity to cytomegalovirus infection, thus opening the possibility of an alternative treatment regimen for BLS. Residual MHCII expression was further induced by the presence of Th cells and also other stimuli. Analysis of CIITA/RFX5 double-deficient animals revealed that this inducible MHCII expression is genetically independent of the known promoter complex and thus constitutes an alternative MHCII expression pathway. In these experiments, we also detected a novel repressive function of the RFX complex in the absence of CIITA.

  9. Human xenospecific T suppressor cells inhibit T helper cell proliferation to porcine aortic endothelial cells, and NF-kappaB activity in porcine APC.

    Ciubotariu, R; Li, J; Colovai, A I; Platt, J L; Cortesini, R; Suciu Foca Cortesini, N

    2001-05-01

    Human T suppressor cells (Ts), capable of preventing autologous T helper cells (Th) from reacting against xenogeneic pig endothelial cells and pig APC can be generated in vitro. Ts derive from a population of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) T lymphocytes and specifically recognize the MHC class I antigens of the APC used for in vitro immunization. To study the mechanism that underlies suppression, we investigated whether Ts inhibit the expression of costimulatory molecules in xenogeneic professional and semiprofessional APC. We found that Ts down-regulate Th-induced expression of CD86 in pig APC, and that this effect occurs at the level of transcription, as indicated by nuclear run-on and Northern blot assays. EMSA results revealed that inhibition of CD86 expression is mediated by inactivation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Furthermore, transfection of pig APC with a vector expressing NF-kappaB p65 partially rescued Th-induced expression of the CD86 molecule. These results strongly support the concept that xenospecific Ts inhibit the APC function of xenogeneic cells by preventing activation of NF-kappaB.

  10. Variations in T-helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells during The Menstrual Cycle in Peripheral Blood of Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Nasrin Sereshki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders in immune system regulation may result in pregnancy abnormalities such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. This study aims to determine the ratio of regulatory T (Treg and T helper (Th 17 cells in unexplained RSA (URSA women during proliferative and secretory phases of their menstrual cycles compared to healthy non-pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 25 women with URSA and 35 healthy, non-pregnant women were enrolled. The percentage of Th17 and Treg cells in participants peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. Results: The percentage of Th17 cells and their related cytokines in serum (IL-17A were higher in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycles of URSA women compared to the control women. However, a lower percentage of Treg cells and their related cytokines in serum, transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and interleukin (IL-10 were detected in the proliferative but not the secretory phase of the URSA group. The ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg was higher in the URSA group than the control group. We observed an increased ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg during the proliferative and secretory phases in URSA women. Conclusion: The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells during the proliferative phase of menstrual cycles in the URSA group may be considered a cause for spontaneous abortion.

  11. Studies on the immune response to fixed antigens. Preferential induction of helper function with heavily trinitrophenylated sheep erythrocytes, and glutaraldehyde-treated sheep erythrocytes

    Kahan, M.; Berman-Goldman, R.; Saltoun, R.; Naor, D.

    1976-01-01

    Mice primed with heavily trinitrophenylated sheep red cells (TNP 128 SRC) or glutaraldehyde-treated sheep red cells (G-SRC) developed an early helper function mediated by thymus-derived cells. Such mice were able to produce high secondary responses to both hapten and carrier after challenge 2 days after priming, with lightly trinitrophenylated SRC (TNP 0 . 14 SRC). However, the primary response of the TNP 128 SRC or G-SRC-primed mice were very low to undetectable, and their secondary responses were also low when the challenge antigen was administered 4 days after priming or later. Inhibitory humoral factor(s) which were induced in the primed animals appeared responsible for the decreased capacity of primed mice to mount a secondary response when challenged later than 2 days after priming. Transfer of spleen cells from TNP 128 SRC-primed mice to sublethally irradiated recipients circumvents their exposure to inhibitory humoral factor(s) present in intact animals allowing them to react with challenge antigen. Enriched populations of T cells, but not B cells, were able to transfer this early immunologic memory to irradiated recipients. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed

  12. Adiponectin Suppresses T Helper 17 Cell Differentiation and Limits Autoimmune CNS Inflammation via the SIRT1/PPARγ/RORγt Pathway.

    Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yawei; Ge, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhihui; Da, Yurong; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zimu; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Ren, Yinghui; Jia, Long; Chan, Koon-Ho; Yang, Fengrui; Yan, Jun; Yao, Zhi; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

    2017-09-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells are vital components of the adaptive immune system involved in the pathogenesis of most autoimmune and inflammatory syndromes, and adiponectin(ADN) is correlated with inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and type II diabetes. However, the regulatory effects of adiponectin on pathogenic Th17 cell and Th17-mediated autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that ADN could inhibit Th1 and Th17 but not Th2 cells differentiation in vitro. In the in vivo study, we demonstrated that ADN deficiency promoted CNS inflammation and demyelination and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human MS. Furthermore, ADN deficiency increased the Th1 and Th17 cell cytokines of both the peripheral immune system and CNS in mice suffering from EAE. It is worth mentioning that ADN deficiency predominantly promoted the antigen-specific Th17 cells response in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, in vitro and in vivo, ADN upregulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and inhibited retinoid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt); the key transcription factor during Th17 cell differentiation. These results systematically uncovered the role and mechanism of adiponectin on pathogenic Th17 cells and suggested that adiponectin could inhibit Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune CNS inflammation.

  13. The Phenotype of Circulating Follicular-Helper T Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Defines CD200 as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    Aron Chakera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune disease primarily affecting synovial joints in which the development of autoantibodies represents a failure of normal tolerance mechanisms, suggesting a role for follicular helper T cells (TFH in the genesis of autoimmunity. To determine whether quantitative or qualitative abnormalities in the circulating TFH cell population exist, we analysed by flow cytometry the number and profile of these cells in 35 patients with RA and 15 matched controls. Results were correlated with patient characteristics, including the presence of autoantibodies, disease activity, and treatment with biologic agents. Circulating TFH cells from patients with RA show significantly increased expression of the immunoglobulin superfamily receptor CD200, with highest levels seen in seropositive patients (P=0.0045 and patients treated with anti-TNFα agents (P=0.0008. This occurs in the absence of any change in TFH numbers or overt bias towards Th1, Th2, or Th17 phenotypes. CD200 levels did not correlate with DAS28 scores (P=0.887. Although the number of circulating TFH cells is not altered in the blood of patients with RA, the TFH cells have a distinct phenotype. These differences associate TFH cells with the pathogenesis of RA and support the relevance of the CD200/CD200R signalling pathway as a potential therapeutic target.

  14. Helper T Lymphocyte Response in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Intraepithelial Neoplasia Submitted to Immunotherapy with Pegylated Interferon-α

    Márcia Antoniazi Michelin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy in cancer patients is a very promising treatment and the development of new protocols and the study of the mechanisms of regression is imperative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of cytokines in helper T (CD4+ lymphocytes during immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. We conducted a prospective study with 17 patients with CIN II-III using immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α subcutaneouly weekly, and using flow cytometry we evaluated the peripheric CD4+ T lymphocytes. The results show that in the regression group the patients presented a significant increase in the amount of IFN-γ during the entire immunotherapy, compared with the group without a response. The amount of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β is significantly lower in patients with good clinical response. The results also demonstrate that patients with regression have a higher amount of intracellular TNF-α in CD4+ T lymphocytes before the start of treatment. Analyzing these data sets, it can be concluded that immunotherapy is a viable clinical treatment for patients with high-grade CIN and that the regression is dependent on the change in the immune response to a Th1 pattern.

  15. Cutting Edge: A Critical Role of Lesional T Follicular Helper Cells in the Pathogenesis of IgG4-Related Disease.

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Takano, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Kawata, Koji; Shigehara, Katsunori; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Nagaya, Tomonori; Ito, Fumie; Sato, Akinori; Ogasawara, Noriko; Tsubomatsu, Chieko; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakase, Hiroshi; Himi, Tetsuo; Ichimiya, Shingo

    2017-10-15

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic chronic fibroinflammatory disease. However, the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD remains unknown. To determine the pathophysiologic features of IgG4-RD, we examined T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in lesions and blood from patients with IgG4-RD. Patients with IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialadenitis (IgG4-DS) showed increased infiltration of Tfh cells highly expressing programmed death 1 and ICOS in submandibular glands. Tfh cells from IgG4-DS submandibular glands had higher expression of B cell lymphoma 6 and a greater capacity to help B cells produce IgG4 than did tonsillar Tfh cells. We also found that the percentage of programmed death 1 hi circulating Tfh cells in IgG4-DS patients was higher than that in healthy volunteers and was well correlated with clinical parameters. Our findings indicate that anomalous Tfh cells in tissue lesions of IgG4-RD have features distinct from those in lymphoid counterparts or blood and potentially regulate local IgG4 production in IgG4-RD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. The retained templates as "helpers" for the spherical meso-silica in adsorption of heavy metals and impacts of solution chemistry.

    Liang, Zhijie; Shi, Wenxin; Zhao, Zhiwei; Sun, Tianyi; Cui, Fuyi

    2017-06-15

    The spherical mesoporous silica (meso-silica) MCM-41 and those with different dosage of the retained templates were prepared and characterized. Particularly, effects of the retained template and its dosage on the adsorption of typical heavy metals (Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ ) in the synthesized materials were investigated. The results indicated that the retained templates acted as "helpers" for the adsorption of Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ in the spherical meso-silica MCM-41, and the maximum adsorption capacities (Q max ) increased with the increase of the retained template dosage. The interaction between the metal ions and the cationic heads of the templates contributed to the enhancement effect due to the anions (Cl - and OH - ) electronically adsorbed on the interface of the template micelles. Additionally, the presented results indicated that the adsorption of Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ depended on pH and high ion strength of the solution but not on the coexisted humic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Role for Interleukin-17 in Enhancing Type 1 Helper T Cell Immunity in the Female Genital Tract following Mucosal Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccination.

    Bagri, Puja; Anipindi, Varun C; Nguyen, Philip V; Vitali, Danielle; Stämpfli, Martin R; Kaushic, Charu

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells is critical for antiviral immunity against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genital infection. However, the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production by CD4 + T cells in HSV-2 antiviral immunity is yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IL-17A plays an important role in enhancing antiviral T helper type 1 (T h 1) responses in the female genital tract (FGT) and is essential for effective protection conferred by HSV-2 vaccination. While IL-17A did not play a critical role during primary genital HSV-2 infection, seen by lack of differences in susceptibility between IL-17A-deficient ( IL-17A -/- ) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, it was critical for mediating antiviral responses after challenge/reexposure. Compared to WT mice, IL-17A -/- mice (i) infected intravaginally and reexposed or (ii) vaccinated intranasally and challenged intravaginally demonstrated poor outcomes. Following intravaginal HSV-2 reexposure or challenge, vaccinated IL-17A -/- mice had significantly higher mortality, greater disease severity, higher viral shedding, and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in vaginal secretions. Furthermore, IL-17A -/- mice had impaired T h 1 cell responses after challenge/reexposure, with significantly lower proportions of vaginal IFN-γ + CD4 + T cells. The impaired T h 1 cell responses in IL-17A -/- mice coincided with smaller populations of IFN-γ + CD4 + tissue resident memory T (T RM ) cells in the genital tract postimmunization. Taken together, these findings describe a novel role for IL-17A in regulating antiviral IFN-γ + T h 1 cell immunity in the vaginal tract. This strategy could be exploited to enhance antiviral immunity following HSV-2 vaccination. IMPORTANCE T helper type 1 (T h 1) immunity, specifically interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells, is critical for protection against genital herpesvirus (HSV-2) infection, and

  18. Induction of IL21 in Peripheral T Follicular Helper Cells Is an Indicator of Influenza Vaccine Response in a Previously Vaccinated HIV-Infected Pediatric Cohort.

    de Armas, Lesley R; Cotugno, Nicola; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Pan, Li; Rinaldi, Stefano; Sanchez, M Celeste; Gonzalez, Louis; Cagigi, Alberto; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-03-01

    HIV-infected patients of all ages frequently underperform in response to seasonal influenza vaccination, despite virologic control of HIV. The molecular mechanisms governing this impairment, as well as predictive biomarkers for responsiveness, remain unknown. This study was performed in samples obtained prevaccination (T0) from HIV-infected children who received the 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine. Response status was determined based on established criterion for hemagglutination inhibition titer; participants with a hemagglutination titer ≥1:40 plus a ≥4-fold increase over T0 at 3 wk postvaccination were designated as responders. All children had a history of prior influenza vaccinations. At T0, the frequencies of CD4 T cell subsets, including peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells, which provide help to B cells for developing into Ab-secreting cells, were similar between responders and nonresponders. However, in response to in vitro stimulation with influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) Ag, differential gene expression related to pTfh cell function was observed by Fluidigm high-density RT-PCR between responders and nonresponders. In responders, H1N1 stimulation at T0 also resulted in CXCR5 induction (mRNA and protein) in CD4 T cells and IL21 gene induction in pTfh cells that were strongly associated with H1N1-specific B cell responses postvaccination. In contrast, CD4 T cells of nonresponders exhibited increased expression of IL2 and STAT5 genes, which are known to antagonize peripheral Tfh cell function. These results suggest that the quality of pTfh cells at the time of immunization is important for influenza vaccine responses and provide a rationale for targeted, ex vivo Ag-driven molecular profiling of purified immune cells to detect predictive biomarkers of the vaccine response. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence for mouse Th1- and Th2-like helper T cells in vivo. Selective reduction of Th1-like cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    Bass, H.; Mosmann, T.; Strober, S.

    1989-01-01

    Purified CD4+ BALB/c spleen T cells obtained 4-6 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) helped normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP keyhole limpet hemocyanin in adoptive cell transfer experiments. However, the same cells failed to transfer delayed-type hypersensitivity to the adoptive hosts as measured by a foot pad swelling assay. In addition, purified CD4+ cells from TLI-treated mice were unable to induce graft vs. host disease in lethally irradiated allogeneic C57BL/Ka recipient mice. In response to mitogen stimulation, unfractionated spleen cells obtained from TLI mice secreted normal levels of IL-4 and IL-5, but markedly reduced levels of IL-2 and INF-gamma. A total of 229 CD4+ clones from spleen cells of both normal and TLI-treated mice were established, and the cytokine secretion pattern from each clone was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the ratio of Th1- and Th2-like clones in the spleens of normal BALB/c mice is 1:0.6, whereas the ratio in TLI mice is approximately 1:7. These results suggest that Th2-like cells recover rapidly (at approximately 4-6 wk) after TLI treatment and account for the early return of antibody helper activity and secretion of IL-4 and IL-5, but Th1-like cells recover more slowly (in approximately 3 mo) after irradiation, and this accounts for the deficit in cell-mediated immunity and the reduced amount of IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion

  1. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  2. T helper-2 cytokine/regulatory T-cell gene polymorphisms and their relation with risk of psoriasis in a South Indian Tamil cohort.

    Indhumathi, Sundar; Rajappa, Medha; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Ananthanarayanan, Palghat Hariharan; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Negi, Vir Singh

    2017-02-01

    Psoriasis is known to be associated with an up-regulation of T-helper (Th)-1 & Th-17 cytokines and a relative down-regulation of Th-2 and T-regulatory (T-reg) cytokines. Certain allelic variants of these cytokine genes may alter Th1/Th17 and Th2/T-reg balance and may be associated with the risk of psoriasis. Hence we aimed to determine the association of IL-4 (rs2243250), IL-10 (rs1800871 and rs1800896) and FOXP3 (rs3761548) gene polymorphisms with risk of psoriasis in South Indian Tamils. A total of 360 cases of psoriasis and 360 healthy controls were recruited. The polymorphism in IL-4 (rs2243250) & IL-10 (rs1800871) were typed by ARMS-PCR and IL-10 (rs1800896) & FOXP3 (rs3761548) were typed by TaqMan 5'allele discrimination assay. We observed that IL-4 (rs2243250) had a reduced risk of psoriasis, while the IL-10 (rs1800871) conferred an increased susceptibility to psoriasis, as compared with controls. However, IL-10 (rs1800896) and FOXP3 (rs3761548) gene polymorphisms were not associated with psoriasis risk. The plasma IL-4 levels was not different between the cases and controls, however the heterozygous CT genotype demonstrated significant high IL-4 levels. Plasma IL-10 levels were significantly increased in cases compared to controls, however none of the genotypes were associated with the plasma IL-10 levels. Our results suggest that IL-4 (rs2243250) polymorphism is protective against psoriasis, while IL-10 (rs1800871) polymorphism confers increased risk of psoriasis in South Indian Tamils. Detection of these genetic variants as predictive risk factors may lead to the selection of patient-tailored therapy to maximize the effectiveness of therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes protective T helper 17 cell responses in a toll-like receptor-2-dependent manner.

    Samit Chatterjee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its relatively poor efficacy, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been used as a tuberculosis (TB vaccine since its development in 1921. BCG induces robust T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses but, for many individuals, this is not sufficient for host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb infection. Here we provide evidence that early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6, expressed by the virulent M. tb strain H37Rv but not by BCG, promotes vaccine-enhancing Th17 cell responses. These activities of ESAT-6 were dependent on TLR-2/MyD88 signalling and involved IL-6 and TGF-β production by dendritic cells. Thus, animals that were previously infected with H37Rv or recombinant BCG containing the RD1 region (BCG::RD1 exhibited improved protection upon re-challenge with virulent H37Rv compared with mice previously infected with BCG or RD1-deficient H37Rv (H37RvΔRD1. However, TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2⁻/⁻ animals neither showed Th17 responses nor exhibited improved protection in response to immunization with H37Rv. Furthermore, H37Rv and BCG::RD1 infection had little effect on the expression of the anti-inflammatory microRNA-146a (miR146a in dendritic cells (DCs, whereas BCG and H37RvΔRD1 profoundly induced its expression in DCs. Consistent with these findings, ESAT-6 had no effect on miR146a expression in uninfected DCs, but dramatically inhibited its upregulation in BCG-infected or LPS-treated DCs. Collectively, our findings indicate that, in addition to Th1 immunity induced by BCG, RD1/ESAT-6-induced Th17 immune responses are essential for optimal vaccine efficacy.

  4. Immune gene expression profiling of Proliferative Kidney Disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reveals a dominance of anti-inflammatory, antibody and T helper cell-like activities.

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Holland, Jason W

    2013-07-16

    The myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is the causative agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) targeting primarily the kidney of infected fish where it causes a chronic lymphoid immunopathology. Although known to be associated with suppression of some cellular aspects of innate immunity and a prominent lymphocytic hyperplasia, there remains a considerable knowledge gap in our understanding of the underlying immune mechanisms driving PKD pathogenesis. To provide further insights, the expression profiles of a panel of innate/inflammatory and adaptive immune molecules were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss following a natural exposure to the parasite. Relative to controls, fish with early to advanced stages of kidney pathology exhibited up-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11, although remaining refractory towards genes indicative of macrophage activity. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and anti-inflammatory markers, including cathelicidin (CATH) and IL-10 were markedly up-regulated during clinical disease. Up-regulation of adaptive immune molecules, including cell markers and antibody genes reflect the lymphocytic dominance of this disease and the likely importance of lymphocyte subsets in PKD pathogenesis. Up-regulation of T helper (TH) cell-like response genes and transcription factors implies that T. bryosalmonae may elicit a complex interplay between TH cell subsets. This work, for the first time in the study of fish-myxozoan interactions, suggests that PKD pathogenesis is shaped by an anti-inflammatory phenotype, a profound B cell/antibody response and dysregulated TH cell-like activities. A better understanding of the functional roles of fish immune cells and molecules in PKD pathogenesis may facilitate future development of control measures against this disease.

  5. Evaluation of accessory cell heterogeneity. I. Differential accessory cell requirement for T helper cell activation and for T-B cooperation.

    Ramila, G; Studer, S; Kennedy, M; Sklenar, I; Erb, P

    1985-01-01

    Several Ia+ tumor cell lines and peritoneal exudate macrophages were tested as accessory cells (AC) for the activation of antigen-specific T cells and for T-B cooperation. The macrophages and all the Ia+ tumor lines tested induced the release of lymphokines from T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted fashion and reconstituted the antibody responses of AC-depleted spleen cells or of purified T and B cells. However, only the normal macrophages but none of the tumor lines induced carrier-specific T helper (Th) cells which help B cells for specific antihapten antibody responses by linked recognition. For T-B cooperation accessory cells were also required, but in contrast to Th cell activation any type of Ia+ AC (e.g. macrophage or tumor line) was effective. Strong MHC-restriction between the lymphocytes and the AC was seen if antigen-pulsed AC were added into the AC-depleted T-B cooperation cultures. If the AC and antigen were concomitantly added to the AC-depleted T-B cultures, MHC-restriction was less obvious. Concanavalin A supernatant reconstituted the response of AC-depleted T-B cultures provided antigen-specific Th cells and the hapten-carrier conjugate were present. If, however, tumor line-activated T cells were added instead of macrophage-induced Th cells, no cooperation with B cells took place even in the presence of Con A supernatant. The results obtained demonstrate a differential AC requirement for the induction of Th cells depending on the differentiation stage of the Th cells.

  6. A shift toward T helper 2 responses and an increase in modulators of innate immunity in depressed patients treated with escitalopram.

    Ho, Pei-Shen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    2015-03-01

    Depression is hypothesized to involve inflammatory processes, and identifying the key cytokines targeted by antidepressant drugs is critical for tailoring treatment to specific cases. However, investigating a limited number of cytokines at one time cannot provide a broad picture of antidepressant-associated immunomodulation. Cytokines act in a network where one could demonstrate pleiotropism, redundancy, synergy, and antagonism with other cytokine functions. This study was aimed at determining whether escitalopram functions as an anti-inflammatory agent and, if so, how it influences cytokine networks. A total of 24 healthy controls and 26 patients with clinical depression requiring inpatient treatment were recruited. A multiplex assay, an efficient tool to simultaneously measure 27 cytokines, was applied in patients with depression before and after 4-week escitalopram treatment. Healthy controls did not take escitalopram and completed cytokine analyses once. We demonstrated that escitalopram increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist and IL-2. Moreover, escitalopram contributed to a shift toward T helper 2 responses and an increase in modulators of innate immunity, leading to a decrease of immune system activation, both innate and adaptive. We suggest that escitalopram modulates the balance of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist and improves the function and number of T regulatory cells. However, diverse conclusions could be drawn if only a few cytokines were assessed or different significance levels were used. Further studies should investigate a wide range of cytokines in a reliable and valid way, which is key to disentangling the effects of different antidepressants on inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A critical role of T follicular helper cells in human mucosal anti-influenza response that can be enhanced by immunological adjuvant CpG-DNA.

    Aljurayyan, A N; Sharma, R; Upile, N; Beer, H; Vaughan, C; Xie, C; Achar, P; Ahmed, M S; McNamara, P S; Gordon, S B; Zhang, Q

    2016-08-01

    T Follicular helper cells (TFH) are considered critical for B cell antibody response, and recent efforts have focused on promoting TFH in order to enhance vaccine efficacy. We studied the frequency and function of TFH in nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) from children and adults, and its role in anti-influenza antibody response following stimulation by a live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or an inactivated seasonal virus antigen (sH1N1). We further studied whether CpG-DNA promotes TFH and by which enhances anti-influenza response. We showed NALT from children aged 1.5-10 years contained abundant TFH, suggesting efficient priming of TFH during early childhood. Stimulation by LAIV induced a marked increase in TFH that correlated with a strong production of anti-hemagglutinin (HA) IgA/IgG/IgM antibodies in tonsillar cells. Stimulation by the inactivated sH1N1 antigen induced a small increase in TFH which was markedly enhanced by CpG-DNA, accompanied by enhanced anti-HA antibody responses. In B cell co-culture experiment, anti-HA responses were only seen in the presence of TFH, and addition of plasmacytoid dendritic cell to TFH-B cell co-culture enhanced the TFH-mediated antibody production following CpG-DNA and sH1N1 antigen stimulation. Induction of TFH differentiation from naïve T cells was also shown following the stimulation. Our results support a critical role of TFH in human mucosal anti-influenza antibody response. Use of an adjuvant such as CpG-DNA that has the capacity to promote TFH by which to enhance antigen-induced antibody responses in NALT tissue may have important implications for future vaccination strategies against respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin-4- and NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3-independent mechanisms of alum enhanced T helper type 2 responses on basophils.

