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Sample records for helium leak tested

  1. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  2. Leak testing using helium leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, G.; Mathot, S.; Munoz, C.; Orlando, O.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the equipment used in the industry and particularly in the nuclear activity need to be, vacuum or pressure tight, for operative and safety requirements. These devices have to satisfy particular regulations in order to be qualified by means of operating licences. One of the most efficient system to ensure leaktightnes is using a helium leak detector with a mass spectrometer. In this paper we show the equipment and the devices employed in fuel rods fabrication for CAREM project, and some typical material defects. Operating system and the sensitivity of this method is also described. (author) [es

  3. On the helium gas leak test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Akira; Ozaki, Susumu

    1975-01-01

    The helium gas leak test (Helium mass spectrometer testing) has a leak detection capacity of the highest level in practical leak tests and is going to be widely applied to high pressure vessels, atomic and vacuum equipments that require high tightness. To establish a standard test procedure several series of experiments were conducted and the results were investigated. The conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The hood method is quantitatively the most reliable method. The leak rate obtained by tests using 100% helium concentration should be the basis of the other method of test. (2) The integrating method, bell jar method, and vacuum spray method can be considered quantitative when particular conditions are satisfied. (3) The sniffer method is not to be considered quantitive. (4) The leak rate of the hood, integrating, and bell jar methods is approximately proportional to the square of the helium partial pressure. (auth.)

  4. Helium leak testing the Westinghouse LCP coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, P.A.; Attaar, M.H.; Hordubay, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The tests, equipment, and techniques used to check the Westinghouse LCP coil for coolant flow path integrity and helium leakage are unique in terms of test sensitivity and application. This paper will discuss the various types of helium leak testing done on the LCP coil as it enters different stages of manufacture. The emphasis will be on the degree of test sensitivity achieved under shop conditions, and what equipment, techniques and tooling are required to achieve this sensitivity (5.9 x 10 -8 scc/sec). Other topics that will be discussed are helium flow and pressure drop testing which is used to detect any restrictions in the flow paths, and the LCP final acceptance test which is the final leak test performed on the coil prior to its being sent for testing. The overall allowable leak rate for this coil is 5 x 10 -6 scc/sec. A general evaluation of helium leak testing experience are included

  5. Helium leak testing of scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S.K.; Mukherjee, D.

    2015-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a specialized electron-optical device which is used for imaging of miniscule features on topography of material specimens. Conventional SEMs used finely focused high energy (about 30 KeV) electron beam probes of diameter of about 10nm for imaging of solid conducting specimens. Vacuum of the order of 10"-"5 Torr is prerequisite for conventional Tungsten filament type SEMs. One such SEM was received from one of our laboratory in BARC with a major leak owing to persisting poor vacuum condition despite continuous pumping for several hours. He-Leak Detection of the SEM was carried out at AFD using vacuum spray Technique and various potential leak joints numbering more than fifty were helium leak tested. The major leak was detected in the TMP damper bellow. The part was later replaced and the repeat helium leak testing of the system was carried out using vacuum spray technique. The vacuum in SEM is achieved is better than 10"-"5 torr and system is now working satisfactorily. (author)

  6. Helium leak testing of large pressure vessels or subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, J.S.; Valania, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Specifications for pressure-vessel components [such as the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX)] for service in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities require helium leak testing of pressure boundaries to very exacting standards. The experience of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation (FWEC) in successfully leak-testing the IHX shells and bundle assemblies now installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility at Richland, WA is described. Vessels of a somewhat smaller size for the closed loop heat exchanger system in the Fast Flux Test Facility have also been fabricated and helium leak tested for integrity of the pressure boundary by FWEC. Specifications on future components call for helium leak testing of the tube to tubesheet welds of the intermediate heat exchangers

  7. Helium Leak Test for the PLS Storage Ring Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    The storage ring vacuum system for the Pohang Light Source (PLS) has been designed to maintain the vacuum pressure of 10 1 0 Torr which requires UHV welding to have helium leak rate less than 1x10 1 0 Torr·L/sec. In order to develop new technique (PLS) welding technique), a prototype vacuum chamber has been welded by using Tungsten Inert Gas welding method and all the welded joints have been tested with a non-destructive method, so called helium leak detection, to investigate the vacuum tightness of the weld joints. The test was performed with a detection limit of 1x10 1 0 Torr·L/sec for helium and no detectable leaks were found for all the welded joints. Thus the performance of welding technique is proven to meet the criteria of helium leak rate required in the PLS Storage Ring. Both the principle and the procedure for the helium leak detection are also discussed

  8. The Development of Leak Test Techniques by Means Helium Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit Asmara Santa; Puradwi lsmu Wahyono; Deddy Haryanto; Joko Irianto; Ismu Handoyo

    2003-01-01

    The auxiliary vacuum tube used for helium leak detection has been designed. The aim is to increase measured leak test sensitivity of existing helium leak detection system from the level of 10 -3 ∼10 -5 standard cm 3 /second to 10 -8 ∼10 -10 standard cm 3 /second. The goals of installed auxiliary vacuum tube in the existing leak detection system are used for quality control test product of Fission Product Molybdenum (FPM) capsule and AgInCd safety control rod. The design requirements were established based on both of their quality control test requirement to assure their safety and reliability. The vacuum tube length was designed at least as long as 100 cm with 6 inch diameter and have leakage tightness till as low as 10 10 standard cm 3 /second. The temperature and pressure could be controlled up to 100 o C and negative pressure 10 inch Hg respectively. The vacuum tube was equipped with temperature controller system consisting of covered heater and installed 3 thermocouples which were evenly distributed along the length of tube. Pressure control system controls the inside pressure vacuum tube according to prior setpoint values. Vacuum tube temperature and pressure were controlled using combination of both prior its set-up temperature and pressure. Aluminum disks were installed at the end of covered heater used for cooling system and to protect heat hazard to operator. (author)

  9. High level helium leak testing methods developed at ICSI Rm. Valcea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saros, Gili; Armeanu, Adrian; Saros, Irina; Ciortea, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Helium leak detection is one of the most widely used methods of nondestructive testing in use today. In principle two methods are applied for leak testing and localization of leaks, the 'Vacuum method' and the 'Overpressure method'. In case of the 'Vacuum method' the object to be examined for leaks is evacuated and filled instead with Helium. The gas penetrates through any leaks found in the object and is detected by the leak test instrument. In case of the 'Overpressure method' the object to be examined for leaks is filled with Helium, under slight overpressure. The gas escapes through any leaks present and it is detected by a detector probe. This detector probe sometimes called a 'sniffer' acting as a gas sampling probe. Varian 979 Helium Leak Detector has a built-in turbo pump and an externally mounted dry forepump located below the system. The leak detector is configured for the evacuation type leak testing. In this case, the vacuum system under test is evacuated by the leak detector. Helium is then sprayed on the outside of the vacuum system and is pumped into the leak detector if a leak is present. The leak detector is capable to detect leaks down to 10 -9 atm-cc/sec range. The Specton 300E is a strong, rugged leak detector designed to operate in dirty industrial conditions as well as clean research areas. A number of applications are mentioned: - Generators; - Buried Pipelines; - Chemical and power plants; - Vacuum furnace installations; - Heat Exchangers; - Tank Floors; - Nuclear research centers; - Refrigeration installations; - Any type of industrial vacuum system. (authors)

  10. Back pressure helium leak testing of fuel elements for Dhruva research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, N G; Ahmad, Anis; Kulkarni, P G; Purushotham, D S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Atomic Fuels Div.

    1994-12-31

    Leak tightness specification on fuel elements for reactor use is always very stringent. The fuel element fabricated for Dhruva reactor is specified to be leak-tight up to 1 x 10{sup -8} std. cc/sec. The fuel element consists of natural metallic uranium rod around 12.5 mm diameter and 3 meter long in encased in aluminium tube and seal welded at both ends. Since helium gas is not filled inside the fuel element while doing seal welding, the only way to do helium leak testing of such fuel rods is by back-pressure technique. This paper describes the development of test facility for carrying out such test and discusses the experiences of carrying out helium leak testing by back-pressure technique on more than 700 numbers of fuel rods for Dhruva reactor. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Engineering Sensitivity Improvement of Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection System by Means Global Hard Vacuum Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit Asmara Santa

    2006-01-01

    The engineering sensitivity improvement of Helium mass spectrometer leak detection using global hard vacuum test configuration has been done. The purpose of this work is to enhance the sensitivity of the current leak detection of pressurized method (sniffer method) with the sensitivity of 10 -3 ∼ 10 -5 std cm 3 /s, to the global hard vacuum test configuration method which can be achieved of up to 10 -8 std cm 3 /s. The goal of this research and development is to obtain a Helium leak test configuration which is suitable and can be used as routine bases in the quality control tests of FPM capsule and AgInCd safety control rod products. The result is an additional instrumented vacuum tube connected with conventional Helium mass spectrometer. The pressure and temperature of the test object during the leak measurement are simulated by means of a 4.1 kW capacity heater and Helium injection to test object, respectively. The addition of auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump of 2.4 l/s pumping speed which is directly connected to the vacuum tube, will reduce 86 % of evacuation time. The reduction of the measured sensitivity due to the auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump can be overcome by shutting off the pump soon after Helium mass spectrometer reaches its operating pressure condition. (author)

  12. Remote helium leak test of the DUPIC fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. K; Kim, S. S.; Lim, S. P.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) is one of dry reprocessing fuel cycles to reuse irradiated PWR fuel in CANDU power plant. DUPIC fuel is so radioactive that DUPIC fuel is remotely fabricated at hot cell such as IMEF hot cell in which radiation is shielded and remote operation is possible. In this study, Helium leakage has been tested for the simulated DUPIC fuel rod manufactured by Nd:YAG laser end-cap welding at simulated hot cell. The remote inspection technique has been developed to evaluate the soundness of DUPIC fuel fabricated through new processes. Vacuum chamber has been developed to be remotely operated by manipulators at hot cell. As the result of remote test, Helium leakage of DUPIC fuel rod is around background level, CANDU specification has been satisfied. In the result of the study, remote test has been successfully performed at the simulated hot cell, and the soundness of DUPIC fuel rod welded by Nd:YAG laser has been confirmed

  13. Helium leak testing of superconducting magnets, thermal shields and cryogenic lines of SST -1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thankey, P.L.; Joshi, K.S.; Semwal, P.; Pathan, F.S.; Raval, D.C.; Khan, Z.; Patel, R.J.; Pathak, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tokamak SST - 1 is under commissioning at Institute for Plasma Research. It comprises of a toroidal doughnut shaped plasma chamber, surrounded by liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets, housed in a cryostat chamber. The cryostat has two cooling circuits, (1) liquid nitrogen cooling circuit operating at 80 K to minimize the radiation heat load on the magnets, and (2) liquid helium cooling circuit to cool magnets and cold mass support structure to 4.5 K. In this paper we describe (a) the leak testing of copper - SS joints, brazing joints, interconnecting joints of the superconducting magnets, and (b) the leak testing of the liquid nitrogen cooling circuit, comprising of the main supply header, the thermal shields, interconnecting pipes, main return header and electrical isolators. All these tests were carried out using both vacuum and sniffer methods. (author)

  14. A new approach for helium backfilling and leak testing seal-welded capsules in a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasslsund, E.K.; Berger, D.N.

    1992-05-01

    Gamma irradiation sources containing radioactive 137 Cesium Chloride are being produced at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of a Westinghouse Hanford company/Pacific Northwest Laboratory cooperative program. New equipment was developed to leak test the double-encapsulated sources in a hot cell. The equipment, which includes a helium backfill chamber and end cap press , a vacuum chamber, and a helium mass spectrometer, has provided technicians with the capability to detect leaks in sealed sources as small as 1. 0x10 -7 atm cm 3 /S helium

  15. Nuclear fuel rod helium leak inspection apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an inspection apparatus for testing nuclear fuel rods for helium leaks. It comprises a test chamber being openable and closable for receiving at least one nuclear fuel rod; means separate from the fuel rod for supplying helium and constantly leaking helium at a predetermined known positive value into the test chamber to constantly provide an atmosphere of helium at the predetermined known positive value in the test chamber; and means for sampling the atmosphere within the chamber and measuring the helium in the atmosphere such that a measured helium value below a preset minimum helium value substantially equal to the predetermined known positive value of the atmosphere of helium being constantly provided in the test chamber indicates a malfunction in the inspection apparatus, above a preset maximum helium value greater than the predetermined known positive in the test chamber indicates the existence of a helium leak from the fuel rod, or between the preset minimum and maximum helium values indicates the absence of a helium leak from the fuel rod

  16. Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R ampersand D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage -7 cc/seconds at 2500 psia. The bell jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved

  17. Mobile leak testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungr, F.

    The design and implementation are described of a mobile testing unit ULTRATEST M for helium leak tests. The equipment has been developed by Leybold-Heraeus GmbH in Cologne and is in-built in a Mercedes-Benz 208 van. The equipment is designed for the operative use in assembly and construction of nuclear power plants and its throughput is sufficient for checking the whole upper reactor block. It may also be used for removing defects of vacuum equipment requiring a high level of tightness or equally demanding equipment used in the chemical industry. Experience with the equipment is described. (B.S.)

  18. Leak testing and repair of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozman, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The leak testing, reporting and vacuum leak repair techniques of the MFTF yin-yang number one magnet system, the world's largest superconducting magnet system, are discussed. Based on this experience, techniques will be developed for testing and repairing leaks on the 42 MFTF-B magnets. The leak-hunting techniques for the yin-yang magnet systems were applied to two helium circuits (the coil bundle and guard vacuum; both require helium flow for magnet cooldown), their associated piping, liquid nitrogen radiation shields, and piping. Additionally, during MFTF-B operation there will be warm water plasma shields and piping that require leak checking

  19. Helium leak and chemical impurities control technology in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, Daisuke; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Sakaba, Nariaki

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has designed and developed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) hydrogen cogeneration system named gas turbine high-temperature reactor (GTHTR300C) as a commercial HTGR. Helium gas is used as the primary coolant in HTGR. Helium gas is easy to leak, and the primary helium leakage should be controlled tightly from the viewpoint of preventing the release of radioactive materials to the environment. Moreover from the viewpoint of preventing the oxidization of graphite and metallic material, the helium coolant chemistry should be controlled tightly. The primary helium leakage and the helium coolant chemistry during the operation is the major factor in the HTGR for commercialization of HTGR system. This paper shows the design concept and the obtained operational experience on the primary helium leakage control and primary helium impurity control in the high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) of JAEA. Moreover, the future plan to obtain operational experience of these controls for commercialization of HTGR system is shown. (author)

  20. New helium sniffing device for locating very fine leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Y.; Shimomura, Y.; Abe, T.; Obara, K.

    1984-01-01

    A new helium sniffing method for leak checking large vacuum vessels is described. The low sensitivity problem of the conventional helium sniffing method has been overcome by increasing the gas draw rate from around leaks into the detector up to about 0.1 Pa m 3 /s. The devised system consists of a flexible stainless steel capillary tube 0.6 mm i.d. and 10 m long, a sorption pump using molecular sieve, and a helium leak detector in series. This method is particularly useful for locating very fine leaks down to 10 -11 Pa m 3 /s. Relevant theoretical considerations and experimental results are presented

  1. Development of a vacuum leak test method for large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hamada, Kazuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed leak detection technology for liquid helium temperature experiments in large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities. In JAEA, a cryosorption pump that uses an absorbent cooled by liquid nitrogen with a conventional helium leak detector, is used to detect helium gas that is leaking from pressurized welded joints of pipes and valves in a vacuum chamber. The cryosorption pump plays the role of decreasing aerial components, such as water, nitrogen and oxygen, to increase the sensitivity of helium leak detection. The established detection sensitivity for helium leak testing is 10 -10 to 10 -9 Pam 3 /s. A total of 850 welded and mechanical joints inside the cryogenic test facility for the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) experiments have been tested. In the test facility, 73 units of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) insulation break are used. The amount of helium permeation through the GFRP was recorded during helium leak testing. To distinguish helium leaks from insulation-break permeation, the helium permeation characteristic of the GFRP part was measured as a function of the time of helium charging. Helium permeation was absorbed at 6 h after helium charging, and the detected permeation is around 10 -7 Pam 3 /s. Using the helium leak test method developed, CSMC experiments have been successfully completed. (author)

  2. Vacuum leak test technique of JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Atsushi; Arai, Takashi; Kodama, Kozo; Sasaki, Noboru; Saidoh, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Since a vacuum vessel of JT-60 is very large (167 m 3 ) and is combined with many components, such as magnetic coils, neutral beam injection systems and RF heating systems, etc., the position of leak testing exceeds 700. The two kind of techniques for vacuum leak test used in JT-60 has been described. Firstly the probe helium gas can be fed remotely in the three-dimensionally sectioned 54 regions of the JT-60 torus. The leak test was very rapidly performed by using this method. Secondly the helium detector system has been modified by the additional installation of the cryopump, which reduced the background level of the deuterium gas. The sensitivity of vacuum leak test with the cryopump was two orders of magnitude larger than that of without it. The examples of the performed vacuum leak test are stated. The vacuum leaks during experiments were 9 times. They were caused by thermal strain and plasma discharge. The vacuum leaks just after maintenance are 36 times which mainly caused by mis-installation. (author)

  3. Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection: A Method to Quantify Total Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    In applications where leak rates of components or systems are evaluated against a leak rate requirement, the uncertainty of the measured leak rate must be included in the reported result. However, in the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, the sensitivity, or resolution, of the instrument is often the only component of the total measurement uncertainty noted when reporting results. To address this shortfall, a measurement uncertainty analysis method was developed that includes the leak detector unit's resolution, repeatability, hysteresis, and drift, along with the uncertainty associated with the calibration standard. In a step-wise process, the method identifies the bias and precision components of the calibration standard, the measurement correction factor (K-factor), and the leak detector unit. Together these individual contributions to error are combined and the total measurement uncertainty is determined using the root-sum-square method. It was found that the precision component contributes more to the total uncertainty than the bias component, but the bias component is not insignificant. For helium mass spectrometer leak rate tests where unit sensitivity alone is not enough, a thorough evaluation of the measurement uncertainty such as the one presented herein should be performed and reported along with the leak rate value.

  4. Process for detecting leak faults using a helium mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divet, Claude; Morin, Claude.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a process for detecting very small leak faults putting into communication the outer and inner sides of the wall of a containment, one of these wall sides being in contact with gaseous helium under a pressure of around one torr, the other side being one of the limits of a space pumped down to a residual gas pressure under 10 -3 torr. This space is in communication with the measuring cell of a helium mass spectrometer. This process may be applied to the detection of faults in metal claddings of the fuel rods used in nuclear reactors [fr

  5. Cold Leak Tests of LHC Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Collomb-Patton, C; Jenninger, B; Kos, N

    2009-01-01

    In order to guide the high energy proton beams inside its two 27 km long vacuum rings, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, makes use of superconducting technology to create the required magnetic fields. More than 4000 beam screens, cooled at 7 20 K, are inserted inside the 1.9 K beam vacuum tubes to intercept beam induced heat loads and to provide dynamic vacuum stability. As extremely high helium leak tightness is required, all beam screens have been leak tested under cold conditions in a dedicated test stand prior to their installation. After describing the beam screen design and its functions, this report focuses on the cold leak test sequence and discusses the results.

  6. Some applications of the Helium Leak Detectors in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psacharopulo, A.

    1985-01-01

    The improved reliability and ease of operation of Helium Mass Spectrometer leak Detectors currently manufactured has dramatically widened the field of applications for these instruments. The authors describe here some applications: 1. Testing power plants steam condensers in operation; 2. Leak checking of underground pressurized cables or pipes. The field of applications of the Helium Leak Detectors is nowadays much larger due to the increased reliability and ease of operation of current instruments. This has allowed their use in several applications where the techniques used in the past were totally insufficient. The major benefits of the helium method are the very high sensitivity (up to 10 -1 std cc/sec, equivalent to 1 cm 3 every 300 years), fast response times, no operator judgement, possibility to adjust the sensitivity of the instrument to the requirements of the parts under test, and absolute selectivity for helium (no response to any other gas). To these benefits there has been recently the addition of better reliability, ease of operation, allowing unskilled operators to perform tests, no need for liquid nitrogen and finally the physical size of some instruments available today means that they can be easily carried around for on-site tests

  7. Leak testing at Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.N.

    1981-01-01

    Described leak testing applications require an arsenal of test equipment, a diverse range of testing techniques and a cadre of technical talent. A wide range helium mass spectrometer leak detector, a volume change tester and a halogen detector are employed to cover the 1 x 10 -8 to 1 atm cc/sec leak rate range encountered. Leak testing techniques, equipment problems, costs, and recommendations are discussed for examination of reactor pressure boundary and other ancillary components of the FFTF

  8. He leak testing of Indus-2 dipole vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindal, B.K.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Shukla, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Centre for Advanced Technology is developing its second synchrotron radiation source INDUS-2 which is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. Dipole vacuum chambers are the vital components of Indus-2 vacuum system. Each of these chambers is approx. 3.6 m long and 0.67 m wide with 24 nos. of ports of various sizes. The dipole chambers were made by machining two halves and they are then lip welded together. The dipole chamber has approx. 14 m of total weld length and it was leak tested for leak tightness of the order of 10 -10 mbar 1/s. Helium mass spectrometer leak detector (HMSLD) was utilized for the leak testing. Subsequently the leaks of various orders in welding joints were repaired and leak tightness achieved. This paper describes the experiences during leak testing of 20 nos. of aluminum dipole chambers for INDUS-2

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigation of magnetic field related helium leak in helium vessel of a large superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachryya, Pranab; Gupta, Anjan Dutta; Dhar, S.; Sarma, P. R.; Mukherjee, Paramita

    2017-06-01

    The helium vessel of the superconducting cyclotron (SCC) at the Variable Energy Cyclotron centre (VECC), Kolkata shows a gradual loss of insulation vacuum from 10-7 mbar to 10-4 mbar with increasing coil current in the magnet. The insulation vacuum restores back to its initial value with the withdrawal of current. The origin of such behavior has been thought to be related to the electromagnetic stress in the magnet. The electromagnetic stress distribution in the median plane of the helium vessel was studied to figure out the possible location of the helium leak. The stress field from the possible location was transferred to a simplified 2D model with different leak geometries to study the changes in conductance with coil current. The leak rate calculated from the changes in the leak geometry was compared with the leak rate calculated from the experimental insulation vacuum degradation behavior to estimate the initial leak shape and size.