    Huang, Feng-Juan; Ma, Yi-Lei; Tang, Ruo-Yu; Gong, Wen-Ci; Li, Jun; Chen, Chun-Xia; Yin, Lan; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Aluminium hydroxide (alum), the most widely used adjuvant in human and animal vaccines, has long been known to promote T helper type 2 (Th2) responses and Th2-associated humoral responses, but the mechanisms have remained poorly understood. In this study, we explored whether alum is able to directly modulate antigen-presenting cells to enhance their potency for Th2 polarization. We found that alum treatment of dendritic cells failed to show any Th2-promoting activities. In contrast, alum was able to enhance the capacity of basophils to induce Th2 cells. When basophils from interleukin-4 (IL-4) knockout mice were examined, the intrinsic Th2-promoting activities by basophils were largely abrogated, but the alum-enhanced Th2-promoting activities on basophils were still detectable. More importantly, Th2-promoting adjuvant activities by alum found in IL-4 knockout mice were also largely reduced when basophils were depleted by antibody administration. Therefore, basophils can mediate Th2-promoting activities by alum both in vitro and in vivo through IL-4-independent mechanisms. Further studies revealed that secreted soluble molecules from alum-treated basophils were able to confer the Th2-promoting activities, and neutralization of thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-25 attenuated the IL-4-independent development of Th2 cells elicited by alum-treated basophils. Finally, alum was able to activate NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in murine basophils in the same way as alum in professional antigen-presenting cells, but NLRP3 was not required for Th2-promoting activities on basophils by alum in vitro. These results demonstrated that alum can enhance the capacities of basophils to polarize Th2 cells via IL-4- and NLRP3-independent pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The values and qualities of being a good helper: a qualitative study of adult foster home caregivers for persons with serious mental illness.

    Piat, Myra; Ricard, Nicole; Sabetti, Judith; Beauvais, Louise

    2007-11-01

    Canadian foster homes for adults with serious mental illness are operated by non-professional caregivers, usually women, whose mandate is to support residents and reintegrate them into the community. While mental health professionals recognize that adult foster homes are an important service for this population, there is little understanding of how caregivers impact on the lives of their residents. This article draws on the findings of a larger study which examined both caregiver and resident perspectives on the helping relationship in adult foster homes. Caregiver perspectives on the values and qualities required to help people living in foster homes are reported. With no pre-set theoretical framework, this qualitative study employed an inductive approach within a naturalistic paradigm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 caregivers. Data analysis was an ongoing, 2-year process, involving the identification of categories and themes through several distinct stages. The study included Montreal adult foster homes (n=242) for persons with serious mental illness, supervised by two university-affiliated psychiatric hospitals. Twenty caregivers, selected according to years of experience and number of residents in the home, were diverse in terms of age, cultural background, family composition, education and occupational background. Caregivers possess a clearly articulated value system, and 21 specific qualities which reflect the attributes of both professional and informal helpers. These values and qualities provide caregivers with a "professional" or "vocational" orientation. A deeply held system of values and qualities is critically important to caregiver effectiveness and job satisfaction. Findings suggest that caregivers are highly motivated, and should be recognized as full participants in the mental health system at both policy and practice levels.

  10. Altered AKT1 and MAPK1 Gene Expression on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Correlation with T-Helper-Transcription Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    Sonia Garcia-Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinases have been implicated in the immunopathological mechanisms of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. v-akt murine-thymoma viral-oncogene-homolog 1 (AKT1 and mitogen-activated-protein-kinase 1 (MAPK1 gene expressions in peripheral mononuclear cells from thirteen SLE patients with inactive or mild disease were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction and analyzed whether there was any correlation with T-helper (Th transcription factors (TF gene expression, cytokines, and S100A8/S100A9-(Calprotectin. Age- and gender-matched thirteen healthy controls were examined. AKT1 and MAPK1 expressions were upregulated in SLE patients and correlated with Th17-(Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR-C, T-regulatory-(Treg-(Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFB-2, and Th2-(interleukin (IL-5-related genes. MAPK1 expression correlated with Th1-(IL-12A, T-box TF-(T-bet, Th2-(GATA binding protein-(GATA-3, and IL-10 expressions. IL-10 expression was increased and correlated with plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α and Th0-(IL-2, Th1-(IL-12A, T-bet, GATA3, Treg-(Forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor- (FOXP-3, and IL-6 expressions. FOXP3 expression, FOXP3/RORC, and FOXP3/GATA3 expression ratios were increased. Plasma IL-1β, IL-12(p70, Interferon-(IFN-γ, and IL-6 cytokines were augmented. Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-13 correlated with C-reactive protein, respectively. Increased Calprotectin correlated with neutrophils. Conclusion, SLE patients presented a systemic immunoinflammatory activity, augmented AKT1 and MAPK1 expressions, proinflammatory cytokines, and Calprotectin, together with increased expression of Treg-related genes, suggesting a regulatory feedback opposing the inflammatory activity.

  11. Efficient genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells with helper-dependent Ad5/35 vectors expressing site-specific endonucleases under microRNA regulation

    Kamola Saydaminova

    Full Text Available Genome editing with site-specific endonucleases has implications for basic biomedical research as well as for gene therapy. We generated helper-dependent, capsid-modified adenovirus (HD-Ad5/35 vectors for zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN– or transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN–mediated genome editing in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from mobilized adult donors. The production of these vectors required that ZFN and TALEN expression in HD-Ad5/35 producer 293-Cre cells was suppressed. To do this, we developed a microRNA (miRNA-based system for regulation of gene expression based on miRNA expression profiling of 293-Cre and CD34+ cells. Using miR-183-5p and miR-218-5p based regulation of transgene gene expression, we first produced an HD-Ad5/35 vector expressing a ZFN specific to the HIV coreceptor gene ccr5. We demonstrated that HD-Ad5/35.ZFNmiR vector conferred ccr5 knock out in primitive HSC (i.e., long-term culture initiating cells and NOD/SCID repopulating cells. The ccr5 gene disruption frequency achieved in engrafted HSCs found in the bone marrow of transplanted mice is clinically relevant for HIV therapy considering that these cells can give rise to multiple lineages, including all the lineages that represent targets and reservoirs for HIV. We produced a second HD-Ad5/35 vector expressing a TALEN targeting the DNase hypersensitivity region 2 (HS2 within the globin locus control region. This vector has potential for targeted gene correction in hemoglobinopathies. The miRNA regulated HD-Ad5/35 vector platform for expression of site-specific endonucleases has numerous advantages over currently used vectors as a tool for genome engineering of HSCs for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  13. Mansonella perstans microfilaremic individuals are characterized by enhanced type 2 helper T and regulatory T and B cell subsets and dampened systemic innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Manuel Ritter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access. Thus, in this study, for the first time, we used Mansonella perstans worm antigen extract as stimulant to obtain filarial-specific recall and immunoglobulin responses from M. perstans microfilaremic individuals (Mp MF+ from Cameroon. Moreover, systemic immune profiles in sera and immune cell composition in peripheral blood from Mp MF+ and amicrofilaremic individuals (Mp MF- were obtained. Our data reveal that Mp MF+ individuals showed significantly reduced cytokine (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12p70 and chemokine levels (IL-8 and RANTES, but significantly higher MIP-1β as well as increased M. perstans-specific IgG4 levels compared to Mp MF- individuals. In contrast, upon re-stimulation with worm antigen extract, IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-10 and IL-17A secretion was enhanced in cell cultures from Mp MF+ individuals when compared to those from cultures of healthy European individuals. Moreover, analysis of immune cell composition in peripheral blood from Mp MF+ individuals revealed increased type 2 helper T (Th2, natural killer (NK, regulatory B and T cell (Breg and Treg subsets but decreased type 1 regulatory T (Tr1 cells. In summary, this study deciphers for the first time, M. perstans-specific immune responses using worm antigen extract and shows that patent M. perstans infections have distinct Th2, Breg and Treg subsets accompanied with reduced systemic innate and adaptive immune responses and dominant filarial-specific Ig

  14. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in spike 1 domain and membrane protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Takano, Tomomi; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Kohji; Tomizawa, Keisuke; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV) causes a fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. The development of an FIP-preventive vaccine requires an antigen that does not induce antibody-dependent enhancement, and T helper (Th)1 activity plays an important role in protect against FIPV infection. In the present study, we identified synthetic peptides including Th1 and a linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope in the S1 domain and M protein of FIPV. We also identified peptides that strongly induce Th1 activity from those derived from the structural proteins (S, M, and N proteins) of FIPV based on this and previous studies (Satoh et al. [19]). No Th1 epitope-containing peptide was identified in the peptides derived from the S1 domain of type I FIPV. In contrast, 7 Th1 epitope-containing peptides were identified in the S1 domain of type II FIPV, and no linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope was contained in any of these peptides. Eleven Th1 epitope-containing peptides common to each serotype were identified in the M protein-derived peptides, and 2 peptides (M-11 and M-12) contained the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope. Of the peptides derived from the S, M, and N proteins of FIPV, those that induced significantly stronger Th1 activity than that of the FIPV antigen were rescreened, and 4 peptides were identified. When 3 of these peptides (M-9, I-S2-15, and II-S1-24) were selected and administered with CpG-ODNs to SPF cats, M-9 and II-S1-24 induced Th1 activity. Our results may provide important information for the development of a peptide-based vaccine against FIPV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disruption of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 5 Exacerbates Murine Experimental Colitis via Regulating T Helper Cell-Mediated Inflammation

    Jian Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5 is a key mediator of TNF receptor superfamily members and is important in both T helper (Th cell immunity and the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. To clarify TRAF5’s influence on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, we investigated TRAF5 deficiency’s effect on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis. Colitis was induced in TRAF5 knockout (KO mice and their wild-type (WT littermates by administering 3% DSS orally for 7 days. The mice were then sacrificed, and their colons were removed. Our data suggested that KO mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17a mRNA and protein levels in the colons of DSS-fed mice, and the mRNA expression of T-bet and GATA-3 was also markedly elevated. However, ROR-α and ROR-γt mRNA levels did not differ between DSS-induced KO and WT mice. Flow cytometry showed increased frequencies of Th2 and IFN-γ/IL-17a-coproducing CD4+ T cells in the colons of DSS-induced KO mice. Additionally, TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced the activation of NF-κB in CD4+ T cells after DSS administration. These results indicated that TRAF5 deficiency significantly aggravated DSS-induced colitis, most likely by regulating Th cell-mediated inflammation.

  16. Immune gene expression profiling of Proliferative Kidney Disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reveals a dominance of anti-inflammatory, antibody and T helper cell-like activities

    2013-01-01

    The myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is the causative agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) targeting primarily the kidney of infected fish where it causes a chronic lymphoid immunopathology. Although known to be associated with suppression of some cellular aspects of innate immunity and a prominent lymphocytic hyperplasia, there remains a considerable knowledge gap in our understanding of the underlying immune mechanisms driving PKD pathogenesis. To provide further insights, the expression profiles of a panel of innate / inflammatory and adaptive immune molecules were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss following a natural exposure to the parasite. Relative to controls, fish with early to advanced stages of kidney pathology exhibited up-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11, although remaining refractory towards genes indicative of macrophage activity. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and anti-inflammatory markers, including cathelicidin (CATH) and IL-10 were markedly up-regulated during clinical disease. Up-regulation of adaptive immune molecules, including cell markers and antibody genes reflect the lymphocytic dominance of this disease and the likely importance of lymphocyte subsets in PKD pathogenesis. Up-regulation of T helper (TH) cell-like response genes and transcription factors implies that T. bryosalmonae may elicit a complex interplay between TH cell subsets. This work, for the first time in the study of fish-myxozoan interactions, suggests that PKD pathogenesis is shaped by an anti-inflammatory phenotype, a profound B cell / antibody response and dysregulated TH cell-like activities. A better understanding of the functional roles of fish immune cells and molecules in PKD pathogenesis may facilitate future development of control measures against this disease. PMID:23865616

  17. Obesity promotes prolonged ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation modulating T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 immune responses in BALB/c mice.

    Silva, F M C; Oliveira, E E; Gouveia, A C C; Brugiolo, A S S; Alves, C C; Correa, J O A; Gameiro, J; Mattes, J; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P

    2017-07-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on allergic airway inflammation and T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and analyses were performed at 24 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. Obesity induced an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing macrophages and neutrophils which peaked at 48 h after the last OVA challenge, and was associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-9, IL-17A, leptin and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lungs. Higher goblet cell hyperplasia was associated with elevated mast cell influx into the lungs and trachea in the obese allergic mice. In contrast, early eosinophil influx and lower levels of IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), CCL11 and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) were observed in the obese allergic mice in comparison to non-obese allergic mice. Moreover, obese mice showed higher numbers of mast cells regardless of OVA challenge. These results indicate that obesity affects allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving mast cell influx and the release of TSLP and IL-25, which favoured a delayed immune response with an exacerbated Th1, Th2 and Th17 profile. In this scenario, an intense mixed inflammatory granulocyte influx, classically activated macrophage accumulation and intense mucus production may contribute to a refractory therapeutic response and exacerbate asthma severity. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  18. CD1d-dependent expansion of NKT follicular helper cells in vivo and in vitro is a product of cellular proliferation and differentiation.

    Rampuria, Pragya; Lang, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    NKT follicular helper cells (NKTfh cells) are a recently discovered functional subset of CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Given the potential for NKTfh cells to promote specific antibody responses and germinal center reactions, there is much interest in determining the conditions under which NKTfh cells proliferate and/or differentiate in vivo and in vitro. We confirm that NKTfh cells expressing the canonical semi-invariant Vα14 TCR were CXCR5(+)/ICOS(+)/PD-1(+)/Bcl6(+) and increased in number following administration of the CD1d-binding glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GC) to C57Bl/6 mice. We show that the α-GC-stimulated increase in NKTfh cells was CD1d-dependent since the effect was diminished by reduced CD1d expression. In vivo and in vitro treatment with α-GC, singly or in combination with IL-2, showed that NKTfh cells increased in number to a greater extent than total NKT cells, but proliferation was near-identical in both populations. Acquisition of the NKTfh phenotype from an adoptively transferred PD-1-depleted cell population was also evident, showing that peripheral NKT cells differentiated into NKTfh cells. Therefore, the α-GC-stimulated, CD1d-dependent increase in peripheral NKTfh cells is a result of cellular proliferation and differentiation. These findings advance our understanding of the immune response following immunization with CD1d-binding glycolipids. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Epitopes associated with MHC restriction site of T cells. III. I-J epitope on MHC-restricted T helper cells

    Asano, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Kubo, M.; Yagi, J.; Tada, T.

    1987-01-01

    I-J epitopes were found to be associated with the functional site of the class II MHC-restricted helper T (Th) cells: Virtually all of the H-2k-restricted Th cell function of H-2kxbF1 T cells was inhibited by the anti-I-Jk mAb, leaving the H-2b-restricted function unaffected. The I-Jk epitope was inducible in Th cells of different genotype origin according to the environmental class II antigens present in the early ontogeny of T cells. Although above results suggested that I-J is the structure reflecting the inducible MHC restriction specificity, further studies revealed some interesting controversies: First, the I-J phenotype did not always correlate with the class II restriction specificity, e.g., I-Ab-restricted Th from 5R was I-Jk-positive, whereas I-Ak-restricted Th of 4R was not. Second, there was no trans expression of parental I-J phenotypes and restriction specificities in F1 Th, e.g., the I-J phenotype was detected only on I-Ab-restricted Th of (4R X 5R)F1, whereas it was absent on I-Ak-restricted Th. This strict linkage between the restriction specificity and I-J phenotype was also found on Th cells developed in bone marrow chimera constructed with intra-H-2-recombinant mice. The expression of I-Jk was always associated with the restriction specificity of the relevant host. Thus, the restriction specificity of Th cells followed the host type, and the I-J expression on Th was exactly the same as that expressed by the host haplotype. These results indicate that I-J is an isomorphic structure adaptively expressed on Th cells that is involved in the unidirectional regulatory cell interactions, and that the polymorphism cannot be explained merely by the restriction specificity of the conventional T cell receptor heterodimer

  20. The role of dietary sodium intake on the modulation of T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Massaro, Laura; Barbati, Cristiana; Vomero, Marta; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Riccieri, Valeria; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Alessandri, Cristiano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Conti, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    We aimed at investigating whether the frequency and function of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) are affected by a restriction of dietary sodium intake in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We enrolled RA and SLE patients not receiving drugs known to increase urinary sodium excretion. Patients underwent a dietary regimen starting with a restricted daily sodium intake followed by a normal-sodium daily intake. The timepoints were identified at baseline (T0), after 3 weeks of low-sodium dietary regimen (T3), after 2 weeks of normal-sodium dietary regimen (T5). On these visits, we measured the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, the frequency and function of Th17 and Treg cells in the peripheral blood, the serum levels of cytokines. Analysis of urinary sodium excretion confirmed adherence to the dietary regimen. In RA patients, a trend toward a reduction in the frequencies of Th17 cells over the low-sodium dietary regimen followed by an increase at T5 was observed, while Treg cells exhibited the opposite trend. SLE patients showed a progressive reduction in the percentage of Th17 cells that reached a significance at T5 compared to T0 (p = 0.01) and an increase in the percentage of Treg cells following the low-sodium dietary regimen at both T1 and T3 compared to T0 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). No significant apoptosis or proliferation modulation was found. In RA patients, we found a reduction at T5 compared to T0 in serum levels of both TGFβ (p = 0.0016) and IL-9 (p = 0.0007); serum IL-9 levels were also reduced in SLE patients at T5 with respect to T0 (p = 0.03). This is the first study investigating the effects of dietary sodium intake on adaptive immunity. Based on the results, we hypothesize that a restricted sodium dietary intake may dampen the inflammatory response in RA and SLE patients. PMID:28877244

  1. CD4+ T helper cells and regulatory T cells in active lupus nephritis: an imbalance towards a predominant Th1 response?

    Mesquita, D; Kirsztajn, G Mastroianni; Franco, M F; Reis, L A; Perazzio, S F; Mesquita, F V; Ferreira, V da Silva; Andrade, L E Coelho; de Souza, A W Silva

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of CD4 + T cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), urine and renal tissue from patients with lupus nephritis (LN). PBMC and urinary cells were collected from 17 patients with active LN, 20 disease controls (DC) with primary glomerulonephritis and 10 healthy controls (HC) and were analysed by flow cytometry with markers for T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells (T reg ) cells. T cell subsets were assessed by immunohistochemistry from LN biopsy specimens from 12 LN patients. T cell subtypes in PBMC were re-evaluated at 6 months of therapy. CD4 + T cells were decreased in PBMC in LN compared with DC and HC (P = 0·0001). No differences were observed in urinary CD4 + T cell subsets between LN and DC. The frequency of urinary Th17 cells was higher in patients with non-proliferative than in proliferative LN (P = 0·041). CD3 + and T-box 21 ( Tbet+) cells were found in glomeruli and interstitium of LN patients, while forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR-γ) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) were present only in glomeruli. Th1 cells in PBMC were correlated negatively with urinary Th1 cells (Rho = -0·531; P = 0·028) and with T bet in renal interstitium (Rho = -0·782; P = 0·004). At 6 months, LN patients showed an increase in Th17 cells in PBMC. In conclusion, the inverse association between Th1 cells from PBMC and urinary/renal tissue indicate a role for Th1 in LN pathophysiology. Urinary Th17 cells were associated with less severe LN, and Th17 increased in PBMC during therapy. Urinary CD4 + T cells were not different between LN and DC. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Interaction between Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway and follicular helper CD4+ T cells contributes to viral persistence in chronic hepatitis C.

    Zhuo, Ya; Zhang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Hong-Jie; Qin, Lei; Wang, Yan-Ping; Liu, A-Min; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Both Galectin 9 (Gal-9)/T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3) pathway and follicular helper CD4 + T (Tfh) cells play important roles in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Thus, we aimed to investigate the regulatory role of interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and Tfh cells in chronic hepatitis C. A total of 44 chronic hepatitis C patients and 19 normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study. Purified CD4 + T cells were cultured by TIM-3 Fc protein, recombinant Gal-9, or IL-21 for 48h. TIM-3 expression, Tfh proportion, and IL-21 production was measured, respectively. The immunomodulatory role of Gal-9/TIM-3 and IL-21 was also investigated in HCV cell culture system in vitro. We found that the percentage corresponding to both TIM-3-positive and CXCR5 + ICOS + Tfh cells within CD4 + T cells, which correlated with HCV RNA replication, was significantly elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with those in NCs. Moreover, blockade of Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway by TIM-3 Fc protein increased Tfh cells proportion, IL-21 mRNA and protein expression within purified CD4 + T cells, while activation of Gal-9/TIM-3 signaling by Gal-9 stimulation decreased IL-21 production in both patients with chronic HCV infection and healthy individuals. Meanwhile, high concentrations (100 and 200ng/mL) of IL-21 stimulation also elevated TIM-3 expression on CD4 + T cells in chronic hepatitis C. Furthermore, TIM-3 blockage and IL-21 stimulation suppressed mRNA expressions of HCV-induced antiviral proteins (myxovirus resistance A and oligoadenylate synthetase) in Huh7.5 cells without affecting viral replication in HCV cell culture system. The interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and Tfh cells contributed to viral persistent in chronic HCV infection, which might be pivotal for development of new therapeutic approaches for chronic hepatitis C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV-1 and SIV Predominantly Use CCR5 Expressed on a Precursor Population to Establish Infection in T Follicular Helper Cells

    John Zaunders

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundT follicular helper (Tfh cells are increasingly recognized as a major reservoir of HIV infection that will likely need to be addressed in approaches to curing HIV. However, Tfh express minimal CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV-1, and the mechanism by which they are infected is unclear. We have previously shown that macaque Tfh lack CCR5, but are infected in vivo with CCR5-using SIV at levels comparable to other memory CD4+ T cells. Similarly, human splenic Tfh cells are highly infected with HIV-1 DNA. Therefore, we set out to examine the mechanism of infection of Tfh cells.MethodologyTfh and other CD4+ T cell subsets from macaque lymph nodes and spleens, splenic Tfh from HIV+ subjects, and tonsillar Tfh from HIV-uninfected subjects were isolated by cell sorting prior to cell surface and molecular characterization. HIV proviral gp120 sequences were submitted to genotypic and phenotypic tropism assays. Entry of CCR5- and CXCR4-using viruses into Tfh from uninfected tonsillar tissue was measured using a fusion assay.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis, genotypic, and phenotypic analysis showed that splenic Tfh cells from chronic HIV+ subjects were predominantly infected with CCR5-using viruses. In macaques, purified CCR5+PD-1intermediate(int+ memory CD4+ T cells were shown to include pre-Tfh cells capable of differentiating in vitro to Tfh by upregulation of PD-1 and Bcl6, confirmed by qRT-PCR and single-cell multiplex PCR. Infected PD-1int cells survive, carry SIV provirus, and differentiate into PD-1hi Tfh after T cell receptor stimulation, suggesting a pathway for SIV infection of Tfh. In addition, a small subset of macaque and human PD-1hi Tfh can express low levels of CCR5, which makes them susceptible to infection. Fusion assays demonstrated CCR5-using HIV-1 entry into CCR5+ Tfh and pre-Tfh cells from human tonsils.ConclusionThe major route of infection of Tfh in macaques and humans appears to be via a CCR5-expressing pre-Tfh population

  4. An immune-modulating diet increases the regulatory T cells and reduces T helper 1 inflammatory response in Leishmaniosis affected dogs treated with standard therapy.

    Cortese, Laura; Annunziatella, Mariangela; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Lanzilli, Sarah; Rubino, Valentina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-03

    Clinical appearance and evolution of Canine Leishmaniosis (CL) are the consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and the genetic and immunological backgrounds. We investigated the effect of an immune-modulating diet in CL. Dogs were treated with anti- Leishmania pharmacological therapy combined with standard diet (SD Group) or with the immune-modulating diet (IMMD Group). CD3+ CD4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD3+ CD4+ IFN-γ + T helper 1 (Th1) were analyzed by flow cytometry. All sick dogs showed low platelet number at diagnosis (T0). A platelet increase was observed after six months (T6) SD Group, with still remaining in the normal range at twelve months (T12). IMMD Group showed an increase in platelet number becoming similar to healthy dogs at T6 and T12. An increase of CD4/CD8 ratio was revealed in SD Group after three months (T3), while at T6 and at T12 the values resembled to T0. The increase in CD4/CD8 ratio at T3 was maintained at T6 and T12 in IMMD Group. A reduction in the percentage of Treg of all sick dogs was observed at T0. A recovery of Treg percentage was observed only at T3 in SD Group, while this effect disappeared at T6 and T12. In contrast, Treg percentage became similar to healthy animals in IMDD Group at T3, T6 and T12. Sick dogs showed an increase of Th1 cells at T0 as compared with healthy dogs. We observed the occurrence of a decrease of Th1 cells from T3 to T12 in SD Group, although a trend of increase was observed at T6 and T12. At variance, IMMD Group dogs showed a progressive decrease of Th1 cells, whose levels became similar to healthy controls at T6 and T12. The immune-modulating diet appears to regulate the immune response in CL during the standard pharmacological treatment. The presence of nutraceuticals in the diet correlates with the decrease of Th1 cells and with the increase of Treg in sick dogs. Therefore, the administration of the specific dietary supplement improved the clinical response to the

  5. Circulating CXCR5⁺CD4⁺ T Follicular-Like Helper Cell and Memory B Cell Responses to Human Papillomavirus Vaccines.

    Ken Matsui

    Full Text Available Through the interaction of T follicular helper (Tfh cells and B cells, efficacious vaccines can generate high-affinity, pathogen-neutralizing antibodies, and memory B cells. Using CXCR5, CXCR3, CCR6, CCR7, PD1, and ICOS as markers, Tfh-like cells can be identified in the circulation and be classified into three functionally distinct subsets that are PD1+ICOS+, PD1+ ICOS-, or PD1-ICOS-. We used these markers to identify different subsets of CXCR5+CD4+ Tfh-like cells in response to highly immunogenic and efficacious vaccines for human papillomaviruses (HPV: Cervarix and Gardasil. In this small study, we used PBMC samples from 11 Gardasil recipients, and 8 Cervarix recipients from the Vaccine Research Center 902 Study to examine the induction of circulating Tfh-like cells and IgD-CD38HiCD27+ memory B cells by flow cytometry. PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3+CCR6-CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh1-like cells were induced and peaked on Day (D 7 post-first vaccination, but not as much on D7 post-third vaccination. We also observed a trend toward increase in PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3-CCR6-CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh2-like cells for both vaccines, and PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3-CCR6+CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh17-like subset was induced by Cervarix post-first vaccination. There were also minimal changes in the other cellular subsets. In addition, Cervarix recipients had more memory B cells post-first vaccination than did Gardasil recipients at D14 and D30. We found frequencies of memory B cells at D30 correlated with anti-HPV16 and 18 antibody titers from D30, and the induction levels of memory B cells at D30 and PD1+ICOS+Tfh1-like cells at D7 post-first vaccination correlated for Cervarix. Our study showed that induction of circulating CXCR5+CD4+ Tfh-like subsets can be detected following immunization with HPV vaccines, and potentially be useful as a marker of immunogenicity of vaccines. However, further investigations should be extended to different cohorts with larger sample size to better understand the functions of these T

  6. 15-lipoxygenase metabolites play an important role in the development of a T-helper type 1 allergic inflammation induced by double-stranded RNA.

    Jeon, S G; Moon, H-G; Kim, Y-S; Choi, J-P; Shin, T-S; Hong, S-W; Tae, Y-M; Kim, S-H; Zhu, Z; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2009-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that the T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response plays an important role in the development of non-eosinophilic inflammation induced by airway exposure of an allergen plus double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, the role of lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation is poorly understood. To evaluate the role of LO metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. A Th2-allergic inflammation mouse model was created by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide-depleted ovalbumin (OVA, 75 microg) and alum (2 mg) twice, and the Th1 model was created by intranasal application of OVA (75 microg) and synthetic dsRNA [10 microg of poly(I : C)] four times, followed by an intranasal challenge with 50 microg of OVA four times. The role of LO metabolites was evaluated using two approaches: a transgenic approach using 5-LO(-/-) and 15-LO(-/-) mice, and a pharmacological approach using inhibitors of cysteinyl leucotriene receptor-1 (cysLTR1), LTB4 receptor (BLT1), and 15-LO. We found that the Th1-allergic inflammation induced by OVA+dsRNA sensitization was similar between 5-LO(-/-) and wild-type (WT) control mice, although Th2 inflammation induced by sensitization with OVA+alum was reduced in the former group. In addition, dsRNA-induced Th1 allergic inflammation, which is associated with down-regulation of 15-hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids production, was not affected by treatment with cysLTR1 or BLT1 inhibitors, whereas it was significantly lower in 12/15-LO(-/-) mice compared with WT control mice. Moreover, dsRNA-induced allergic inflammation and the recruitment of T cells following an allergen challenge were significantly inhibited by treatment with a specific 15-LO inhibitor (PD146176). 15-LO metabolites appear to be important mediators in the development of Th1-allergic inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. Our findings suggest that the

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  8. T-helper 17 and interleukin-17-producing lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells make different contributions to colitis in mice.

    Ono, Yuichi; Kanai, Takanori; Sujino, Tomohisa; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Yasumasa; Mikami, Yohei; Hayashi, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Ogata, Haruhiko; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-11-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells that express the retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR) γt contribute to the development of colitis in mice, yet are found in normal and inflamed intestine. We investigated their development and functions in intestines of mice. We analyzed intestinal Th17 cells in healthy and inflamed intestinal tissues of mice. We analyzed expression of lymphotoxin (LT)α by Th17 cells and lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells. LTα(-/-) and RORγt(-/-) mice had significantly lower percentages of naturally occurring Th17 cells in the small intestine than wild-type mice. Numbers of CD3(-)CD4(+/-)interleukin-7Rα(+)c-kit(+)CCR6(+)NKp46(-) lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells that produce interleukin-17A were increased in LTα(-/-) and LTα(-/-) × recombination activating gene (RAG)-2(-/-) mice, compared with wild-type mice, but were absent from RORγt(-/-) mice. Parabiosis of wild-type and LTα(-/-) mice and bone marrow transplant experiments revealed that LTα-dependent gut-associated lymphoid tissue structures are required for generation of naturally occurring Th17 cells. However, when wild-type or LTα(-/-) CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells were transferred to RAG-2(-/-) or LTα(-/-)×RAG-2(-/-) mice, all groups, irrespective of the presence or absence of LTα on the donor or recipient cells, developed colitis and generated Th1, Th17, and Th17/Th1 cells. RAG-2(-/-) mice that received a second round of transplantation, with colitogenic but not naturally occurring Th17 cells, developed intestinal inflammation. The presence of naturally occurring Th17 cells in the colons of mice inhibited development of colitis after transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells and increased the numbers of Foxp3(+) cells derived from CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue structures are required to generate naturally occurring Th17 cells that have regulatory activities in normal intestines of mice, but not for colitogenic Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells during inflammation

  9. Increased T-helper 17 cell differentiation mediated by exosome-mediated microRNA-451 redistribution in gastric cancer infiltrated T cells.

    Liu, Feng; Bu, Zhouyan; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Daping

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-451 is a cell metabolism-related miRNA that can mediate cell energy-consuming models by several targets. As miR-451 can promote mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, and increased mTOR activity is related to increased differentiation of T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, we sought to investigate whether miR-451 can redistribute from cancer cells to infiltrated T cells and enhance the distribution of Th17 cells through mTOR. Real-time PCR was used for detecting expression of miR-451 in gastric cancer, tumor infiltrated T cells and exosomes, and distribution of Th17 was evaluated by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Immunofluorescence staining was used in monitoring the exosome-enveloped miR-451 from cancer cells to T cells with different treatments, and signaling pathway change was analyzed by western blot. miR-451 decreased significantly in gastric cancer (GC) tissues but increased in infiltrated T cells and exosomes; tumor miR-451 was negatively related to infiltrated T cells and exosome miR-451. Exosome miR-451 can not only serve as an indicator for poor prognosis of post-operation GC patients but is also related to increased Th17 distribution in gastric cancer. miR-451 can redistribute from cancer cells to T cells with low glucose treatment. Decreased 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased mTOR activity was investigated in miR-451 redistributed T cells and the Th17 polarized differentiation of these T cells were also increased. Exosome miR-451 derived from tumor tissues can serve as an indicator for poor prognosis and redistribution of miR-451 from cancer cells to infiltrated T cells in low glucose treatment can enhance Th17 differentiation by enhancing mTOR activity. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. The balance between IL-17 and IL-22 produced by liver-infiltrating T-helper cells critically controls NASH development in mice.

    Rolla, Simona; Alchera, Elisa; Imarisio, Chiara; Bardina, Valentina; Valente, Guido; Cappello, Paola; Mombello, Cristina; Follenzi, Antonia; Novelli, Francesco; Carini, Rita

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the evolution of steatosis towards NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and fibrosis are not completely defined. In the present study we evaluated the role of CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cells in this process. We analysed the infiltration of different subsets of CD4(+) Th cells in C57BL/6 mice fed on a MCD (methionine choline-deficient) diet, which is a model reproducing all phases of human NASH progression. There was an increase in Th17 cells at the beginning of NASH development and at the NASH-fibrosis transition, whereas levels of Th22 cells peaked between the first and the second expansion of Th17 cells. An increase in the production of IL (interleukin)-6, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) and CCL20 (CC chemokine ligand 20) accompanied the changes in Th17/Th22 cells. Livers of IL-17(-/-) mice were protected from NASH development and characterized by an extensive infiltration of Th22 cells. In vitro, IL-17 exacerbated the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-dependent mouse hepatocyte lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. IL-22 prevented lipotoxicity through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-mediated inhibition of JNK, but did not play a protective role in the presence of IL-17, which up-regulated the PI3K/Akt inhibitor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10). Consistently, livers of IL-17(-/-) mice fed on the MCD diet displayed decreased activation of JNK, reduced expression of PTEN and increased phosphorylation of Akt compared with livers of wild-type mice. Hepatic infiltration of Th17 cells is critical for NASH initiation and development of fibrosis in mice, and reflects an infiltration of Th22 cells. Th22 cells are protective in NASH, but only in the absence of IL-17. These data strongly support the potentiality of clinical applications of IL-17 inhibitors that can prevent NASH by both abolishing the lipotoxic action of IL-17 and allowing IL-22-mediated protection. © 2016 Authors

  11. The Mobile Robot "Little Helper"

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Madsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Increased customer needs and intensified global competition require intelligent and flexible automation. The interaction technology mobile robotics addresses this, so it holds great potential within the industry. This paper presents the concepts, ideas and working principles of the mobile robot...... this show promising results regarding industrial integration, exploitation and maturation of mobile robotics....

  12. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  13. Andes: An intelligent homework helper

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary

    2007-03-01

    Andes (www.andes.pitt.edu) is an intelligent tutor homework system designed for use as the homework portion of an introductory physics course. It encourages students to use good problem solving techniques and provides immediate feedback on each step of a problem solution along with hints on request. I will discuss how Andes works, from a student perspective, and present research demonstrating its effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. Then, I will discuss using Andes as a tool for conducting education research, briefly reviewing several studies conducted using Andes. Finally, I will show how logs of student solutions to Andes problems can be used to develop cognitive models of student learning.

  14. Two Inducible Prophages of an Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. ANT_H14 Use the Same Capsid for Packaging Their Genomes – Characterization of a Novel Phage Helper-Satellite System

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Two novel prophages ФAH14a and ФAH14b of a psychrotolerant Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ANT_H14 have been characterized. They were simultaneously induced with mitomycin C and packed into capsids of the same size and protein composition. The genome sequences of ФAH14a and ФAH14b have been determined. ФAH14b, the phage with a smaller genome (16,812 bp) seems to parasitize ФAH14a (55,060 bp) and utilizes its capsids, as only the latter encodes a complete set of structural proteins. Both viruses probably constitute a phage helper-satellite system, analogous to the P2-P4 duo. This study describes the architecture and function of the ФAH14a and ФAH14b genomes. Moreover, a functional analysis of a ФAH14a-encoded lytic enzyme and a DNA methyltransferase was performed. In silico analysis revealed the presence of the homologs of ФAH14a and ФAH14b in other Pseudomonas genomes, which may suggest that helper-satellite systems related to the one described in this work are common in pseudomonads. PMID:27387973

  15. DNA fragmentation: manifestation of target cell destruction mediated by cytotoxic T-cell lines, lymphotoxin-secreting helper T-cell clones, and cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatant

    Schmid, D.S.; Tite, J.P.; Ruddle, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    A Lyt-2 + , trinitrophenyl-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting, cytotoxic T-cell line, PCl 55, mediates the digestion of target cell DNA into discretely sized fragments. This phenomenon manifests itself within 30 min after effector cell encounter as measured by the release of 3 H counts from target cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]deoxythymidine and occurs even at very low effector to target cell ratios (0.25:1). A Lyt-1 + , ovalbumin-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting T-helper cell clone, 5.9.24, is also able to mediate fragmentation of target cell DNA over a time course essentially indistinguishable from the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated hit. Cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatants also cause release of DNA from targets, although they require a longer time course, on the order of 24 hr. In contrast, lysis of cells by antibody plus complement or Triton X-100 does not result in DNA release even after extended periods of incubation (24 hr). All three treatments that result in the release of DNA from cells cause fragmentation of that DNA into discretely sized pieces that are multiples of 200 base pairs. The results thus suggest that cytotoxic T cells, lymphotoxin-secreting helper clones with cytolytic activity, and lymphotoxin all effect target cell destruction by means of a similar mechanism and that observed differences in time course and the absence of target cell specificity in killing mediated by lymphotoxin may simply reflect differences in the mode of toxin delivery

  16. Two Inducible Prophages of an Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. ANT_H14 Use the Same Capsid for Packaging Their Genomes - Characterization of a Novel Phage Helper-Satellite System.

    Lukasz Dziewit

    Full Text Available Two novel prophages ФAH14a and ФAH14b of a psychrotolerant Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ANT_H14 have been characterized. They were simultaneously induced with mitomycin C and packed into capsids of the same size and protein composition. The genome sequences of ФAH14a and ФAH14b have been determined. ФAH14b, the phage with a smaller genome (16,812 bp seems to parasitize ФAH14a (55,060 bp and utilizes its capsids, as only the latter encodes a complete set of structural proteins. Both viruses probably constitute a phage helper-satellite system, analogous to the P2-P4 duo. This study describes the architecture and function of the ФAH14a and ФAH14b genomes. Moreover, a functional analysis of a ФAH14a-encoded lytic enzyme and a DNA methyltransferase was performed. In silico analysis revealed the presence of the homologs of ФAH14a and ФAH14b in other Pseudomonas genomes, which may suggest that helper-satellite systems related to the one described in this work are common in pseudomonads.

  17. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in the spike 2 domain and the nucleocapsid protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Satoh, Ryoichi; Furukawa, Tomoko; Kotake, Masako; Takano, Tomomi; Motokawa, Kenji; Gemma, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Rie; Arai, Setsuo; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-02-17

    The antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection has been recognized in experimentally infected cats, and cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in preventing the onset of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). In the present study, we synthesized eighty-one kinds of peptides derived from the spike (S)2 domain of type I FIPV KU-2 strain, the S2 domain of type II FIPV 79-1146 strain, and the nucleocapcid (N) protein of FIPV KU-2 strain. To detect the T helper (Th)1 epitope, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from FIPV-infected cats were cultured with each peptide, and Th1-type immune responses were measured using feline interferon (fIFN)-γ production as an index. To detect the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope, we investigated the reactivity of plasma collected from FIPV-infected cats against each peptide by ELISA. Four and 2 peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in the heptad repeat (HR)1 and inter-helical (IH) regions of the S2 domain of type I FIPV, respectively, and these were located on the N-terminal side of the regions. In the S2 domain of type II FIPV, 2, 3, and 2 peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in the HR1, IH, and HR2 regions, respectively, and these were mainly located on the C-terminal side of the regions. In the S2 domain of type I FIPV, 3 and 7 peptides containing linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were identified in the IH and HR2 regions, respectively. In the S2 domain of type II FIPV, 4 peptides containing linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were identified in the HR2 region. The Th1 epitopes in the S2 domain of type I and II FIPV were located in different regions, but the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were mostly located in the HR2 region. Eight peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in N protein, and 3 peptides derived from residues 81 to 100 and 137 to 164 showed strong

  18. A High Frequency of HIV-Specific Circulating Follicular Helper T Cells Is Associated with Preserved Memory B Cell Responses in HIV Controllers.

    Claireaux, M; Galperin, M; Benati, D; Nouël, A; Mukhopadhyay, M; Klingler, J; de Truchis, P; Zucman, D; Hendou, S; Boufassa, F; Moog, C; Lambotte, O; Chakrabarti, L A

    2018-05-08

    Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play an essential role in the affinity maturation of the antibody response by providing help to B cells. To determine whether this CD4 + T cell subset may contribute to the spontaneous control of HIV infection, we analyzed the phenotype and function of circulating Tfh (cTfh) in patients from the ANRS CO21 CODEX cohort who naturally controlled HIV-1 replication to undetectable levels and compared them to treated patients with similarly low viral loads. HIV-specific cTfh (Tet + ), detected by Gag-major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) tetramer labeling in the CD45RA - CXCR5 + CD4 + T cell population, proved more frequent in the controller group ( P = 0.002). The frequency of PD-1 expression in Tet + cTfh was increased in both groups (median, >75%) compared to total cTfh (<30%), but the intensity of PD-1 expression per cell remained higher in the treated patient group ( P = 0.02), pointing to the persistence of abnormal immune activation in treated patients. The function of cTfh, analyzed by the capacity to promote IgG secretion in cocultures with autologous memory B cells, did not show major differences between groups in terms of total IgG production but proved significantly more efficient in the controller group when measuring HIV-specific IgG production. The frequency of Tet + cTfh correlated with HIV-specific IgG production ( R = 0.71 for Gag-specific and R = 0.79 for Env-specific IgG, respectively). Taken together, our findings indicate that key cTfh-B cell interactions are preserved in controlled HIV infection, resulting in potent memory B cell responses that may play an underappreciated role in HIV control. IMPORTANCE The rare patients who spontaneously control HIV replication in the absence of therapy provide a unique model to identify determinants of an effective anti-HIV immune response. HIV controllers show signs of particularly efficient antiviral T cell responses, while their humoral response was until recently

  19. An efficient tag derived from the common epitope of tospoviral NSs proteins for monitoring recombinant proteins expressed in both bacterial and plant systems.

    Cheng, Hao-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Raja, Joseph A J; Li, Jian-Xian; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2013-04-15

    NSscon (23 aa), a common epitope in the gene silencing suppressor NSs proteins of the members of the Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) serogroup, was previously identified. In this investigation, we expressed different green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused deletions of NSscon in bacteria and reacted with NSscon monoclonal antibody (MAb). Our results indicated that the core 9 amino acids, "(109)KFTMHNQIF(117)", denoted as "nss", retain the reactivity of NSscon. In bacterial pET system, four different recombinant proteins labeled with nss, either at N- or C-extremes, were readily detectable without position effects, with sensitivity superior to that for the polyhistidine-tag. When the nss-tagged Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) helper component-protease (HC-Pro) and WSMoV nucleocapsid protein were transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in tobacco, they were readily detectable and the tag's possible efficacy for gene silencing suppression was not noticed. Co-immunoprecipitation of nss-tagged and non-tagged proteins expressed from bacteria confirmed the interaction of potyviral HC-Pro and coat protein. Thus, we conclude that this novel nss sequence is highly valuable for tagging recombinant proteins in both bacterial and plant expression systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A High RORγT/CD3 Ratio is a Strong Prognostic Factor for Postoperative Survival in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Analysis of Helper T Cell Lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Regulatory T Cells).

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Sato, Kensaku; Yuge, Kotaro; Ohchi, Takafumi; Fujino, Shinya; Shiraiwa, Sachiko; Katagiri, Mitsuhiro; Akagi, Yoshito; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), part of the host immune response, have been widely reported as influential factors in the tumor microenvironment for the clinical outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the network of helper T cells is very complex, and which T-cell subtypes affect the progression of CRC and postoperative prognosis remains unclear. This study investigated the expression of several subtypes of TILs including T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells to determine their correlation with clinicopathologic features and postoperative prognosis. The study investigated the expression of TILs using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray samples for 199 CRC patients. The number of each T-cell subtype infiltrating tumors was counted using ImageJ software. The relationship between TIL marker expression, clinicopathologic features, and prognosis was analyzed. A high RORγT/CD3 ratio (Th17 ratio) was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002), and a high of Foxp3/CD3 ratio (Treg ratio) was correlated with tumor location in the colon (p = 0.04), as shown by the Chi square test. In multivariate analysis, a high RORγT/CD3 ratio was the only independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.04; hazard ratio [HR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-3.45). This study confirmed a high RORγT/CD3 ratio as a strong prognostic marker for postoperative survival. The immunohistochemistry results suggest that Th17 may affect lymph node metastasis in CRC. If new immunotherapies reducing Th17 expression are established, they may improve the efficiency of cancer treatment and prolong the survival of patients with CRC.

  1. MicroRNAs regulate T-cell production of interleukin-9 and identify hypoxia-inducible factor-2α as an important regulator of T helper 9 and regulatory T-cell differentiation.

    Singh, Yogesh; Garden, Oliver A; Lang, Florian; Cobb, Bradley S

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many aspects of helper T cell (Th) development and function. Here we found that they are required for the suppression of interleukin-9 (IL-9) expression in Th9 cells and other Th subsets. Two highly related miRNAs (miR-15b and miR-16) that we previously found to play an important role in regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation were capable of suppressing IL-9 expression when they were over-expressed in Th9 cells. We used these miRNAs as tools to identify novel regulators of IL-9 expression and found that they could regulate the expression of Epas1, which encodes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α. HIF proteins regulate metabolic pathway usage that is important in determining appropriate Th differentiation. The related protein, HIF-1α enhances Th17 differentiation and inhibits Treg cell differentiation. Here we found that HIF-2α was required for IL-9 expression in Th9 cells, but its expression was not sufficient in other Th subsets. Furthermore, HIF-2α suppressed Treg cell differentiation like HIF-1α, demonstrating both similar and distinct roles of the HIF proteins in Th differentiation and adding a further dimension to their function. Ironically, even though miR-15b and miR-16 suppressed HIF-2α expression in Treg cells, inhibiting their function in Treg cells did not lead to an increase in IL-9 expression. Therefore, the physiologically relevant miRNAs that regulate IL-9 expression in Treg cells and other subsets remain unknown. Nevertheless, the analysis of miR-15b and miR-16 function led to the discovery of the importance of HIF-2α so this work demonstrated the utility of studying miRNA function to identify novel regulatory pathways in helper T-cell development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. T-Helper 17 Cell Cytokine Responses in Lyme Disease Correlate With Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies During Early Infection and With Autoantibodies Late in the Illness in Patients With Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis.

    Strle, Klemen; Sulka, Katherine B; Pianta, Annalisa; Crowley, Jameson T; Arvikar, Sheila L; Anselmo, Anthony; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Steere, Allen C

    2017-04-01

    Control of Lyme disease is attributed predominantly to innate and adaptive T-helper 1 cell (TH1) immune responses, whereas the role of T-helper 17 cell (TH17) responses is less clear. Here we characterized these inflammatory responses in patients with erythema migrans (EM) or Lyme arthritis (LA) to elucidate their role early and late in the infection. Levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines, representative of innate, TH1, and TH17 immune responses, were assessed by Luminex in acute and convalescent sera from 91 EM patients, in serum and synovial fluid from 141 LA patients, and in serum from 57 healthy subjects. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi or autoantigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with healthy subjects, EM patients had significantly higher levels of innate, TH1, and TH17-associated mediators (P ≤ .05) in serum. In these patients, the levels of inflammatory mediators, particularly TH17-associated cytokines, correlated directly with B. burgdorferi immunoglobulin G antibodies (P ≤ .02), suggesting a beneficial role for these responses in control of early infection. Late in the disease, in patients with LA, innate and TH1-associated mediators were often >10-fold higher in synovial fluid than serum. In contrast, the levels of TH17-associated mediators were more variable, but correlated strongly with autoantibodies to endothelial cell growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 10, and apolipoprotein B-100 in joints of patients with antibiotic-refractory LA, implying a shift in TH17 responses toward an autoimmune phenotype. Patients with Lyme disease often develop pronounced TH17 immune responses that may help control early infection. However, late in the disease, excessive TH17 responses may be disadvantageous by contributing to autoimmune responses associated with antibiotic-refractory LA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions

  3. CD4 T cells mediate both positive and negative regulation of the immune response to HIV infection: complex role of T follicular helper cells and Regulatory T cells in pathogenesis

    Chansavath ePhetsouphanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection results in chronic activation of cells in lymphoid tissue, including T cells, B cells and myeloid lineage cells. The resulting characteristic hyperplasia is an amalgam of proliferating host immune cells in the adaptive response, increased concentrations of innate response mediators due to viral and bacterial products, and homeostatic responses to inflammation. While it is generally thought that CD4 T cells are greatly depleted, in fact, two types of CD4 T cells appear to be increased, namely regulatory T cells (Tregs and T follicular helper cells (Tfh. These cells have opposing roles, but may both be important in the pathogenic process. Whether Tregs are failing in their role to limit lymphocyte activation is unclear, but there is no doubt now that Tfh are associated with B cell hyperplasia and increased germinal centre activity. Antiretroviral therapy (ART may reduce the lymphocyte activation, but not completely, and therefore there is a need for interventions that selectively enhance normal CD4 function without exacerbating Tfh, B cell or Treg dysfunction.