  10. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  11. Leak detection in turbo group condensers using helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cores, C.; Lloret, J.

    1997-01-01

    This method allows a rapid location of leaks (small or not) in the pipelines of a turbo group condenser, before opening the condenser boxes and no need of stooping the turbo group operation. This operation can last two hours maximum depending on the volume of the box or semi box. The technique consists of injecting helium into the water side and detecting it in the steam side, in the outlet of not condensable gases of the ejector. In the same way, probable air inlet to the condenser can be proved (auxiliary systems, turbo group joints to the condenser, etc.) in order to improve the vacuum and/or reduce the quantity of oxygen dissolved in the water of the steam side. (author) [es

  12. Leak test fixture and method for using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Lawrence S.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided which are especially useful for leak testing seams such as an end closure or joint in an article. The test does not require an enclosed pressurized volume within the article or joint section to be leak checked. A flexible impervious membrane is disposed over an area of the seamed surfaces to be leak checked and sealed around the outer edges. A preselected vacuum is applied through an opening in the membrane to evacuate the area between the membrane and the surface being leak checked to essentially collapse the membrane to conform to the article surface or joined adjacent surfaces. A pressure differential is concentrated at the seam bounded by the membrane and only the seam experiences a pressure differential as air or helium molecules are drawn into the vacuum system through a leak in the seam. A helium detector may be placed in a vacuum exhaust line from the membrane to detect the helium. Alternatively, the vacuum system may be isolated at a preselected pressure and leaks may be detected by a subsequent pressure increase in the vacuum system.

  13. Leak testing of cryogenic components — problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. P.; Pandarkar, S. P.; Unni, T. G.; Sinha, A. K.; Mahajan, K.; Suthar, R. L.

    2008-05-01

    A prototype of Cold Neutron Source (CNS) for Dhruva Reactor is being manufactured at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC, Mumbai for validating the mechanical and thermal engineering design aspects, besides checking the integrity of all joints and components at low temperature, 77K. Task of a Cold Neutron Source is to generate cold neutrons by cooling down the thermal neutrons, which are originally produced in a nuclear research reactor. The complete Cold Neutron Source system comprises a complex arrangement of moderator pot, transfer line (piping), pumps, refrigerators, storage tanks, a heat exchanger and associated controls and instrumentation. The heart of the system is moderator pot in which water (moderator) is cooled down by Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) being circulated through an annular cavity machined on the walls of the pot. Transfer lines for LN2 basically consist of two concentric Stainless Steel flexible pipes, which are joined to the inlet and outlet Aluminium tubes of the moderator pot through transition joints. Leak in any component may result in loss of liquid Nitrogen, degradation of vacuum, which in turn may affect the heat removal efficiency of the source. Hence, leak testing was considered a very important quality control tool and all joints and components were subjected to helium leak test using mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD) at cryogenic temperature. During one of the earlier experiments, flow of LN2 through inner flexible pipe of the transfer line resulted in rise of pressure in the vacuum annulus and sweating on the outer flexible pipe. After investigations it was found that large thermal stress compounded with mechanical stress resulted in cracks in the inner pipe. Accordingly design was modified to get leak proof transfer line assembly. Further, during leak testing of thin wall moderator pot, gross leak was observed on the outer jacket welded joint. Leak was so large that even a small amount of Helium gas in the vicinity of the

  14. Leak detection on the DIII-D tokamak using helium entrainment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Baxi, C.; Anderson, P.

    1988-01-01

    The entrainment of helium in a viscous gas flow was utilized to compartmentalize, and then to pinpoint, a leak across the inner skin of the double-walled DIII-D vacuum vessel. Inaccessible from the outside, the leak connected the cooling channels in the wall interspace with the primary vacuum chamber. By entraining helium in the pressurized flow from the single-pass gas circulation system, well-defined portions of the wall were exposed to helium without disassembly of the poorly accessible cooling manifolds. Varying the helium injection point permitted the localization of the leak to a single 30 0 toroidal sector of the vessel. The exact location of the leak was found from inside the vessel by spraying helium on suspect regions, while sweeping the contents of the cooling channels to the foreline of a Varian Contraflow leak detector with a 0.1 Pa m 3 /s flow of nitrogen. Flow speed calculations were used to predict the response time to entrained helium of the actual leak detection setup

  15. Leak-tightness assessment of demountable joints for the super fluid helium system of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.C.; Poncet, A.; Trilhe, P.

    1994-01-01

    The future high energy accelerator LHC presently considered at CERN, will make heavy use of demountable cryogenic joints operating at superfluid helium temperatures (1.8 K). These joints will be required for connecting the cryomagnets to their feeding lines, helium safety valves to cold masses, both on their measuring benches and eventually in their final installation set-up. The very large size of the future machine and, consequently, the large number of cryogenic joints imply that their reliability in leak tightness be very high, in particular after extreme loading conditions such as the high helium pressures resulting from superconducting magnet quenches. For these reasons, a test set-up has been especially built at CERN to reproduce these conditions, and to assess the leak tightness reliability of commercially available joints. A description of the facility is presented, together with the first test results

  16. Evaluation of sulfur hexafluoride and helium for steam generator leak location: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassen, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Since the use of sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer for identifying sources of primary to secondary leakage in PWR steam generators appeared to offer significant sensitivity advantages, the thermal stability of sulfur hexafluoride in water was evaluated at steam generator operating temperature. Significant decomposition was observed after 2 to 4 hours at temperature. Key decomposition products were fluoride and sulfide ions. Based on this observation and these limited test results, the use of SF 6 for PWR steam generator leak location can not be recommended at this time. A survey of 15 utilities was conducted in regard to their application experience with the helium tracer-mass spectroscopy technique for steam generator leak location. Although several successful steam generator integrity programs do not include use of this technique, it has proven to be a useful addition to the inspection program at some plants. No corrosion concerns appear to be associated with this technique

  17. Leak testing. Environment and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Workplaces specified for leak testing are divided into clean workplaces of the 1st degree, clean workplaces of the second degree, clean workplaces of the third degree and semi-clean workplaces. Clean workplaces are further subdivided into permanent and temporary workplaces. For all said types of workplaces the standard sets the following provisions: basic equipment, machines and instrumentation, permitted and prohibited working activities and principles for maintenance and inspection. (E.S.)

  18. Leak detection : Principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.K.

    1981-01-01

    Principles of leak detection are explained and various aspects of leak detection techniques and leak detectors are reviewed. The review covers: units for leaks and leak tightness, classification of leaks, timing of leak testing, designing for ease of leak testing of any job, methods of leak detection, their ranges of application and limitations, leak detectors, response time of leak test, minimum detectable concentration of search gas during leak tests, and validity of leak tests. Helium mass spectrometer type leak detector and technique are described in detail. Recent improvements in leak detectors and techniques, particularly mass spectrometer leak detectors using gases other than helium (e.g. hydrogen, argon) are also covered in the review. (M.G.B.)

  19. Mockup experiments to investigate the leak rate correlation between mercury and helium for the mercury target system of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Checking the seal performance of the mercury piping network is very important for the mercury target system operation of J-PARC, and the test method for leaks using the pressure change measurement is preferable for this purpose because it can be carried out easily and precisely by measuring the pressure change, and it is free from the risk of mercury contamination. The piping network is pressurized by helium gas. Thus, the correlation between the helium leak rate and mercury leak flow rate was investigated experimentally by carrying out leak tests for helium and mercury with an identical mockup flange model. The results showed that the mercury leak flow rates of the experimental data were lower than those of the estimated value by 64% on average. It was also found that the threshold of the helium leak rate at which good seal performance for mercury can be obtained exists between 2.18 x 10 -4 and 1.01 x 10 -2 Pa.m 3 /s. This fact confirmed the sufficient safety margin of the mercury target system against the mercury leak, where 1 x 10 -6 Pa.m 3 /s was adopted as the seal performance criterion. (author)

  20. Liquid to gas leak ratios with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    To predict the leak rates of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen containers at operating conditions we need to know how small leaks (10 -8 to 10 -5 atm-cm 3 air/s), measured at standard conditions, behave when flooded with these cryogens. Two small leaks were measured at ambient conditions (approx.750 Torr and 295 K), at the normal boiling points of LN 2 and LHe, and at elevated pressures above the liquids. The ratios of the leak rates of the liquids at ambient pressure to the gases (G) at ambient pressure and room temperature were: GN 2 (1), LN 2 (18), GHe(1), and LHe(172). The leak rate ratio of LN 2 at elevated pressure was linear with pressure. The leak rate ratio of LHe at elevated pressure was also linear with pressure

  1. Liquid to gas leak ratios with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    To predict the leak rates of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen containers at operating conditions we need to know how small leaks (10 -8 to 10 -5 atm-cm 3 air/s), measured at standard conditions, behave when flooded with these cryogens. Two small leaks were measured at ambient conditions (about 750 Torr and 295 K), at the normal boiling points of LN 2 and LHe, and at elevated pressures above the liquids. The ratios of the leak rates of the liquids at ambient pressure to the gases at ambient pressure and room temperature are presented. The leak rate ratio of LN 2 at elevated pressure was linear with pressure. The leak rate ratio of LHe at elevated pressure was also linear with pressure

  2. Sensitive helium leak detection in a deuterium atmosphere using a high-resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, S.; Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In fusion machines, realizing a high-purity plasma is a key to improving the plasma parameters. Thus, leak detection is a necessary part of reducing the leak rate to a tolerable level. However, a conventional helium ( 4 He) leak detector is useless in fusion machines with a deuterium (D 2 ) plasma, because retained D particles on the first walls release D 2 for a long period and the released D 2 interferes with the signals from the leaked 4 He due to the near identical masses of 4.0026 u ( 4 He) and 4.0282 u (D 2 ). A high-resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer (HR-QMS) that we have recently developed, can detect a 4 He + population as small as 10 -4 peak in a D 2 atmosphere. Thus, the HR-QMS has been applied to detect 4 He leaks. To improve the minimum detectable limit of 4 He leak, a differentially pumped HR-QMS analyzer was attached to a chamber of the 4 He leak detector. In conclusion, the improved 4 He leak detector could detect 4 He leaks of the order of 10 -10 Pa · m 3 /s in a D 2 atmosphere. (Author)

  3. Tests of cold helium compressors at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.J.; Fuerst, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    Fermilab has tested two cold helium compressors for possible installation in the satellite refrigerator buildings of the Tevatron cryogenic system. Operating conditions required to obtain an overall Tevatron energy upgrade from 900 to 1000 GeV are (for each of 24 machines): 52 g/s mass flow rate, 0.7 atm inlet pressure, 1.4 atm exhaust pressure. Acceptable efficiency is in the 60% range. Both Creare, Inc., and Cryogenic Consultants, Inc. (CCI), have supplied units for evaluation. The Creare machine is a high speed centrifugal pump/compressor which yielded 60% adiabatic efficiency (including an approximately 20 watt heat leak) with a 1.0 atm inlet pressure and 55 g/s flow rate. Certain mechanical difficulties were present, chiefly the device's inability to withstand two-phase flow. CCI supplied a reciprocating unit which, after initial testing and modification, achieved 59% efficiency with an approximate 35 watt heat leak at a 0.7 atm inlet pressure and 48 g/s flow rate. Although the device lacks the smooth, quiet operating characteristics of a turbomachine, it has endured mechanically throughout testing and is entirely insensitive to two-phase flow

  4. Intraoperative leak testing has no correlation with leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Monica; Zagzag, Jonathan; Patel, Karan; Magrath, Melissa; Somoza, Eduardo; Parikh, Manish S; Saunders, John K; Ude-Welcome, Aku; Schwack, Bradley F; Kurian, Marina S; Fielding, George A; Ren-Fielding, Christine J

    2016-03-01

    Staple line leak is a serious complication of sleeve gastrectomy. Intraoperative methylene blue and air leak tests are routinely used to evaluate for leak; however, the utility of these tests is controversial. We hypothesize that the practice of routine intraoperative leak testing is unnecessary during sleeve gastrectomy. A retrospective cohort study was designed using a prospectively collected database of seven bariatric surgeons from two institutions. All patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from March 2012 to November 2014 were included. The performance of intraoperative leak testing and the type of test (air or methylene blue) were based on surgeon preference. Data obtained included BMI, demographics, comorbidity, presence of intraoperative leak test, result of test, and type of test. The primary outcome was leak rate between the leak test (LT) and no leak test (NLT) groups. SAS version 9.4 was used for univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 1550 sleeve gastrectomies were included; most were laparoscopic (99.8%), except for one converted and two open cases. Routine intraoperative leak tests were performed in 1329 (85.7%) cases, while 221 (14.3%) did not have LTs. Of the 1329 cases with LTs, there were no positive intraoperative results. Fifteen (1%) patients developed leaks, with no difference in leak rate between the LT and NLT groups (1 vs. 1%, p = 0.999). After adjusting for baseline differences between the groups with a propensity analysis, the observed lack of association between leak and intraoperative leak test remained. In this cohort, leaks presented at a mean of 17.3 days postoperatively (range 1-67 days). Two patients with staple line leaks underwent repeat intraoperative leak testing at leak presentation, and the tests remained negative. Intraoperative leak testing has no correlation with leak due to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and is not predictive of the later development of staple line leak.

  5. Leak test method for radioactive material packagings without pressure valve connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.F.; Stenbaeck, A.

    1976-01-01

    A leak test method has been developed at Studsvik which provides the possibility of testing Type B packagings unequipped with valves for evacuation or pressurizing. Even large packagings with pressure valve connections can be leak tested by this method. The method is a pressure test method. The test gas comprises a mixture of helium and nitrogen or helium and air. Excess pressure in a valveless packaging is achieved by vaporization of liquid nitrogen. All parts of the packaging or package where leaks might be expected are covered by plastic sheet. Samples of the gas accumulated under the plastic sheets are taken using evacuated glass ampoules which are initially sealed off to a breakable point. The gas samples are measured with a He-mass spectrometer. The sensitivity of this method of leak testing is, in practice, of the order of 10 -7 atmcm 3 s -1 . (author)

  6. SCTI chemical leak detection test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Tests will be conducted on the CRBRP prototype steam generator at SCTI to determine the effects of steam generator geometry on the response of the CRBRP chemical leak detection system to small water-to-sodium leaks in various regions of the steam generator. Specifically, small injections of hydrogen gas (simulating water leaks) will be made near the two tubesheets, and the effective transport times to the main stream exit and vent line hydrogen meters will be measured. The magnitude and time characteristics of the meters' response will also be measured. This information will be used by the Small Leak Protection Base Program (SG027) for improved predictions of meter response times and leak detection sensitivity

  7. Full scale leak test of the MEGAPIE containment hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, K

    2006-07-15

    The Full Scale Leak Test (FSLT) experiment is designed to replicate an accidental leak of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) liquid metal from the MEGAPIE neutron spallation source. The neutron source is totally encased in an aluminum containment hull cooled by heavy water. Any liquid metal which would, in a hypothetical accident, leak into the helium-filled insulation gap between the source and the aluminum containment hull, would immediately impact the hull. Furthermore, during irradiation in the PSI SINQ facility, the LBE in the MEGAPIE Lower Liquid Metal Container (LLMC) accumulates radio-active substances which, in the event of a leak, must be cooled and contained under controlled conditions, as they may otherwise contaminate the facility. The FSLT experiment has been devised to fully test the structural integrity of the containment hull against a sudden liquid metal leak, and in addition, to resolve the peak temperature of he coolant, to validate the sensors used in detecting a leak and of proof-test the analytical methods used in predicting the consequences of a leak. The FSLT experiment has been analysed ahead of the test, and both thermal and structural aspects calculated using commercial codes. The predictions applied conservative assumptions to the analysis of the thermal shock so as to preclude the likelihood of an unforeseen failure of the hull. In this document, these initial predictions are compared to the temperature and strain data recorded in the experiment. Further analysis, to be published at a later stage, will focus on applying actual conditions realised in the experiment, as opposed to the envelope case used in the test predictions. The integrity of the containment hull under loads resulting from liquid metal-leak is therefore the focal point of the experiment described in the current document, and serves as a key reference test for the Iicensing of the facility. The data recorded during the SLT experiment shows that the MEGAPIE containment hull is

  8. Full scale leak test of the MEGAPIE containment hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Full Scale Leak Test (FSLT) experiment is designed to replicate an accidental leak of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) liquid metal from the MEGAPIE neutron spallation source. The neutron source is totally encased in an aluminum containment hull cooled by heavy water. Any liquid metal which would, in a hypothetical accident, leak into the helium-filled insulation gap between the source and the aluminum containment hull, would immediately impact the hull. Furthermore, during irradiation in the PSI SINQ facility, the LBE in the MEGAPIE Lower Liquid Metal Container (LLMC) accumulates radio-active substances which, in the event of a leak, must be cooled and contained under controlled conditions, as they may otherwise contaminate the facility. The FSLT experiment has been devised to fully test the structural integrity of the containment hull against a sudden liquid metal leak, and in addition, to resolve the peak temperature of he coolant, to validate the sensors used in detecting a leak and of proof-test the analytical methods used in predicting the consequences of a leak. The FSLT experiment has been analysed ahead of the test, and both thermal and structural aspects calculated using commercial codes. The predictions applied conservative assumptions to the analysis of the thermal shock so as to preclude the likelihood of an unforeseen failure of the hull. In this document, these initial predictions are compared to the temperature and strain data recorded in the experiment. Further analysis, to be published at a later stage, will focus on applying actual conditions realised in the experiment, as opposed to the envelope case used in the test predictions. The integrity of the containment hull under loads resulting from liquid metal-leak is therefore the focal point of the experiment described in the current document, and serves as a key reference test for the Iicensing of the facility. The data recorded during the SLT experiment shows that the MEGAPIE containment hull is

  9. Configuration and testing of a saturated vapor helium compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.L.; Iwasa, Y.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    A saturated vapor helium compressor was designed and tested as a component of a helium-temperature refrigeration cycle. The use of the cold compressor allows reduction of both the precooling heat exchanger area and main compressor size compared to a conventional cycle due to increased pressure of the return gas. The compressor tested was a single-piston reciprocating device which was controlled with programmable hydraulic/pneumatic logic. The compressor was mounted at the cold end of a CTI Model 1400 helium liquefier. An average compression ratio of 2.4 was obtained and an average efficiency of 82% was achieved. In computing compressor efficiency, external heat leaks to the compressor were neglected

  10. Routine intraoperative leak testing for sleeve gastrectomy: is the leak test full of hot air?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Jason; Lallemand, Michael; Barron, Morgan; Kuckelman, John; Carter, Preston; Blair, Kelly; Martin, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Staple line leak after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a rare but dreaded complication with a reported incidence of 0% to 8%. Many surgeons routinely test the staple line with an intraoperative leak test (IOLT), but there is little evidence to validate this practice. In fact, there is a theoretical concern that the leak test may weaken the staple line and increase the risk of a postop leak. Retrospective review of all SGs performed over a 7-year period was conducted. Cases were grouped by whether an IOLT was performed, and compared for the incidence of postop staple line leaks. The ability of the IOLT for identifying a staple line defect and for predicting a postoperative leak was analyzed. Five hundred forty-two SGs were performed between 2007 and 2014. Thirteen patients (2.4%) developed a postop staple line leak. The majority of patients (n = 494, 91%) received an IOLT, including all 13 patients (100%) who developed a subsequent clinical leak. There were no (0%) positive IOLTs and no additional interventions were performed based on the IOLT. The IOLT sensitivity and positive predictive value were both 0%. There was a trend, although not significant, to increase leak rates when a routine IOLT was performed vs no routine IOLT (2.6% vs 0%, P = .6). The performance of routine IOLT after SG provided no actionable information, and was negative in all patients who developed a postoperative leak. The routine use of an IOLT did not reduce the incidence of postop leak, and in fact was associated with a higher leak rate after SG. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds

  12. Leak testing United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission type b packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTPP) is a one of its kind research and development facility operated by the Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office. Located in southeastern New Mexico, the WTPP is designed to demonstrate the safe, permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive nuclear waste, accumulated from 40 years of nuclear weapons production. Before the waste can be disposed of, it must first be safely transported from generator storage sites to the WIPP. To accomplish this, the TRUPACT-II was designed and fabricated. This double containment, non-vented waste packaging successfully completed a rigorous testing program, and in 1989 received a Certificate of Compliance (C of C) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Currently, the TRUPACT-II is in use at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to transport waste on site for characterization. The DOE/CAO is responsible for maintaining the TRUPACT-II C of C. The C of C requires performance of nondestructive examination (NDE), e.g., visual testing (VT), dimensional inspections, Liquid Dye Penetrant testing (PT), and Helium Leak Detection (HLD). The Waste Isolation Division (WID) uses HLD for verification of the containment integrity. The following HLD tests are performed on annual basis or when required, i.e. repairs or component replacement: (1) fabrication verification leak tests on both the outer containment vessel (OCV) and the inner containment vessel (ICV); (2) assembly verification leak tests on the OCV and ICV upper main o-rings; and (3) assembly verification leak tests on the OCV and the ICV vent port plugs. These tests are addressed in detail as part of this presentation

  13. Apparatus for Leak Testing Pressurized Hoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Steve D. (Inventor); Garrison, Steve G. (Inventor); Gant, Bobby D. (Inventor); Palmer, John R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A hose-attaching apparatus for leak-testing a pressurized hose may include a hose-attaching member. A bore may extend through the hose-attaching member. An internal annular cavity may extend coaxially around the bore. At least one of a detector probe hole and a detector probe may be connected to the internal annular cavity. At least a portion of the bore may have a diameter which is at least one of substantially equal to and less than a diameter of a hose to be leak-tested.