  4. Evaluation of protective efficacy of the synthetic peptide vaccine containing the T-helper 1 epitope with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide against feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in cats.

    Takano, Tomomi; Tomizawa, Keisuke; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus-induced fatal disease in domestic and wild cats. Cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in the prevention of FIP. Thus, induction of the cellular immune response is essential in vaccines against FIP virus (FIPV) infection. We immunized cats with peptides containing T-helper (Th)1 epitopes derived from the nucleocapsid (N) protein of the type I FIPV KU-2 strain (NP7 and NP8) with feline CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (fCpG-ODNs) as a vaccine adjuvant. Prevention against type II FIPV 79-1146 strain-induced FIP was slightly better in specific pathogen-free cats treated with NP7 and NP8 with fCpG-ODNs. However, immune tolerance was suggested to be induced by the high dose and frequency of NP7 and NP8 with fCpG-ODNs. Further investigations on the combination and concentrations of the peptides and fCpG-ODNs, dose, frequency and route of administration are needed.

  5. Animal models of allergen-induced tolerance in asthma: are T-regulatory-1 cells (Tr-1) the solution for T-helper-2 cells (Th-2) in asthma?

    Tournoy, K G; Hove, C; Grooten, J; Moerloose, K; Brusselle, G G; Joos, G F

    2006-01-01

    Non-specific anti-inflammatory medication is actually the treatment of choice for controlling the T-helper type 2 (Th-2) cell-driven airway inflammation in asthma. The induction of counterbalancing Th-1 cell clones, long considered a promising approach for immunotherapy, has failed to fulfil its promise because of potentially detrimental side-effects. This is therefore probably not a valid option for the treatment of asthma. With the increasing awareness that active immune mechanisms exist to control inflammatory responses, interest rises to investigate whether these can be exploited to control allergen-induced airway disease. The induction of antigen-specific T cells with suppressive characteristics (regulatory T cells) is therefore a potentially interesting approach. These regulatory T cells mediate tolerance in healthy, non-atopic individuals and have the potential of becoming an effective means of preventing allergen-induced airway inflammation and possibly of suppressing ongoing allergic immune responses. Here we review the available knowledge about allergen-induced suppressive immunity obtained from animal models taking into account the different developmental stages of allergic airway disease.

  6. Impaired CD4+ and T-helper 17 cell memory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with elevated glucose and percent glycated hemoglobin A1c in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Martinez, Perla J; Mathews, Christine; Actor, Jeffrey K; Hwang, Shen-An; Brown, Eric L; De Santiago, Heather K; Fisher Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B; Mirza, Shaper

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes are significantly more susceptible to pneumococcal infections than healthy individuals of the same age. Increased susceptibility is the result of impairments in both innate and adaptive immune systems. Given the central role of T-helper 17 (Th17) and T-regulatory (Treg) cells in pneumococcal infection and their altered phenotype in diabetes, this study was designed to analyze the Th17 and Treg cell responses to a whole heat-killed capsular type 2 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Patients with diabetes demonstrated a lower frequency of total CD+T-cells, which showed a significant inverse association with elevated fasting blood glucose. Measurement of specific subsets indicated that those with diabetes had, low intracellular levels of interleukin (IL)-17, and lower pathogen-specific memory CD4+ and IL-17+ cell numbers. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of CD4+ and Th17 cells between those with and without diabetes. However, stratification of data by obesity indicated a significant increase in frequency of CD4+ and Th17 cells in obese individuals with diabetes compared with nonobese individual with diabetes. The memory CD+T-cell response was associated inversely with both fasting blood glucose and percent glycated hemoglobin A1c. This study demonstrated that those with type 2 diabetes have a diminished pathogen-specific memory CD4+ and Th17 response, and low percentages of CD+T-cells in response to S. pneumoniae stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Cao, Wei; Ryan, Michelle; Buckley, Deirdre; O'Connor, Rosemary; Clarkson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4+ T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy. PMID:21463297

  8. Induction of T helper 1 response by immunization of BALB/c mice with the gene encoding the second subunit of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B (EgAgB8/2

    Boutennoune H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pre-designed plasmid containing the gene encoding the second subunit of Echinococcus granulosus AgB8 (EgAgB8/2 was used to study the effect of the immunization route on the immune response in BALB/c mice. Mice were immunized with pDRIVEEgAgB8/ 2 or pDRIVE empty cassette using the intramuscular (i.m., intranasal (i.n. or the epidermal gene gun (g.g. routes. Analysis of the antibody response and cytokine data revealed that gene immunization by the i.m. route induced a marked bias towards a T helper type 1 (Th1 immune response as characterized by high IFN-γ gene expression and a low IgG1/IgG2a reactivity index (R.I. ratio of 0.04. The i.n. route showed a moderate IFN-γ expression but a higher IgG1/IgG2a R.I. ratio of 0.25 indicating a moderate Th1 response. In contrast, epidermal g.g. immunization induced a Th2 response characterized by high IL-4 expression and the highest IgG1/IgG2a R.I. ratio of 0.58. In conclusion, this study showed the advantage of genetic immunization using the i.m. route and i.n. over the epidermal g.g. routes in the induction of Th1 immunity in response to E. granulosus AgB gene immunization.

  9. Analysis of histological and immunological parameters of metastatic lymph nodes from colon cancer patients reveals that T-helper 1 type immune response is associated with improved overall survival.

    Nizri, Eran; Greenman-Maaravi, Nofar; Bar-David, Shoshi; Ben-Yehuda, Amir; Weiner, Gilad; Lahat, Guy; Klausner, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Lymph node (LN) involvement in colonic carcinoma (CC) is a grave prognostic sign and mandates the addition of adjuvant treatment. However, in light of the histological variability and outcomes observed, we hypothesized that patients with LN metastases (LNM) comprise different subgroups.We retrospectively analyzed the histological sections of 82 patients with CC and LNM. We studied various histological parameters (such as tumor grade, desmoplasia, and preservation of LN architecture) as well as the prevalence of specific peritumoral immune cells (CD8, CD20, T-bet, and GATA-3). We correlated the histological and immunological data to patient outcome.Tumor grade was a significant prognostic factor even in patients with LNM. So was the number of LN involved (N1/N2 stage). From the morphological parameters tested (LN extracapsular invasion, desmoplasia in LN, LN architecture preservation, and mode of metastases distribution), none was found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS). The mean OS of CD8 low patients was 66.6 ± 6.25 versus 71.4 ± 5.1 months for CD8 high patients (P = 0.79). However, T-helper (Th) 1 immune response skewing (measured by Th1/Th2 ratio >1) was significantly associated with improved OS. For patients with low ratio, the median OS was 35.5 ± 5 versus 83.5 months for patients with high Th1/Th2 ratio (P = 0.001).The histological presentation of LNM does not entail specific prognostic information. However, the finding of Th1 immune response in LN signifies a protective immune response. Future studies should be carried to verify this marker and develop a strategy that augments this immune response during subsequent adjuvant treatment.

  10. Expression of T helper cell-associated inflammatory mediator mRNAs in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and oxygen concentration in arterial blood samples from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen.

    Looijen, Maty G P; New, Dallas J; Fischer, Carrie D; Dardari, Rkia; Irwin, Karyn M; Berezowski, Christopher J; Bond, Stephanie L; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the mRNA expression of T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cell-associated inflammatory mediators in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and to monitor blood oxygen concentration during and following HBO therapy. ANIMALS 8 healthy horses. PROCEDURES In a randomized controlled crossover design study, each horse was exposed (beginning day 1) to 100% oxygen at a maximum of 3 atmospheres absolute (304 kPa) daily for 10 days or ambient air at atmospheric pressure in the HBO chamber for an equivalent amount of time (control). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected on days 0 and 10. After validation of candidate reference genes, relative mRNA expressions of various innate inflammatory, Th1 cell-derived, Th2 cell-derived (including eotaxin-2), Th17 cell-derived, and regulatory cytokines were measured by quantitative PCR assays. For 3 horses, arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis during a separate HBO session. RESULTS The optimal combination of reference genes was glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase, and ribosomal protein L32. Compared with day 0 findings, expression of eotaxin-2 mRNA was significantly lower (0.12-fold reduction) and the percentage of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was significantly lower on day 10 when horses received HBO therapy. Values of Pao2 rapidly increased (> 800 mm Hg) but immediately decreased to pretreatment values when HBO sessions ended. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HBO therapy does not increase mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, but reduces eotaxin-2 mRNA transcription. The Pao2 increase was transient with no cumulative effects of HBO.

  11. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Cao, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of multiple T helper subsets in leprosy reveals distinct patterns of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs markers expression in clinical forms and reactional events.

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Marques, Heloisa; Binelli, Larissa Sarri; Malange, Mariana Silva Vieira; Devides, Amanda Carreira; Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Ghidella, Cassio Cesar; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Farias Fernandes; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    2017-12-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference among clinical forms of leprosy can be associated with the immune response of patients, mainly by T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Then, aiming at clarifying the immune response, the expression of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs profiles were evaluated by qPCR in 87 skin biopsies from leprosy patients. Additionally, cytokines and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were determined in serum by ELISA. The results showed that the expression of various targets (mRNA) related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs were significantly modulated in leprosy when compared with healthy individuals, suggesting the presence of a mixed profile. In addition, the targets related to Th1 predominated in the tuberculoid pole and side and Th2 and Tregs predominated in the lepromatous pole and side; however, Th17 targets showed a mixed profile. Concerning reactional events, Tregs markers were decreased and IL-15 was increased in reversal reaction and IL-17F, CCL20 and IL-8 in erythema nodosum leprosum, when compared with the respective non-reactional leprosy patients. Additionally, ELISA analysis demonstrated that IL-22, IL-6, IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibody levels were significantly higher in the serum of patients when compared with healthy individuals, and IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were also increased in the lepromatous pole and side. Together, these results indicate that Th1, Th2 and Th17 are involved in the determination of clinical forms of leprosy and suggest that decreased Tregs activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of reactional events.

  13. Recently activated naive CD4 T cells can help resting B cells, and can produce sufficient autocrine IL-4 to drive differentiation to secretion of T helper 2-type cytokines.

    Croft, M; Swain, S L

    1995-05-01

    Development of T cells during primary responses was investigated using pigeon cytochrome C-specific naive Th from TCR transgenic mice. Naive CD4 cells did not activate and help resting B cells. This failure was found to be primarily because the resting B cells were incapable of stimulating the naive Th. Provision of a costimulatory signal such as anti-CD28, or addition of APCs that express costimulatory molecules, such as dendritic cells, activated B cells, and B7+ and B7+ICAM(+)-expressing fibroblasts, induced naive Th activation and promoted T cell-dependent help for IgM secretion. T cell activation for as little as 24 h promoted helper activity, and Ig secretion required production of small amounts of IL-4 by the activated naive Th. On initial stimulation, naive Th secrete only IL-2. By mRNA analysis, activated naive Th were also shown to produce IL-4, however induction of IL-4 message only occurred 24 h after initial activation and required additional stimulation with Ag. A single exposure of naive CD4 to Ag/APC followed by 4 to 12 days in culture led to generation of effector Th which secreted IL-2 and some IFN-gamma, and no detectable IL-4 or IL-5, and which could only help B cells to IgM secretion. In contrast, similar cultures that received Ag/APC one or more times during this period generated effector cells capable of secreting easily detectable titers of IL-4 and IL-5, as well as IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and able to now promote IgG1 and IgE responses. Generation of these Th0-like effectors was accompanied by increasing amounts of IL-4 secreted during the culture period after each restimulation, and addition of anti-IL-4 in culture inhibited development of the capacity to produce Th2 cytokines. These studies reinforce the notion that naive CD4 must interact with a costimulatory professional APC, rather than a resting B cell, for initiation of the primary response, but show that such an interaction can result in rapid development of the ability to interact with

  14. CD4+ T follicular helper and IgA+ B cell numbers in gut biopsies from HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy are comparable to HIV-uninfected individuals

    John Zaunders

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disruption of gastrointestinal tract epithelial and immune barriers contribute to microbial translocation, systemic inflammation and progression of HIV-1 infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART may lead to reconstitution of CD4+ T cells in gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, but its impact on humoral immunity within GALT is unclear. Therefore we studied CD4+ subsets, including T follicular helper cells (Tfh, as well as resident B cells that have switched to IgA production, in gut biopsies, from HIV+ subjects on suppressive ART, compared to HIV-negative controls.Methods: 23 HIV+ subjects on ART and 22 HIV-negative controls (HNC undergoing colonoscopy were recruited to the study. Single cell suspensions were prepared from biopsies from left colon (LC, right colon (RC and terminal ileum (TI. T and B lymphocyte subsets, as well as EpCAM+ epithelial cells, were accurately enumerated by flow cytometry, using counting beads. Results: No significant differences in the number of recovered epithelial cells were observed between the two subject groups. However, the median TI CD4+ T cell count/106 epithelial cells was 2.4-fold lower in HIV+ subjects versus HNC (19,679 vs 47,504 cells; p=0.02. Similarly, median LC CD4+ T cell counts were reduced in HIV+ subjects (8,358 vs 18,577; p=0.03, but were not reduced in RC. Importantly, we found no significant differences in Tfh or IgA+ B cell counts at either site between HIV+ subjects and HNC. Further analysis showed no difference in CD4+, Tfh or IgA+ B cell counts between subjects who commenced ART in primary compared to chronic HIV-1 infection. Despite the decrease in total CD4 T cells, we could not identify a selective decrease of other key subsets of CD4+ T cells, including: CCR5+ cells; CD127+ long-term memory cells; CD103+ tissue resident cells; or CD161+ cells (surrogate marker for Th17, but there was a slight increase in the proportion of T regulatory cells. Conclusion: While there

  15. Daycare Children of Divorce and Their Helpers

    Overland, Klara; Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad

    2013-01-01

    Caring for children of divorce may prevent emotional and behavioural problems. This study investigates daycare staff's beliefs about caring for young children who have experienced parental divorce. Q methodology was applied for this purpose, and 33 participants sorted 40 subjective statements. The Q factor analyses resulted in four factors or…

  16. You Can Be a Skilled Group Helper

    Tamminen, Armas W.; Smaby, Marlowe H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors propose a two-phase model of group counseling that is structured and involves simultaneously teaching and applying counseling skills to real-life problems of the members of the group. (Author)

  17. A quest for indigenous truffle helper prokaryotes

    Gryndler, Milan; Soukupová, Lucie; Hršelová, Hana; Gryndlerová, Hana; Borovička, Jan; Streiblová, Eva; Jansa, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2013), s. 346-352 ISSN 1758-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0382 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : TUBER-BORCHII * PSEUDOMONAS -FLUORESCENS * ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  18. Hope for the Helpers: Beyond Therapeutic Nihilism.

    Alessi, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents and discusses 10 principles of treatment that can be followed in managing depressed children and adolescents. Readers are encouraged to attend to emergencies first, expect to try more than one treatment approach, use countertransference, identify parental depression, learn family history, and realize not everyone will be helped or cured.…

  19. 29 CFR 782.4 - Drivers' helpers.

    2010-07-01

    ... interstate or foreign commerce, because, in the case of an accident or other emergency and in other respects... accidents occur, they help the driver in obtaining aid and protect the vehicle from oncoming traffic. (c) In... commerce within the meaning of the Motor Carrier Act. (Ispass v. Pyramid Motor Freight Corp., 152 F. (2d...

  20. Helpers in Distress: Preventing Secondary Trauma

    Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…

  1. Molecular helpers wanted... Call for volunteers!

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force in charge of the organization of the LHC Inauguration is looking for 40 volunteers to support the team of molecular cooks directed by international chef Ettore Bocchia. The "molecular" volunteers will help in the preparation of liquid nitrogen ice-cream. Your help is requested from 12h to 18h on October 21st. Your participation in a general rehearsal on October 20th is also required - (the time of the rehearsal will be communicated at a later moment). Dress code: black pants and shoes, long sleeved white shirt. Do not miss this opportunity to take part in an extraordinary event! For further information and to enrol, contact: mailto:Catherine.Brandt@cern.ch

  2. T helper cells in leprosy: An update.

    Saini, Chaman; Tarique, Mohd; Rai, Reeta; Siddiqui, Anisuddin; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Alpana

    2017-04-01

    Leprosy is an ancient disease caused by gram positive, rod shaped bacilli called Mycobacterium leprae. Patients present with varied clinico-pathological disease depending on the host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Thus tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous (LL) patients represent two ends of a spectrum where the former shows limited disease, high T cell mediate immune (CMI) response and low antibody (HI) levels in serum. In contrast the latter has low T cell and high humoral immune response i.e antibody levels. The mechanisms underlying these differences have been investigated intensely; however, there is no consensus on the primary immunological basis. Over three decades, Th1 and Th2 paradigm were thought to underling tuberculoid and lepromatous disease respectively. However many patients were shown to have mixed Th1/Th2 pattern of (IFN-γ/IL-4) cytokines. The present review was undertaken with a view to understand the T cells and cytokine dysregulation in leprosy. In recent years the sub classes of T cells that are Regulatory in nature (Treg) have been implicated in immune diseases where they were shown to suppress T cell functions. Additionally Th17 cells secreting IL-17A, IL17F, were implicated in immune inflammation. Taken together these regulatory cells may play a part in influencing immune responses in leprosy. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-HER2 CD4(+) T-helper type 1 response is a novel immune correlate to pathologic response following neoadjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Datta, Jashodeep; Berk, Erik; Xu, Shuwen; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Lowenfeld, Lea; Goodman, Noah; Lewis, David A; Zhang, Paul J; Fisher, Carla; Roses, Robert E; DeMichele, Angela; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2015-05-23

    A progressive loss of circulating anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2/neu (HER2) CD4(+) T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses is observed in HER2(pos)-invasive breast cancer (IBC) patients relative to healthy controls. Pathologic complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy (T + C) is associated with decreased recurrence and improved prognosis. We examined differences in anti-HER2 Th1 responses between pCR and non-pCR patients to identify modifiable immune correlates to pathologic response following neoadjuvant T + C. Anti-HER2 Th1 responses in 87 HER2(pos)-IBC patients were examined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells pulsed with 6 HER2-derived class II peptides via IFN-γ ELISPOT. Th1 response metrics were anti-HER2 responsivity, repertoire (number of reactive peptides), and cumulative response across 6 peptides (spot-forming cells [SFC]/10(6) cells). Anti-HER2 Th1 responses of non-pCR patients (n = 4) receiving adjuvant HER2-pulsed type 1-polarized dendritic cell (DC1) vaccination were analyzed pre- and post-immunization. Depressed anti-HER2 Th1 responses observed in treatment-naïve HER2(pos)-IBC patients (n = 22) did not improve globally in T + C-treated HER2(pos)-IBC patients (n = 65). Compared with adjuvant T + C receipt, neoadjuvant T + C - utilized in 61.5 % - was associated with higher anti-HER2 Th1 repertoire (p = 0.048). While pCR (n = 16) and non-pCR (n = 24) patients did not differ substantially in demographic/clinical characteristics, pCR patients demonstrated dramatically higher anti-HER2 Th1 responsivity (94 % vs. 33 %, p = 0.0002), repertoire (3.3 vs. 0.3 peptides, p vs. 22.4 SFC/10(6), p non-pCR patients. After controlling for potential confounders, anti-HER2 Th1 responsivity remained independently associated with pathologic response (odds ratio 8.82, p = 0.016). This IFN-γ(+) immune disparity was mediated by anti-HER2 CD4(+)T-bet(+)IFN-γ(+) (i.e., Th1) - not CD4(+)GATA-3(+)IFN-γ(+) (i.e., Th2

  4. Quantitative imaging by pixel-based contrast-enhanced ultrasound reveals a linear relationship between synovial vascular perfusion and the recruitment of pathogenic IL-17A-F+IL-23+ CD161+ CD4+ T helper cells in psoriatic arthritis joints.

    Fiocco, Ugo; Stramare, Roberto; Martini, Veronica; Coran, Alessandro; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Felicetti, Mara; Rizzo, Gaia; Tonietto, Matteo; Scanu, Anna; Oliviero, Francesca; Raffeiner, Bernd; Vezzù, Maristella; Lunardi, Francesca; Scarpa, Raffaele; Sacerdoti, David; Rubaltelli, Leopoldo; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea; Grisan, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    To develop quantitative imaging biomarkers of synovial tissue perfusion by pixel-based contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), we studied the relationship between CEUS synovial vascular perfusion and the frequencies of pathogenic T helper (Th)-17 cells in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) joints. Eight consecutive patients with PsA were enrolled in this study. Gray scale CEUS evaluation was performed on the same joint immediately after joint aspiration, by automatic assessment perfusion data, using a new quantification approach of pixel-based analysis and the gamma-variate model. The set of perfusional parameters considered by the time intensity curve includes the maximum value (peak) of the signal intensity curve, the blood volume index or area under the curve, (BVI, AUC) and the contrast mean transit time (MTT). The direct ex vivo analysis of the frequencies of SF IL17A-F + CD161 + IL23 + CD4 + T cells subsets were quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). In cross-sectional analyses, when tested for multiple comparison setting, a false discovery rate at 10%, a common pattern of correlations between CEUS Peak, AUC (BVI) and MTT parameters with the IL17A-F + IL23 + - IL17A-F + CD161 + - and IL17A-F + CD161 + IL23 + CD4 + T cells subsets, as well as lack of correlation between both peak and AUC values and both CD4 + T and CD4 + IL23 + T cells, was observed. The pixel-based CEUS assessment is a truly measure synovial inflammation, as a useful tool to develop quantitative imaging biomarker for monitoring target therapeutics in PsA.

  5. Fusion protein of tapasin and hepatitis B core antigen 18‑27 enhances T helper cell type 1/2 cytokine ratio and antiviral immunity by inhibiting suppressors of cytokine signaling family members 1/3 in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice.

    Tang, Yuyan; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Zhenghao; Zhuo, Meng; Li, Dan; Wang, Peng; Zang, Guoqing; Yu, Yongsheng

    2014-04-01

    Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a weak adaptive immune response, which is considered to be due to an imbalance of T helper cell types 1 and 2 (Th1/Th2). Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family members, particularly SOCS1 and SOCS3, have been demonstrated to be important in the regulation of T cell differentiation. Previous studies by our group showed that the expressed and purified fusion protein of cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) and HBV core antigen 18‑27 (HBcAg18‑27)‑tapasin was able to enter the cytoplasm of bone marrow‑derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), promoting the maturation of BMDCs and efficiently enhancing T cell immune responses in vitro. In the present study, HBcAg‑specific immune responses induced by CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin in HBV were assessed in transgenic mice, and SOCS1 and SOCS3 were identified as negative regulators of this response. The Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio was analyzed by ELISA. The expression of T cell‑specific T‑box transcription factor (T‑bet) and GATA‑binding protein 3 (GATA‑3), SOCS1 and SOCS3 were detected by real‑time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin significantly increased the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in HBV transgenic mice. CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin immunization more efficiently suppressed the expression of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV DNA as well as liver HBsAg and HBcAg in HBV transgenic mice. Furthermore, CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin promotes T‑bet but reduces GATA‑3 expression. In addition, the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 was significantly downregulated in the CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin group compared with the control groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin enhanced the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio and antiviral immunity by suppressing SOCS1/3 in HBV transgenic mice.

  6. Helping While Learning: A Skilled Group Helper Training Program.

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a developmental group training workshop for training experienced counselors to do group counseling. Discusses stages of training including exploration, understanding, and action, which can help counselors learn helping skills for counseling that can often transfer to their own interpersonal lives and interactions with others. (JAC)

  7. T-helper 1 Immune Response in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...

    ) and osteopontin (OPN) in SLE patients and their correlation with the disease activity. Methods: The study included 24 patients with SLE and 20 age- and sex- matched control subjects. The disease activity was evaluated with the SLE disease ...

  8. Who Helps the Helpers? Social Support for Rape Crisis Advocates.

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Greeson, Megan R

    2017-08-01

    Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results revealed that many advocates were able to seek out and receive positive instrumental and emotional social support that nurtured them and their work. However, advocates also experienced a variety of barriers to obtaining positive support from informal support providers, including fear of burdening providers and a reluctance or lack of preparedness of their support providers to speak about the issue. Advocates emphasized the need for rape crisis centers to provide resources for their informal social support systems in order to encourage helpful responses. In addition, advocates praised the rape crisis center for its built-in formal support structures, but also encouraged the organization to seek broader representation of persons from minority backgrounds among their advocates and mentors. Implications and future directions for research and rape crisis centers are also discussed. The present study highlights the importance of social support systems for advocates and potential barriers that may be addressed to reduce service provider burnout and vicarious trauma.