  14. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, D S; Jeon, J S; Kim, K D; Cho, Y A [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. Leak rate test of containment personnel lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, J.T.; Peters, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the US NRC Containment Integrity Program, a leak rate test was performed on a full size personnel airlock for a nuclear containment building. The airlock was subjected to conditions simulating severe accident conditions. The objective of the test was to characterize the performance of airlock door seals when subjected to conditions that exceeded design. The seals tested were a double dog-ear configuration and made from EPDM E603. The data obtained from this test will be used by SNL as a benchmark for development of analytical methods. In addition to leak rate information, strain, temperature, displacements, and pressure data were measured and recorded from over 330 transducers. The test lasted approximately 60 hours. Data were recorded at regular intervals and during heating, pressurization and depressurization. The inner airlock door and bulkhead were exposed to a maximum air temperature of 850 F and a maximum air pressure of 300 psig. The airlock was originally designed for 340 F and 60 psig. Two heating and pressurization cycles were planned; one to heat to 400 F and pressurize to 300 psig, and the second to heat to 800 F and pressurize to 300 psig. No significant leakage was recorded during these two cycles. A third cycle was added to the test program. The air temperature was increased to 850 F and held at this temperature for approximately 10 hours. The inner door seal failed quickly at a pressure of 150.5 psig. The maximum leak rate was 706 SCFM

  16. Fast leak of a channel filled with helium at a pressure of 2 bars (channel H5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, E.; Tribolet, J.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of seal of a helium-filled channel opening the entire cross section of the front part leads to a fast leak. The channel fills to the upper generatrix of the leak orifice and part of the helium contained in the channel escapes into the circuit. The pressure drop in the reflector can lead to reactor and main pump shutdown. On the other hand, the Cooling Circuit Shutdown Bar circuit pumps remain in operation. This paper evaluates the consequences of an incident of this nature for the reactor and the surrounding experimental zones

  17. 10 CFR 39.35 - Leak testing of sealed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leak testing of sealed sources. 39.35 Section 39.35 Energy....35 Leak testing of sealed sources. (a) Testing and recordkeeping requirements. Each licensee who uses... record of leak test results in units of microcuries and retain the record for inspection by the...

  18. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Commissioning Test Results for D-Zero's Helium Refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, Russ

    1997-01-01

    The test objectives are: (1) Make liquid helium and measure refrigerator capacity; (2) Measure liquid helium dewar heat leak, transfer line heat leak, and liquid nitrogen consumption rates; (3) Operate all cryogenic transfer lines; (4) Get some running time on all components; (5) Debug mechanical components, instrumentation, DMACs user interface, tune loops, and otherwise shake out any problems; (6) Get some operating time in to get familiar with system behavior; (7) Revise and/or improve operating procedures to actual practice; and (8) Identify areas for future improvement. D-Zero's stand alone helium refrigerator (STAR) liquified helium at a rate of 114 L/hr. This is consistent with other STAR installations. Refrigeration capacity was not measured due to lack of a calibrated heat load. Measured heat leaks were within design values. The helium dewar loss was measured at 2 to 4 watts or 9% per day, the solenoid and VLPC helium transfer lines had a heat leak of about 20 watts each. The liquid nitrogen consumption rates of the mobile purifier, STAR, and LN2 subcooler were measured at 20 gph, 20 to 64 gph, and 3 gph respectively. All cryogenic transfer lines including the solenoid and visible light photon counter (VLPC) transfer lines were cooled to their cryogenic operating temperatures. This included independent cooling of nitrogen shields and liquid helium components. No major problems were observed. The system ran quite well. Many problems were identified and corrected as they came up. Areas for improvement were noted and will be implemented in the future. The instrumentation and control system operated commendably during the test. The commissioning test run was a worthwhile and successful venture.

  19. Research and development of a high-temperature helium-leak detection system (joint research). Part 1 survey on leakage events and current leak detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR), the detection of leakage of helium at an early stage is very important for the safety and stability of operations. Since helium is a colourless gas, it is generally difficult to identify the location and the amount of leakage when very little leakage has occurred. The purpose of this R and D is to develop a helium leak detection system for the high temperature environment appropriate to the HTGR. As the first step in the development, this paper describes the result of surveying leakage events at nuclear facilities inside and outside Japan and current gas leakage detection technology to adapt optical-fibre detection technology to HTGRs. (author)

  20. Fuel leak testing performance at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Krnac, S.; Smiesko, I.

    1995-01-01

    The NPP Bohunice VVER-440 fuel leak testing experience are relatively extensive in comparison with other VVER-440 users. As the first Europe NPP was adapted Siemens (KWU) in core-sipping equipment to VVER-440 units and since this time were have done these tests also for NPP Paks (Hungary) and NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic). The occurrence of leaking fuel assemblies in NPP is in the last 5 years relatively stabilised and low. A significant difference can be observed between type V-230 (31 leaks) and type V-213 (1 leak). None of of the indicated leaking fuel assemblies has been investigated in the hot cell. Therefore cannot be confirm the effective causes of leak occurrence. Nevertheless, the fuel failure rate and the performance of leak testing in NPP Bohunice are comparable to the world standard at PWR's. 1 tab., 2 figs., 3 refs

  1. Fuel leak testing performance at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugen, V; Krnac, S [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Smiesko, I [Nuclear Powr Plant EBO, Jaslovske Bohuce (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The NPP Bohunice VVER-440 fuel leak testing experience are relatively extensive in comparison with other VVER-440 users. As the first Europe NPP was adapted Siemens (KWU) in core-sipping equipment to VVER-440 units and since this time were have done these tests also for NPP Paks (Hungary) and NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic). The occurrence of leaking fuel assemblies in NPP is in the last 5 years relatively stabilised and low. A significant difference can be observed between type V-230 (31 leaks) and type V-213 (1 leak). None of of the indicated leaking fuel assemblies has been investigated in the hot cell. Therefore cannot be confirm the effective causes of leak occurrence. Nevertheless, the fuel failure rate and the performance of leak testing in NPP Bohunice are comparable to the world standard at PWR`s. 1 tab., 2 figs., 3 refs.

  2. Prioritizing Test Cases for Memory Leaks in Android Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qian; Di Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Mobile applications usually can only access limited amount of memory. Improper use of the memory can cause memory leaks, which may lead to performance slowdowns or even cause applications to be unexpectedly killed. Although a large body of research has been devoted into the memory leak diagnosing techniques after leaks have been discovered, it is still challenging to find out the memory leak phenomena at first. Testing is the most widely used technique for failure discovery. However, traditional testing techniques are not directed for the discovery of memory leaks. They may spend lots of time on testing unlikely leaking executions and therefore can be inefficient. To address the problem, we propose a novel approach to prioritize test cases according to their likelihood to cause memory leaks in a given test suite. It firstly builds a prediction model to determine whether each test can potentially lead to memory leaks based on machine learning on selected code features. Then, for each input test case, we partly run it to get its code features and predict its likelihood to cause leaks. The most suspicious test cases will be suggested to run at first in order to reveal memory leak faults as soon as possible. Experimental evaluation on several Android applications shows that our approach is effective.

  3. Small leak shutdown, location, and behavior in LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandusky, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper summarizes an experimental study of small leaks tested under LMFBR steam generator conditions. Defected tubes were exposed to flowing sodium and steam. The observed behavior of the defected tubes is reported along with test results of shutdown methods. Leak location methods were investigated. Methods were identified to open plugged defects for helium leak testing and detect plugged leaks by nondestructive testing

  4. Leak testing requirements at a research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Since September, 1952, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has conducted pioneering research in applied science. A vital part of this activity has been the development of a variety of high vacuum and ultrahigh vacuum systems. Leaks occur in everything, including vacuum systems. The mass spectrometer leak detection equipment is described

  5. Acquisition system testing with superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Fester, D.A.; DiPirro, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    NASA is evaluating both a thermomechanical pump and centrifugal pump for the SHOOT experiment using capillary fluid acquisition systems. Tests were conducted for these systems with superfluid helium under adverse operating conditions. Minus one-g outflow tests were run in conjunction with the thermomechanical pump. Both fine mesh screen and porous sponges were tested. A screen acquisition device was also tested with the low-NPSH centrifugal pump. Results to date show that the screen and sponge are capable of supplying superfluid helium to the thermomechanical pump inlet against a one-g head up to four cm. This is more than sufficient for the SHOOT application. Results with the sponge were reproducible while those with the screen could not always be repeated

  6. Measurement error in pressure-decay leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1979-04-01

    The effect of measurement error in presssure-decay leak testing is considered, and examples are presented to demonstrate how it can be properly accomodated in analyzing data from such tests. Suggestions for more effective specification and conduct of leak tests are presented

  7. Investigation for the sodium leak in Monju. Sodium leak and fire test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2000-08-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in the Monju reactor (hereinafter referred to as Monju) on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) a sodium leak test, (2) a sodium leak and fire test-1, and (3) a sodium leak and fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PEC. The main objectives of these tests were to confirm the leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and the effects of the sodium fire on the integrity of the surrounding structure. This report describes the results of the sodium fire test-I carried out as a preliminary test. The test was performed using the SOLFA-2 (Sodium Leak, Fire and Aerosol) facility on April 8, 1996. In this test, sodium heated to 480degC was leaked for approximately 1.5 hours from a leak simulating apparatus and caused to drop onto a ventilation duct and a grating with the same dimensions and layout as those in Monju. The main conclusions obtained from the test are shown below: 1) Observation from video cameras in the test revealed that in the early stages of the sodium leak, sodium dripped out of the flexible tube of the thermometer. This dripping and burning expanded in range as the sodium splashed on the duct. 2) No damage to the duct itself was detected. However, the aluminum louver frame of the ventilation duct's lower inlet was damaged. Its machine screws came off, leaving half of the grill (on the grating side) detached. 3) No large hole, like the one seen at Monju, was found when the grating was removed from the testing system for inspection, although the area centered on the point were the sodium dripped was damaged in a way indicating the first stages of grating failure. The 5mm square lattice was corroded through in some parts, and numerous blades (originally 3.2 mm thick) had become sharpened like the blade of a knife. 4) The burning pan underside thermocouple near the leak point measured 700degC in within approximately 10 minutes, and for the next hour remained

  8. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  9. Hot helium flow test facility summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility and cost of modifying an existing circulator test facility (CTF) at General Atomic Company (GA). The CTF originally was built to test the Delmarva Power and Light Co. steam-driven circulator. This circulator, as modified, could provide a source of hot, pressurized helium for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) component testing. To achieve this purpose, a high-temperature impeller would be installed on the existing machine. The projected range of tests which could be conducted for the project is also presented, along with corresponding cost considerations

  10. Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC Tunnel at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Chorowski, M.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Grabowski, M.; Jedrusyna, A.; Lindell, G.; Nonis, M.; Vauthier, N.; van Weelderen, R.; Winkler, T.; Bremer, J.

    The helium cooled magnets of the LHC particle accelerator are installed in a confined space, formed by a 27 km circumference 3.8 m diameter underground tunnel. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting LHC magnets are protected by a lift plate against excessive overpressure created by eventual leaks from the magnet helium bath, or from the helium supply headers. A three-meter long no stay zone has been defined centered to these plates, based on earlier scale model studies, to protect the personnel against the consequences of an eventual opening of such a lift plate. More recently several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the resulting helium/air mixture along the tunnel in case of such a cold helium release at a rate in the range of 1 kg/s. To validate the different scale models and simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed in the LHC, releasing about 1000 liter of liquid helium under standard operational tunnel conditions. Data recorded during these tests include oxygen level, temperature and flow speed as well as video recordings, taken up- and downstream of the spill point (-100 m to +200 m) with respect to the ventilation direction in the LHC tunnel. The experimental set-up and measurement results are presented. Generic effects found during the tests will be discussed to allow the transposal to possible cold helium release cases in similar facilities.

  11. Evaluation of methods to leak test sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeau, N.D.; Scott, C.K.

    1987-04-01

    The methods for the leak testing of sealed radiation sources were reviewed. One hundred and thirty-one equipment vendors were surveyed to identify commercially available leak test instruments. The equipment is summarized in tabular form by radiation type and detector type for easy reference. The radiation characteristics of the licensed sources were reviewed and summarized in a format that can be used to select the most suitable detection method. A test kit is proposed for use by inspectors when verifying a licensee's test procedures. The general elements of leak test procedures are discussed

  12. The pressure and leak tests in Atucha II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This work deals with the pressure and leak tests of the containment sphere in the Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant's reactor building. This sphere is a metallic container, made in highly resistant steel plate, that is, built for providing the plant with a biological and structural barrier, which -in turn- provides safety and environmental protection. The applicable rules for these tests establish that the containment erection must be complete and in equivalent conditions to those that will prevail during the NPP operation. Particularly, pressure tests were carried out for assessing the structural condition of the sphere, while the leak test is aimed at the detection of tentative leaks [es

  13. Study on the leak rate test for HANARO reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, M. J.; Park, J. M.; Woo, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The reactor building of HANARO adopts the confinement concept, which allows a certain amount of air leakage. In order to restrict the air leakage through the confinement boundary, negative pressure of at least 2.5 mmWG is maintained in normal operating condition while maintaining 25 mmWG of negative pressure in abnormal condition, the inside air filtered by a train of charcoal filter is released to the atmosphere through the stack. In this situation, if the emergency ventilation system is not operable, the reactor building is isolated from the outside then the trapped air inside will be leaked out through the building by ground release concept. As the leak rate may be affected by an effect of wind velocity outside the reactor building, the air tightness of confinement should be maintained to limit the leak rate below the allowable value. The local leak rate test method was used since the beginning of the commissioning until July 1999. However it has been pointed out as a defect that the method is so susceptible to the change of temperature and atmospheric pressure during testing. For more accurate leak rate testing, we have introduced a new test method. We have periodically carried out the new leak rate testing and the results indicate that the bad effect by the temperature and atmospheric pressure change is considerably reduced, which gives more stable leak rate measurement

  14. Timing tests: automatic valve closure for tritium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, S.

    1976-01-01

    How fast can an automotive valve be closed after a tritium leak occurs in a system. Tests described found that a valve can be closed within fifteen seconds of leakage. In one practical example considered, this delay would limit loss of tritium from a plumbing leak in a tritium system to 1 1 / 4 g. The tests were made in a typical LLL air-flush hood in which a tritium handling system had been installed. Incidental observations suggest that further study be made of a possible leak-actuated recovery system for an entire tritium facility

  15. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus with Variable Size Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is a versatile hermetic seal leak detection apparatus for testing hermetically sealed containers and devices for leaks without the need to create a custom or specially manufactured testing chamber conforming to the dimensions of the specific object under test. The size of the testing chamber may be mechanically adjusted by the novel use of bellows to reduce and optimize the amount of gas space in a test chamber which surrounds the hermetically sealed object under test. The present invention allows the size of the test chamber to be selectively adjusted during testing to provide an optimum test chamber gas space. The present invention may be further adapted to isolate and test specific portions of the hermetically sealed object under test for leaks.

  16. Integrated leak rate test results of JOYO reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.; Endo, J.

    1982-02-01

    Integrated leak rate tests of JOYO after the reactor coolant system had been filled with sodium have been performed two times since 1978 (February 1978 and December 1979). The tests were conducted with the in-containment sodium systems, primary argon cover gas system and air conditioning systems operating. Both the absolute pressure method and the reference chamber method were employed during the test. The results of both tests confirmed the functioning of the containment vessel, and leak rate limits were satisfied. In Addition, the adequancy of the test instrumentation system and the test method was demonstrated. Finally the plant conditions required to maintain reasonable accuracy for the leak rate testing of LMFBR were established. In this paper, the test conditions and the test results are described. (author)

  17. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  18. Evaluation of design, leak monitoring, dnd NDEA strategies to assure PBMR Helium pressure boundary reliability - HTR2008-58037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K. N.; Smit, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the reliability and integrity management (RIM) strategies that have been applied in the design of the PBMR passive metallic components for the helium pressure boundary (HPB) to meet reliability targets and to evaluate what combination of strategies are needed to meet the targets. The strategies considered include deterministic design strategies to reduce or eliminate the potential for specific damage mechanisms, use of an on-line leak monitoring system and associated design provisions that provide a high degree of leak detection reliability, and periodic nondestructive examinations combined with repair and replacement strategies to reduce the probability that degradation would lead to pipe ruptures. The PBMR RIM program for passive metallic piping components uses a leak-before-break philosophy. A Markov model developed for use in LWR risk-informed in-service inspection evaluations was applied to investigate the impact of alternative RIM strategies and plant age assumptions on the pipe rupture frequencies as a function of rupture size. Some key results of this investigation are presented in this paper. (authors)

  19. Leak testing fuel stored in the ICPP fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.L.; Rhodes, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    Irradiated fuel to be processed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant is stored under water at the CPP-603 Fuel Storage Facility. Leakage of radionuclides through breaks in the cladding of some of the stored fuels contaminates the water with radionuclides resulting in radiation exposure to personnel during fuel handling operations and contamination of the shipping casks. A leak test vessel was fabricated to test individual fuel assemblies which were suspected to be leaking. The test equipment and procedures are described. Test results demonstrated that a leaking fuel element could be identified by this method; of the eleven fuel assemblies tested, six were estimated to be releasing greater than 0.5 Ci total radionuclides/day to the basin water

  20. High temperature helium test rig with prestressed concrete pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, H.

    1975-10-01

    The report gives a short description of the joint project prestressed concrete vessel-helium test station as there is the building up of the concrete structure, the system of instrumentation, the data processing, the development of the helium components as well as the testing programs. (author)

  1. Easy method enhancing the sensitivity of a helium mass-spectrometer leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firpo, G.; Pozzo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial He mass spectrometer leak detectors usually do not provide sufficient sensitivity to perform accurate measurements of the permeation rate of He through glass. Ultrasensitive dedicated systems have adeguate sensitivity but involve high costs and complex procedures. However, both cryogenics and photomultiplier technology routinely demand this goal. Here, we propose a novel method to increase the sensitivity of commercial devices to easily measure accurate permeation rate. We modified a commercial leak detector by reducing the pumping speed at the inlet of the rotary pump, thus increasing its sensitivity by one order of magnitude. The modified detector was used to measure the leak rate of the permeation of He through the glass walls of a photomultiplier. Further improvements made to decrease the minimum detectable signal were limited by the high ultimate pressure in the spectrometer tube

  2. Research and development for the high-temperature helium-leak detection system (Joint research). Part 2. Development of temperature sensors using optical fibre for the HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the second stage of the research and development for a high-temperature helium-leak detection system, the temperature sensor using optical fibres was studied. The sensor detects the helium leakage by the temperature increase surrounded optical fibre with or without heat insulator. Moreover, the applicability of high temperature equipments as the HTTR system was studied. With the sensor we detected 5.0-20.0 cm{sup 3}/s helium leakages within 60 minutes. Also it was possible to detect earlier when the leakage level is at 20.0 cm {sup 3}/s. (author)

  3. Non-destructive testing. The current state of standards and qualification and certification for leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Domestic standards of the leak testing are enacted as one of Japan Industrial Standards. The conformity is advanced between these domestic standards and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standard. ISO9712 (Non-destructive testing-Qualification and certification of personnel) was revised to include the leak testing of qualification and certification in 2005. The preparation working group of qualification and certification for leak testing is planning start aiming at the system in one and a half years. (author)

  4. Design and study of Engineering Test Facility - Helium Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Huijing; Ye Ping; Zhao Gang; Geng Yinan; Wang Jie

    2015-01-01

    Helium circulator is one of the key equipment of High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Pebble-bed Module (HTR-PM). In order to simulate most normal and accident operating conditions of helium circulator in HTR-PM, a full scale, rated flow rate and power, engineering test loop, which was called Engineering Test Facility - Helium Circulator (ETF-HC), was designed and established. Two prototypes of helium circulator, which was supported by Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) or sealed by dry gas seals, would be tested on ETF-HC. Therefore, special interchangeable design was under consideration. ETF-HC was constructed compactly, which consisted of eleven sub-systems. In order to reduce the flow resistance of the circuit, special ducts, elbows, valves and flowmeters were selected. Two stages of heat exchange loops were designed and a helium - high pressure pure water heat exchanger was applied to ensure water wouldn't be vaporized while simulating accident conditions. Commissioning tests were carried out and operation results showed that ETF-HC meets the requirement of helium circulator operation. On this test facility, different kinds of experiments were supposed to be held, including mechanical and aerodynamic performance tests, durability tests and so on. These tests would provide the features and performance of helium circulator and verify its feasibility, availability and reliability. (author)

  5. Pressurized helium II-cooled magnet test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.P.; Lambertson, G.R.; Gilbert, W.S.; Meuser, R.B.; Caspi, S.; Schafer, R.V.