  9. Maya Children. Helpers at the Farm (Karen L. Kramer

    Gema Campos Hernando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los habitantes de Xculoc, una aldea maya en la península de Yucatán, viven de sus cultivos de maíz y mantienen una agricultura de subsistencia sin haber entrado a formar parte del mercado laboral ni de la economía regional. La aldea, en la que viven 316 habitantes distribuidos en 55 casas familiares, está a cinco horas de camino de cualquier vía asfaltada, sin electricidad ni agua corriente. Los habitantes de Xculoc tienen de particular una tasa de natalidad muy alta y una mortalidad infantil muy baja, en parte por la ausencia de aguas contaminadas en los alrededores del poblado, llegando a conformarse el núcleo familiar por la madre, el padre y hasta ocho hijos. Esta estructura familiar no se podría mantener con el exclusivo trabajo de los padres , las necesidades de consumo son cubiertas por todos los miembros de la familia, dependiendo sus aportaciones no sólo del tamaño de la familia sino también de la estructura de la misma según edades.

  10. Challenge, Confrontation, and Exhortation as Intentional Invitations by Professional Helpers.

    Schmidt, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines intentional invitations that challenge, confront, exhort, and persuade people to change their behaviors. Assumes that the sender controls the "intention" and that the receiver determines the degree of "inviting." Suggests that elements of the invitational model serve as a framework to create acceptable inducements in…

  11. Mental Health Service Providers: College Student Perceptions of Helper Effectiveness

    Ackerman, Ashley M.; Wantz, Richard A.; Firmin, Michael W; Poindexter, Dawn C.; Pujara, Amita L.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate perceptions of the overall effectiveness of six types of mental health service providers (MHSPs) were obtained with a survey. Although many mental health services are available to consumers in the United States, research has indicated that these services are underutilized. Perceptions have been linked to therapeutic outcomes and may…

  12. Who Helps the Helper? Lessons on Grieving for Athletic Trainers

    Maurer-Starks, Suanne; Wise, Kimberly A.; Leone, James E.; Kitsos, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Context: Grief is something that will touch all of us. We expect loss to occur in our personal lives and seem to be somewhat prepared for how to cope with it when it happens. In the profession of athletic training, we may not expect loss to occur as readily--especially if we are working with a young, seemingly healthy population. As such, when an…

  13. Pathogen-Reactive T Helper Cell Analysis in the Pig

    Friederike Ebner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in studying host–pathogen interactions in human-relevant large animal models such as the pig. Despite the progress in developing immunological reagents for porcine T cell research, there is an urgent need to directly assess pathogen-specific T cells—an extremely rare population of cells, but of upmost importance in orchestrating the host immune response to a given pathogen. Here, we established that the activation marker CD154 (CD40L, known from human and mouse studies, identifies also porcine antigen-reactive CD4+ T lymphocytes. CD154 expression was upregulated early after antigen encounter and CD4+CD154+ antigen-reactive T cells coexpressed cytokines. Antigen-induced expansion and autologous restimulation enabled a time- and dose-resolved analysis of CD154 regulation and a significantly increased resolution in phenotypic profiling of antigen-responsive cells. CD154 expression identified T cells responding to staphylococcal Enterotoxin B superantigen stimulation as well as T cells responding to the fungus Candida albicans and T cells specific for a highly prevalent intestinal parasite, the nematode Ascaris suum during acute and trickle infection. Antigen-reactive T cells were further detected after immunization of pigs with a single recombinant bacterial antigen of Streptococcus suis only. Thus, our study offers new ways to study antigen-specific T lymphocytes in the pig and their contribution to host–pathogen interactions.

  14. [Spurious pity--lethal consequences: how helpers turn into offenders].

    Beine, Karl H

    2014-07-01

    This study gives a general view of 40 cases of killing series by members of staff in health care professions in hospitals and homes. The main issue of the analyses are the nine killing series in the German language area. For the investigation legal documents concerning specific characteristics of victims, site of crime and offenders were evaluated. The respective fields of work were investigated concerning the working climate, the position of the offenders in their working group, conflicts in the work place and the handling of the first intern hints to suspective behaviour. It is derives from the case-by-case analyses if there are any preliminary warnings and if there are any commonalities with regard to the victims, the offenders and the respective fields of activity. Personal sensitivities, working conditions and permanent confrontation with human sufferings can be interlaced with each other in that way that the superficial motivation to help is abysmally reversed. In this repect a term of compassion, which confounds real sympathy and self-pity, is essential. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Network Update: WWW Page Writing and Design Helpers.

    Higgins, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Lists and describes the sites available on the World Wide Web used for Web-based projects for language education. Notes that the number and style of such sites has risen dramatically, reflecting a growing interest among language teaching faculty. Points out that both a program's content and its presentation affect its feasibility as an educational…

  16. Complete dissection of the Hb(64-76) determinant using T helper 1, T helper 2 clones, and T cell hybridomas

    Evavold, B D; Williams, S G; Hsu, B L

    1992-01-01

    We have generated cloned Th1 cells, Th2 cells, and T cell hybridomas specific for the single immunogenic peptide from the beta-chain of murine hemoglobin (Hb(64-76)). The availability of these various types of T cells provided us an unique opportunity to examine and dissect the T cell response...... to an immunogenic peptide. A panel of altered Hb peptides was made by replacing each amino acid in the Hb peptide (positions 64-76) with a conservative amino acid substitution or an alanine. Although none of the eleven T cell clones and hybridomas tested exhibited the same pattern of reactivity to the substituted...... Hb peptides, some general features were identified for all T cell responses. The primary T cell contact residue of Hb(64-76) was shown to be asparagine 72. For every Hb(64-76) specific T cell, no activation was observed using a peptide containing the conservative substitution of a glutamine...

  17. BCG stimulated dendritic cells induce an interleukin-10 producing T-cell population with no T helper 1 or T helper 2 bias in vitro

    Madura Larsen, Jeppe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fillie, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    . Monocyte-derived DCs were matured in the presence or absence of BCG. The DC phenotype was assessed by CD83 expression, interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 production, as well as for the ability to polarize T-cell responses. Following stimulation with CD40 ligand, DCs matured in the presence of BCG showed...

  18. Virus variants with differences in the P1 protein coexist in a Plum pox virus population and display particular host-dependent pathogenicity features.

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Salvador, Beatriz; Carbonell, Alberto; Sáenz, Pilar; León, David San; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Subisolates segregated from an M-type Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate, PPV-PS, differ widely in pathogenicity despite their high degree of sequence similarity. A single amino acid substitution, K109E, in the helper component proteinase (HCPro) protein of PPV caused a significant enhancement of symptom severity in herbaceous hosts, and notably modified virus infectivity in peach seedlings. The presence of this substitution in certain subisolates that induced mild symptoms in herbaceous hosts and did not infect peach seedlings suggested the existence of uncharacterized attenuating factors in these subisolates. In this study, we show that two amino acid changes in the P1 protein are specifically associated with the mild pathogenicity exhibited by some PS subisolates. Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that both substitutions, W29R and V139E, but especially W29R, resulted in lower levels of virus accumulation and symptom severity in a woody host, Prunus persica. Furthermore, when W29R and V139E mutations were expressed concomitantly, PPV infectivity was completely abolished in this host. In contrast, the V139E substitution, but not W29R, was found to be responsible for symptom attenuation in herbaceous hosts. Deep sequencing analysis demonstrated that the W29R and V139E heterogeneities already existed in the original PPV-PS isolate before its segregation in different subisolates by local lesion cloning. These results highlight the potential complexity of potyviral populations and the relevance of the P1 protein of potyviruses in pathogenesis and viral adaptation to the host. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  19. Recombination of strain O segments to HCpro-encoding sequence of strain N of Potato virus Y modulates necrosis induced in tobacco and in potatoes carrying resistance genes Ny or Nc.

    Tian, Yan-Ping; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitive resistance (HR) to strains O and C of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) is conferred by potato genes Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr), respectively; however, PVY N strains overcome these resistance genes. The viral helper component proteinases (HCpro, 456 amino acids) from PVY(N) and PVY(O) are distinguished by an eight-amino-acid signature sequence, causing HCpro to fold into alternative conformations. Substitution of only two residues (K269R and R270K) of the eight-amino-acid signature in PVY(N) HCpro was needed to convert the three-dimensional (3D) model of PVY(N) HCpro to a PVY(O) -like conformation and render PVY(N) avirulent in the presence of Ny(tbr), whereas four amino acid substitutions were necessary to change PVY(O) HCpro to a PVY(N) -like conformation. Hence, the HCpro conformation rather than other features ascribed to the sequence were essential for recognition by Ny(tbr). The 3D model of PVY(C) HCpro closely resembled PVY(O), but differed from PVY(N) HCpro. HCpro of all strains was structurally similar to β-catenin. Sixteen PVY(N) 605-based chimeras were inoculated to potato cv. Pentland Crown (Ny(tbr)), King Edward (Nc(tbr)) and Pentland Ivory (Ny(tbr)/Nc(tbr)). Eleven chimeras induced necrotic local lesions and caused no systemic infection, and thus differed from both parental viruses that infected King Edward systemically, and from PVY(N) 605 that infected Pentland Crown and Pentland Ivory systemically. These 11 chimeras triggered both Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr) and, in addition, six induced veinal necrosis in tobacco. Further, specific amino acid residues were found to have an additive impact on necrosis. These results shed new light on the causes of PVY-related necrotic symptoms in potato. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Evolution of Soybean mosaic virus-G7 molecularly cloned genome in Rsv1-genotype soybean results in emergence of a mutant capable of evading Rsv1-mediated recognition

    Hajimorad, M.R.; Eggenberger, A.L.; Hill, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Plant resistance (R) genes direct recognition of pathogens harboring matching avirluent signals leading to activation of defense responses. It has long been hypothesized that under selection pressure the infidelity of RNA virus replication together with large population size and short generation times results in emergence of mutants capable of evading R-mediated recognition. In this study, the Rsv1/Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) pathosystem was used to investigate this hypothesis. In soybean line PI 96983 (Rsv1), the progeny of molecularly cloned SMV strain G7 (pSMV-G7) provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR) with up regulation of a defense-associated gene transcript (PR-1). Serial passages of a large population of the progeny in PI 96983 resulted in emergence of a mutant population (vSMV-G7d), incapable of provoking either Rsv1-mediated LSHR or PR-1 protein gene transcript up regulation. An infectious clone of the mutant (pSMV-G7d) was synthesized whose sequences were very similar but not identical to the vSMV-G7d population; however, it displayed a similar phenotype. The genome of pSMV-G7d differs from parental pSMV-G7 by 17 substitutions, of which 10 are translationally silent. The seven amino acid substitutions in deduced sequences of pSMV-G7d differ from that of pSMV-G7 by one each in P1 proteinase, helper component-proteinase, and coat protein, respectively, and by four in P3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in which experimental evolution of a molecularly cloned plant RNA virus resulted in emergence of a mutant capable of evading an R-mediated recognition

  1. Expression of T helper 17 cells and interleukin 17 in lupus nephritis patients

    Nayera Z. Saber

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Peripheral blood Th17 cell frequencies and IL-17 in urine are highly linked to LN in SLE and are promising markers of disease activity in LN. Both are valuable targets for future therapeutic applications.

  2. Bigger helpers in the ant Cataglyphis bombycina: increased worker polymorphism or novel soldier caste?

    Mathieu Molet

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which development favors or constrains the evolution of new phenotypes are incompletely understood. Polyphenic species may benefit from developmental plasticity not only regarding ecological advantages, but also potential for evolutionary diversification. For instance, the repeated evolution of novel castes in ants may have been facilitated by the existence of alternative queen and worker castes and their respective developmental programs.Cataglyphis bombycina is exceptional in its genus because winged queens and size-polymorphic workers occur together with bigger individuals having saber-shaped mandibles. We measured seven body parts in more than 150 individuals to perform a morphometric analysis and assess the developmental origin of this novel phenotype.Adults with saber-shaped mandibles differ from both workers and queens regarding the size of most body parts. Their relative growth rates are identical to workers for some pairs of body parts, and identical to queens for other pairs of body parts; critical sizes differ in all cases.Big individuals are a third caste, i.e. soldiers, not major workers. Novel traits such as elongated mandibles are combined with a mix of queen and worker growth rates. We also reveal the existence of a dimorphism in the queen caste (microgynes and macrogynes. We discuss how novel phenotypes can evolve more readily in the context of an existing polyphenism. Both morphological traits and growth rules from existing queen and worker castes can be recombined, hence mosaic phenotypes are more likely to be viable. In C. bombycina, such a mosaic phenotype appears to function both for defense (saber-shaped mandibles and fat storage (big abdomen. Recycling of developmental programs may have contributed to the morphological diversity and ecological success of ants.

  3. Frequent detection of human papillomavirus 16 E2-specific T-helper immunity in healthy subjects

    de Jong, Annemieke; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Geluk, Annemieke; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Kenter, Gemma; Vermeij, Pieter; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Offringa, Rienk

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections is high in young, sexually active individuals. Most infections are cleared within 1 year after infection. The targets for the cellular immune response in this process of viral clearance remain to be identified, but the expression pattern

  4. Parental Involvement in U.S. Study Abroad: Helicopters or Helpers

    Dostal Dauer, Kevin Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Parental involvement in higher education has received much attention since the 1990s, though mostly through mainstream media sources. The term "helicopter parents" is now used to describe over-involved parents who "hover" over their children, intent on ensuring that their children's needs are addressed. The perception within…

  5. Prior experience and start-up succes; The moderating role of helpers explored

    Heuven, J.M.J.; Kirwan, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prior functional business experience of an entrepreneur is shown to have a positive impact on entrepreneurial outcomes. Multiple arguments have been made that explain this positive relation. For example, entrepreneurs with more functional business experience are believed to be better skilled, to

  6. Prior experience and start-up succes; The moderating role of helpers explored

    Heuven, J.M.J.; Kirwan, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prior functional business experience of an entrepreneur is shown to have a positive impact on entrepreneurial outcomes. Multiple arguments have been made that explain this positive relation. For example, entrepreneurs with more functional business experience are believed to be better skilled, to be more reputable and have wider networks in place when starting a business (Campbell, 1992; Kim, Aldrich and Keister, 2006; Reuber and Fischer, 1994; Westhead, Ucbasaran and Wright, 2005). In the...

  7. The Use of the CPI to Ascertain Differences between More and Less Effective Student Paraprofessional Helpers.

    German, Steven C.; Cottle, William C.

    1981-01-01

    A study of student paraprofessional peer counselors showed the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) to be useful in rating the effectiveness of Freshman Assistants. Results from individual criterion measures can also be applied to results from combinations of these measures. Future research should control for demographic influences. (JAC)

  8. Infusion volume control and calculation using metronome and drop counter based intravenous infusion therapy helper.

    Park, Kyungnam; Lee, Jangyoung; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Insoo; Choi, Seung Pill; Jeong, Sikyung; Hong, Sungyoup

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the method of fluid infusion control using an IntraVenous Infusion Controller (IVIC). Four methods of infusion control (dial flow controller, IV set without correction, IV set with correction and IVIC correction) were used to measure the volume of each technique at two infusion rates. The infused fluid volume with a dial flow controller was significantly larger than other methods. The infused fluid volume was significantly smaller with an IV set without correction over time. Regarding the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of infused fluid volume in relation to a target volume, IVIC correction was shown to have the highest level of agreement. The flow rate measured in check mode showed a good agreement with the volume of collected fluid after passing through the IV system. Thus, an IVIC could assist in providing an accurate infusion control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. The role of T Helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines in corneal graft rejection

    Holáň, Vladimír; Vítová, Andrea; Pindjáková, Jana; Krulová, Magdalena; Zajícová, Alena; Filipec, P.

    s. 1 ISSN 0030-3747. [European Association for Vision and Eye Research. 24.09.2004-27.09.2004, Vilamoura] R&D Projects: GA MZd NI7531 Keywords : cornea, rejection, cytokines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  10. Dysfunction of pulmonary immuity in atopic asthma: Possible role of T helper cells

    Bice, D.E.; Schuyler, M.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Atopic asthma is characterized by the production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG{sub 4} antibody and airway hyperreactivity caused by interactions between the immune system and inhaled allergens. Recent studies suggest that the production of IgE and IgG{sub 4} antibody important in atopic disease requires help from Th2 lymphocytes, while Th1 lymphocytes support the production of immune responses that would not cause asthma. The evaluation of cells from the lungs of asthmatics indicated that they have elevated Th2 immune responses. However, no study has compared the immune responses that develop in asthmatics and normals (people without asthma) after their lungs are exposed to a neoantigen. The purpose of this study was to determine if Th2 immunity would be produced to a neoantigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), deposited in the lungs of asthmatics, while Th1 immunity would be produced to KLH deposited in the lungs of nonasthmatics. Because the production of IgG{sub 4} requires Th2 immune help, the higher level of anti-KLH IgG{sub 4} in the serum of asthmatics suggests that a Th2 immune response was produced to a neoantigen deposited in their lungs.

  11. Fecal bacteria from treatment-naive Crohn's disease patients can skew helper T cell responses.

    Ma, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Xing, Junjie; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Ling; Weng, Hao; Wu, Xiangsong; Walker, Emma; Wang, Zhongchuan

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease (CD) patients presented a disturbed gut commensal community, and the shift in microbial composition and species variety is associated with disease severity. To establish a link between changes in the intestinal bacterial composition and the alteration of inflammation, we obtained fecal bacteria from CD patients and non-CD controls. The bacteria were then used to stimulate the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from one non-CD individual. We found that the frequency of IFN-γ- and IL-17-expressing CD4 T cells was significantly higher after stimulation with CD bacteria than with non-CD bacteria, while the frequency of IL-4- and IL-10-expressing CD4 T cells was significantly decreased after stimulation with CD bacteria. A similar trend was observed in the level of cytokine expression and transcription expression. However, this difference was not clear-cut, as overlapping regions were observed between the two groups. With longer stimulation using CD bacteria, the skewing toward Th1/Th17 responses were further increased. This increase depended on the presence of monocytes/macrophages. Interestingly, we also found that B cells presented an inhibitory effect in CD bacteria-mediated skewing toward Th1/Th17 cells and promoted IL-10 secretion in CD bacteria-stimulated PBMCs. Together, our results demonstrated that CD bacteria could promote Th1/Th17 inflammation in a host factor-independent fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 29 CFR 570.52 - Occupations of motor-vehicle driver and outside helper (Order 2).

    2010-07-01

    ... urgent, time-sensitive deliveries means trips which, because of such factors as customer satisfaction... for the purpose of delivering goods of the minor's employer to a customer (except urgent, time... delivery of pizzas and prepared foods to the customer; the delivery of materials under a deadline (such as...

  13. Lactobacilli Activate Human Dendritic Cells that Skew T Cells Toward T Helper 1 Polarization

    Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Olson, Scott; Kalina, Warren V; Ruthel, Gordon; Demmin, Gretchen L; Warfield, Kelly L; Bavari, Sina; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2005-01-01

    ...) and found that they modulated the phenotype and functions of human MDCs. Lactobacillus-exposed MDCs up-regulated HLA-DR, CD83, CD40, CD80, and CD86 and secreted high levels of IL-12 and IL-18, but not IL-10...

  14. Effects of PVA-coated nanoparticles on human T helper cell activity.

    Strehl, Cindy; Schellmann, Saskia; Maurizi, Lionel; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; Häupl, Thomas; Hofmann, Heinrich; Buttgereit, Frank; Gaber, Timo

    2016-03-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are used as high-sensitive enhancer for magnetic resonance imaging, where they represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of destructive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since we could demonstrate that professional phagocytes are activated by amino-polyvinyl-alcohol-coated-SPION (a-PVA-SPION), the study here focuses on the influence of a-PVA-SPION on human T cells activity. Therefore, primary human CD4+ T cells from RA patients and healthy subjects were treated with varying doses of a-PVA-SPION for 20h or 72h. T cells were then analyzed for apoptosis, cellular energy, expression of the activation marker CD25 and cell proliferation. Although, we observed that T cells from RA patients are more susceptible to low-dose a-PVA-SPION-induced apoptosis than T cells from healthy subjects, in both groups a-PVA-SPION do not activate CD4+ T cells per se and do not influence mitogen-mediated T cells activation with regard to CD25 expression and cell proliferation. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate that CD4+ T cells from RA patients and healthy subjects differ in their response to mitogen stimulation and oxygen availability. We conclude from our data, that a-PVA-SPION do neither activate nor significantly influence mitogen-stimulated CD4+ T cells activation and have negligible influence on T cells apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth phase of orally administered Lactobacillus strains differentially affects T helper-cell pathways

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Holten-Neelen, van J.C.P.A.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Laman, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus strains with probiotic activity are major constituents of numerous common food products. Due to their `generally regarded as safe¿-status (GRAS-status), Lactobacillus strains can also be genetically engineered for use in oral immunotherapeutic applications, such as vaccination and T

  16. Assisting the Blind and Visually Impaired: Guidelines for Eye Health Workers and Other Helpers

    Sue Stevens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As eye health workers, we give much attention to learning and teaching the importance of health education and the prevention and treatment of eye disease. Despite our gained knowledge, sadly, our efforts are not always successful and we are presented with the responsibility and challenge of caring for people who have to cope with visual impairment, perhaps for the rest of their lives. We have to understand their difficulties, recognise their abilities and learn how to cooperate and communicate with them in a social as well as hospital environment. It is often within the eye hospital itself that the lack in education of health workers and their understanding of the assistance needs of blind and visually impaired patients is all too evident.

  17. Lactobacilli Activate Human Dendritic Cells that Skew T Cells Toward T Helper 1 Polarization

    Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Olson, Scott; Kalina, Warren V; Ruthel, Gordon; Demmin, Gretchen L; Warfield, Kelly L; Bavari, Sina; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2005-01-01

    .... Because DCs can naturally or therapeutically encounter lactobacilli, we investigated the effects of several well defined strains, representing three species of Lactobacillus on human myeloid DCs (MDCs...

  18. When the helper humiliates the patient: a qualitative study about unintended intimidations.

    Malterud, Kirsti; Thesen, Janecke

    2008-01-01

    To explore experiences of intimidating patients/clients from the perspective of the professional. This was a qualitative study based on memory work, a procedure whereby memories are converted into written stories. The setting was a workshop about oppression and empowerment in a rehabilitation conference. Participants were 48 health and social professionals in six groups. Thirty-seven of the participants provided their written stories. The main outcome measures were descriptions of intimidation episodes according to the level of passivity/activity in the professional responsible for the act. The participants were able to recall episodes where they later realized that they had been involved in events perceived as intimidations by the patient/client. The memory stories described events that were not isolated events, but represented issues that might occur now and then. The first type of intimidation included events where the professional intimidated the patient/client by neglecting various basic needs, such as bodily functions, information, regard, time, and patience. The second type included events where the professional patronized and overruled the patient/client by pursuing the professional's agenda, ridiculing, or only partially acknowledging, the person. Remembering and presenting these events created ideas for alternative modes of action for the professionals. Systems for health and social care suffer from lack of resources, time, and proximity -- issues that facilitate the occurrence of intimidation of patients/clients. Yet, the professional remains responsible for his or her moral conduct. High moral awareness and systems with a better balance between reason and emotion are needed to stop vulnerable people being subjected to disempowering practices.

  19. Role of the professional helper in disaster intervention: examples from the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

    Wang, Xiying; Lum, Terry Y

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the different roles that social workers played in disaster intervention after the Wenchuan earthquake. Using 3 stages (i.e., rescue, temporary relocation, and reconstruction) as a time framework, we describe social workers' roles, their performance, and the achievements and challenges they faced while providing service to the people and communities affected by the earthquake. Moreover, we draw conclusions on best practices and lessons learned, and make recommendations for future practices and research.

  20. "Codeine Is My Helper": Misuse of and Dependence on Codeine-Containing Medicines in South Africa.

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Rich, Eileen; Dada, Siphokazi; Bergin, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging global public health concern. The majority of research has been conducted in developed countries (European Members States, Australia, the United States). This study aimed to gain an understanding of unique individual and collective experiences of trajectories of codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of adult codeine misusers and dependents ( n = 25). Narratives were analyzed using the empirical phenomenological psychological five-step method. Nine themes with 63 categories emerged, with two additional high levels of abstraction. Findings are illustrated: participant profile and product preferences, motives for use, transitioning to misuse and dependence, pharmacy purchasing and alternative sourcing routes, effects and withdrawal experiences, help-seeking and treatment experiences, and strategies for prevention. The study underscores the need for continued support for enhanced patient awareness of risk of habit forming use and related health consequences and professional pharmacovigilance.

  1. CD49b-dependent establishment of T helper cell memory.

    Hanazawa, Asami; Hayashizaki, Koji; Shinoda, Kenta; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko; Löhning, Max; Hara, Takahiro; Tani-ichi, Shizue; Ikuta, Koichi; Eckes, Beate; Radbruch, Andreas; Tokoyoda, Koji; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2013-09-01

    CD4 T cells play a key role in immunological memory. We have demonstrated that professional memory CD4 T cells reside and rest in the bone marrow (BM). However, the molecular mechanisms of their establishment in the BM and their maintenance remain unclear. We here show that memory CD4 T cells express high levels of CD49b and that CD49b-deficient or -blocked memory CD4 T-cell precursors fail to migrate from blood into the marrow of the bone, and they especially fail to transmigrate through sinusoidal endothelial cells of the BM. In the marrow, memory CD4 T cells and the precursors contact stromal cells expressing collagen II that are specific ligands for CD49b. Interestingly, memory CD4 T cells on day 117 of an immune response also dock on IL-7(+)/collagen XI(+) stromal cells, whereas memory precursors on day 12 do not. These results indicate that the collagen receptor CD49b is required for the migration of memory CD4 T-cell precursors into their survival niches of the bone marrow.

  2. Mycobacterium leprae-specific protein antigens defined by cloned human helper T cells

    Ottenhoff, T. H.; Klatser, P. R.; Ivanyi, J.; Elferink, D. G.; de Wit, M. Y.; de Vries, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Leprosy displays a remarkable spectrum of symptoms correlating with the T-cell-mediated immune reactivity of the host against the causative organism, Mycobacterium leprae. At one pole of this spectrum are lepromatous leprosy patients showing a M. leprae-specific T-cell unresponsiveness; at the other

  3. When the helper humiliates the patient: a qualitative study about unintended intimidations

    Malterud, Kirsti; Thesen, Janecke

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To explore experiences of intimidating patients/clients from the perspective of the professional. METHODS: This was a qualitative study based on memory work, a procedure whereby memories are converted into written stories. The setting was a workshop about oppression and empowerment...... for the act. RESULTS: The participants were able to recall episodes where they later realized that they had been involved in events perceived as intimidations by the patient/client. The memory stories described events that were not isolated events, but represented issues that might occur now and then...... -- issues that facilitate the occurrence of intimidation of patients/clients. Yet, the professional remains responsible for his or her moral conduct. High moral awareness and systems with a better balance between reason and emotion are needed to stop vulnerable people being subjected to disempowering...

  4. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

    Masoumeh Asadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-α as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-α with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

  5. Inclusion of the helper lipid dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine in solid lipid nanoparticles inhibits their transfection efficiency

    de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Radaic, Allan; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Ferreira, Carmen V; de Paula, Eneida; Hoekstra, Dirk; Zuhorn, Inge S

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are a promising system for the delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. They consist of a solid lipid core that is stabilized by a layer of surfactants. By the incorporation of cationic lipids in the formulation, positively charged SLNs can be generated, that

  6. Influences on Care for Others: Attachment Security, Personal Suffering, and Similarity Between Helper and Care Recipient.

    Cassidy, Jude; Stern, Jessica A; Mikulincer, Mario; Martin, David R; Shaver, Philip R

    2018-04-01

    Research indicates that dispositional attachment security fosters empathy, and that short-term increases in security ("security priming") increase empathy and willingness to help others. In two experiments, we examined effects of recalling one's own vulnerability ( feeling hurt by a relationship partner) and security priming on empathy for a recipient in need. In Study 1, the recipient was a middle-aged homeless woman (low similarity to participants); in Study 2, the recipient was a college-aged woman whose boyfriend had been unfaithful (high similarity to participants). In both studies, hurt feelings influenced participants' empathy, but the nature of the influence varied as a function of target-participant similarity. In Study 1, hurt feelings decreased empathy and increased caregiving avoidance. In Study 2, hurt feelings not only increased empathy but also aroused caregiving anxiety. Furthermore, security priming weakened defensive barriers against helping: In Study 1, it reduced caregiving avoidance, and in Study 2, it reduced caregiving anxiety.

  7. Children's judgments about prosocial decisions and emotions: gender of the helper and recipient matters.

    Weller, Drika; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Children ages 5-13 years (N = 82) responded to prosocial and prohibitive moral dilemmas featuring characters whose desires conflicted with another person's need for help or ownership rights. The gender of the characters matched for half the trials (in-group version) and mismatched for the other half (out-group version). Both boys and girls judged that people would more likely help and not harm the gender in-group versus out-group. Only girls exhibited gender bias in emotion attributions, expecting girls to feel happier helping girls and better ignoring the needs of boys. With increasing age, children exhibited greater awareness of the emotional benefits of prosocial sacrifice and made stronger distinctions by need level when evaluating prosocial decisions, obligations, and permissibility. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. HealthBand for Dementia Patients: Fall and Scream Detector and Caretaker Helper

    Alam, Zeeshan; Samin, Huma; Samin, Omar Bin

    2018-02-01

    The ratio of dementia patients is escalating with time and requires proper attention to help the people suffering from it to continue their activities of daily living (ADL). Such patients suffer from the symptoms like irregular sleep patterns, restlessness, wandering, screaming, falling, sadness and depression. Assistive Technology facilitates caretaker to aid the patient efficiently with minimum effort. Advances in technology have made possible state of the art and innovative methods of health care delivery. Home telecare; in which the patient’s health is monitored remotely at home, is one such method. This paper is proposing a cost effective and user friendly wearable product based solution (i.e. HealthBand) that monitors patient’s activities (specifically fall and scream) and notifies the caretaker in case of emergency to take appropriate action(s). These notifications are sent to the caretaker on the basis of predefined threshold and time span over Bluetooth and GSM mediums to android based application. The android app also keeps patient’s medicines’ intake record and reminds caretaker regarding medicine dosage and timings.

  9. Are elder siblings helpers or competitors? Antagonistic fitness effects of sibling interactions in humans

    Nitsch, Aïda; Faurie, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Determining the fitness consequences of sibling interactions is pivotal for understanding the evolution of family living, but studies investigating them across lifetime are lacking. We used a large demographic dataset on preindustrial humans from Finland to study the effect of elder siblings on key life-history traits. The presence of elder siblings improved the chances of younger siblings surviving to sexual maturity, suggesting that despite a competition for parental resources, they may help rearing their younger siblings. After reaching sexual maturity however, same-sex elder siblings' presence was associated with reduced reproductive success in the focal individual, indicating the existence of competition among same-sex siblings. Overall, lifetime fitness was reduced by same-sex elder siblings' presence and increased by opposite-sex elder siblings' presence. Our study shows opposite effects of sibling interactions depending on the life-history stage, and highlights the need for using long-term fitness measures to understand the selection pressures acting on sibling interactions. PMID:23173210

  10. The Model of the Student Helper under Discussion: Opinion of Participating Students and Their Beneficiaries

    Andres, Sol; Barrios, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In recent years in Spain there has been a growing popular concern as well as research interest in the study of social relations pertaining to coexistence at school, including a desire to know the real incidence and nature of conflicts involved. Thus, a great variety of school interventions have been underway, with the aim of reducing the…

  11. T helper type 1 memory cells disseminate postoperative ileus over the entire intestinal tract

    Engel, Daniel R.; Koscielny, Arne; Wehner, Sven; Maurer, Juliane; Schiwon, Marzena; Franken, Lars; Schumak, Beatrix; Limmer, Andreas; Sparwasser, Tim; Hirner, Andreas; Knolle, Percy A.; Kalff, Jörg C.; Kurts, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Localized abdominal surgery can lead to disruption of motility in the entire gastrointestinal tract (postoperative ileus). Intestinal macrophages produce mediators that paralyze myocytes, but it is unclear how the macrophages are activated, especially those in unmanipulated intestinal areas. Here we

  12. Galectin-9 activates and expands human T-helper 1 cells.

    Marloes J M Gooden

    Full Text Available Galectin-9 (Gal-9 is known for induction of apoptosis in IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T-cells and amelioration of autoimmunity in murine models. On the other hand, Gal-9 induced IFN-γ positive T-cells in a sarcoma mouse model and in food allergy, suggesting that Gal-9 can have diametric effects on T-cell immunity. Here, we aimed to delineate the immunomodulatory effect of Gal-9 on human resting and ex vivo activated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment of resting lymphocytes with low concentrations of Gal-9 (5-30 nM induced apoptosis in ∼60% of T-cells after 1 day, but activated the surviving T-cells. These viable T-cells started to expand after 4 days with up to 6 cell divisions by day 7 and an associated shift from naïve towards central memory and IFN-γ producing phenotype. In the presence of T-cell activation signals (anti-CD3/IL-2 Gal-9 did not induce T-cell expansion, but shifted the CD4/CD8 balance towards a CD4-dominated T-cell response. Thus, Gal-9 activates resting T-cells in the absence of typical T-cell activating signals and promotes their transition to a TH1/C1 phenotype. In the presence of T-cell activating signals T-cell immunity is directed towards a CD4-driven response by Gal-9. Thus, Gal-9 may specifically enhance reactive immunological memory.

  13. Helping the helpers: mindfulness training for burnout in pediatric oncology--a pilot program.

    Moody, Karen; Kramer, Deborah; Santizo, Ruth O; Magro, Laurence; Wyshogrod, Diane; Ambrosio, John; Castillo, Catalina; Lieberman, Rhonda; Stein, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Burnout, a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished feelings of accomplishment, is common among pediatric oncology staff. This study explores a mindfulness-based course (MBC) to decrease burnout in a multidisciplinary group of pediatric oncology staff members in the United States and Israel. Forty-eight participants, mostly nurses, were randomized to either the MBC intervention or a control group. MBC participants received eight weekly sessions of mindfulness education. The primary outcome studied was burnout. Secondary outcomes studied included depression and perceived stress. Nearly 100% of the subjects exhibited signs of burnout at baseline and MBC did not result in any significant improvement in scores on burnout, perceived stress or depression scales. Qualitative analysis of diaries kept by subjects revealed reduced stress, improved inner peace, compassion and joy, better focus and self-awareness and less somatic symptoms in the intervention arm. Burnout is a major problem in pediatric oncology staff. Mindfulness practices can be taught in the workplace and may be a useful component of a multidimensional strategy to reduce burnout in this population.

  14. Optimized helper data scheme for biometric verification under zero leakage constraint

    Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    In biometric verication, special measures are needed to prevent that a dishon- est verier can steal privacy-sensitive information about the prover from the template database. We introduce an improved version of the zero leakage quan- tization scheme, which optimizes detection performance in terms of

  15. Secondary queens in the parthenogenetic termite Cavitermes tuberosus develop through a transitional helper stage

    Hellemans, S.; Fournier, D.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2017), s. 253-262 ISSN 1520-541X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : facultative parthenogenesis * replacement queens * termites * asexual queen succession * ontogeny * Cavitermes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  16. Mixed T helper cell signatures in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps.

    Lara Derycke

    Full Text Available In chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS different phenotypes have been reported based on cytokine profile and inflammatory cell patterns. The aim of this study was to characterize the intracytoplasmatic cytokines of T cells infiltrating the inflamed sinonasal mucosa.Infiltrated T cells and tissue homogenates from sinonasal mucosal samples of 7 healthy subjects, 9 patients with CRS without nasal polyp (CRSsNP, 15 with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and 5 cystic fibrosis patients (CF-NP were analyzed for cytokine expression using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis respectively. Intracytoplasmic cytokinesin T cells were analyzed after stimulation of nasal polyps with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B for 24 hours.The number of T cells per total living cells was significantly higher in patients with CRSwNP vs. CRSsNP and controls. 85% of the CD4(+ T cells showed to be memory T cells. The effector T cells present in all tissues have a predominant Th1 phenotype. Only in CRSwNP, a significant fraction of T cells produced the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, while nasal polyps from CF patients were characterized by a higher CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and an increased number of Th17 cells. 24 h stimulation with SEB resulted in a significant induction of CD4(+ T cells producing IL-10 (Tr1 cells.T cell cytokine patterns in healthy and inflamed sinonasal mucosa revealed that Th2 cells (IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells are significantly increased in CRSwNP mucosal inflammation. Exposure to SEB stimulates Tr1 cells that may contribute to the Th2 bias in CRSwNP.

  17. Countering bullying at an australian secondary school with students as helpers.

    Peterson, L; Rigby, K

    1999-08-01

    To counter bullying at an Australian coeducational secondary school, staff and students co-operated in developing and implementing appropriate policies and procedures. Questionnaires assessing the incidence of bullying and related attitudes were completed by students in Years 7, 9, 10 and 11 in 1995 and again in 1997. Significant reductions in levels of victimization were recorded for Year 7 students only. Significantly increased support for anti-bullying initiatives was found among senior students (Years 10 and 11). Anti-bullying activities directed and undertaken by students themselves received most approval from peers. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  18. Self-perceptions of well-being in professional helpers and volunteers operating in war contexts.

    Veronese, Guido

    2013-07-01

    We carried out qualitative research with 61 health professionals and volunteer workers to explore their perceptions of their own and their clients' well-being in a context of political violence. We applied content analysis to identify the themes emerging from 8 focus group and 11 individual interviews. Participants were found to define the concept of well-being in terms of three key areas: security, participation, and development. Palestinian health providers see promotion of economic development and professional growth, involvement in political and social life, and resistance to the occupation as factors required to enhance well-being and quality of life for themselves and their clients.

  19. Blaming the helpers: the marginalization of teachers and parents of the urban poor.

    Farber, B A; Azar, S T

    1999-10-01

    The nature and origins of the current tendency toward disparaging parents and teachers of the urban poor are examined. It is suggested that the influence of parents and teachers must be understood in the context of multiple intervening variables. Several explanations are offered for the phenomenon of blame, including the fact that women constitute the great majority of teachers and are often the primary agents of parenting.

  20. Supporting Latino communities' natural helpers: a case study of promotoras in a research capacity building course.

    Otiniano, Angie Denisse; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2012-08-01

    Promotores have unique access to underserved and hard-to-reach Latino communities facing health disparities. Although promotores are involved in community change, they rarely receive training that gives them the skills to be partners in research. We present a case study of promotoras who participated in a research capacity building course focused on assessing community health needs. Data comes from course application surveys, follow-up notes, and narratives from qualitative phone interviews of eight promotoras. Content analysis drawing from grounded theory was conducted to identify and describe emerging themes. Four themes emerged as promotoras discussed their experience learning basic research skills and teaching others: (1) challenges, (2) support, (3) building capacity, and (4) using research. Promotores play an important role in the health of Latino communities and are increasingly asked to participate in research processes; however they have few opportunities for training and professional development in this area. Capacity building opportunities for promotores need to be tailored to their needs and provide them with support. Fostering collaboration between promotores and partnering with local community-based organizations can help facilitate needed research skill-building among promotores.

  1. Bach2 Controls Homeostasis of Eosinophils by Restricting the Type-2 Helper Function of T Cells.

    Sato, Yuki; Kato, Hiroki; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Bach2 is a transcription factor which represses its target genes and plays important roles in the differentiation of B and T lymphoid cells. Bach2-deficient (KO) mice develop severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which is associated with increased numbers of granulocytes and T cells. Bach2 is essential for the regulation of T cells, but its role in the regulation of granulocytes is not clear. Here, we observed increased numbers of eosinophils but not neutrophils in the bone marrow, spleen, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of Bach2 KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. Upon co-transplantation of the bone marrow cells from CD45.2 Bach2 KO and CD45.1/CD45.2 double-positive WT mice to irradiated WT CD45.1/CD45.2 mice, the reconstituted numbers of eosinophils were similar between Bach2 KO and WT cells. These results showed that the deficiency of Bach2 in eosinophils did not directly drive the differentiation of eosinophils. To investigate the effect of Bach2 KO CD4 + T cells upon eosinophils, we analyzed Rag2/Bach2-double deficient (dKO) mice which lack lymphocytes including CD4 + T cells. Rag2/Bach2 dKO mice did not show any increase in the numbers of eosinophils. Importantly, Bach2 KO mice showed an increase of interleukin-5 (Il-5) in the sera compared with WT mice. These results suggest that up-regulated functions of CD4 + T cells including secretion of Il-5 resulted in proliferation and/or migration to peripheral tissues of eosinophils in Bach2 KO mice. We propose that Bach2 controls homeostasis of eosinophils via restricting the production of Il-5 in CD4 + T cells.

  2. Abelson Helper Integration Site-1 Gene Variants on Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder

    Porcelli, Stefano; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Masand, Prakash S.; Balzarro, Beatrice; Alberti, Siegfried; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to explore whether 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the AHI1 gene could be associated with major depressive disorder (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD), and whether they could predict clinical outcomes in mood disorders. Methods One hundred and eighty-four (184) patients with MD, 170 patients with BD and 170 healthy controls were genotyped for 4 AHI1 SNPs (rs11154801, rs7750586, rs9647635 and rs9321501). Baseline and final clinical measures for MD patients were assessed through the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Allelic and genotypic frequencies in MD and BD subjects were compared with those of each disorder and healthy group using the χ2 statistics. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test possible influences of SNPs on treatment efficacy. Results The rs9647635 A/A was more represented in subjects with BD as compared with MD and healthy subjects together. The rs9647635 A/A was also more presented in patients with MD than in healthy subjects. With regard to the allelic analysis, rs9647635 A allele was more represented in subjects with BD compared with healthy subjects, while it was not observed between patients with MD and healthy subjects. Conclusion Our findings provide potential evidence of an association between some variants of AHI1 and mood disorders susceptibility but not with clinical outcomes. However, we will need to do more adequately-powered and advanced association studies to draw any conclusion due to clear limitations. PMID:25395981

  3. Expression of artificial microRNAs in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana confers virus resistance.

    Niu, Qi-Wen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Reyes, Jose Luis; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2006-11-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the abundance of target mRNAs by guiding their cleavage at the sequence complementary region. We have modified an Arabidopsis thaliana miR159 precursor to express artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting viral mRNA sequences encoding two gene silencing suppressors, P69 of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and HC-Pro of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Production of these amiRNAs requires A. thaliana DICER-like protein 1. Transgenic A. thaliana plants expressing amiR-P69(159) and amiR-HC-Pro(159) are specifically resistant to TYMV and TuMV, respectively. Expression of amiR-TuCP(159) targeting TuMV coat protein sequences also confers specific TuMV resistance. However, transgenic plants that express both amiR-P69(159) and amiR-HC-Pro(159) from a dimeric pre-amiR-P69(159)/amiR-HC-Pro(159) transgene are resistant to both viruses. The virus resistance trait is displayed at the cell level and is hereditable. More important, the resistance trait is maintained at 15 degrees C, a temperature that compromises small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing. The amiRNA-mediated approach should have broad applicability for engineering multiple virus resistance in crop plants.

  4. Salicylic acid-mediated and RNA-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco.

    Alamillo, Josefa M; Saénz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. However, PPV produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor P1/HC-Pro from tobacco etch virus (TEV). In this work we show that PPV is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) that degrades salicylic acid (SA). Replication and accumulation of PPV is higher in the locally infected leaves of plants deficient in SA or expressing TEV P1/HC-Pro silencing suppressor. Accumulation of viral derived small RNAs was reduced in the NahG transgenic plants, suggesting that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco. Besides, expression of SA-mediated defense transcripts, such as those of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins PR-1 and PR-2 or alternative oxidase-1, as well as that of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NtRDR1, is induced in response to PPV infection, and the expression patterns of these defense transcripts are altered in the TEV P1/HC-Pro transgenic plants. Long-distance movement of PPV is highly enhanced in NahG x P1/HC-Pro double-transgenic plants and systemic symptoms in these plants reveal that the expression of an RNA-silencing suppressor and the lack of SA produce additive but distinct effects. Our results suggest that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco, and that silencing suppressors, such as P1/HC-Pro, also alter the SA-mediated defense. Both an RNA-silencing and an SA-mediated defense mechanism could act together to limit PPV infection.

  5. Imbalanced shift of cytokine expression between T helper 1 and T helper 2 (Th1/Th2 in intestinal mucosa of patients with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Chen Ji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional bowel disorder. The post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS occurs in IBS patients with a history of intestinal infection preceding the onset of symptoms. However, the underlying cause of PI-IBS is not fully understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the immune regulatory mechanism of PI-IBS. Methods Participants enrolled in this study were divided into three groups including PI-IBS patients (n = 20, IBS patients without a history of infection (non-PI-IBS, n = 18, and healthy controls (n = 20. The expression levels of the Th1-derived cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12, and the Th2-derived cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the mucosal specimens, and in the ascending colon, the descending colon, and the rectal segments were measured by RT-PCR and western blot. Results The IFN-γ mRNA levels in the intestinal mucosa were significantly higher in the PI-IBS group than in the non-PI-IBS or control group (both P  Conclusions An increase in IFN-γ levels and a decrease in IL-10 levels were found in the intestinal mucosa of PI-IBS patients, suggesting that the infection may affect the Th1/Th2 balance. Thus, the dysregulation of the immune response is likely an important cause of IBS.

  6. Comparative analysis of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in Langerhans cells: differential regulation by T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cytokines.

    Kawamura, T; Furue, M

    1995-07-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are Ia-bearing potent antigen-presenting cells (APC) of dendritic cell lineage that play a crucial role in primary and secondary T cell-dependent immune responses. LC express several costimulatory molecules such as B7, which has been implicated as one of the important determinants of professional APC. Recently, B7 antigens have been shown to include three distinct molecules termed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-3, and the expression of B7-1 and B7-2 in LC has been already confirmed. However, little is known of the regulation of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in LC. We demonstrated that LC do not express B7-1 and B7-2 in situ; however, the expression of both molecules is rapidly induced during the first 3 days of culture, and high levels of expression are maintained at least until day 6. We show that the expression of B7-2 in LC is much higher than that of B7-1 in each experiment, and that B7-1 and B7-2 expression is reproducibly augmented by interleukin (IL)-4 in a dose-dependent manner; however, IL-2 affected expression very little. Finally, B7-1 expression is significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma or IL-10, and B7-2 expression is consistently inhibited by IL-10, but not by IFN-gamma. The effects of these cytokines are active only in the induction phase (during first 3 days of culture) of B7 expression: the modulatory effects of cytokines are hardly detected in the plateau phase (days 4 to 6 of culture) of B7 expression in LC. These findings suggest that B7-1 and B7-2 expression are indeed selectively and differentially regulated by these T cell-derived cytokines, and that the cytokines may modulate the synthesis of B7 molecules rather than the degradation of already-expressed B7 molecules.

  7. Big Brother’s Little Helpers: The Right to Privacy and the Responsibility of Internet Service Providers

    Yael Ronen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2013 revelations on the extent of intelligence gathering through internet service providers, this article concerns the responsibility of internet service providers (ISPs involved in disclosure of personal data to government authorities under the right to privacy, by reference to the developing, non-binding standards applied to businesses under the Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework. The article examines the manner in which the Framework applies to ISPs and looks at measures that ISPs can take to fulfil their responsibility to respect the right to privacy. It utilizes the challenges to the right to privacy to discuss some aspects of the extension of human rights responsibilities to corporations. These include the respective roles of government and non-state actors, the extent to which corporations may be required to act proactively in order to protect the privacy of clients, and the relevance of transnational activity.

  8. Big Brother’s Little Helpers: The Right to Privacy and the Responsibility of Internet Service Providers

    Ronen, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2013 revelations on the extent of intelligence gathering through internet service providers, this article concerns the responsibility of internet service providers (ISPs) involved in disclosure of personal data to government authorities under the right to privacy, by reference to the developing, non-binding standards applied to businesses under the Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework. The article examines the manner in which the Framework applies to ISPs and looks at measures ...