    1980-06-01

    A facility for testing superconducting magnets in a pressurized bath of helium II has been constructed and operated. The cryostat accepts magnets up to 0.32 m diameter and 1.32 m length with current to 3000 A. In initial tests, the volume of helium II surrounding the superconducting magnet was 90 liters. Minimum temperature reached was 1.7 K at which point the pumping system was throttled to maintain steady temperature. Helium II reservoir temperatures were easily controlled as long as the temperature upstream of the JT valve remained above T lambda; at lower temperatures control became difficult. Positive control of the temperature difference between the liquid and cold sink by means of an internal heat source appears necessary to avoid this problem. The epoxy-sealed vessel closures, with which we have had considerable experience with normal helium vacuum, also worked well in the helium II/vacuum environment

  6. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  7. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  8. Testing underground tanks for leak tightness at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.K.; Sites, R.L.; Sledge, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of tank systems are present at the Livermore Site: tanks and associated piping for the storage of fuel (forty-three systems), and tanks or sumps and associated piping for the retention of potentially contaminated wastewater (forty systems). The fuel systems were tested using commercially available test methods: Petro-Tite, Hunter Leak Lokator, Ezy-Chek, and Associated Environmental Systems (A.E.S.). In contrast to fuel tank systems, wastewater systems have containers that are predominantly open at the top and not readily testable. Therefore, a project to test and evaluate all available testing methods was initiated and completed. The commercial method Tank Auditor was determined to be appropriate for testing open-top tanks and sumps and this was the method used to test the majority of the open-top containers. Of the 81 tanks tested, 61 were found to be leak tight, 9 were shown to have leaks, and 11 yielded inconclusive results. Two tanks have not yet been tested because of operational constraints; they are sheduled to be tested within the next two months. Schedules are being developed for the retesting of tanks and for remedial actions

  9. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  10. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C Rista, P E; Shull, J; Sargent, S

    2015-01-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen and helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper. (paper)

  11. MWTF jumper connector integral seal block development and leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, E.S.; Jordan, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In fiscal year 1993, tests of an o-ring/tetraseal retainer designed to replace a gasket-type seal used in PUREX-type process jumper connectors encouraged the design of an improved seal block. This new seal block combines several parts into one unitized component called an integral seal block. This report summarizes development and leak testing of the new integral seal block. The integral seal block uses a standard o-ring nested in a groove to accomplish leak tightness. This seal block eliminates the need to machine acme threads into the lower skirt casting and seal retainers, eliminates tolerance stack-up, reduces parts inventory, and eliminates an unnecessary leak path in the jumper connector assembly. This report also includes test data on various types of o-ring materials subjected to heat and pressure. Materials tested included Viton, Kalrez, and fluorosilicone, with some incidental data on teflon coated silicone o-rings. Test experience clearly demonstrates the need to test each seal material for temperature and pressure in its intended application. Some materials advertised as being open-quotes betterclose quotes at higher temperatures did not perform up to expectations. Inspection of the fluorosilicone and Kalrez seals after thermal testing indicates that they are much more susceptible to heat softening than Viton

  12. Test results from a helium gas-cooled porous metal heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, M.T.; Rosenfeld, J.H.; Youchison, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    A helium-cooled porous metal heat exchanger was built and tested, which successfully absorbed heat fluxes exceeding all previously tested gas-cooled designs. Helium-cooled plasma-facing components are being evaluated for fusion applications. Helium is a favorable coolant for fusion devices because it is not a plasma contaminant, it is not easily activated, and it is easily removed from the device in the event of a leak. The main drawback of gas coolants is their relatively poor thermal transport properties. This limitation can be removed through use of a highly efficient heat exchanger design. A low flow resistance porous metal heat exchanger design was developed, based on the requirements for the Faraday shield for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device. High heat flux tests were conducted on two representative test articles at the Plasma Materials Test Facility (PMTF) at Sandia National Laboratories. Absorbed heat fluxes as high as 40 MW/m 2 were successfully removed during these tests without failure of the devices. Commercial applications for electronics cooling and other high heat flux applications are being identified

  13. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10(sup -5) std cc/sec and 1 x 10(sup -7) std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations[within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL)

  14. Numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion during Hole Erosion Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, F.; Bonelli, S.; Golay, F.; Anselmet, F.; Philippe, P.; Borghi, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion of a cohesive soil by a turbulent flow in axisymmetrical geometry, with application to the Hole Erosion Test (HET). The numerical model is based on adaptive remeshing of the water/soil interface to ensure accurate description of the mechanical phenomena occurring near the soil/water interface. The erosion law governing the interface motion is based on two erosion parameters: the critical shear stress and the erosion co...

  15. Description and Operational Experiences of the Engineering Test Facility - Helium Technology (ETF-HT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuoyi; Yang Mingde; Bo Hanliang; Duan Riqqiang; Zhu Hongye

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the configuration of the Engineering Test Facility - Helium Technology (ETF-HT) and the information of its key components and subsystems, which is located in the Changping campus of Tsinghua University. The ETF-HT facility began to be constructed in Jan. 2009. The main objective of the facility is to test and verify the thermo-hydraulic performance of one full-sized modular unit of HTR-PM helically coiled SG assembly. In the ETF-HT facility, electricity energy is used to heat the loop helium, centrifugal blower is used to circulate the helium medium, and the heat sink is one would-tested SG module. Up to now, except for the tested SG module, preheater and hot gas duct under way of construction, the other components has been installed in situ. Via the temporary connection of the installed components, the preliminary operation of the loop has been carried out to test its performances as can be done, which include the loop leak tightness, blower pneumatic performance and electrical heater at partial thermal load. (author)

  16. 10 CFR 34.27 - Leak testing and replacement of sealed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leak testing and replacement of sealed sources. 34.27... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.27 Leak testing and replacement... radiographic exposure device and leak testing of any sealed source must be performed by persons authorized to...

  17. Summary of QRL 7-8 Repair and Re-installation Leak Test Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kos, N; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the leak tests that have been performed during the repair and re-installation of QRL sector 7-8 during 2005 and 2006. The leak tests were performed in UX65, where the pipe elements were refurbished before re-installation, and in the tunnel. A variety of leaks have been detected, localised and repaired in the tunnel, including weld defects, accidentally drilled holes and imported leaks in previously tested components.

  18. Development of evaluation method of long-term confinement performance for canister. Part 1. Fundamental study of analyses method for helium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hirofumi; Toriu, Daisuke; Ushijima, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    The storage management of spent nuclear fuel for ageing degradation is becoming a global issue, so we researched the present status and measures of the management in each country. In particular, for the concrete cask storage, a leak detecting method that detects the leak from the change in canister surface temperature has been proposed. We performed thermal hydraulics analysis to clarify the phenomenon and to work toward practical use of the detecting method. For analyzing the leak phenomenon with high accuracy, it is necessary to stably solve the low-Mach number flow problem considering compressibility of gas. Therefore, we originally modified the conventional compressible flow solution method and proposed a new method which is applicable to thermo-hydraulics phenomenon and satisfies the mass conservation law with high accuracy. For the cavity natural convection analysis, the mass conservation in a calculating area was satisfied with high accuracy. As for the analysis of leak from the cavity, a helium leak phenomenon could be calculated stably by using the proposed method. The pressure in the cavity and the change of the mass could be also analyzed validly. As for the temperature distribution in the cavity, it was confirmed that the temperature changes before and after the leak. (author)

  19. Integrated leak rate test of the FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Davis, R.H.; Polzin, D.L.; Yule, W.D.

    1987-04-01

    The third integrated leak rate test (ILRT) performed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) demonstrated that effective leak rate measurements could be obtained at a pressure of 2 psig. In addition, innovative data reduction methods demonstrated the ability to accurately account for diurnal variations in containment pressure and temperature. Further development of methods used in this test indicate significant savings in the time and effort required to perform an ILRT on Liquid Metal Reactor Systems with consequent reduction in test costs

  20. PFR evaporator leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    PFR has three heat removal circuits each one having an evaporator, superheater, reheater; all separate units. The status of the system was that circuit No 3 was steaming with 10 MW thermal nuclear power; No 1 circuit was filled with sodium but with the evaporator awaiting modification to cure gas entrainment problems already reported. The leak was in No 2 circuit and was located in the evaporator unit. The evaporator is rated at 120 M thermal at full power and as such is a large unit. The circuit was filled with both sodium and water for the first time three weeks before the conference so it was recent history being reported and therefore any figures quoted should be taken as indicative only. The history of the steam generator was that it was built at works to a very high standard and underwent all the usual tests of strength, inspection of welds and helium leak testing. The steam generator is of U tube design with a tube plate to which the boiler tubes are welded, with all the welds in one of two gas spaces. The inlet and outlet sides are separated by a baffle and the salient features are illustrated in the attached figure. The unit achieved a leak tightness better than the detection limit in the helium leak test at works. This limit was assessed as being less than an equivalent leak of 10 -6 g/s water under steam generator service conditions. However even though all the steam generator units passed this test at works a further test was carried out when the circuits had been completed. The test was carried out during commissioning after sodium filling and with the units hot. The method was to introduce a mixture of helium/ argon at 500 pounds/square inch into the water side of the steam generators and measure the helium concentration in the sodium side gas spaces of the circuit. The test lasted many days and under these conditions the sensitivity is such that a leak equivalent to somewhere between 10 -7 to 10 -6 g/s equivalent water leak could be detected, i

  1. PFR evaporator leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J A

    1975-07-01

    PFR has three heat removal circuits each one having an evaporator, superheater, reheater; all separate units. The status of the system was that circuit No 3 was steaming with 10 MW thermal nuclear power; No 1 circuit was filled with sodium but with the evaporator awaiting modification to cure gas entrainment problems already reported. The leak was in No 2 circuit and was located in the evaporator unit. The evaporator is rated at 120 M thermal at full power and as such is a large unit. The circuit was filled with both sodium and water for the first time three weeks before the conference so it was recent history being reported and therefore any figures quoted should be taken as indicative only. The history of the steam generator was that it was built at works to a very high standard and underwent all the usual tests of strength, inspection of welds and helium leak testing. The steam generator is of U tube design with a tube plate to which the boiler tubes are welded, with all the welds in one of two gas spaces. The inlet and outlet sides are separated by a baffle and the salient features are illustrated in the attached figure. The unit achieved a leak tightness better than the detection limit in the helium leak test at works. This limit was assessed as being less than an equivalent leak of 10{sup -6} g/s water under steam generator service conditions. However even though all the steam generator units passed this test at works a further test was carried out when the circuits had been completed. The test was carried out during commissioning after sodium filling and with the units hot. The method was to introduce a mixture of helium/ argon at 500 pounds/square inch into the water side of the steam generators and measure the helium concentration in the sodium side gas spaces of the circuit. The test lasted many days and under these conditions the sensitivity is such that a leak equivalent to somewhere between 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -6} g/s equivalent water leak could be

  2. An automatic monitoring system of leak current for testing TGC detectors based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cunfeng; Lu Taiguo; Yan Zhen; Wang Suojie; Zhu Chengguang; Sun Yansheng; He Mao

    2005-01-01

    An automatic monitoring system of leak current for testing TGC detectors with high voltage was set up by using the graphic LabVIEW platform and NI 4351 data acquisition card. The leak current was automatically monitored and recorded with this system, the time and the value of the leak current were showed instantly. Good efficiency and precision of monitoring were obtained. (authors)

  3. Leak test of the pipe line for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Chuji; Mori, Shoji.

    1976-01-01

    In the Tokai Research Establishment, most of the radioactive liquid waste is transferred to a wastes treatment facility through pipe lines. As part of the pipe lines a cast iron pipe for town gas is used. Leak test has been performed on all joints of the lines. For the joints buried underground, the test was made by radioactivity measurement of the soil; and for the joints in drainage ditch by the pressure and bubble methods. There were no leakage at all, indicating integrity of all the joints. On the other hand, it is also known by the other test that the corrosion of inner surface of the piping due to liquid waste is only slight. The pipe lines for transferring radioactive liquid waste are thus still usable. (auth.)

  4. Summary of leak testing work for Tiangong-I target spacecraft%“天宫一号”目标飞行器检漏工作总述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琰; 闫荣鑫; 冯琪; 黄锡宁

    2011-01-01

    文章主要描述了“天宫一号”目标飞行器研制过程中与检漏相关的内容,包括检漏项目、检漏方法和检漏结果等.重点介绍了氦质谱吸枪检漏、压力变化检漏和氦质谱非真空累积检漏及多种气体分析等多种检漏方法及其适用范围.“天宫一号”的检漏数据验证了应用以上检漏方法可行且有效.%This paper reviews the leak testing in the development of the experimental module of the Tiangong-Ⅰ target spacecraft, including the leak testing items, the leak testing methods and the leak testing results. Stresses are put on the following three methods, namely, the helium mass spectrum with sniffer, the pressure leak testing, and the helium mass spectrum with cumulation in a non-vacuum container. The leak testing results of Tiangong-Ⅰ's experimental module validate the feasibility and the effectiveness of each method applied in different leak detection items.

  5. Tests of cold helium compressors at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.J.; Fuerst, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fermilab has tested two compressors for possible installation in the satellite refrigerator buildings of the Tevatron cryogenic system. Both Creare Inc. and Cryogenic Consultants Inc. have supplied units for evaluation. The Creare machine, a high speed centrifugal pump/compressor, yielded 60% adiabatic efficiency but had difficulty withstanding two-phase flow. Cryogenic Consultants provided a reciprocating unit which achieved 59% efficiency and, although lacking the operating characteristics of the turbomachine, endured throughout testing and was insensitive to two-phase flow. Test results are discussed

  6. HELIUM-POWERED BALLISTIC TEST APPARATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This research device is used for the initial assessment of new materials and is primarily used for fragmentation testing of yarns, fabric, or laminate samples. The...

  7. Construction and testing of a double acting bellows liquid helium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A.; Green, M.A.; Ross, R.R.; Van Slyke, H.

    1980-05-01

    The double acting reciprocating bellows liquid helium pump built and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. The pump is capable of delivering 50 gs -1 of liquid helium to supply the two-phase cooling sytem for a large superconducting magnet. The pump is driven by a torque motor at room temperature; the reciprocating motion is transmitted to the pump through a shaft which operates between room temperature and 4 0 K. The design details of this liquid helium pump are presented. The helium pump has operated in a helium bath and in pumped forced flow helium circuits. The results of these experimental tests are presented in this report

  8. A multicenter study of routine versus selective intraoperative leak testing for sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Jason; Kaufman, Jedediah; Hata, Kai; Dickerson, James; Beekley, Alec; Wisbach, Gordon; Swann, Jacob; Ahnfeldt, Eric; Hawkins, Devon; Choi, Yong; Lim, Robert; Martin, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Staple line leaks after sleeve gastrectomy are dreaded complications. Many surgeons routinely perform an intraoperative leak test (IOLT) despite little evidence to validate the reliability, clinical benefit, and safety of this procedure. To determine the efficacy of IOLT and if routine use has any benefit over selective use. Eight teaching hospitals, including private, university, and military facilities. A multicenter, retrospective analysis over a 5-year period. The efficacy of the IOLT for identifying unsuspected staple line defects and for predicting postoperative leaks was evaluated. An anonymous survey was also collected reflecting surgeons' practices and beliefs regarding IOLT. From January 2010 through December 2014, 4284 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Of these, 37 patients (.9%) developed a postoperative leak, and 2376 patients (55%) received an IOLT. Only 2 patients (0.08%) had a positive finding. Subsequently, 21 patients with a negative IOLT developed a leak. IOLT demonstrated a sensitivity of only 8.7%. There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased leak rates when an IOLT was performed versus when IOLT was not performed. Leak rates were not statistically different between centers that routinely perform IOLT versus those that selectively perform IOLT. Routine IOLT had very poor sensitivity and was negative in 91% of patients who later developed postoperative leaks. The use of IOLT was not associated with a decrease in the incidence of postoperative leaks, and routine IOLT had no benefit over selective leak testing. IOLT should not be used as a quality indicator or "best practice" for bariatric surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Containment integrity and leak testing. Procedures applied and experiences gained in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Containment systems are the ultimate safety barrier for preventing the escape of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive materials produced in normal operation, not retained in process systems, and for keeping back radioactive materials released by system malfunction or equipment failure. A primary element of the containment shell is therefore its leak-tight design. The report describes the present containment concepts mostly used in European countries. The leak-testing procedures applied and the experiences gained in their application are also discussed. The report refers more particularly to pre-operational testing, periodic testing and extrapolation methods of leak rates measured at test conditions to expected leak rates at calculated accident conditions. The actual problems in periodic containment leak rate testing are critically reviewed. In the appendix to the report a summary is given of the regulations and specifications applied in different member countries

  10. NEK containment integrated leak rate test at full pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaler, F.; Planinc, V.; Gregoric, D.; Cicvaric, D.

    1999-01-01

    NPP Krsko is a Pressure Water Reactor (PWR) Plant which has four barriers to prevent release of radioactive fission products. These four barriers are following: Fuel itself, Fuel Clad, Reactor Coolant System and Containment Building. Containment is the last barrier which can prevent release of fission product when other barriers have been already broken. To find out the real condition of containment vessel and to prove its ability of withstanding increased parameters during accident we have to perform Containment Integrated Leak Rate Test at least three times in every ten years of operation. CILRT 1999 in NPP Krsko was completely performed following regulation of 10CFR50 App. J Option A and ANSI/ANS 56.8-1987. The main goal of CILRT is to prove that the leakage of containment pathways and wall structures are within limits prescribed in Technical Specifications by pressurization of containment building above peak accident pressure Pa and measuring the mass changes of air using Ideal Gas Law.(author)

  11. Improving Quality of Seal Leak Test Product using Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi Malik, Abdullah; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Seal leak test part is a polyurethane material-based product. Based on past data, defect level of this product was 8%, higher than the target of 5%. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control. In the design phase, a Delphi method was used to identify factors that were critical to quality. In the measure phase, stability and process capability was measured. Fault tree analysis (FTA) and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analize the root cause and to determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by compiling, selecting, and designing alternative repair. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) making a checklist for maintenance schedules, (ii) making written reminder form, (iii) modifying the SOP more detail, and (iv) performing a major service to the vacuum machine. To ensure the continuity of improvement efforts, some control activities were executed, i.e. (i) controlling, monitoring, documenting, and setting target frequently, (ii) implementing reward and punishment system, (iii) adding cleaning tool, and (iv) building six sigma organizational structure.

  12. Improving Quality of Seal Leak Test Product using Six Sigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Abdullah Luthfi; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-01-01

    Seal leak test part is a polyurethane material-based product. Based on past data, defect level of this product was 8%, higher than the target of 5%. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control. In the design phase, a Delphi method was used to identify factors that were critical to quality. In the measure phase, stability and process capability was measured. Fault tree analysis (FTA) and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analize the root cause and to determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by compiling, selecting, and designing alternative repair. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) making a checklist for maintenance schedules, (ii) making written reminder form, (iii) modifying the SOP more detail, and (iv) performing a major service to the vacuum machine. To ensure the continuity of improvement efforts, some control activities were executed, i.e. (i) controlling, monitoring, documenting, and setting target frequently, (ii) implementing reward and punishment system, (iii) adding cleaning tool, and (iv) building six sigma organizational structure. (paper)

  13. Artificial Leaks in Container Closure Integrity Testing: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Aperture Size Originated by a Copper Wire Sandwiched between the Stopper and the Glass Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Adler, Michael; Chalus, Pascal; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against possible contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the container closure system with microorganisms under specified testing conditions. Physical CCI uses surrogate endpoints, such as coloration by dye solution ingress or gas flow (helium leakage testing). In order to correlate microbial CCI and physical CCI test methods and to evaluate the methods' capability to detect a given leak, artificial leaks are being introduced into the container closure system in a variety of different ways. In our study, artificial leaks were generated using inserted copper wires between the glass vial opening and rubber stopper. However, the insertion of copper wires introduces leaks of unknown size and shape. With nonlinear finite element simulations, the aperture size between the rubber stopper and the glass vial was calculated, depending on wire diameter and capping force. The dependency of the aperture size on the copper wire diameter was quadratic. With the data obtained, we were able to calculate the leak size and model leak shape. Our results suggest that the size as well as the shape of the artificial leaks should be taken into account when evaluating critical leak sizes, as flow rate does not, independently, correlate to hole size. Capping force also affected leak size. An increase in the capping force from 30 to 70 N resulted in a reduction of the aperture (leak size) by approximately 50% for all wire diameters. From 30 to 50 N, the reduction was approximately 33%. Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the

  14. Life time test of a partial model of HTGR helium-helium heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Masaki; Hattori, Hiroshi; Ohtomo, Akira; Teramae, Tetsuo; Hamanaka, Junichi; Itoh, Mitsuyoshi; Urabe, Shigemi

    1984-01-01

    Authors had proposed a design guide for the HTGR components and applied it to the design and construction of the 1.5 Mwt helium heat exchanger test loop for the nuclear steel making under the financial support of the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In order to assure that the design method covers all the conceivable failure mode and has enough safety margin, a series of life time tests of partial model may be needed. For this project, three types of model tests were performed. A life time test of a partial model of the center manifold pipe and eight heat exchanger tubes were described in this report. A damage criterion with a set of material constants and a simplified method for stress-strain analysis for stub tube under three dimensional load were newly developed and used to predict the lives of each tube. The predicted lives were compared with the experimental lives and good agreement was found between the two. The life time test model was evaluated according to the proposed design guide and it was found that the guide has a safety factor of approximately 200 in life for this particular model. (author)

  15. CONSTRAINTS ON HELIUM ENHANCEMENT IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3 (NGC 5272): THE HORIZONTAL BRANCH TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catelan, M.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Cortes, C.; Grundahl, F.; Sweigart, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the presence of multiple populations showing various amounts of helium enhancement is the rule, rather than the exception, among globular star clusters. An important prediction of this helium enhancement scenario is that the helium-enhanced blue horizontal branch (HB) stars should be brighter than the red HB stars which are not helium enhanced. In this Letter, we test this prediction in the case of the Galactic globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272), for which the helium-enhancement scenario predicts helium enhancements of ∼>0.02 in virtually all blue HB stars. Using high-precision Stroemgren photometry and spectroscopic gravities for blue HB stars, we find that any helium enhancement among most of the cluster's blue HB stars is very likely less than 0.01, thus ruling out the much higher helium enhancements that have been proposed in the literature.

  16. Using An Adapter To Perform The Chalfant-Style Containment Vessel Periodic Maintenance Leak Rate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT and PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT and PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  17. The high-temperature helium test facility (HHV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, G.; Weiskopf, H.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the high-temperature helium test facility (HHV). Construction of this plant was started in 1972 by Messrs. BBC, Mannheim, on behalf of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich. By the end of 1976, the construction work is in its last stage, so that the plant may start operation early in 1977. First of all, the cycle system and the arrangement of components are dealt with, followed by a discussion of individual components. Here, emphasis is laid on components typical for HHT systems, while conventional components are mentioned without further structural detail. The projected test programme for the HHV facility in phase IB of the HHT project is shortly dealt with. After this, the potential of this test facility with regard to the possible use of test components and to fluid- and thermodynamic boundary conditions is pointed out. With the unique potential the facility offers here, aspects of shortened service life at higher cycle temperatures do not remain disregarded. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Helium Loop for the HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B. E.; Jin, X.; Meyder, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme and of the Test Blanket Working Group, the Helium loop for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) in ITER has been investigated with regard to the layout definition, selection of components, control, dimensioning and integration. This paper presents the status of development. The loop design for the HCPB-TBM in ITER will mainly base on the experience gained from Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) which is currently developed at the FZK for experiments under ITER relevant conditions. The ITER loop will be equipped with similar components like HELOKA and will mainly consist of a circulator with variable speed drive, a recuperator, an electric heater, a cooler, a dust filter and auxilary components e.g. pipework and valves. A Coolant Purification System (CPS) and a Pressure Control System (PCS) are foreseen to meet the requirements on coolant conditioning. To prepare a TBM for a new experimental campaign, a succession of operational states like '' cold maintenance '', '' baking '' and '' cold standby '' is required. Before a pulse operation, a '' hot stand-by '' state should be achieved providing the TBM with inlet coolant at nominal conditions. This operation modus is continued in the dwell time waiting for the successive pulse. A '' tritium out-gassing '' will be also required after several TBM-campaigns to remove the inventory rest of T in the beds for measurement purpose. The dynamic circuit behaviour during pulses, transition between different operational states as well as the behaviour in accident situations are investigated with RELAP. The main components of the loop will be accommodated inside the Tokamak Cooling Water System(TCWS)- vault from where the pipes require connection to the TBM which is attached to port 16 of the vacuum vessel. Therefore pipes across the ITER- building of about 110 m in length (each) are required. Additional equipment is also located in the port cell

  19. 105-KE Basin isolation barrier leak rate test analytical development. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides an analytical development in support of the proposed leak rate test of the 105-KE Basin. The analytical basis upon which the K-basin leak test results will be used to determine the basin leakage rates is developed in this report. The leakage of the K-Basin isolation barriers under postulated accident conditions will be determined from the test results. There are two fundamental flow regimes that may exist in the postulated K-Basin leakage: viscous laminar and turbulent flow. An analytical development is presented for each flow regime. The basic geometry and nomenclature of the postulated leak paths are denoted

  20. Device to test the leak-tightness of a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, A.E.; Davey, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    A device is described by which the sensitivity and exactness leak detectors with flow meters may be increased. For this, the flow meter is equipped with two thermal flow sensers and one heating element acting on the two sensors. (RW) [de

  1. Corrosion tests of high temperature alloys in impure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Jan; Kalivodova, Jana; Vilemova, Monika; Skoumalova, Zuzana; Brabec, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Czech research organizations take part several projects concerning technologies and materials for advanced gas cooled reactors, as an example international project ARCHER supported by EU within FP7, also several national projects supported by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic are solved in cooperation with industrial and research organization. Within these projects the material testing program is performed. The results presented in these paper concerning high temperature corrosion and degradation of alloys (800 H, SS 316 and P91) in helium containing minor impurities (H_2, CO, CH_4, HZO) at temperatures up to 760°C. After corrosion tests (up to 1500 hours) the specimens was investigated by several methods (gravimetry, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, hardness and micro-hardness testing etc. (author)

  2. Neutron Irradiation Tests of Pressure Transducers in Liquid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Amand, J F; Casas-Cubillos, J; Thermeau, J P

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will operate in pressurised superfluid helium (1 bar, 1.9 K). About 500 pressure transducers will be placed in the liquid helium bath for monitoring the filling and the pressure transients after resistive transitions. Their precision must remain better than 100 mbar at pressures below 2 bar and better than 5% for higher pressures (up to 20 bar), with temperatures ranging from 1.8 K to 300 K. All the tested transducers are based on the same principle: the fluid or gas is separated from a sealed reference vacuum by an elastic membrane; its deformation indicates the pressure. The transducers will be exposed to high neutron fluence (2 kGy, 1014 n/cm2 per year) during the 20 years of machine operation. This irradiation may induce changes both on the membranes characteristics (leakage, modification of elasticity) and on gauges which measure their deformations. To investigate these effects and select the transducer to be used in the LHC, a...

  3. White gauze test: a novel technique in preventing post-hepatectomy bile leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugasaravanan, K; Affirul, C A; Zamri, Z; Azlanudin, A; Bong, J J

    Post-hepatectomy bile leak may lead to undesired morbidity. Multiple methods have been employed to identify this leak but can be inconclusive and taxing. This novel white gauze test is a simple and reliable method. This is a prospective study performed from January 2010 until March 2011. All open hepatic resection were included. Dry white gauze is compressed onto the transected surface and observed for bile staining. The leaking duct is repaired immediately upon detection. The process is repeated until negative. Drain was removed on postoperative day-5. Post-operative bile leak is defined as: 1. Bilirubin concentration of the drain fluid is 3 times or higher than serum; 2. Presence of intra-abdominal bile collection on imaging and upon drainage; 3. Bile leak demonstrated on postoperative cholangiography. 42 patients were recruited. Seven (16.7%) patients were cirrhotic with Child-Pugh A. White gauze test were positive for intra-operative bile leaks in 29 patients (70%), which were primarily repaired. As a result, there was no postoperative bile leak in this series. One mortality was detected in this series due to postoperative pancreatic fistula and multi organ failure. The White Gauze Test is a useful method for the prevention of bile leakage after hepatic resection. It is safe, quick and cheap.

  4. Portable Rapid Test Fuel Tank Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    polished. Lid is tig welded . Media: Water Result: Bubbles (encircled in red) only at threaded port and at top of the center as shown in Picture 2...conditioned electrical signal is processed by leak detector software on a common laptop computer. Figure 1-1. RT...connect the DP-103 gauge. This cable was connected and sealed to the DP-103 gauge through a polyurethane mold process performed at the manufacturer

  5. Mantle helium along the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, Los Angeles basin, California: A leaking paleo-subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J. R.; Garven, G.; Camacho, H.; Lupton, J. E.

    2015-07-01

    Mantle helium is a significant component of the helium gas from deep oil wells along the Newport-Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ) in the Los Angeles (LA) basin. Helium isotope ratios are as high as 5.3 Ra (Ra = 3He/4He ratio of air) indicating 66% mantle contribution (assuming R/Ra = 8 for mantle), and most values are higher than 1.0 Ra. Other samples from basin margin faults and from within the basin have much lower values (R/Ra geothermal gradients, and is modeled as truncated by a proposed major, potentially seismically active, décollement beneath the LA basin. Our results demonstrate that the NIFZ is a deep-seated fault directly or indirectly connected with the mantle. Based on a 1-D model, we calculate a maximum Darcy flow rate q ˜ 2.2 cm/yr and a fault permeability k ˜ 6 × 10-17 m2 (60 microdarcys), but the flow rates are too low to create a geothermal anomaly. The mantle leakage may be a result of the NIFZ being a former Mesozoic subduction zone in spite of being located 70 km west of the current plate boundary at the San Andreas fault.

  6. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  7. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC)

  8. The analog computation and contrast test of leaked electromagnetic noise in the klystron corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Xiaoping; Wang Guicheng

    2001-01-01

    In order to obtain a better understand of the characteristics and location of noise source, the leaked electromagnetic noise in the klystron corridor of NSRL has been analogously calculated. The computational method and formula of high frequency leaked noise of the modulator were given. On-the-spot contrast tests have been made on the base of analog computation. The contrast test results show reasonableness of analog computation and whereby offer a theoretic base for reducing noise leakage in corridor

  9. Study of Internal and External Leaks in Tests of Anode-Supported SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Hagen, Anke

    2008-01-01

    A planar anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been tested to investigate gas tightness of the electrolyte and the applied seals. Gas leaks reduce the efficiency of the SOFC and it is thus important to determine and minimise them. Probe gases (He and Ar) and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrome......A planar anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been tested to investigate gas tightness of the electrolyte and the applied seals. Gas leaks reduce the efficiency of the SOFC and it is thus important to determine and minimise them. Probe gases (He and Ar) and a Quadrupole Mass...... Spectrometer were used to detect both internal (through electrolyte) and external (through seals) gas leaks. The internal gas leak through the electrolyte was quantified under different conditions, as was the external leak from the surroundings to the anode. The internal gas leak did not depend on the pressure...... difference between the anode and the cathode gas compartment, and can thus be described as diffusion driven. External leaks between the surroundings and the anode, but not the cathode gas compartment was observed. They were influenced by the pressure difference and are thus driven by both concentration...

  10. Integrated leak rate testing of the fast flux test facility reactor containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, E.B.; Farabee, O.A.; Bliss, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The initial Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) of the Fast Flux Test Facility containment building was performed from May 27 to June 2, 1978. The test was conducted in air with systems vented and with the containment recirculating coolers in operation. 10 psig and 5 psig tests were run using the absolute pressure test method. The measured leakage rates were .033% Vol/24 hr. and -.0015% Vol/24 hrs. respectively. Subsequent verification tests at both 10 psig and 5 psig proved that the test equipment was operating properly and it was sensitive enough to detect leaks at low pressures. This ILRT was performed at a lower pressure than any previous ILRT on a reactor containment structure in the United States. While the initial design requirements for ice condenser containments called for a part pressure test at 6 psig, the tests were waived due to the apparent statistical problems of data analysis and the repeatability of the data itself at such low pressure. In contrast to this belief, both the 5 and 10 psig ILRT's were performed in a successful manner at FFTF

  11. In Shop Acceptance Test Report for the SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following test report was written for the SY tank farm annulus leak detectors. The test plan used was HNF-4546, Revision 1. The purpose of the test plan was to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation. The test plan set various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  12. Crack growth of throughwall flaw in Alloy 600 tube during leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Majumdar, Saurin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of leak testing was conducted at a constant pressure and room temperature. • The time-dependent increase in the leak rate was observed. • The fractography revealed slip offsets and crystallographic facets. • Time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip caused the slip offsets. • Fatigue by jet/structure interaction caused the crystallographic facets. - Abstract: We examined the issue of whether crack growth in a full thickness material can occur in a leaking crack. A series of leak tests was conducted at a room temperature and constant pressure (17.3 MPa) with Alloy 600 tube specimens containing a tight rectangular throughwall axial fatigue crack. To exclude a potential pulsation effect by a high pressure pump, the test water was pressurized by using high pressure nitrogen gas. Fractography showed that crack growth in the full thickness material can occur in the leaking crack by two mechanisms: time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip and fatigue induced by jet/structure interaction. The threshold leak rate at which the jet/structure interaction was triggered was between 1.3 and 3.3 L/min for the specific heat of the Alloy 600 tube tested

  13. Pre-service proof pressure and leak rate tests for the Qinshan CANDU project reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunik, K.J.; Khan, A.; Ricciuti, R.; Ivanov, A.; Chen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Qinshan CANDU Project Reactor Buildings (Units 1 and 2) have been successfully tested for the Pre-Service Proof Pressure and Integrated Leak Rate Tests. The Unit 1 tests took place from May 3 to May 9, 2002 and from May 22 to May 25, 2002, and the Unit 2 tests took place from January 21 to January 27, 2003. This paper discusses the significant steps taken at minimum cost on the Qinshan CANDU Project, which has resulted in a) very good leak rate (0.21%) for Unit 1 and excellent leak rate (0.130%) for Unit 2; b) continuous monitoring of the structural behaviour during the Proof Pressure Test, thus eliminating any repeat of the structural test due to lack of data; and c) significant schedule reduction achieved for these tests in Unit 2. (author)

  14. Noble Gas Leak Detector for Use in the SNS Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Chad; Huffman, Paul; Leung, Kent; Korobkina, Ekaterina; White, Christian; nEDM Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Common practice for leak-checking high vacuum systems uses helium as the probing gas. However, helium may permeate some materials at room temperature, making leak characterization difficult. The experiment to find a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM), to be conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, will employ a large volume of liquid helium housed by such a helium-permeable composite material. It is desirable to construct a leak detector that can employ alternative test gases. The purpose of this experiment is to create a leak detector that can quantify the argon gas flux in a high vacuum environment and interpret this flux as a leak-rate. This apparatus will be used to check the nEDM volumes for leaks at room temperature before cooling down to cryogenic temperatures. Our leak detector uses a residual gas analyzer and a vacuum pumping station to characterize the gas present in an evacuated volume. The introduction of argon gas into the system is interpreted as a leak-rate into the volume. The device has been calibrated with NIST certified calibrated leaks and the machine's sensitivity has been calculated using background gas analysis. As a result of the device construction and software programming, we are able to leak-check composite and polyamide volumes This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41042.

  15. Outline of sodium-water reaction test in case of large leak with SWAT-3 testing equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Minoru

    1978-01-01

    The key component in sodium-cooled fast reactors in steam generators, and the sodium-water reaction owing to the break of heating tubes may cause serious damages in equipments and pipings. The main factor controlling this phenomenon is the rate of leak of water. When the rate of water leak is small, the propagation of heating tube breaking may occur owing to ''wastage phenomenon'', on the other hand, when the rate of water leak is large, the phenomena of explosive pressure and flow occur due to the reaction heat and a large quantity of hydrogen generated by the reaction. In PNC, the testing equipments of SWAT-2 for small water leak and SWAT-1 for large leak were constructed, and the development test has been carried out to establish the method of safety design experimentally. The synthetic test equipment for the safety of steam generators, SWAT-3, was constructed to carry out the large water leak test in the scale close to actual plants. The object of the test, the outline of the test equipment, the phenomena of pressure and flow in the water injection test, the confirmation of the occurrence of secondary breaking of adjacent heating tubes, and the disposal of reaction products are described in this paper. This test is till going on, and the final conclusion will be reported later. (Kako, I.)

  16. The PWR integrated leak rate test, a review of experiences and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keogh, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) as it has been carried out in the USA and as reported in papers in European countries. The test procedures are critically appraised and recommendations are given for modifications to them. The values used in a PWR are identified as a main source of leaks and possibilities for improvement are discussed. The use of a part pressure test and its limitations are considered. A part pressure test cannot give the same assurance as a full pressure test but may be useful for the identification of gross leaks. Secondary effects such as weather and the use of Van de Waals equations are considered and are found to be not important for concrete containments. (orig.)

  17. Field test of a leak detection system: planning, execution and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio da Silva; Daniel; Melo Filho, Silvio A.; Niehues de Farias, Mauro; Pacheco, Anderson [Petrobas Transporte SA - TRANSPETRO, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The OLAPA pipeline (Brazil) with its 97.6 km in length crosses difficult environment with a combination of mountain and dense forest. The non-detection of leaks in this kind of pipeline would have serious consequences. This pipeline was chosen for testing the performance of a new TRANSPETRO leak detection system. This paper reports the testing process of the new leakage detection method carried out on the OLAPA pipeline. TRANSPETRO decided to test the leakwarn system which is a computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) method which and can be integrated into their SCADA system. The CPM uses the mass balance principle with line pack change to analyze the pipeline operational parameters. The tests consisted of comparing the theoretical results with in-field results of alarm times obtained from controlled removal of product, simulating a real leak. Three leaks were tested in different states of operation and size of leak. It was found that the results were compatible with the expected alarm time.

  18. A primary standard for the calibration of sniffer test leak devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousten, Karl; Becker, Ute

    2009-10-01

    Test leaks with a gas flow to atmospheric pressure are often called sniffer test leaks. They are used to calibrate leak detectors for sniffing applications. Sniffer test leaks need calibration against a standard. A primary standard for the calibration of sniffer test leaks with relatively low measurement uncertainties is described. It is assured that the measurement result is traceable to the relevant SI units and that there is a well-known and complete measurement uncertainty budget. The measurement range of the system is from 4 × 10-11 mol s-1 (corresponding to 10-4 Pa l s-1 at 23 °C) to 4 × 10-9 mol s-1 (10-2 Pa l s-1 at 23 °C), which is the most often needed range in industry of around 1 g loss per year of the cooling agent R134a. The temperature where the calibration can be carried out may vary from 18 °C to 30 °C. The flow rate of any test gas not condensing in this temperature range can be measured.

  19. HEAPA Filter Bank In-Place Leak Test of Advanced Fuel Science Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, C. G.; Bae, S. O.; Kim, C. H

    2007-12-15

    To maintain the optimum condition of Advanced Fuel Science Building in KAERI, this report is described leak tests for HEPA Filter of HVAC in this facility. The main topics of this report are as follows for: - Procurement Specification - Visual Inspection - Airflow Capacity Test - HEPA Filter Bank In-Place Test.

  20. Helium turbomachinery operating experience from gas turbine power plants and test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Colin F.

    2012-01-01

    The closed-cycle gas turbine, pioneered and deployed in Europe, is not well known in the USA. Since nuclear power plant studies currently being conducted in several countries involve the coupling of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a helium closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system, the experience gained from operated helium turbomachinery is the focus of this paper. A study done as early as 1945 foresaw the use of a helium closed-cycle gas turbine coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, and some two decades later this was investigated but not implemented because of lack of technology readiness. However, the first practical use of helium as a gas turbine working fluid was recognized for cryogenic processes, and the first two small fossil-fired helium gas turbines to operate were in the USA for air liquefaction and nitrogen production facilities. In the 1970's a larger helium gas turbine plant and helium test facilities were built and operated in Germany to establish technology bases for a projected future high efficiency large nuclear gas turbine power plant concept. This review paper covers the experience gained, and the lessons learned from the operation of helium gas turbine plants and related test facilities, and puts these into perspective since over three decades have passed since they were deployed. An understanding of the many unexpected events encountered, and how the problems, some of them serious, were resolved is important to avoid them being replicated in future helium turbomachines. The valuable lessons learned in the past, in many cases the hard way, particularly from the operation in Germany of the Oberhausen II 50 MWe helium gas turbine plant, and the technical know-how gained from the formidable HHV helium turbine test facility, are viewed as being germane in the context of current helium turbomachine design work being done for future high efficiency nuclear gas turbine plant concepts. - Highlights:

  1. Development of a type IP-2 freight container and leak testing during the longitudinal and transverse racking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    The leak performance of freight containers has never been particularly well defined within the UK and up to the publication of 'A DETR guide to the approval of freight containers as IP-2 and IP-3 packages' freight containers with twin rear doors were acceptable as IP-2/3 packages. The containment argument has usually been based on providing adequate load securing and transport under exclusive use (with no transhipment between modes). Hence the likelihood for dropping the freight container during transhipment is eliminated. These arguments are less acceptable to competent authorities and the document above requires that leak integrity is determined during the standard freight container tests. This paper outlines the methodology used to determine the acceptable leak rate from the container (in terms of a pressure drop); the justification for conducting leak testing during racking only; the results of tests and difficulties that were overcome during design. (author)

  2. Testing the renormalisation group theory of cooperative transitions at the lambda point of helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, J. A.; Li, Q.; Chui, T. C. P.; Marek, D.

    1988-01-01

    The status of high resolution tests of the renormalization group theory of cooperative phase transitions performed near the lambda point of helium is described. The prospects for performing improved tests in space are discussed.

  3. Standard test method for tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes procedures for the tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium. The format is similar to that of other ASTM tension test standards, but the contents include modifications for cryogenic testing which requires special apparatus, smaller specimens, and concern for serrated yielding, adiabatic heating, and strain-rate effects. 1.2 To conduct a tension test by this standard, the specimen in a cryostat is fully submerged in normal liquid helium (He I) and tested using crosshead displacement control at a nominal strain rate of 10−3 s−1 or less. Tests using force control or high strain rates are not considered. 1.3 This standard specifies methods for the measurement of yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area. The determination of the elastic modulus is treated in Test Method E 111. Note 1—The boiling point of normal liquid helium (He I) at sea level is 4.2 K (−269°C or −452.1°F or 7.6°R). It decreases with geographic elevation and is...