  9. Low dose ultraviolet B-irradiated Langerhans cells preferentially activate CD4+ cells of the T helper 2 subset

    Simon, J.C.; Cruz, P.D. Jr.; Bergstresser, P.R.; Tigelaar, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    UVB radiation distorts the Ag-presenting function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC); this has been shown for the presentation of soluble Ag to primed T cells in vitro and for the initiation of delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo, such as contact hypersensitivity (CH). Previous work has also demonstrated UVB-induced suppression of CH to be mediated ultimately by T cells. Two subsets of CD4+ Th cells, Th1 and Th2, have been identified, based on their cytokine production and functional activities. In particular, Th1 mediate delayed-type hypersensitivity, whereas Th2 do not. To investigate whether the perturbation of LC function induced by UVB radiation leads to a differential activation of these subsets of CD4+ cells, we examined the capacity of unirradiated and irradiated (200 J/m2) APC from adult BALB/c mice to present keyhole limpet hemocyanin to Ag-specific, H2d-restricted Th1 and Th2 cell lines. Four sources of APC were utilized: epidermal cells (EC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia+ EC (LC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia- EC, and splenic adherent cells (SAC). Unirradiated EC, LC, and SAC, but not Ia-EC, presented keyhole limpet hemocyanin to both Th1 and Th2. Irradiated EC and LC lost their ability to stimulate Th1, but retained fully their capacity to stimulate Th2. On the other hand, irradiated SAC were unable to induce proliferation of either Th1 or Th2. These findings indicate that suppression of CH mediated by UVB-irradiated LC may result from an alteration of the ratio and/or activity of Th1 and Th2 cells normally generated during the induction of such responses

  10. Synbiotics reduce allergen-induced T-helper 2 response and improve peak expiratory flow in allergic asthmatics

    van de Pol, M. A.; Lutter, R.; Smids, B. S.; Weersink, E. J. M.; van der Zee, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    P>Background: Previous studies suggest that pre/probiotics can be used in the prevention and treatment of early allergic disease in newborns and young children. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment with synbiotics (90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides, 10% long-chain

  11. Mind bomb-1 in dendritic cells is specifically required for Notch-mediated T helper type 2 differentiation.

    Hyun-Woo Jeong

    Full Text Available In dendritic cell (DC-CD4(+ T cell interaction, Notch signaling has been implicated in the CD4(+ T cell activation, proliferation, and subset differentiation. However, there has been a lot of debate on the exact role of Notch signaling. Here, we observed that expression of Mind bomb-1 (Mib1, a critical regulator of Notch ligands for the activation of Notch signaling, increases gradually as precursor cells differentiate into DCs in mice. To clarify the role of Mib1 in DC-CD4(+ T cell interactions, we generated Mib1-null bone marrow-derived DCs. These cells readily expressed Notch ligands but failed to initiate Notch activation in the adjacent cells. Nevertheless, Mib1-null DCs were able to prime the activation and proliferation of CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that Notch activation in CD4(+ T cells is not required for these processes. Intriguingly, stimulation of CD4(+ T cells with Mib1-null DCs resulted in dramatically diminished Th2 cell populations, while preserving Th1 cell populations, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that Mib1 in DCs is critical for the activation of Notch signaling in CD4(+ T cells, and Notch signaling reinforces Th2 differentiation, but is not required for the activation or proliferation of the CD4(+ T cells.

  12. Group size and nest success in red-cockaded woodpeckers in the West Gulf Coastal Plain: helpers make a difference

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relationships between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) group size and nest productivity. Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size was positively correlated with fledging success. Although the relationships between woodpecker group size and nest productivity measures were nor statistically significant, a pattern of...

  13. Tetanus Toxoid carrier protein induced T-helper cell responses upon vaccination of middle-aged adults

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Duizendstra, Aafke; Berbers, Guy A M; Boots, Annemieke M H; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vaccines frequently induce suboptimal immune responses in the elderly, due to immunological ageing. Timely vaccination may be a strategy to overcome this problem, which classifies middle-aged adults asan interesting target group for future vaccine interventions. However, the

  14. Cellular cooperation in lymphocyte activation. III. B-cell helper effect in the enhancement of T-cell response.

    Kasahara, T; Kin, K; Itoh, Y; Kawai, T; Kano, Y; Shioiri-Nakano, K

    1979-01-01

    T and B cells were purified from human tonsil and peripheral blood by the removal of phagocytic cells, followed by filtration through a nylon fiber column (NC) and E-rosette formation. Purified T and B cells contained less than 1% of other cell types. The responses of T cells to concanavalin A (Con A) and soluble protein A were greatly enhanced in the presence of autologous B cells. Participation of B cells in T-cell enhancement was confirmed by the following observations: (a) purified B copulation, which was separated further from adherent B cells, retained its enhancing activity. (b) Another adherent cell-free B-cell preparation, which was purified from the NC-passed fraction, and (c) no T lymphoid but some B lymphoid cell lines, elicited strong T-cell enhancement. It was also found that the enhancing capacity of B cells required no metabolic activity, but rather an intact cell form and direct cell-to-cell contact with responding cells. The stimulatory determinants on B cells were resistant to trypsin and neuraminidase treatment. In this paper a hypothesis will be presented that at least two signals are prerequisite for the effective activation of T cells.

  15. Social surrogacy and adjustment: exploring the correlates of having a "social helper" for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A social surrogate is an individual who offers help and comfort in social situations or makes social events more exciting. In this study of 157 young adolescents (55% female; Mage = 13.84 years, SD = 0.75 years), the authors examined whether the linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported social surrogate use and adjustment outcomes (social problems, loneliness, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms) varied as a function of shyness and gender, after accounting for the effects of positive friendship quality. Regression analyses revealed that low and high levels of social surrogate use were related to greater social problems for all adolescents. In addition, shyness emerged as a moderator for several curvilinear effects. Specifically, results indicated that (a) high levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater anxiety for adolescents high in shyness; and (b) low levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater depressive symptoms for adolescents low in shyness. Findings highlight the developmental importance of specific types of relationship experiences during early adolescence and point to different implications of social surrogate use for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

  16. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-DNA vaccine potency through incorporation of T-helper 1 molecular adjuvants.

    Calarota, Sandra A; Weiner, David B

    2004-06-01

    It is clear that the development of a safe and effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a crucial goal for controlling the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. At present, it is not clear what arm of the immune response correlates with protection from HIV-1 infection or disease. Therefore, a strong cellular and humoral immune response will likely be needed to control this infection. Among different vaccine alternatives, DNA vaccines appeared more than a decade ago, demonstrating important qualities of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models. However, after several years and various clinical studies in humans, supporting the safety of the HIV-DNA vaccine strategies, it has become clear that their potency should be improved. One way to modulate and enhance the immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine is by including genetic adjuvants such as cytokines, chemokines, or T-cell costimulatory molecules as part of the vaccine itself. Particularly, vaccine immunogenicity can be modulated by factors that attract professional antigen-presenting cells, provide additional costimulation, or enhance the uptake of plasmid DNA. This review focuses on developments in the coadministration of molecular adjuvants for the enhancement of HIV-1 DNA-vaccine potency.

  17. IL-4-producing murine T helper cell line provides help for in vitro production of IgE

    Poulsen, L K; Katamura, K; Ishizaka, K

    1991-01-01

    with nonadherent splenocytes from normal MHC-matched mice. Help provided by the antigen-stimulated T cell line induced significant IgE production (20 ng/ml), along with IgG1 (5 micrograms/ml) and IgM (250 micrograms/ml). Immunoglobulin synthesis in cultures was detectable at day 3-4 and culminated at day 7-8. IL-4...

  18. Full restoration of Brucella-infected dendritic cell functionality through Vγ9Vδ2 T helper type 1 crosstalk.

    Ming Ni

    Full Text Available Vγ9Vδ2 T cells play an important role in the immune response to infectious agents but the mechanisms contributing to this immune process remain to be better characterized. Following their activation, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells develop cytotoxic activity against infected cells, secrete large amounts of cytokines and influence the function of other effectors of immunity, notably cells playing a key role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response such as dendritic cells. Brucella infection dramatically impairs dendritic cell maturation and their capacity to present antigens to T cells. Herein, we investigated whether V T cells have the ability to restore the full functional capacities of Brucella-infected dendritic cells. Using an in vitro multicellular infection model, we showed that: 1/Brucella-infected dendritic cells activate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells through contact-dependent mechanisms, 2/activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells induce full differentiation into IL-12 producing cells of Brucella-infected dendritic cells with functional antigen presentation activity. Furthermore, phosphoantigen-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells also play a role in triggering the maturation process of dendritic cells already infected for 24 h. This suggests that activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells could be used to modulate the outcome of infectious diseases by promoting an adjuvant effect in dendritic cell-based cellular therapies.

  19. Mining of unexplored habitats for novel chitinases - chiA as a helper gene proxy in metagenomics

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Kielak, Anna Maria; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    encompassed (1) classical overall enzymatic assays, (2) chiA gene abundance measurement by qPCR, (3) chiA gene pyrosequencing, and (4) chiA gene-based PCR-DGGE was used. The chiA gene pyrosequencing is unprecedented, as it is the first massive parallel sequencing of this gene. The data obtained showed...... the existence across habitats of core bacterial communities responsible for chitin assimilation irrespective of ecosystem origin. Conversely, there were habitat-specific differences. In addition, a suite of sequences were obtained that are as yet unregistered in the chitinase database. In terms of chiA gene...

  20. Mining of unexplored habitats for novel chitinases-chiA as a helper gene proxy in metagenomics

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Kielak, Anna Maria; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sorensen, Soren J.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Sørensen, S.J.

    The main objective of this study was to assess the abundance and diversity of chitin-degrading microbial communities in ten terrestrial and aquatic habitats in order to provide guidance to the subsequent exploration of such environments for novel chitinolytic enzymes. A combined protocol which

  1. Rabies virus cross-reactive murine T cell clones: analysis of helper and delayed-type hypersensitivity function.

    H. Bunschoten; B. Dietzschold; I.J.Th.M. Claassen (Ivo); R. Klapmuts; F. UytdeHaag; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThree T cell clones derived from rabies virus-immunized BALB/c mice were analysed for specificity and function. The clones proved to be broadly cross-reactive by responding to different rabies virus isolates (PM, ERA, CVS, HEP) and other representatives of the genus Lyssavirus, like the

  2. An Evaluation of the Peer Helper Component of "Go!": A Multimessage, Multi-"Step" Obesity Prevention Intervention

    de Souza, Rebecca; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Goei, Ryan; LaCaille, Lara; Kotowski, Michael R.; Schultz, Jennifer Feenstra; LaCaille, Rick; Versnik Nowak, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevention efforts typically involve changing eating and exercise behaviors as well as the physical and social environment in which those behaviors occur. Due to existing social networks, worksites are a logical choice for implementing such interventions. Purpose: This article describes the development and implementation of a…

  3. Selection and performance of village health teams (VHTs) in Uganda: lessons from the natural helper model of health promotion

    Turinawe, E.B.; Rwemisisi, J.T.; Musinguzi, L.K.; Groot, M.; Muhangi, D.; de Vries, D.H.; Mafigiri, D.K.; Pool, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community health worker (CHW) programmes have received much attention since the 1978 Declaration of Alma-Ata, with many initiatives established in developing countries. However, CHW programmes often suffer high attrition once the initial enthusiasm of volunteers wanes. In 2002, Uganda began implementing a national CHW programme called the village health teams (VHTs), but their performance has been poor in many communities. It is argued that poor community involvement in the select...

  4. The role of social environment on parental care: offspring benefit more from the presence of female than male helpers

    Brouwer, L.; Van de Pol, M.; Cockburn, A.

    2014-01-01

    1.Investment in offspring depends on the costs and benefits to the carer, which can vary with sex and social status. Investment also depends on the effort of others by allowing for compensation (load-lightening), with biparental care studies showing that this depends on the state and type of the

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA Protein Negatively Regulates T Helper (Th) 1 and Th17 Differentiation and Promotes Tuberculosis Pathogenesis*

    Rahman, Md. Aejazur; Sobia, Parveen; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Bhawsar, Aakansha; Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Moodley, Prashini; Van Kaer, Luc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M. tuberculosis have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many Gram-positive bacteria, but its function in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we report that TlyA significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We show that a TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis strain induces increased IL-12 and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 cytokine responses, which sharply contrasts with the immune responses induced by wild type M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, compared with wild type M. tuberculosis, TlyA-deficient M. tuberculosis bacteria are more susceptible to autophagy in macrophages. Consequently, animals infected with the TlyA mutant M. tuberculosis organisms exhibited increased host-protective immune responses, reduced bacillary load, and increased survival compared with animals infected with wild type M. tuberculosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis employs TlyA as a host evasion factor, thereby contributing to its virulence. PMID:25847237

  6. T-helper cell type 17/regulatory T-cell immunoregulatory balance in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    Marçal, Juliana R B; Samuel, Renata O; Fernandes, Danielle; de Araujo, Marcelo S; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Pereira, Sanivia A L; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T; Alves, Polyanna M; Mattar, Rinaldo; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise B R

    2010-06-01

    Cysts and granulomas are chronic periapical lesions mediated by a set of inflammatory mediators that develop to contain a periapical infection. This study analyzed the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of mast cells, and in situ expression of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-17 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-beta), chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1), and nuclear transcription factor (FoxP3) in human periapical granulomas and cysts compared with a control group. Fifty-five lesions (25 periapical cysts, 25 periapical granulomas, and 5 controls) were analyzed. The type of inflammatory infiltrate was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the presence of mast cells was analyzed by toluidine blue staining. Indirect immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and FoxP3. The inflammatory infiltrate mainly consisted of mononuclear cells. In cysts, mononuclear infiltrates were significantly more frequent than mixed (polymorphonuclear/mononuclear) infiltrates (P = .04). Mixed inflammatory infiltrates were significantly more frequent in patients with sinus tract (P = .0001). The number of mast cells was significantly higher in granulomas than in cystic lesions (P = .02). A significant difference in the expression of IL-17 (P = .001) and TGF-beta (P = .003) was observed between cysts and granulomas and the control group. Significantly higher IL-17 levels were also observed in cases of patients with sinus tract (P = .03). We observed that chronic periapical lesions might experience a reagudization process that is correlated with an increased leukocyte infiltration, with the predominance of neutrophils attracted by a chemokine milieu, as well as the increased presence of IL-17. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. T-helper cell-mediated proliferation and cytokine responses against recombinant Merkel cell polyomavirus-like particles.

    Arun Kumar

    Full Text Available The newly discovered Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV resides in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC. Causal role of MCPyV for this rare and aggressive skin cancer is suggested by monoclonal integration and truncation of large T (LT viral antigen in MCC cells. The mutated MCPyV has recently been found in highly purified leukemic cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, suggesting a pathogenic role also in CLL. About 50-80% of adults display MCPyV-specific antibodies. The humoral immunity does not protect against the development of MCC, as neutralizing MCPyV antibodies occur in higher levels among MCC patients than healthy controls. Impaired T-cell immunity has been linked with aggressive MCC behavior. Therefore, cellular immunity appears to be important in MCPyV infection surveillance. In order to elucidate the role of MCPyV-specific Th-cell immunity, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy adults were stimulated with MCPyV VP1 virus-like particles (VLPs, using human bocavirus (HBoV VLPs and Candida albicans antigen as positive controls. Proliferation, IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10 responses were examined in 15 MCPyV-seropositive and 15 seronegative volunteers. With the MCPyV antigen, significantly stronger Th-cell responses were found in MCPyV-seropositive than MCPyV-seronegative subjects, whereas with the control antigens, the responses were statistically similar. The most readily detectable cytokine was IFN-γ. The MCPyV antigen tended to induce stronger IFN-γ responses than HBoV VLP antigen. Taken together, MCPyV-specific Th-cells elicit vigorous IFN-γ responses. IFN-γ being a cytokine with major antiviral and tumor suppressing functions, Th-cells are suggested to be important mediators of MCPyV-specific immune surveillance.

  8. R-loops cause genomic instability in T helper lymphocytes from patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    Sarkar, Koustav; Han, Seong-Su; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Ochs, Hans D; Dupré, Loïc; Seidman, Michael M; Vyas, Yatin M

    2017-12-15

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked neutropenia, which are caused by WAS mutations affecting Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) expression or activity, manifest in immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, genomic instability, and lymphoid and other cancers. WASp supports filamentous actin formation in the cytoplasm and gene transcription in the nucleus. Although the genetic basis for XLT/WAS has been clarified, the relationships between mutant forms of WASp and the diverse features of these disorders remain ill-defined. We sought to define how dysfunctional gene transcription is causally linked to the degree of T H cell deficiency and genomic instability in the XLT/WAS clinical spectrum. In human T H 1- or T H 2-skewing cell culture systems, cotranscriptional R-loops (RNA/DNA duplex and displaced single-stranded DNA) and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were monitored in multiple samples from patients with XLT and WAS and in normal T cells depleted of WASp. WASp deficiency provokes increased R-loops and R-loop-mediated DSBs in T H 1 cells relative to T H 2 cells. Mechanistically, chromatin occupancy of serine 2-unphosphorylated RNA polymerase II is increased, and that of topoisomerase 1, an R-loop preventing factor, is decreased at R-loop-enriched regions of IFNG and TBX21 (T H 1 genes) in T H 1 cells. These aberrations accompany increased unspliced (intron-retained) and decreased spliced mRNA of IFNG and TBX21 but not IL13 (T H 2 gene). Significantly, increased cellular load of R-loops and DSBs, which are normalized on RNaseH1-mediated suppression of ectopic R-loops, inversely correlates with disease severity scores. Transcriptional R-loop imbalance is a novel molecular defect causative in T H 1 immunodeficiency and genomic instability in patients with WAS. The study proposes that cellular R-loop load could be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring symptom severity and prognostic outcome in the XLT-WAS clinical spectrum and could be targeted therapeutically. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  9. High enhancer, downer, withdrawal helper: Multifunctional nonmedical benzodiazepine use among young adult opioid users in New York City.

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Jessell, Lauren; Goodbody, Elizabeth; Kim, Dongah; Gile, Krista; Teubl, Jennifer; Syckes, Cassandra; Ruggles, Kelly; Lazar, Jeffrey; Friedman, Sam; Guarino, Honoria

    2017-08-01

    Benzodiazepines are a widely prescribed psychoactive drug; in the U.S., both medical and nonmedical use of benzodiazepines has increased markedly in the past 15 years. Long-term use can lead to tolerance and dependence, and abrupt withdrawal can cause seizures or other life-threatening symptoms. Benzodiazepines are often used nonmedically in conjunction with other drugs, and with opioids in particular-a combination that can increase the risk for fatal and non-fatal overdose. This mixed-methods study examines nonmedical use of benzodiazepines among young adults in New York City and its relationship with opioid use. For qualitative analysis, 46 90-minute semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adult opioid users (ages 18-32). Interviews were transcribed and coded for key themes. For quantitative analysis, 464 young adult opioid users (ages 18-29) were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed structured interviews. Benzodiazepine use was assessed via a self-report questionnaire that included measures related to nonmedical benzodiazepine and opioid use. Participants reported using benzodiazepines nonmedically for a wide variety of reasons, including: to increase the high of other drugs; to lessen withdrawal symptoms; and to come down from other drugs. Benzodiazepines were described as readily available and cheap. There was a high prevalence (93%) of nonmedical benzodiazepine use among nonmedical opioid users, with 57% reporting regular nonmedical use. In bivariate analyses, drug-related risk behaviours such as polysubstance use, drug binging, heroin injection and overdose were strongly associated with regular nonmedical benzodiazepine use. In multivariate analysis, growing up in a middle-income household (earning between $51,000 and $100,000 annually), lifetime overdose experience, having ever used cocaine regularly, having ever been prescribed benzodiazepines, recent drug binging, and encouraging fellow drug users to use benzodiazepines to cope with opioid withdrawal were consistently strong predictors of regular nonmedical benzodiazepine use. Nonmedical benzodiazepine use may be common among nonmedical opioid users due to its drug-related multi-functionality. Harm reduction messages should account for the multiple functions benzodiazepines serve in a drug-using context, and encourage drug users to tailor their endorsement of benzodiazepines to peers to include safer alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. How to Green the red Dragon : A Start-ups' Little Helper for Sustainable Development in China

    Steinz, Henk J.; Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Nauta, Frans

    2016-01-01

    This article qualitatively identifies and explains the barriers that foreign cleantech start-ups can encounter when attempting to enter the Chinese market, as well as the possible strategies that can help overcome these barriers. We base our analysis on interviews with Chinese and foreign

  11. Visualization of plant viral suppressor silencing activity in intact leaf lamina by quantitative fluorescent imaging

    Francis Kevin P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient expression of proteins in plants has become a favoured method over the production of stably transformed plants because, in addition to enabling high protein yields, it is both fast and easy to apply. An enhancement of transient protein expression can be achieved by plant virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressor proteins. Since viral suppressor proteins differ in their efficiency to enhance transient protein expression in plants, we developed a whole-leaf green fluorescent protein (GFP-based imaging assay to quantitatively assess suppressor protein activity. Results In a transient GFP-expression assay using wild-type and GFP-transgenic N. benthamiana, addition of the plant viral suppressors Beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV-IPP P0 or Plum pox virus (PPV HC-Pro was shown to increase fluorescent protein expression 3-4-fold, 7 days post inoculation (dpi when compared to control plants. In contrast, in agroinfiltrated patches without suppressor activity, near complete silencing of the GFP transgene was observed in the transgenic N. benthamiana at 21 dpi. Both co-infiltrated suppressors significantly enhanced GFP expression over time, with HC-Pro co-infiltrations leading to higher short term GFP fluorescence (at 7 dpi and P0 giving higher long term GFP fluorescence (at 21 dpi. Additionally, in contrast to HC-Pro co-infiltrations, an area of complete GFP silencing was observed at the edge of P0 co-infiltrated areas. Conclusions Fluorescence imaging of whole intact leaves proved to be an easy and effective method for spatially and quantitatively observing viral suppressor efficiency in plants. This suppressor assay demonstrates that plant viral suppressors greatly enhanced transient GFP expression, with P0 showing a more prolonged suppressor activity over time than HC-Pro. Both suppressors could prove to be ideal candidates for enhancing target protein expression in plants.

  12. Differential Effect of CD4+Foxp3+ T-regulatory Cells on the B and T Helper Cell Responses to Influenza Virus Vaccination

    2010-01-01

    for a suppres- sogenic effect ofT-regs on the anti-viral immune responses (7-1 0 ]. Early studies on the mechanisms by which A/ Puerto Rico /8/34 (Hl...USA). Mice were considered diabetic after two consecutive readings of glycemia higher than 200 mg/dL In some experiments, ]. Surls et al./ Vacdne...interval of confidence. The relevance of differences in survival and diabetes incidence of RAG2 KO, RIP-PR8/HA mice infused with T-cells from

  13. Reduction of T-Helper Cell Responses to Recall Antigen Mediated by Codelivery with Peptidoglycan via the Intestinal Nanomineral-Antigen Pathway.

    Hewitt, Rachel E; Robertson, Jack; Haas, Carolin T; Pele, Laetitia C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring intestinal nanomineral particles constituently form in the mammalian gut and trap luminal protein and microbial components. These cargo loaded nanominerals are actively scavenged by M cells of intestinal immune follicles, such as Peyer's patches and are passed to antigen-presenting cells. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations as an in vitro model of nanomineral uptake and antigen presentation, we show that monocytes avidly phagocytose nanomineral particles bearing antigen and peptidoglycan (PGN), and that the presence of PGN within particles downregulates their cell surface MHC class II and upregulates programmed death receptor ligand 1. Nanomineral delivery of antigen suppresses antigen-specific CD4 + T cell responses, an effect that is enhanced in the presence of PGN. Blocking the interleukin-10 receptor restores CD4 + T cell responses to antigen codelivered with PGN in nanomineral form. Using human intestinal specimens, we have shown that the in vivo nanomineral pathway operates in an interleukin-10 rich environment. Consequently, the delivery of a dual antigen-PGN cargo by endogenous nanomineral in vivo is likely to be important in the establishment of intestinal tolerance, while their synthetic mimetics present a potential delivery system for therapeutic applications targeting the modulation of Peyer's patch T cell responses.

  14. Reduction of T-Helper Cell Responses to Recall Antigen Mediated by Codelivery with Peptidoglycan via the Intestinal Nanomineral–Antigen Pathway

    Hewitt, Rachel E.; Robertson, Jack; Haas, Carolin T.; Pele, Laetitia C.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring intestinal nanomineral particles constituently form in the mammalian gut and trap luminal protein and microbial components. These cargo loaded nanominerals are actively scavenged by M cells of intestinal immune follicles, such as Peyer’s patches and are passed to antigen-presenting cells. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations as an in vitro model of nanomineral uptake and antigen presentation, we show that monocytes avidly phagocytose nanomineral particles bearing antigen and peptidoglycan (PGN), and that the presence of PGN within particles downregulates their cell surface MHC class II and upregulates programmed death receptor ligand 1. Nanomineral delivery of antigen suppresses antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, an effect that is enhanced in the presence of PGN. Blocking the interleukin-10 receptor restores CD4+ T cell responses to antigen codelivered with PGN in nanomineral form. Using human intestinal specimens, we have shown that the in vivo nanomineral pathway operates in an interleukin-10 rich environment. Consequently, the delivery of a dual antigen–PGN cargo by endogenous nanomineral in vivo is likely to be important in the establishment of intestinal tolerance, while their synthetic mimetics present a potential delivery system for therapeutic applications targeting the modulation of Peyer’s patch T cell responses. PMID:28367148

  15. Synthetic double-stranded RNAs are adjuvants for the induction of T helper 1 and humoral immune responses to human papillomavirus in rhesus macaques.