  4. A study on the dryness judgement criterion for leak test in water-cooled generator stator windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Bae, Yong Chae; Lee, Wook Ryun; Lee, Doo Young; Cho, Sung Won

    2009-01-01

    The complete dryness of stator inside is a necessary and sufficient condition for leak test. Microcracks by high cycle fatigue due to operation are generated in stator windings and they are interrupted by water molecules during leak test. For this reason, during leak test, the wrong value is indicated as follows: There are no leaks in stator windings. Generator manufacturers presents unique dryness judgement criteria for leak test but actually any criteria never indicate accurate dryness point for leak test. The reason is that stator winding has a complexity of structure and absence of an effective dryness equipment in power plant. In this paper, dryness judgement criterion to judge if stator winding inside is dried completely is proposed and is testified experimentally.

  5. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  6. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dufay-Chanat, L; Casas-Cubillos, J; Chorowski, M; Grabowski, M; Jedrusyna, A; Lindell, G; Nonis, M; Koettig, T; Vauthier, N; van Weelderen, R; Winkler, T

    2015-01-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium wer...

  7. Primary flow meter for calibrating a sniffer test leak artefact by a pressure rise method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenta; Yoshida, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Sniffer tests are used to locate leaks in equipment during operation. The sensitivity of a sniffer leak detector must be calibrated against a known gas flow to atmospheric pressure generated by a sniffer test leak artefact. We have developed a primary flow meter for calibrating gas flows to atmospheric pressure through the leak artefact. The flow meter is based on a pressure rise method and two chambers are used to measure the pressure rise with small uncertainty even at atmospheric pressure. The calibration range of the flow rate is 5 × 10-7 Pa m3 s-1 to 7 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to atmospheric pressure at 23.0 °C with a minimum uncertainty of 1.4% (k = 2), as well as 4 × 10-8 Pa m3 s-1 to 5 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to a vacuum at 23.0 °C. The long term stability of the flow meter was determined as 0.41% by repeated measurements of the conductance of the leak artefact. In case of the flow rate into a vacuum, the flow meter was successfully linked to the international reference value of CCM.P-K12 by a lab-internal comparison.

  8. Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Materials Program. Reducing helium impurity depletion in HTGR materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.H.

    1984-08-01

    Moisture depletion in HTGR materials testing rigs has been empirically studied in the GE High Temperature Reactor Materials Testing Laboratory (HTRMTL). Tests have shown that increased helium flow rates and reduction in reactive (oxidizable) surface area are effective means of reducing depletion. Further, a portion of the depletion has been shown to be due to the presence of free C released by the dissociation of CH 4 . This depletion component can be reduced by reducing the helium residence time (increasing the helium flow rate) or by reducing the CH 4 concentration in the test gas. Equipment modifications to reduce depletion have been developed, tested, and in most cases implemented in the HTRMTL to date. These include increasing the Helium Loop No. 1 pumping capacity, conversion of metallic retorts and radiation shields to alumina, isolation of thermocouple probes from the test gas by alumina thermowells, and substitution of non-reactive Mo-TZM for reactive metallic structural components

  9. Inert medium (helium) irradiation testing of pressure tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Stefan, V.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation tests currently performed in C-5 capsule aim at obtaining data and information concerning behavior to irradiation of pressure tubes of CANDU type fuel channel, to evidence the factors limiting operation life span. A calculation code for analysis and prediction of pressure tube behavior should be based upon periodical inspection results, post irradiation examination of the removed from reactor pressure tubes as well as on the experimental results obtained with materials subjected to irradiation conditions identical with the operational ones. Mechanical behavior analysis should focus both complex thermal-mechanical type stresses and mechanical properties alteration under irradiation. The experimental results should be applied: - to evaluate the irradiation effects upon mechanical properties of Zr-2.5% Nb exposed to fluences up to 10 21 n·cm -2 ; - to gather data concerning the real stress / real deformation characteristic from which characteristic quantities can be deduced as, for instance, elasticity modulus, plasticity modulus, exponent of stress term in the Tsu-Berteles relation, to be used within the CANTUP simulation code describing pressure tube behavior, currently developed at INR Pitesti; - to develop prediction methods of pressure tube behavior and merging with in-service inspection procedure in order to forecast the life span and the proper timing for replacement before major failures occur. The samples irradiated in C-5 capsule were extracted from the ends of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes resulting from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The samples for tensile tests were extracted on longitudinal and transversal directions of the pressure tube. The tests were carried out under following conditions: - test environment temperature, 260 - 280 deg.C; - testing medium, helium at 1 - 6 b pressure; - neutron flux (E n > 1 MeV), 1 - 2 · 10 13 ncm -2 s -1 ; - neutron fluence (E n > 1 MeV), 4 · 10 20 ncm -2 . The following characteristics were obtained from tensile

  10. Depressurization as a means of leak checking large vacuum vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Langhorn, A.; Petersen, P.I.; Ward, C.; Wesley, J.

    1985-01-01

    A common problem associated with large vacuum vessels used in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is that leak checking is hampered by the inaccessibility to most of the vacuum vessel surface. This inaccessibility is caused by the close proximity of magnetic coils, diagnostics and, for those vessels that are baked, the need to completely surround the vessel with a thermal insulation blanket. These obstructions reduce the effectiveness of the standard leak checking method of using a mass spectrometer and spraying a search gas such as helium on the vessel exterior. Even when the presence of helium is detected, its entry point into the vessel cannot always be pinpointed. This paper will describe a method of overcoming this problem. By slightly depressurizing the vessel, an influx of helium through the leak is created. The leak site can then be identified by personnel within the vessel using standard sniffing procedures. There are two conditions which make this method of leak checking practical. First, the vessel need only be depressurized 2 psi, thus allowing personnel inside to perform the sniffing operation. Second, the sniffing probe used (Leybold--Heraus ''Quick Test'') could detect a change in helium concentration as small as 100 ppb, which allows for faster scanning of the vessel inferior. Use of this technique to find an elusive 10 -3 Torrxl/s leak in the Doublet III tokamak vacuum vessel will be presented

  11. Hydrogen-Helium shock Radiation tests for Saturn Entry Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of shock layer radiation in Hydrogen/Helium mixtures representative of that encountered by probes entering the Saturn atmosphere. Normal shock waves are measured in Hydrogen-Helium mixtures (89:11% by volume) at freestream pressures between 13-66 Pa (0.1-0.5 Torr) and velocities from 20-30 km/s. Radiance is quantified from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Near Infrared. An induction time of several centimeters is observed where electron density and radiance remain well below equilibrium. Radiance is observed in front of the shock layer, the characteristics of which match the expected diffusion length of Hydrogen.

  12. Specialists meeting on leak detection and location in LMFBR steam generators. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-10-01

    The following topics covered at the meeting were: with leak detection and location methods and equipment, including concentration measurements, helium tests, and electromagnetic methods; acoustic leak detection and related equipment; techniques and experiences in ensuring and measuring steam generator tightness during manufacturing, installation and repair, tube inspection methods for periodic control and damage assessment following leaks, influence of these methods on design of steam generators for LMFBR type reactors.

  13. Specialists meeting on leak detection and location in LMFBR steam generators. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The following topics covered at the meeting were: with leak detection and location methods and equipment, including concentration measurements, helium tests, and electromagnetic methods; acoustic leak detection and related equipment; techniques and experiences in ensuring and measuring steam generator tightness during manufacturing, installation and repair, tube inspection methods for periodic control and damage assessment following leaks, influence of these methods on design of steam generators for LMFBR type reactors

  14. Test on e–e correlations in helium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The angular variations of the five-fold differential cross section obtained by using different wave functions of helium are compared with experimental data. It is found that in the coplanar geometry two kinematical arrangements, (i) equal energy sharing between the two ejected electrons with one of them ejected along the ...

  15. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA's specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components

  16. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Starr, J.W.; Juliano, T.M.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the pipelines that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems. This plan and schedule addresses leak testing of the Category C pipelines and those doubly contained pipelines that do not fully meet the requirements for secondary containment as listed in the FFA

  17. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  18. 10 CFR 34.67 - Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. 34.67 Section 34.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL... Requirements § 34.67 Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. Each...

  19. Summary report on technical experiences from high-temperature helium turbomachinery testing in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany a comprehensive research and development program was initiated in 1968 for a Brayton (closed) cycle power conversion system. The program was for ultimate use with a high temperature, helium cooled nuclear reactor heat source (the HHT project) for electricity generation using helium as the working fluid. The program continued until 1982 in international cooperation with the United States and Switzerland. This document describes the designs and reports the results of testing activities that addressed the development of turbines, compressors, hot gas ducts, materials, heat exchangers and other equipment items for use with a helium working fluid at high temperatures. 67 refs, 34 figs, tabs

  20. Hydrogen peroxide test for intraoperative bile leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, V; Rao, Pankaj P; Naidu, C S; Sharma, Anuj K; Singh, A K; Sharma, Sanjay; Gaur, Amit; Kulkarni, S V; Pathak, N

    2017-07-01

    Bile leakage (BL) is a common complication following liver surgery, ranging from 3 to 27% in different series. To reduce the incidence of post-operative BL various BL tests have been applied since ages, but no method is foolproof and every method has their own limitations. In this study we used a relatively simpler technique to detect the BL intra-operatively. Topical application of 1.5% diluted hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was used to detect the BL from cut surface of liver and we compared this with conventional saline method to know the efficacy. A total of 31 patients included all patients who underwent liver resection and donor hepatectomies as part of Living Donor Liver Transplantation. After complete liver resection, the conventional saline test followed by topical diluted 1.5% H 2 O 2 test was performed on all. A BL was demonstrated in 11 patients (35.48%) by the conventional saline method and in 19 patients (61.29%) by H 2 O 2 method. Statistically compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed significant difference ( P  = 0.014) for minor liver resections group and ( P  = 0.002) for major liver resections group. The topical application of H 2 O 2 is a simple and effective method of detection of BL from cut surface of liver. It is an easy, non-invasive, cheap, less time consuming, reproducible, and sensitive technique with no obvious disadvantages.

  1. Status of prototype rupture disc testing in the large leak test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, J.C.

    1979-09-01

    The prototype CRBRP double membrane rupture disc assembly is being performance tested in conjunction with the LLTR Series II Large Leak Program. In May 1979, the double membrane disc assembly was inadvertently activated during sodium system pressure instrument calibration. This experience indicated that the rupture disc burst at essentially the design burst pressure when a gradually increasing state pressure was applied. The area of membrane opening was found to be about 25 to 30% of the cross-sectional area. In July 1979, the disc assembly was again tested (this time in a single membrane configuration) in conjunction with the first LLTR Series II Test A-1a (inert gas injection). Test data indicated that the disc burst in about 35 ms at essentially the design burst pressure with an opening of about 30% of the cross-sectional area. The pressure immediately downstream of the disc dropped below atmospheric pressure following the rupture tube event (releasing high pressure nitrogen into sodium) for about 1.5 seconds before increasing to a maximum of 30 psig. This behavior raises a question on the adequacy of a downstream pressure device for rapid sensing of disc rupture and initiating plant shutdown following a large SWR event. 14 figures

  2. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufay-Chanat, L; Bremer, J; Casas-Cubillos, J; Koettig, T; Vauthier, N; Van Weelderen, R; Winkler, T; Chorowski, M; Grabowski, M; Jedrusyna, A; Lindell, G; Nonis, M

    2015-01-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium were released under standard operational tunnel conditions. The data recorded include oxygen concentration, temperature and flow speed measurements, and video footage used to assess qualitatively the visibility. These measurements have been made in the up- and downstream directions, with respect to the air ventilation flow, of the spill point.This paper presents the experimental set-up under which these release tests were made, the effects of these releases on the atmospheric tunnel condition as a function of the release flow rate. We discuss the modification to the personnel access conditions to the LHC tunnel that are presently implemented as a result of these tests. (paper)

  3. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufay-Chanat, L.; Bremer, J.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jedrusyna, A.; Lindell, G.; Nonis, M.; Koettig, T.; Vauthier, N.; van Weelderen, R.; Winkler, T.

    2015-12-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium were released under standard operational tunnel conditions. The data recorded include oxygen concentration, temperature and flow speed measurements, and video footage used to assess qualitatively the visibility. These measurements have been made in the up- and downstream directions, with respect to the air ventilation flow, of the spill point. This paper presents the experimental set-up under which these release tests were made, the effects of these releases on the atmospheric tunnel condition as a function of the release flow rate. We discuss the modification to the personnel access conditions to the LHC tunnel that are presently implemented as a result of these tests.

  4. Assessment of leak detection capability of Candu 6 annulus gas system using moisture injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Ki Man; Kim, Wang Bae

    1998-01-01

    The Candu 6 reactor assembly consists of an array of 380 pressure tubes, which are installed horizontally in a large cylindrical vessel, the Calandria, containing the low pressure heavy water moderator. The pressure tube is located inside calandria tube and the annulus between these tubes, which forms a closed loop with CO 2 gas recirculating, is called the Annulus Gas System (AGS). It is designed to give an alarm to the operator even for a small pressure tube leak by a very sensitive dew point meter so that he can take a preventive action for the pressure tbe rupture incident. To judge whether the operator action time is enough or not in the design of Wolsung 2, 3, and 4, the Leak Before Break (LBB) assessment is required for the analysis of the pressure tube failure accident. In order to provide the required data for the LBB assessment of Wolsung Units 2, 3, 4, a series of leak detection capability tests was performed by injecting controlled rates of heavy water vapour. The data of increased dew point and rates of rise were measured to determine the alarm set point for dew point rate of rise of Wolsung Unit 2. It was found that the response of the dew point depends on the moisture injection rate, CO 2 gas flow rate and the leak location. The test showed that Candu 6 AGS can detect the very small leaks less than few g/hr and dew point rate of rise alarm can be the most reliable alarm signal to warn the operator. Considering the present results, the first response time of dew point to the AGS CO 2 flow rate is approximated. (author)

  5. Operational experiences with on line BWR condenser tube leak verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, R.A.; Duvall, W.E.; Kirkley, W.B.; Zavadoski, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Verifying condenser tube leaks at a boiling water reactor is, at best, a difficult task carried out in hot steamy water boxes with concurrent radiation exposure. For small apparent leaks with slight chemical changes there is always uncertainty of whether the problem is a condenser tube leak or a feedback from radwaste. Most conventional methods (e.g soap tests, Saran wrap suction, and helium tests) usually involve a load reduction to isolate the water boxes one at a time and hours of drain down on each box. The sensitivity of the most sensitive test (helium) is of the order of 7500 l per day per box. Sulfur hexafluoride has been successfully used at a BWR to identify one leaking water box out of four while the unit was at 100 % power. The actual tubes leakig in the water box were identified by injecting helium during drain down of the box and subsequent manifold testing. Additional tests with sulfur hexafluoride on the second BWR unit indicated tight water boxes to within the sensitivity of the measurement, i.e. less than 19 l per day for all four boxes. Problems encountered in both tests included sulfur hexafluoride carry over from the plume of the cooling towers and off gas considerations. In brief sulfur hexafluoride can be used to quickly identify which particular water box has a condenser tube leak or, just as quickly, establish the integrity of all the water boxes to a level not previously attainable. (author)

  6. Investigation for the sodium leak Monju. Sodium fire test-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Naoki; Takai, Toshihide; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2000-08-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in the Monju reactor (hereinafter referred to as Monju), sodium fire test-II was carried out using the SOLFA-1 (Sodium Leak, Fire and Aerosol) facility at OEC/PNC. In the test, the piping, ventilation duct, grating and floor liner were all full-sized and arranged in a rectangular concrete cell in the same manner as in Monju. The main objectives of the test were to confirm the leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and the effects of the sodium fire on the integrity of the surrounding structure. The main conclusions obtained from the test are shown below: (1) Burning Behavior of Leaked Sodium : Images taken with a cameras in the test reveal that in the early stages of the sodium leak, the sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube in drips. (2) Damage to the Ventilation Duct and Grating : The temperature of the ventilation duct's inner surface fluctuated between approximately 600degC and 700degC. The temperature of the grating began rising at the outset of the test, then fluctuated between roughly 600degC and 900degC. The maximum temperature was about 1000degC. After the test, damage to the ventilation duct and the grating was found. Damage to the duct was greater than that at Monju. (3) Effects on the Floor Liner : The temperature of the floor liner under the leak point exceed 1,000degC at 3 hours and 20 minutes into the test. A post test inspection of the liner revealed five holes in an area about 1m x 1m square under the leak point. There was also a decrease of the liner thickness on the north and west side of the leak point. (4) Effects on Concrete : The post test inspection revealed no surface damage on either the concrete side walls or the ceiling. However, the floor concrete was eroded to a maximum depth 8 cm due to a sodium-concrete reaction. The compressive strength of the concrete was not degraded in spite of the thermal effect. (5) Chemical

  7. Development of sputter ion pump based SG leak detection system for Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, B.; Sureshkumar, K.V.; Srinivasan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development and commissioning of SG leak detection system for FBTR. ► Development of Robust method of using sputter ion pump based system. ► Modifications for improving reliability and availability. ► On line injection of hydrogen in sodium during reactor operation. ► Triplication of the SG leak detection system. - Abstract: The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt, loop type sodium cooled fast reactor built at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam as a fore-runner to the second stage of Indian nuclear power programme. The reactor design is based on the French reactor Rapsodie with several modifications which include the provision of a steam-water circuit and turbo-generator. FBTR uses sodium as the coolant in the main heat transport medium to transfer heat from the reactor core to the feed water in the tertiary loop for producing superheated steam, which drives the turbo-generator. Sodium and water flow in shell and tube side respectively, separated by thin-walls of the ferritic steel tubes of the once-through steam generator (SG). Material defects in these tubes can lead to leakage of water into sodium, resulting in sodium water reactions leading to undesirable consequences. Early detection of water or steam leaks into sodium in the steam generator units of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) is an important requirement from safety and economic considerations. The SG leak in FBTR is detected by Sputter Ion Pump (SIP) based Steam Generator Leak Detection (SGLD) system and Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD) based Hydrogen in Argon Detection (HAD) system. Many modifications were carried out in the SGLD system for the reactor operation to improve the reliability and availability. This paper details the development and the acquired experience of SIP based SGLD system instrumentation for real time hydrogen detection in sodium for FBTR.

  8. Steam and sodium leak simulation in a fluidized-bed steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, W.G.; Keeton, A.R.; Keairns, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A fluidized-bed steam generator for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor enhances plant availability and minimizes the probability of a water/sodium reaction. An experimental test program was conceived to assess design criteria and fluidized-bed operation under conditions of water, steam, and sodium leaks. Sodium, steam, and water were leaked into helium-fluidized beds of metal and ceramic particles at 900 F. Test results show the effects of leaks on the heat transfer coefficient, quality of fluidization, leak detection, and cleanup procedures

  9. Definition of task (Phase II) B, 'Leak testing'; Definicija zadatka (II faza) B, 'Ispitivanje hermeticnosti'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Nikolic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-01-15

    In order to ensure safe Ra reactor operation and fulfilling the conditions for performing irradiation experiments it was necessary to test and verify the leak tightness of the sample containers and thermocouples, as well as the irradiation capsule before it was placed in the VISA-2 channel. Leak testing of VISA-2 channel with capsules and thermocouples was done before and after it was built-in the reactor. [Serbo-Croat] U cilju bezbednosti i sigurnosti rada reaktora RA i ispunjavanja uslova ozracivanja izvrsena je provera hermeticnosti kenera sa uzorcima i termoparovima, kao i hermeticnost kapsule pre ugradjivanja kapsule u kanal VISA-2. Izvrseno je i ispitivanje hermeticnosti kanala VISA-2 sa kapsulama i termoparovima pre ugradjivanja u reaktor i posle montaze.

  10. Remote leak localization approach for fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, Au.; Bruno, V.; Chantant, M.; Gargiulo, L.; Gherman, T.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Houry, M.; Le, R.; Mouyon, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Description of leaks issue. ► Selection of leak localization concepts. ► Qualification of leak localization concepts. -- Abstract: Fusion machine operation requires high-vacuum conditions and does not tolerate water or gas leak in the vacuum vessels, even if they are micrometric. Tore Supra, as a fully actively cooled tokamak, has got a large leak management experience; 34 water leaks occurred since the beginning of its operation in 1988. To handle this issue, after preliminary machine protection phases, the current process for leak localization is based on water or helium pressurization network by network. It generally allows the identification of a set of components where the leakage element is located. However, the unique background of CEA-IRFM laboratory points needs of accuracy and promptness out in the leak localization process. Moreover, in-vessel interventions have to be performed trying to minimize time and risks for the persons. They are linked to access conditions, radioactivity, tracer gas high pressure and vessel conditioning. Remote operation will be one of the ways to improve these points on future fusion machines. In this case, leak sensors would have to be light weight devices in order to be integrated on a carrier or to be located outside with a sniffing process set up. A leak localization program is on-going at CEA-IRFM Laboratory with the first goal of identifying and characterizing relevant concepts to localize helium or water leaks on ITER. In the same time, CEA has developed robotic carrier for effective in-vessel intervention in a hostile environment. Three major tests campaigns with the goal to identify leak sensors have been achieved on several CEA test-beds since 2010. Very promising results have been obtained: relevant scenario of leak localization performed, concepts tested in a high volume test-bed called TITAN, and, in several conditions of pressure and temperature (ultrahigh vacuum to atmospheric pressure and 20

  11. Remote leak localization approach for fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, Au., E-mail: aurelien.durocher@cea.fr [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bruno, V.; Chantant, M.; Gargiulo, L. [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gherman, T. [Floralis UJF Filiale, F-38610 Gières (France); Hatchressian, J.-C.; Houry, M.; Le, R.; Mouyon, D. [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Description of leaks issue. ► Selection of leak localization concepts. ► Qualification of leak localization concepts. -- Abstract: Fusion machine operation requires high-vacuum conditions and does not tolerate water or gas leak in the vacuum vessels, even if they are micrometric. Tore Supra, as a fully actively cooled tokamak, has got a large leak management experience; 34 water leaks occurred since the beginning of its operation in 1988. To handle this issue, after preliminary machine protection phases, the current process for leak localization is based on water or helium pressurization network by network. It generally allows the identification of a set of components where the leakage element is located. However, the unique background of CEA-IRFM laboratory points needs of accuracy and promptness out in the leak localization process. Moreover, in-vessel interventions have to be performed trying to minimize time and risks for the persons. They are linked to access conditions, radioactivity, tracer gas high pressure and vessel conditioning. Remote operation will be one of the ways to improve these points on future fusion machines. In this case, leak sensors would have to be light weight devices in order to be integrated on a carrier or to be located outside with a sniffing process set up. A leak localization program is on-going at CEA-IRFM Laboratory with the first goal of identifying and characterizing relevant concepts to localize helium or water leaks on ITER. In the same time, CEA has developed robotic carrier for effective in-vessel intervention in a hostile environment. Three major tests campaigns with the goal to identify leak sensors have been achieved on several CEA test-beds since 2010. Very promising results have been obtained: relevant scenario of leak localization performed, concepts tested in a high volume test-bed called TITAN, and, in several conditions of pressure and temperature (ultrahigh vacuum to atmospheric pressure and 20

  12. Present-day stress magnitude at depth from leak-off tests in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariucci, M. T.; Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present new results from the analysis of leak-off tests, performed in deep oil wells in Italy, to characterize the present-day stress magnitude and regime in the crust. In the last years we have collected a large number of data (more than 500) from different stress indicators, mainly borehole breakouts, earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data, which provided information on the present-day stress orientations. In some areas the tectonic regime has been inferred either from fault plane solutions of M≥4 earthquakes or from stress inversions of smaller earthquakes. Where seismicity lacks, the regime is not well constrained and little or no information on the magnitude of the crustal stresses is available. In order to improve our knowledge in stress regime and its magnitude in Italy, in this work we use the leak-off test technique. Each test is performed at the bottom of an open hole by sealing off a section and then slowly pressurizing with a fluid until hydraulic tensile fractures develop. The minimum horizontal stress is inferred by leak-off pressure record, the vertical stress is computed by rock density data and the maximum horizontal stress is estimated applying a specific formula from the literature. Thanks to ENI S.p.A. (Italian oil company), that kindly provided new well data, we have been able to perform a critical review of our preliminary calculations and to enhance our previous results concerning stress magnitudes. Totally, we have analyzed 192 leak-off tests at depth between 200 and 5400m (average 1800m). In particular, wells are located along the Italian peninsula and in Sicily: most of them are in the Po Plain and along the Apenninic foredeep; few are in southern Apenninic belt and a few tens are in Sicily. After an accurate selection of the most robust results, we better characterize the Italian stress regime at depth.

  13. Cryosorption of helium on argon frost in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Cropper, M.B.; Dylla, H.F.; Garzotto, V.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Martin, G.D.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Kim, J.

    1990-01-01

    Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are ∼25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, >20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a twofold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 Torr l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2x10 -5 Torr from an initial value of 10 -8 Torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 Torr l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity

  14. Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Combustible Gas Management Leak Test Acceptance Criteria (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's combustible gas management strategy while avoiding the need to impose any requirements for oxygen free atmospheres within storage tubes that contain multi-canister overpacks (MCO). In order to avoid inerting requirements it is necessary to establish and confirm leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs that are adequte to ensure that, in the unlikely event the leak test results for any MCO were to approach either of those criteria, it could still be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the SNF Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCOs or within their surroundings. To support that strategy, this document: (1) establishes combustible gas management functions and minimum functional requirements for the MCO's mechanical seals and closure weld(s); (2) establishes a maximum practical value for the minimum required initial MCO inert backfill gas pressure; and (3) based on items 1 and 2, establishes and confirms leak test acceptance criteria for the MCO's mechanical seal and final closure weld(s)

  15. Evaluation of steam-to-sodium leak detectors in the sodium components test installation (SCTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, J M; Simmons, W R

    1975-07-01

    Two nickel diffusion-membrane type hydrogen detectors were installed in the secondary sodium system of the Sodium Components Test Installation and evaluated during the 12-month performance test of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG). Hydrogen in the expansion tank cover gas was monitored with a gas chromatograph. During this period, numerous steam and hydrogen injections were made, simulating steam leaks into the sodium of an LMFBR steam generator. The response of the detectors was evaluated for leak sizes ranging from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -4} 1b H{sub 2}O/sec, injection periods of 0.5 to 300 min, secondary sodium flow rates of 0.2 x 10{sup 6} to 1.5 x 10{sup 6} 1b/hr, and sodium temperatures of 400 to 950 deg. F. The response of the leak detection system was influenced significantly by two regimes of sodium temperature. Below 600 deg. F, the cover gas hydrogen detector gave the largest response; this is attributed to the long dissolution time of hydrogen bubbles relative to the transit time of hydrogen to the expansion tank. Above 600 deg. F, the hydrogen apparently dissolved rapidly and the detectors were much more effective in the sodium than in the cover gas. At least 75% of the hydrogen and 50% of the oxygen content of injected steam appeared as detectable activity if the reaction products were dispersed in the sodium stream and the sodium was above 600 deg. F. Hydrogen injections into semi-stagnant sodium at the MSG tube sheets were detected with better sensitivity than steam injections into the main sodium stream. It appeared that high local concentrations of hydrogen were quickly carried to the nearest detector by upward currents created by the injected gas. The alarm system functioned as expected, 2.1 ppb/min being the smallest rate-of-rise in hydrogen concentration to give an automatic alarm. With more sensitive rate-of-rise alarm settings, leaks as small as 2 x 10{sup -5} 1b H{sub 2}O/sec could be detected in a system such as the Clinch River Breeder

  16. Evaluation of steam-to-sodium leak detectors in the sodium components test installation (SCTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.M.; Simmons, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two nickel diffusion-membrane type hydrogen detectors were installed in the secondary sodium system of the Sodium Components Test Installation and evaluated during the 12-month performance test of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG). Hydrogen in the expansion tank cover gas was monitored with a gas chromatograph. During this period, numerous steam and hydrogen injections were made, simulating steam leaks into the sodium of an LMFBR steam generator. The response of the detectors was evaluated for leak sizes ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -4 1b H 2 O/sec, injection periods of 0.5 to 300 min, secondary sodium flow rates of 0.2 x 10 6 to 1.5 x 10 6 1b/hr, and sodium temperatures of 400 to 950 deg. F. The response of the leak detection system was influenced significantly by two regimes of sodium temperature. Below 600 deg. F, the cover gas hydrogen detector gave the largest response; this is attributed to the long dissolution time of hydrogen bubbles relative to the transit time of hydrogen to the expansion tank. Above 600 deg. F, the hydrogen apparently dissolved rapidly and the detectors were much more effective in the sodium than in the cover gas. At least 75% of the hydrogen and 50% of the oxygen content of injected steam appeared as detectable activity if the reaction products were dispersed in the sodium stream and the sodium was above 600 deg. F. Hydrogen injections into semi-stagnant sodium at the MSG tube sheets were detected with better sensitivity than steam injections into the main sodium stream. It appeared that high local concentrations of hydrogen were quickly carried to the nearest detector by upward currents created by the injected gas. The alarm system functioned as expected, 2.1 ppb/min being the smallest rate-of-rise in hydrogen concentration to give an automatic alarm. With more sensitive rate-of-rise alarm settings, leaks as small as 2 x 10 -5 1b H 2 O/sec could be detected in a system such as the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. A preliminary

  17. Leak tightness tests on actively cooled plasma facing components: Lessons learned from Tore Supra experience and perspectives for the new fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantant, M., E-mail: michel.chantant@cea.fr; Lambert, R.; Gargiulo, L.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Guilhem, D.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Test procedures for the qualification of the tightness of actively cooled plasma facing components were defined. • The test is performed after the component manufacturing and before its set-up in the vacuum vessel. • It allows improving the fusion machine availability. • The lessons of tests over 20 years at Tore Supra are presented. - Abstract: The fusion machines under development or construction (ITER, W7X) use several hundreds of actively cooled plasma facing components (ACPFC). They are submitted to leak tightness requirements in order to get an appropriate vacuum level in the vessel to create the plasma. During the ACPFC manufacturing and before their installation in the machine, their leak tightness performance must be measured to check that they fulfill the vacuum requirements. A relevant procedure is needed which allows to segregate potential defects. It must also be optimized in terms of test duration and costs. Tore Supra, as an actively cooled Tokamak, experienced several leaks on ACPFCs during the commissioning and during the operation of the machine. A test procedure was then defined and several test facilities were set-up. Since 1990 the tightness of all the new ACPFCs is systematically tested before their installation in Tore Supra. During the qualification test, the component is set up in a vacuum test tank, and its cooling circuits are pressurized with helium. It is submitted to 3 temperature cycles from room temperature up to the baking temperature level in Tore Supra (200 °C) and two pressurization tests are performed (6 MPa at room temperature and 4 MPa at 200 °C) at each stage. At the end of the last cycle when the ACPFC is at room temperature and pressurized with helium at 6 MPa, the measured leak rate must be lower than 5 × 10{sup −11} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, the pressure in the test tank being <5 × 10{sup −5} Pa. A large experience has been gained on ACPFCs with carbon parts on stainless steel and Cu

  18. Leak-thight seals got high pressure testing of pipes, tanks, valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrade, J.

    1985-01-01

    Leak-tight seals ensure quick, safe and efficient testing of pipes with plain-ended or flanged openings, valves with flanged or welded edges, manifields, recipients, etc. They are inserted into the pipe end manually then simply a slight turn of the seal treated wheel commences the pressure test. Hydraulic pressure is supplied by a pump through the inlet seal and air is purged through the outlet seal which then closes. The higher the pressure, the greater the sealing strength of the seal which prevents accidental unplugging. There are different types of seals: for interior plain-ended openings, for pipes with plain-ended opening, for flanged pipes. (author)

  19. A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline by using distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijuan; Sun, Zhenshi; Qian, Ya; Zhang, Tao; Rao, Yunjiang

    2015-07-01

    A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline with a distributed optical fiber vibration sensing (DOVS) system based on the phase-sensitive OTDR technology is studied in this paper. By monitoring one end of a common communication optical fiber cable, which is laid in the inner wall of the pipe, we can detect and locate the water leakages easily. Different apertures under different pressures are tested and it shows that the DOVS has good responses when the aperture is equal or larger than 4 mm and the inner pressure reaches 0.2 Mpa for a steel pipe with DN 91cm×EN 2cm.

  20. Reactor building pressure proof test (PPT) and leak rate test (LRT) of Qinshan phase III (CANDU) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jun; Shi Jinqi; Fan Fuping

    2004-12-01

    As the first reactor building (R/B) without stainless steel liner in china, TQNPC studied the containment characteristics, such as strong concrete absorb/release air effect, poor containment penetration. etc. And carefully prepared test scheme and emergency response, creatively introduced the instrument air self-supply system in reactor building, developed the special measurement and analysis system for PPT and LRT, organized work under high-pressure on large-scale in the test. Finally got the containment leak rate result and the test-cost-time value is the best in all same type tests. (authors)

  1. Results of a bench mark test on the crack opening and leak rate calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Results of a bench mark test on the standard problem calculation of crack opening and leak rate in piping components are presented. The bench mark test is based on two experiments performed in phase III of the German HDR safety program. The pipe sections considered in these experiments were a straight pipe with an 80 mm diameter containing a circumferential wall penetrating crack and a pipe branch DN 100/DN 25 with a crack in the weldment between the nozzle and the main pipe. Both test pieces were made of austenitic steel and were loaded by internal pressure and bending moment. For the evaluation of the crack opening either analytical methods or estimation schemes or the finite element method were used, while leak rates were calculated by means of two-phase flow methods. The compilation of the results shows very large scatter bands in general, with deviations between calculated and measured values of up to some one hundred percent. Reasons for this behaviour are uncertainties in the measured data and their evaluation as well as the different methods of calculation and their uncertainties. (author)

  2. Wastage-resistant characteristics of 12Cr steel tube material. Small leak sodium-water reaction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito

    2004-03-01

    In the water leak accident of a steam generator designed for a sodium cooled reactor in the Feasibility Study, the localization of tube failure propagation by using an advanced water leak detector will be required from the viewpoints of the safety and economical efficiency of the plant. So far, the conventional knowledge and analytical tools have been used in the investigation and evaluation of water leak phenomenon; nevertheless, there was neither test data nor the study of quantitative evaluation on the corrosion behavior, so-called wastage-resistant characteristics, of 12Cr steel tube material in sodium-water reactions. Wastage tests for the 12Cr steel tube material were conducted in small water leaks by use of the Sodium-Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1R), and the data of wastage rate were obtained in the parameter of water leak rate under the constant sodium temperature and distance between leak and target tubes. The test results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel is 1.6 times greater than that of 9Cr steel and is 2.7 times greater than that of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. (2)The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel increases in smaller water leaks; especially in water leak rates of 1 g/sec or less, it is more excellent than that of SUS321 stainless steel used as Monju superheater tube material. (3) Based on the correlation of wastage rate for the 9Cr steel, the correlation for the 12Cr steel has been obtained to be used for the evaluation of tube failure propagation. As the correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel is based on the correlation for the 9Cr steel, it gives enough conservatism in smaller water leaks. To serve in accurately evaluating the tube failure propagation in smaller water leaks, it is necessary to obtain new correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel based on the data in the wide range of water leak rates. (author)

  3. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Helium Accumulation Fluence Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IIIC)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the concept and use of helium accumulation for neutron fluence dosimetry for reactor vessel surveillance. Although this test method is directed toward applications in vessel surveillance, the concepts and techniques are equally applicable to the general field of neutron dosimetry. The various applications of this test method for reactor vessel surveillance are as follows: 1.1.1 Helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) capsules, 1.1.2 Unencapsulated, or cadmium or gadolinium covered, radiometric monitors (RM) and HAFM wires for helium analysis, 1.1.3 Charpy test block samples for helium accumulation, and 1.1.4 Reactor vessel (RV) wall samples for helium accumulation. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Hyperpolarized 3-helium MR imaging of the lungs: testing the concept of a central production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, E.J.R. van; Schmiedeskamp, J.; Filbir, F.; Heil, W.; Wolf, M.; Otten, E.; Wild, J.M.; Paley, M.N.J.; Fichele, S.; Woodhouse, N.; Swift, A.; Knitz, F.; Mills, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a central production facility with distribution network for implementation of hyperpolarized 3-helium MRI. The 3-helium was hyperpolarized to 50-65% using a large-scale production facility based at a university in Germany. Using a specially designed transport box, containing a permanent low-field shielded magnet and dedicated iron-free glass cells, the hyperpolarized 3-helium gas was transported via airfreight to a university in the UK. At this location, the gas was used to perform in vivo MR experiments in normal volunteers and patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases. Following initial tests, the transport (road-air-road cargo) was successfully arranged on six occasions (approximately once per month). The duration of transport to imaging averaged 18 h (range 16-20 h), which was due mainly to organizational issues such as working times and flight connections. During the course of the project, polarization at imaging increased from 20% to more than 30%. A total of 4 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were imaged. The feasibility of a central production facility for hyperpolarized 3-helium was demonstrated. This should enable a wider distribution of gas for this novel technology without the need for local start-up costs. (orig.)

  5. Cuff leak test and laryngeal survey for predicting post-extubation stridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anit B; Ani, Chizobam; Feeney, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for the predictive value of the cuff leak test (CLT) for post-extubation stridor (PES) is conflicting. We evaluated the association and accuracy of CLT alone or combined with other laryngeal parameters with PES. Fifty-one mechanically ventilated adult patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit were tested prior to extubation using; CLT, laryngeal ultrasound and indirect laryngoscopy. Biometric, laryngeal and endotracheal tube (ETT) parameters were recorded. PES incidence was 4%. CLT demonstrated 'no leak' in 20% of patients. Laryngeal oedema was present in 10% of the patients on indirect laryngoscopy, and 71% of the patients had a Grades 1-3 indirect laryngoscopic view. Mean air column width on laryngeal ultrasound was 0.66 ± 0.15 cm (cuff deflated), mean ratio of ETT to laryngeal diameter was 0.48 ± 0.07, and the calculated CLT and laryngeal survey composite was 0.86 ± 1.25 (range 0-5). CLT and the CLT and Laryngeal survey composite measure were not associated with or predict PES. Age, sex, peri-extubation steroid use, intubation duration and body mass index were not associated with PES. Even including ultrasonographic and indirect laryngoscopic examination of the airway, no single aspect of the CLT or combination with laryngeal parameters accurately predicts PES.

  6. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a plan and schedule for leak testing a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is a concise version of a more general leak testing plan that was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This plan includes a schedule for the initial reporting of the leak test results from the various tanks that will be tested. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems; there are 14 such tanks addressed in this plan, plus one tank (W-12) that has been temporarily returned to service based on EPA and TDEC concurrence. A schedule for testing these tanks is also included. The plan and schedule also addresses an additional 15 Category B tanks have been demonstrated to meet secondary containment requirements. While these 15 tanks are addressed in this plan for the sake of completeness, they have been removed from the leak testing program based on the design demonstrations that show secondary containment. It is noted that the general plan included 42 tanks. Since that report was issued, 26 of those tanks have passed secondary containment design demonstrations and subsequently have been removed from this leak testing plan. In addition, one tank (LA-104) has been removed from service. Accordingly, this document addresses 15 of the LLLW tanks in the system; plans for testing the pipelines will be described in a separate document

  7. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a plan and schedule for leak testing a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is a concise version of a more general leak testing plan that was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This plan includes a schedule for the initial reporting of the leak test results from the various tanks that will be tested. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems; there are 14 such tanks addressed in this plan, plus one tank (W-12) that has been temporarily returned to service based on EPA and TDEC concurrence. A schedule for testing these tanks is also included. The plan and schedule also addresses an additional 15 Category B tanks have been demonstrated to meet secondary containment requirements. While these 15 tanks are addressed in this plan for the sake of completeness, they have been removed from the leak testing program based on the design demonstrations that show secondary containment. It is noted that the general plan included 42 tanks. Since that report was issued, 26 of those tanks have passed secondary containment design demonstrations and subsequently have been removed from this leak testing plan. In addition, one tank (LA-104) has been removed from service. Accordingly, this document addresses 15 of the LLLW tanks in the system; plans for testing the pipelines will be described in a separate document.

  8. Acoustic Leak Detection Testing Using KAERI Sodium-Water Reaction Signals for a SFR Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Joon; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Byung-Ho; Hahn, Do-Hee; Yugay, Valeriy S.