    Christiane Stahl-Hennig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands are being considered as adjuvants for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, as in the design of vaccines. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytoidylic acid (poly I:C, a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, is recognized by TLR3 and other intracellular receptors. Poly ICLC is a poly I:C analogue, which has been stabilized against the serum nucleases that are present in the plasma of primates. Poly I:C(12U, another analogue, is less toxic but also less stable in vivo than poly I:C, and TLR3 is essential for its recognition. To study the effects of these compounds on the induction of protein-specific immune responses in an animal model relevant to humans, rhesus macaques were immunized subcutaneously (s.c. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH or human papillomavirus (HPV16 capsomeres with or without dsRNA or a control adjuvant, the TLR9 ligand CpG-C. All dsRNA compounds served as adjuvants for KLH-specific cellular immune responses, with the highest proliferative responses being observed with 2 mg/animal poly ICLC (p = 0.002 or 6 mg/animal poly I:C(12U (p = 0.001 when compared with immunization with KLH alone. Notably, poly ICLC -- but not CpG-C given at the same dose -- also helped to induce HPV16-specific Th1 immune responses while both adjuvants supported the induction of strong anti-HPV16 L1 antibody responses as determined by ELISA and neutralization assay. In contrast, control animals injected with HPV16 capsomeres alone did not develop substantial HPV16-specific immune responses. Injection of dsRNA led to increased numbers of cells producing the T cell-activating chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 as detected by in situ hybridization in draining lymph nodes 18 hours after injections, and to increased serum levels of CXCL10 (p = 0.01. This was paralleled by the reduced production of the homeostatic T cell-attracting chemokine CCL21. Thus, synthetic dsRNAs induce an innate chemokine response and act as adjuvants for virus-specific Th1 and humoral immune responses in nonhuman primates.

  16. Genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs identifies candidate genes involved in T helper cells and macrophage signaling

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2....

  17. Detection of human papillomavirus type 18 E6 and E7-specific CD4+ T-helper 1 immunity in relation to health versus disease

    Welters, Marij J. P.; van der Logt, Pauline; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Kenter, Gemma G.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Offringa, Rienk

    2006-01-01

    The most common high-risk human papillomavirus types, HPV16 and 18, differ markedly with respect to their interaction with the host. Clearance of HPV18 infections generally takes longer and HPV18-positive cancers have a poorer prognosis. We therefore evaluated Th1-type immunity against the E6 and E7

  18. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    Hammer, Anna; Jorg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intak...

  19. NADPH oxidase-2 derived ROS dictates murine DC cytokine-mediated cell fate decisions during CD4 T helper-cell commitment.

    Meghan A Jendrysik

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2/gp91(phox and p47(phox deficient mice are prone to hyper-inflammatory responses suggesting a paradoxical role for Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS as anti-inflammatory mediators. The molecular basis for this mode of control remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that IFNγ/LPS matured p47(phox-/--ROS deficient mouse dendritic cells (DC secrete more IL-12p70 than similarly treated wild type DC, and in an in vitro co-culture model IFNγ/LPS matured p47(phox-/- DC bias more ovalbumin-specific CD4(+ T lymphocytes toward a Th1 phenotype than wild type (WT DC through a ROS-dependent mechanism linking IL-12p70 expression to regulation of p38-MAPK activation. The Nox2-dependent ROS production in DC negatively regulates proinflammatory IL-12 expression in DC by constraining p38-MAPK activity. Increasing endogenous H(2O(2 attenuates p38-MAPK activity in IFNγ/LPS stimulated WT and p47(phox-/- DC, which suggests that endogenous Nox 2-derived ROS functions as a secondary messenger in the activated p38-MAPK signaling pathway during IL-12 expression. These findings indicate that ROS, generated endogenously by innate and adaptive immune cells, can function as important secondary messengers that can regulate cytokine production and immune cell cross-talk to control during the inflammatory response.

  20. Immunobiology of T cell responses to Mls-locus-disparate stimulator cells. III. Helper and cytolytic functions of cloned, Mls-reactive T cell lines

    Katz, M.E.; Tite, J.P.; Janeway, C.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Mls-specific T cell clones derived by limiting dilution were tested for cytotoxic activity in a lectin-dependent 51 Cr-release assay. All the T cell clones tested were cytotoxic in such an assay in apparent contrast to previous reports (1, 2). However, only those target cells sensitive to cytolysis by other L3T4a + cytolytic T cells (3) were killed by Mls-specific T cell clones in short term 51 Cr-release assays, possibly explaining this discrepancy. All the T cell clones tested were L3T4a + ,Lyt-2 - and stimulated B cells from Mls strains of mice to proliferate and secrete immunoglobulin. Furthermore, lysis of innocent bystander targets was observed when the T cells were stimulated with Mls-disparate stimulator cells. These results are consistent with those obtained with L3T4a - T cells specific for protein antigen:self Ia and that express cytotoxic potential (3)

  1. The allogeneic umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells regulate the function of T helper 17 cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis in an in vitro co-culture system

    Wang Qin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous in vivo studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation significantly improves the condition of a number of autoimmune diseases including autoimmune cerebrospinal meningitis, multiple sclerosis, glomerulonephritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods To investigate the immunoregulatory effect of stem cell transplantation, human umbilical cord MSCs were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Orphan nuclear receptor gamma (ROR-γ mRNA and protein expression was detected with real-time PCR and Western blotting. Interleukin (IL-17, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the cell culture supernatant were measured using a flow cytometric bead capture method. Results After 72 hours of co-culture, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ROR-γ in co-cultured PBMCs were decreased compared with that in PBMC of RA patients cultured alone (p  Conclusions In vitro co-culture with MSCs down-regulated the inflammatory response of PBMCs from RA patients with severe disease activity, but had no significant effect on PBMCs from healthy controls or patients with mild disease activity, suggesting that the immunoregulatory role of MSCs may associate with the occurrence of inflammatory mediators.

  2. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates T- helper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Salvador Mérida

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60-70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration.

  3. Babassu aqueous extract (BAE as an adjuvant for T helper (Th1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain

    Nascimento Flavia RF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous extract of a Brazilian palm-tree fruit - the babassu - (BAE exerts a clear immunostimulative activity in vivo. In the present work, the possibility that BAE can promote Th1 immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain - the BALB/c was investigated. BAE itself, and preparations consisting of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote extract (LE, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, and in the presence or not of BAE, were used as immunogens. LE and Al(OH3 have been shown to preferentially elicit Th2 immune responses. Results The addition of BAE to LE-containing immunogenic preparations, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, clearly promoted the in vitro production of interferon γ (IFN-γ, a major Th1-dependent cytokine, and not of interleukin (IL-4 (a Th2-dependent cytokine, by LE-stimulated splenocytes of immunized BALB/c mice. It also promoted the in vivo formation of IgG2a anti-LE antibodies. However, immunization with LE by itself led to an increased production of IL-4 by LE-stimulated splenocytes, and this production, albeit not enhanced, was not reduced by the addition of BAE to the immunogen. On the other hand, the IL-4 production by LE-stimulated splenocytes was significantly lower in mice immunized with a preparation containing Al(OH3-adsorbed LE and BAE than in mice immunized with the control preparation of Al(OH3-adsorbed LE without BAE. Moreover, an increased production of IFN-γ, and not of IL-4, was observed in the culture supernatants of splenocytes, from BAE-immunized mice, which were in vitro stimulated with BAE or which received no specific in vitro stimulus. No differences in IL-10 (an immunoregulatory cytokine levels in the supernatants of splenocytes from mice that were injected with BAE, in relation to splenocytes from control mice, were observed. The spontaneous ex vivo production of NO by splenocytes of mice that had been injected with BAE was significantly higher than the production of NO by splenocytes of control mice. Conclusions Based on the results described above, BAE, or biologically active molecules purified from it, should be further investigated as a possible adjuvant, in association or not with aluminium compounds, for the preferential induction of Th1-dependent immune responses against different antigens in distinct murine strains and animal species.

  4. Chicken type II collagen induced immune balance of main subtype of helper T cells in mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes in rats with collagen-induced arthritis.

    Tong, Tong; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Ying-Qi; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Tong; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wei, Wei

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the oral administration of chicken type II collagen (CCII) on T cells from mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats immunized with CCII in Freund's complete adjuvant. CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1), i.g. x 7 days) was administered orally to rats from day 14 to 21 after immunization. Arthritis was evaluated by hind paw swelling and polyarthritis index, and MLNs and synovium were harvested for histological examination. Activity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in MLN lymphocyte supernatant was measured by ConA-induced splenocyte proliferation in C57BL/6J mice, and IL-4, IL-17, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) levels in MLN lymphocytes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and Th17 cells was determined by double-color labeling for flow cytometry analysis. The administration of CCII (10, 20, 40 microg/kg, i.g. x 7 days) suppressed secondary inflammatory reactions and histological changes in CIA model. The activity of IL-2 and IL-17 produced by MLN lymphocytes from CIA rats was significantly inhibited by the administration of CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1)). The levels of IL-4 and TGF-beta were increased in CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1)) groups. The flow cytometry analysis showed that CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1)) significantly increased the proportion of Treg and decreased the proportion of Th17. These results indicate that oral administration of CCII had therapeutic effects on CIA rats, which was related to decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-2, IL-17) and increased production of anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-4, TGF-beta). This suggests that CCII plays an important role in regulating the immune balance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in rats with CIA.

  5. Immunostimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV): helper T cell-dependent activation of immunoglobulin production in vitro by lymphocytes from CMV-immune donors

    Yachie, A.; Tosato, G.; Straus, S.E.; Blaese, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the cause of a number of different diseases ranging from self-limited benign infections in healthy adults to life threatening illnesses among immunocompromised hosts and newborns. Suppression of cell-mediated immunity is often found in cases of acute CMV infection, and in addition, the virus may also be a potent stimulant of lymphoid cells in vivo. The authors studied cellular proliferation and immunoglobulin (Ig) production induced by CMV to determine its effect on human lymphocytes in vitro. The CMV that was added to cultures of lymphocytes from CMV-seronegative donors failed to induce either significant cellular proliferation or Ig production. By contrast, CMV-stimulated cultures from CMV-seropositive donors induced both prominent cellular proliferation and Ig production. B cell differentiation into Ig-secreting cells required the presence of T cells, and this T cell help was sensitive to irradiation with 2000 rad and to treatment with cyclosporin A. When T cells were depleted of OKT4+ cells with monoclonal antibody and complement, the co-cultured B cells failed to produce Ig, whereas the depletion of OKT8+ cells had no effect on the Ig-secreting cell response. Inactivation of CMV before culture did not result in a reduction of either cellular proliferation or Ig production. Thus, infection of target cells is not required for in vitro lymphocyte activation by CMV. These results demonstrate that CMV is a potent activator of B cells inducing Ig production in vitro, and that this process requires the presence of virus-specific memory T cells

  6. The majority of cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphomas expresses class-switched immunoglobulins and develops in a T-helper type 2 inflammatory environment

    van Maldegem, Febe; van Dijk, Remco; Wormhoudt, Thera A. M.; Kluin, Philip M.; Willemze, Rein; Cerroni, Lorenzo; van Noesel, Carel J. M.; Bende, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs) arise on a background of chronic inflammation resulting from organ-specific autoimmunity, infection, or by unknown causes. Well-known examples are salivary gland MZBCL in Sjorgren's sialadenitis and gastric MZBCL in Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

  7. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Abrogate Plasmablast Formation and Induce Regulatory B Cells Independently of T Helper Cells

    Franquesa, M.; Mensah, F. K.; Huizinga, R.; Strini, T.; Boon, L.; Lombardo, E.; DelaRosa, O.; Laman, J. D.; Grinyo, J. M.; Weimar, W.; Betjes, M. G. H.; Baan, C. C.; Hoogduijn, M. J.

    Mesenchymal or stromal stem cells (MSC) interact with cells of the immune system in multiple ways. Modulation of the immune system by MSC is believed to be a therapeutic option for autoimmune disease and transplant rejection. In recent years, B cells have moved into the focus of the attention as

  8. T-helper 2 cytokines, transforming growth factor β1, and eosinophil products induce fibrogenesis and alter muscle motility in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEFs), human esophageal muscle cells (HEMCs), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. Biopsy specimens were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEFs and HEMCs. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were secreted spontaneously in mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEFs and HEMCs to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEFs and HEMCs to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEFs and HEMCs increased after incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased after blockade of transforming growth factor β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase blockade. Eosinophil products reduced electrical field-induced contraction of esophageal muscle strips, but not acetylcholine-induced contraction. In an analysis of tissues samples from patients with EoE, we linked the presence and activation state of eosinophils in EoE with altered fibrogenesis and motility of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells. This process might contribute to the development of dysphagia. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic Inflammation in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Involves Follicular T-Helper, Th17- and Activated B-Cells and Correlates with Progression

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Börnsen, Lars; Ratzer, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    with disease progression, using flow cytometry and gene expression analysis of CD4(+) and CD8(+)T-cells, B-cells, monocytes and dendritic cells. Furthermore, gene expression of cerebrospinal fluid cells was studied. Flow cytometry studies revealed increased frequencies of ICOS(+)TFH-cells in peripheral blood...... increased in PPMS and SPMS. In the analysis of B-cells, we found a significant increase of plasmablasts and DC-SIGN(+) and CD83(+)B-cells in SPMS. ICOS(+)TFH-cells and DC-SIGN(+)B-cells correlated with disease progression in SPMS patients. Gene expression analysis of peripheral blood cell subsets...... substantiated the flow cytometry findings by demonstrating increased expression of IL21, IL21R and ICOS in CD4(+)T-cells in progressive MS. Cerebrospinal fluid cells from RRMS and progressive MS (pooled SPMS and PPMS patients) had increased expression of TFH-cell and plasmablast markers. In conclusion...

  10. T helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 responses to myelin basic protein and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Krakauer, Martin; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Autoreactive T cells are thought to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the stimulatory effect of human myelin basic protein (MBP) on mononuclear cell (MNC) cultures from 22 patients with MS and 22 sex-matched and age-matched healthy individuals, and...

  11. Does cooperation increase helpers' later success as breeders? A test of the skills hypothesis in the cooperatively displaying lance-tailed manakin.

    DuVal, Emily H

    2013-07-01

    Experience improves individual performance in many tasks. Pre-breeding cooperation may provide important experience that improves later success as a breeder, offering one compelling explanation for why some individuals delay reproduction to help others breed (the 'skills hypothesis'). However, confounding effects of age, quality and alternative selective benefits have complicated rigorous tests of this hypothesis. Male lance-tailed manakins perform cooperative courtship displays involving partnerships between unrelated alpha and beta males, and alphas monopolize resulting copulations. Beta males therefore do not receive immediate direct or indirect fitness benefits, but may gain skills during cooperation that increase their later success as an alpha. To date, however, the effect of cooperative experience on later success as a breeder has never been tested in any cooperatively displaying taxon. The effects of prior cooperative experience on reproductive success of alpha lance-tailed manakins were analysed in a mixed model framework using 12 years of information on cooperative experience and annual and lifetime genetic reproductive success for 57 alpha males. Models included previously identified effects of age and alpha tenure. Individual-level random effects controlled for quality differences to test for an independent influence of beta experience on success. Males accumulated up to 5 years of beta experience before becoming alphas, but 42·1% of alphas had no prior beta experience. Betas became alphas later in life, and experienced significantly lower reproductive success in their final year as alpha than males that were never beta, but did not have higher lifetime success or longer alpha tenures. Differences in patterns of annual siring success were best explained by age-dependent patterns of reproductive improvement and senescence among alphas, not beta experience. Cooperative experience does not increase relative breeding success for male lance-tailed manakins. Importantly, beta cooperation seems to be an alternative reproductive tactic that yields fitness payoffs equivalent to a non-cooperative route to alpha status, if population growth rate is stable. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  12. "Professional Helper" or "Helping Professional?" The Patient-Physician Relationship in the Chronic Pain Setting, With Special Reference to the Current Opioid Debate.

    Bäckryd, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a strong cultural expectation among patients for effective pain relief. As a result, physicians often find themselves trying to bridge the gap between the chronic pain patient's expectations and harsh biomedical reality. The typology of Emanuel and Emanuel of four models for the patient-physician relationship is used in this article as a conceptual tool to examine the possible roles of physicians in the context of chronic noncancer pain. Their typology is reconceptualized as a "pathway" along which the physician is able to walk more or less far, starting from the "information" end of the path. The other end of the pathway is "caring deliberation." I then propose that, in pain medicine today, consumerism is a powerful incentive for physicians to stay at the information end of the spectrum. Against this background, I discuss the current opioid epidemic in the United States and the need for what has been called a new medical professionalism. I conclude by challenging educators involved in pain medicine continuing professional development to not only design adequate biomedical-educational programs, but also consider issues like professionalism, personal development, critical self-reflection, and the ethics of engaging in caring deliberation with chronic pain patients.

  13. Defective TCR stimulation in anergized type 2 T helper cells correlates with abrogated p56(lck) and ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase activities.

    Faith, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Simon, H U; Blaser, K

    1997-07-01

    Development of IgE-mediated allergic conditions is dependent on the secretion of a Th2 cytokine pattern, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The induction of anergy would be one mechanism to abrogate cytokine secretion by Th2 cells, which may be pivotal to the allergic response. We demonstrate here that incubation of cloned human CD4+ phospholipase A2 (PLA)-specific Th2 cells with antigenic peptide, in the absence of professional APC, results in a state of nonresponsiveness. The anergic T cells failed to proliferate or secrete IL-4 in response to optimal stimulation with PLA and autologous, professional APC. Secretion of IL-5 and IL-13, however, was only partially inhibited. The anergic state of the Th2 cells was not associated with CD3 or CD28 down-regulation. However, anergy did appear to be closely related to alterations in signaling pathways, mediated through the TCR, of the cells. In contrast to untreated Th2 cells, anergized Th2 cells failed to respond to anti-CD3 mAb with either increased tyrosine kinase activity or increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of p56(lck) or ZAP70. A strong and sustained intracellular calcium flux, observed in untreated Th2 cells in response to anti-CD3 mAb, was absent in anergic Th2 cells. Furthermore, the induction of anergy seems to represent an active process, associated with increased levels of basal tyrosine kinase activity, cytokine production, and CD25 up-regulation in anergic Th2 cells. Together, our results indicate that anergy in Th2 cells is associated with defective transmembrane signaling through the TCR.

  14. People Helping People: Partnerships between Professionals and Natural Helpers. Building Community Partnerships in Child Welfare, Part Four. Family to Family: Tools for Rebuilding Foster Care.

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    The Family to Family initiative has encouraged states to reconceptualize, redesign, and reconstruct their foster care systems. By 1996, the initiative was being implemented in five states, five Georgia counties, and Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes an approach for nontraditional partnerships that work to rebuild the foster care…

  15. Helping the Helpers: An International Training Program for Professionals Providing Social Services for HIV-Positive Children and Their Families in Southern Kazakhstan

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Over one hundred children and some of their parents were infected with HIV in state hospitals in the Chimkent region in Southern Kazakhstan. After this tragedy, the Regional Department of Public Health organized social services for these families and asked the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) to provide them with training and…

  16. Prostate-Specific and Tumor-Specific Targeting of an Oncolytic HSV-1 Amplicon/Helper Virus for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    2009-11-01

    regulation HSV-1 amplicon and recombinant viruses Molecular cloning Cell culture/gene transfection Xenograft mouse model Histology 20...no herpetic lesions were seen in CMV-ICP4-143T–treated and CMV-ICP4-145T– treated animals, although some gastritis developed 28 days after the viral

  17. Treatment for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in alpine and moderate maritime climates differentially affects helper T cells and memory B cells in children.

    Heeringa, J J; Fieten, K B; Bruins, F M; van Hoffen, E; Knol, E F; Pasmans, S G M A; van Zelm, M C

    2018-06-01

    Treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) is focused on topical anti-inflammatory therapy, epidermal barrier repair and trigger avoidance. Multidisciplinary treatment in both moderate maritime and alpine climates can successfully reduce disease activity in children with AD. However, it remains unclear whether abnormalities in B cell and T cell memory normalize and whether this differs between treatment strategies. To determine whether successful treatment in maritime and alpine climates normalizes B- and T lymphocytes in children with moderate to severe AD. The study was performed in the context of a trial (DAVOS trial, registered at Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN88136485) in which eighty-eight children with moderate to severe AD were randomized to 6 weeks of treatment in moderate maritime climate (outpatient setting) or in the alpine climate (inpatient setting). Before and directly after treatment, disease activity was determined with SA-EASI and serum TARC, and T cell and B cell subsets were quantified in blood. Both treatment protocols achieved a significant decrease in disease activity, which was accompanied by a reduction in circulating memory Treg, transitional B cell and plasmablast numbers. Alpine climate treatment had a significantly greater effect on disease activity and was accompanied by a reduction in blood eosinophils and increases in memory B cells, CD8+ TemRO, CD4+ Tcm and CCR7+ Th2 subsets. Clinically successful treatment of AD induces changes in blood B- and T cell subsets reflecting reduced chronic inflammation. In addition, multidisciplinary inpatient treatment in the alpine climate specifically affects memory B cells, CD8+ T cells and Th2 cells. These cell types could represent good markers for treatment efficacy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sunlight–derived vitamin D affects interleukin-4 level, T helper 2 serum cytokines, in patients with Graves’ disease: a prospective cohort study

    Dyah Purnamasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graves’ disease (GD is the most common autoimmune disease leading to hyperthyroidism. The role of Th1/Th2 pathways balance in GD is still controversial. Vitamin D is reported to have an effect on those pathways. This study aims to examine the effect of sunlight exposure on vitamin D 25(OH level and Th1 and Th2 pathway-derived cytokines in GD patients. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 32 GD patients to compare the effect of sunlight exposure on vitamin D level and cytokines of Th1 and Th2 pathways between exposed and unexposed groups. Exposed group received sunlight exposure three times a week for 30 minutes each between 9–11 a.m for 1 month. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxin (fT4, vitamin D 25(OH, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4 serum levels, were investigated before and after one month of sunlight exposure. Paired t-test or Mann Whitney test were used to analyze the difference between exposed and unexposed GD groups before and after sun exposure.Results: One month of sunlight exposure increased vitamin D 25(OH level by 27.90% among exposed GD group (15.34 ng/mL to 19.62 ng/mL, p<0.001. Meanwhile, unexposed GD group’s vitamin D 25(OH level decreased from 20.48 ng/mL to 18.86 ng/mL (p<0.001. Increased vitamin D 25(OH level in exposed group was not accompanied by the increase of IL-4 level after sunlight exposure.Conclusion: Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D 25(OH serum level and may affect the level of IL-4, Th2 pathway-derived cytokine, in patients with GD. However, the role of sunlight-derived vitamin D on IFN-γ in GD patients can not be concluded in this study.

  19. B Cells Negatively Regulate the Establishment of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) Resting Memory T Helper Cells in the Bone Marrow.

    Hojyo, Shintaro; Sarkander, Jana; Männe, Christian; Mursell, Mathias; Hanazawa, Asami; Zimmel, David; Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E; Fillatreau, Simon; Löhning, Max; Radbruch, Andreas; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    During an immune reaction, some antigen-experienced CD4 T cells relocate from secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) to the bone marrow (BM) in a CD49b-dependent manner and reside and rest there as professional memory CD4 T cells. However, it remains unclear how the precursors of BM memory CD4 T cells are generated in the SLOs. While several studies have so far shown that B cell depletion reduces the persistence of memory CD4 T cells in the spleen, we here show that B cell depletion enhances the establishment of memory CD4 T cells in the BM and that B cell transfer conversely suppresses it. Interestingly, the number of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the BM synchronizes the number of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the spleen. CD49b(+)T-bet(+) antigen-experienced CD4 T cells preferentially localize in the red pulp area of the spleen and the BM in a T-bet-independent manner. We suggest that B cells negatively control the generation of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) precursors of resting memory CD4 T cells in the spleen and may play a role in bifurcation of activated effector and resting memory CD4 T cell lineages.

  20. B cells negatively regulate the establishment of CD49b+T-bet+ resting memory T helper cells in the bone marrow

    Shintaro eHojyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During an immune reaction, some antigen-experienced CD4 T cells relocate from secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs to the bone marrow (BM in a CD49b-dependent manner and reside and rest there as professional memory CD4 T cells. However, it remains unclear how the precursors of BM memory CD4 T cells are generated in the SLOs. While several studies have so far shown that B cell depletion reduces the persistence of memory CD4 T cells in the spleen, we here show that B cell depletion enhances the establishment of memory CD4 T cells in the BM and that B cell transfer conversely suppresses it. Interestingly, the number of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the BM synchronizes the number of CD49b+T-bet+ antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the spleen. CD49b+T-bet+ antigen-experienced CD4 T cells preferentially localize in the red pulp area of the spleen and the BM in a T-bet-independent manner. We suggest that B cells negatively control the generation of CD49b+T-bet+ precursors of resting memory CD4 T cells in the spleen and may play a role in bifurcation of activated effector and resting memory CD4 T cell lineages.