    2009-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of water in a sodium leak noise spectrum formation at 0.004-0.54 g/sec, various rates of water into a sodium leak, smaller than 1.0 g/sec, are presented. We focused on studying a micro leak detection with an increasing rate of water into sodium. On the basis of the experimental leak noise data manufactured in KAERI the simple dependency of an acoustic signal level from the rate of a micro and small leak at different frequency bands is presented to understand the principal analysis for the development of an acoustic leak detection methodology used in a K- 600 steam generator

  9. Fatigue and creep to leak tests of proton exchange membranes using pressure-loaded blisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongqiang; Dillard, David A.; Case, Scott W. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0219 (United States); Ellis, Michael W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0238 (United States); Lai, Yeh-Hung; Gittleman, Craig S.; Miller, Daniel P. [Fuel Cell Research Lab, GM R and D, General Motors Corporation, 10 Carriage Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472-0603 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    In this study, three commercially available proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are biaxially tested using pressure-loaded blisters to characterize their resistance to gas leakage under either static (creep) or cyclic fatigue loading. The pressurizing medium, air, is directly used for leak detection. These tests are believed to be more relevant to fuel cell applications than quasi-static uniaxial tensile-to-rupture tests because of the use of biaxial cyclic and sustained loading and the use of gas leakage as the failure criterion. They also have advantages over relative humidity cycling test, in which a bare PEM or catalyst coated membrane is clamped with gas diffusion media and flow field plates and subjected to cyclic changes in relative humidity, because of the flexibility in allowing controlled mechanical loading and accelerated testing. Nafion {sup registered} NRE-211 membranes are tested at three different temperatures and the time-temperature superposition principle is used to construct stress-lifetime master curve. Tested at 90 C, 2%RH extruded Ion Power {sup registered} N111-IP membranes have a longer lifetime than Gore trademark -Select {sup registered} 57 and Nafion {sup registered} NRE-211 membranes. (author)

  10. Role of non-destructive examinations in leak testing of glove boxes for industrial scale plutonium handling at nuclear fuel fabrication facility along with case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aher, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Non Destructive Examinations has the prominent role at Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities. Specifically NDE has contributed at utmost stratum in Leak Testing of Glove Boxes and qualifying them as a Class-I confinement for safe Plutonium handling at industrial scale. Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur is engaged in fabrication of Plutonium based MOX (PuO 2 , DDUO 2 ) fuel with different enrichments for first core of PFBR reactor. Alpha- Leak Tight Glove Boxes along with HEPA Filters and dynamic ventilation form the promising engineering system for safe and reliable handling of plutonium bearing materials considering the radiotoxicity and risk associated with handling of plutonium. Leak Testing of Glove Boxes which involves the leak detection, leak rectification and leak quantifications is major challenging task. To accomplish this challenge, various Non Destructive Testing methods have assisted in promising way to achieve the stringent leak rate criterion for commissioning of Glove Box facilities for plutonium handling. This paper highlights the Role of various NDE techniques like Soap Solution Test, Argon Sniffer Test, Pressure Drop/Rise Test etc. in Glove Box Leak Testing along with procedure and methodology for effective rectification of leakage points. A Flow Chart consisting of Glove Box leak testing procedure starting from preliminary stage up to qualification stage along with a case study and observations are discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Verification test for helium panel of cryopump for DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Laughon, G.J.; Langhorn, A.R.; Schaubel, K.M.; Smith, J.P.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Menon, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is planned to install a cryogenic pump in the lower divertor portion of the DIII-D tokamak with a pumping speed of 50000 ell/s and an exhaust of 2670 Pa-ell/s (20 Torr-ell/s). A coaxial counter flow configuration has been chosen for the helium panel of this cryogenic pump. This paper evaluates cool-down rates and fluid stability of this configuration. A prototypic test was performed at General Atomics (GA) to increase confidence in the design. It was concluded that the helium panel cooldown rate agreed quite well with analytical prediction and was within acceptable limits. The design flow rate proved stable and two-phase pressure drop can be predicted quite accurately

  12. Verification test for helium panel of cryopump for DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Laughon, G.J.; Langhorn, A.R.; Schaubel, K.M.; Smith, J.P.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Menon, M.M.

    1991-10-01

    It is planned to install a cryogenic pump in the lower divertor portion of the D3-D tokamak with a pumping speed of 50000 ell/s and an exhaust of 2670 Pa-ell/s (20 Torr-ell s). A coaxial counter flow configuration has been chosen for the helium panel of this cryogenic pump. This paper evaluates cooldown rates and fluid stability of this configuration. A prototypic test was performed at General Atomics (GA) to increase confidence in the design. It was concluded that the helium panel cooldown rate agreed quite well with analytical prediction and was within acceptable limits. The design flow rate proved stable and two-phase pressure drop can be predicted quite accurately. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Design, fabrication, and testing of a helium-cooled module for the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Smith, J.P.; Youchison, D.

    1994-08-01

    The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) will have a single-null divertor with total power flow of 200 MW and a peak heat flux of about 5 MW/m 2 . The reference coolant for the divertor is water. However, helium is a viable alternative and offers advantages from safety considerations, such as excellent radiation stability and chemical inertness. In order to prove the feasibility of helium cooling at ITER relevant heat flux conditions, General Atomics designed, fabricated, and tested a helium-cooled divertor module. The module was made from dispersion strengthened copper, with a heat flux surface 25 mm wide and 80 mm long, designed for twice the ITER divertor heat flux. Different techniques were examined to enhance the heat transfer, which in turn reduced the flow and pumping power required to cool the module. It was concluded that an extended surface was the most practical solution. An optimization study was performed to find the best extended surface parameters. The optimum extended surface geometry consisted of fins: 10 mm high, 0.4 mm thick with a 1 mm pitch. It was estimated to require a pumping power of 150 W to remove 20 kW of power. This is more than an order of magnitude reduction in pumping power requirement, compared to smooth surface. The module was fabricated by electric discharge machining (EDM) process. The testing was carried out at SNLA during August 1993. The testing confirmed the design calculations. The peak heat flux during the test was 10 MW/m 2 applied over a surface area of 20 cm 2 . The pumping power calculated from flow rate and pressure drop measurement was about 160 W, which was less than 1% of the power removed. It is planned to test the module to higher temperature limits and higher heat fluxes during coming months. As a result of this effort we conclude that helium cooling of the ITER divertor is feasible without requiring a very large helium pressure or a large pumping power

  14. Comparison of Emery 3004 and 3006 characteristics with DOP for possible use in HEPA filter leak tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, B.J.; Banks, E.M.; Kovacs, G. [Nuclear Consulting Services, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The particle size distribution, concentration, liquid to aerosol conversion rate and ignition properties of DOP, Emery 3004 and Emery 3006 aerosols generated by the NUCON Aerosol Generators Models SN-10 and DG-F were obtained. Results demonstrate the Emery products are acceptable replacements for DOP in performing leak testing of HEPA filters.

  15. Leak detection/verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krhounek, V.; Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) experiments performed as part of a Leak Before Break (LBB) analysis are very briefly summarized. The aim of these experiments was to postulate the leak rates of the coolant. Through-wall cracks were introduced into pipes by fatigue cycling and hydraulically loaded in a test device. Measurements included coolant pressure and temperature, quantity of leaked coolant, displacement of a specimen, and acoustic emission. Small cracks were plugged with particles in the coolant during testing. It is believed that plugging will have no effect in cracks with leak rates above 35 liters per minute. The leak rate safety margin of 10 is sufficient for cracks in which the leak rate is more than 5 liters per minute.

  16. Estimation of In Situ Stress and Permeability from an Extended Leak-off Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiep Quach, Quoc; Jo, Yeonguk; Chang, Chandong; Song, Insun

    2016-04-01

    Among many parameters needed to analyze a variety of geomechanical problems related to subsurface CO2 storage projects, two important ones are in situ stress states and permeability of the storage reservoirs and cap rocks. In situ stress is needed for investigating potential risk of fault slip in the reservoir systems and permeability is needed for assessing reservoir flow characteristics and sealing capability of cap rocks. We used an extended leak-off test (XLOT), which is often routinely conducted to assess borehole/casing integrity as well as fracture gradient, to estimate both in situ least principal stress magnitude and in situ permeability in a CO2 storage test site, offshore southeast Korea. The XLOT was conducted at a casing shoe depth (700 m below seafloor) within the cap rock consisting of mudstone, approximately 50 m above the interface between cap rock and storage reservoir. The test depth was cement-grouted and remained for 4 days for curing. Then the hole was further drilled below the casing shoe to create a 4 m open-hole interval at the bottom. Water was injected using hydraulic pump at an approximately constant flowrate into the bottom interval through the casing, during which pressure and flowrate were recorded continuously at the surface. The interval pressure (P) was increased linearly with time (t) as water was injected. At some point, the slope of P-t curve deviated from the linear trend, which indicates leak-off. Pressure reached its peak upon formation breakdown, followed by a gradual pressure decrease. Soon after the formation breakdown, the hole was shut-in by pump shut-off, from which we determined the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP). The ISIP was taken to be the magnitude of the in situ least principal stress (S3), which was determined to be 12.1 MPa. This value is lower than the lithostatic vertical stress, indicating that the S3 is the least horizontal principal stress. The determined S3 magnitude will be used to characterize the

  17. The 1/3-scale aerodynamics performance test of helium compressor for GTHTR300 turbo machine of JAERI (step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Xing, Yan

    2003-01-01

    A program for research and development on aerodynamics in a helium gas compressor was planned for the power conversion system of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The three-dimensional aerodynamic design of the compressor achieved a high polytropic efficiency of 90%, keeping a sufficient surge margin over 30%. To validate the design of the helium gas compressor of GTHTR300, aerodynamic performance tests were planned, and a 1/3-scale, 4-stage compressor model was designed. In the tests, the performance data of the helium gas compressor model will be acquired by using helium gas as a working fluid. The maximum design pressure at the model inlet is 0.88 MPa, which allows the Reynolds number to be sufficiently high. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  18. Quantitative study of sniffer leak rate and pressure drop leak rate of liquid nitrogen panels of SST-1 tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, F. S.; Khan, Z.; Semwal, P.; Raval, D. C.; Joshi, K. S.; Thankey, P. L.; Dhanani, K. R.

    2008-05-01

    Steady State Super-conducting (SST-1) Tokamak is in commissioning stage at Institute for Plasma Research. Vacuum chamber of SST-1 Tokamak consists of 1) Vacuum vessel, an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, 2) Cryostat, a high vacuum (HV) chamber. Cryostat encloses the liquid helium cooled super-conducting magnets (TF and PF), which require the thermal radiation protection against room temperature. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled panels are used to provide thermal shield around super-conducting magnets. During operation, LN2 panels will be under pressurized condition and its surrounding (cryostat) will be at high vacuum. Hence, LN2 panels must have very low leak rate. This paper describes an experiment to study the behaviour of the leaks in LN2 panels during sniffer test and pressure drop test using helium gas.

  19. Quantitative study of sniffer leak rate and pressure drop leak rate of liquid nitrogen panels of SST-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathan, F S; Khan, Z; Semwal, P; Raval, D C; Joshi, K S; Thankey, P L; Dhanani, K R [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382 428, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: firose@ipr.res.in

    2008-05-01

    Steady State Super-conducting (SST-1) Tokamak is in commissioning stage at Institute for Plasma Research. Vacuum chamber of SST-1 Tokamak consists of 1) Vacuum vessel, an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, 2) Cryostat, a high vacuum (HV) chamber. Cryostat encloses the liquid helium cooled super-conducting magnets (TF and PF), which require the thermal radiation protection against room temperature. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled panels are used to provide thermal shield around super-conducting magnets. During operation, LN{sub 2} panels will be under pressurized condition and its surrounding (cryostat) will be at high vacuum. Hence, LN{sub 2} panels must have very low leak rate. This paper describes an experiment to study the behaviour of the leaks in LN{sub 2} panels during sniffer test and pressure drop test using helium gas.

  20. Quantitative study of sniffer leak rate and pressure drop leak rate of liquid nitrogen panels of SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, F S; Khan, Z; Semwal, P; Raval, D C; Joshi, K S; Thankey, P L; Dhanani, K R

    2008-01-01

    Steady State Super-conducting (SST-1) Tokamak is in commissioning stage at Institute for Plasma Research. Vacuum chamber of SST-1 Tokamak consists of 1) Vacuum vessel, an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, 2) Cryostat, a high vacuum (HV) chamber. Cryostat encloses the liquid helium cooled super-conducting magnets (TF and PF), which require the thermal radiation protection against room temperature. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled panels are used to provide thermal shield around super-conducting magnets. During operation, LN 2 panels will be under pressurized condition and its surrounding (cryostat) will be at high vacuum. Hence, LN 2 panels must have very low leak rate. This paper describes an experiment to study the behaviour of the leaks in LN 2 panels during sniffer test and pressure drop test using helium gas

  1. Demonstration of a Solution Film Leak Test Technique and Equipment for the S00645 Canister Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to demonstrate that the SFT technique, when adapted to a DWPF canister nozzle, is capable of detecting leaks not meeting the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) acceptance criterion

  2. High-heat-flux testing of helium-cooled heat exchangers for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youchison, D.L.; Izenson, M.G.; Baxi, C.B.; Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    High-heat-flux experiments on three types of helium-cooled divertor mock-ups were performed on the 30-kW electron beam test system and its associated helium flow loop at Sandia National Laboratories. A dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) was used in the manufacture of all the mock-ups. The first heat exchanger provides for enhanced heat transfer at relatively low flow rates and much reduced pumping requirements. The Creare sample was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 5.8 MW/m 2 . The second used low pressure drops and high mass flow rates to achieve good heat removal. The GA specimen was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 9 MW/m 2 while maintaining a surface temperature below 400 degree C. A second experiment resulted in a maximum absorbed heat flux of 34 MW/m 2 and surface temperatures near 533 degree C. The third specimen was a DSCu, axial flow, helium-cooled divertor mock-up filled with a porous metal wick which effectively increases the available heat transfer area. Low mass flow and high pressure drop operation at 4.0 MPa were characteristic of this divertor module. It survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 16 MW/m 2 and reached a surface temperature of 740 degree C. Thermacore also manufactured a follow-on, dual channel porous metal-type heat exchanger, which survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 14 MW/m 2 and reached a maximum surface temperature of 690 degree C. 11refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Developments in steam generator leak detection at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, K.J.; Singh, V.P. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    A method for locating small tube leaks in steam generators has been developed and implemented at Ontario Hydro. The technique utilizes both helium leak detection and moisture leak detection. The combination of these two methods allows tube leaks to be detected in any part of the tube bundle, including those submerged below water near the tubesheet. The estimated detection limits for the helium and moisture leak detection systems are 0.001 kg/hr and 0.05 kg/hr respectively, expressed as leak rates measured at typical boiler operating conditions. This technology is best utilized in situations where the leak rate under operating conditions is smaller than the practical limit for fluorescein dye techniques ({approx}2 kg/hour). Other novel techniques have been utilized to increase the reliability and speed of the boiler leak search process. These include the use of argon carrier gas to stabilize the buoyant helium gas in the boiler secondary. (author)

  4. Developments in steam generator leak detection at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, K.J.; Singh, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    A method for locating small tube leaks in steam generators has been developed and implemented at Ontario Hydro. The technique utilizes both helium leak detection and moisture leak detection. The combination of these two methods allows tube leaks to be detected in any part of the tube bundle, including those submerged below water near the tubesheet. The estimated detection limits for the helium and moisture leak detection systems are 0.001 kg/hr and 0.05 kg/hr respectively, expressed as leak rates measured at typical boiler operating conditions. This technology is best utilized in situations where the leak rate under operating conditions is smaller than the practical limit for fluorescein dye techniques (∼2 kg/hour). Other novel techniques have been utilized to increase the reliability and speed of the boiler leak search process. These include the use of argon carrier gas to stabilize the buoyant helium gas in the boiler secondary. (author)

  5. A Comparative Risk Assessment of Extended Integrated Leak Rate Testing Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji Yong; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Byung Sik [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents the risk impacts of extending the Integrated Leak Rate Testing (ILRT) intervals (from five years to ten years) of Yonggwang (YGN) Unit 1 and 2. These risk impacts depended on the annual variances of meteorological data and resident population. Main comparisons were performed between the initial risk assessment (2005) for the purpose of extending ILRT interval and risk reassessment (2009) where the changed plant internal configurations (core inventory and radioisotope release fraction) and plant external alterations (wind directions, rainfall and population distributions) were monitored. The reassessment showed that there was imperceptible risk increase when the ILRT interval was extended compared to the initial risk assessment. In addition, the increased value of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) also satisfied the acceptance guideline proposed on Reg. Guide 1.174. The MACCS II code was used for evaluating the offsite consequence analysis. The primary risk index were used as the Probabilistic Population Dose (PPD) by considering the early effects within 80 km. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of YGN 1 and 2 was applied to evaluate the accident frequency of each source term category and the used PSA scope was limited to internal event.

  6. DISAIN SISTEM KENDALI MESIN AIR LEAK TEST MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM KENDALI PLC OMRON CJ2M DI HVAC (HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING LINE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi pembuatan komponen HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning dari perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia, memerlukan proses pengecekan kebocoran pada bagian HVAC. Proses pengecekan ini dilakukan untuk memastikan tidak ada komponen HVAC yang bocor sebelum dikirim ke pihak pelanggan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat system dan alat air leak test. Mesin air leak test ini menggunakan prinsip kerja differential pressure air leak test, yaitu metode yang membandingkan antara tekanan udara yang diberikan ke produk dan master produk. Pada penelitian ini, kami membuat disain mesin air leak test menggunakan sistem kendali berupa air leak tester, PLC, dan HMI. Berdasarkan kondisi dengan kapasitas produksi yang meningkat karena bertambahnya permintaan dari customer, dapat ditanggulangi dengan adanya share loading produksi dari HVAC line 4 ke line baru, yaitu HVAC line 6. Hasil yang didapat dari pengujian deteksi kebocoran produk,didapat nilai parameter kebocoran produk sebesar 2.23 ml/min.

  7. Sodium and steam leak simulation studies for fluidized bed steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeton, A.R.; Vaux, W.G.; Lee, P.K.; Witkowski, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program is described which was conducted to study the effects of sodium or steam leaking into an operating fluidized bed of metal or ceramic particles at 680 to 800 0 K. This effort was part of the early development studies for a fluidized-bed steam generator concept using helium as the fluidizing gas. Test results indicated that steam and small sodium leaks had no effect on the quality of fluidization, heat transfer coefficient, temperature distribution, or fluidizing gas pressure drop across the bed. Large sodium leaks, however, immediately upset the operation of the fluidized bed. Both steam and sodium leaks were detected positively and rapidly at an early stage of a leak by instruments specifically selected to accomplish this

  8. Study on DOP substitutes for leaking rate testing of HEPA filter used in nuclear air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Zhang Jirong; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Shen Dapeng; Shi Yingxia

    2012-01-01

    Based on an extensive investigation over available literatures concerning HEPA filter testing, PEG400, SHELL on dina oil 15 and P.a. were chosen as candidates for Dop substitutes, and on which a series of tests were conducted about their aerosol conversion rate, particle size distribution, Dop detector response and leaking rate in H EPA filter. With consideration of technical properties, safety performance and economy, homemade P.a. is finally selected as the best substitute for Dop among the three. (authors)

  9. HEAPA Filter Bank In-Place Leak Test for ACUs of Advanced Fuel Science Building in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Chul Goo; Bae, Sang Oh [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Air cleaning units installed in the Advanced Fuel Science Building were performed visual inspection, airflow capacity test, and HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test in accordance with ASME N-510-1989. All the above inspections was acceptable. Visual inspection was satisfied to AUC-556 and AUC-557. Airflow capacity was 96%(30,240 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(31,500 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-556 and was 97%(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-557, and was maintained within {+-}10% of the specified value. Penetration of HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test was 0.009% for AUC-556 and was 0.013% for AUC-557 and these values were maintained less than the acceptance criteria(0.05%)

  10. Preliminary Analysis on Decay Heat Removal Capability of Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu Young; Cho, Seung Yon; Kim, Duck Hoi; Lee, Eun Seok; Kim, Hyung Seok; Suh, Jae Seung; Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin

    2007-01-01

    One of the main ITER goals is to test and validate design concepts of tritium breeding blankets relevant to DEMO or fusion power plants. Korea Helium-Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed with overall objectives of achieving this goal. The TBM employs high pressure helium to cool down the First Wall (FW), Side Wall (SW) and Breeding Zone (BZ). Therefore, safety consideration is a part of the design process. Each ITER Party performing the TBM program is requested to reach a similar level of confidence in the TBM safety analysis. To meet ITER's request, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) studies have been performed on the TBM to identify the Postulated Initial Event (PIE). Although FMEA on the KO TBM has not been completed, in-vessel, in-box and ex-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) are considered as enveloping cases of PIE in general. In this paper, accidental analyses for the three selected LOCA were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability of the TBM. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior of the TBM for the selected scenarios, RELAP5/MOD3.2 code was used

  11. Leak detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method for removing nuclear fuel elements from a fabrication building while at the same time testing the fuel elements for leaks without releasing contaminants from the fabrication building or from the fuel elements. The vacuum source used, leak detecting mechanism and fuel element fabrication building are specified to withstand environmental hazards. (UK)

  12. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cortés, C. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Física, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-20

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  13. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Catelan, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Cortés, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  14. Construction and performance tests of Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) for VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, M.; Tanaka, T.; Shimomura, H.; Sanokawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    A helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) was constructed and operated in JAERI in order to develop the high-temperature key components of an experimental very high temperature gas cooled reactor, like fuel stack, in-core reactor structure, hot gas duct, intermediate heat exchanger. Performance tests as well as demonstration of integrity are carried out with large-size or actual-size models of key components. The key components to be tested in HENDEL are: fuel stack and control rod; core supporting structure, or bottom structure of rector core exposed to direct impingement of high temperature core outlet flow; reactor internal components and structure; high temperature components in heat removal system (primary and secondary cooling systems)

  15. Steam generator leak detection at Bruce A Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, K.J.; McInnes, D.E.; Singh, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    A new steam generator leak detection system was recently developed and utilized at Bruce A. The equipment is based on standard helium leak detection, with the addition of moisture detection and several other capability improvements. All but 1% of the Unit 1 Boiler 03 tubesheet was inspected, using a sniffer probe which inspected tubes seven at a time and followed by individual tube inspections. The leak search period was completed in approximately 24 hours, following a prerequisite period of several days. No helium leak indications were found anywhere on the boiler. A single water leak indication was found, which was subsequently confirmed as a through-wall defect by eddy current inspection. (author)

  16. Gas leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke, E-mail: hayasaka@oasis.muroran-it.ac.jp [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Park, Joon-Soo. [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • NITE-SiC/SiC has extremely densified microstructure compared with other SiC/SiC composite like CVI. • Excellent helium and hydrogen gas-leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites by DEMO-NITE method from prototype industrialization production line was presented. • The excellence against stainless steel and Zircaloy at elevated temperature, together with generic excellent properties of SiC will be inevitable for innovative blanket and divertors for DEMO- and power- fusion reactors. - Abstract: SiC/SiC composite materials are attractive candidates for high heat flux components and blanket of fusion reactor, mainly due to their high temperature properties, radiation damage tolerance and low induced radioactivity. One of the challenges for SiC/SiC application in fusion reactors is to satisfy sufficient gas leak tightness of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Although many efforts have been carried-out, SiC/SiC composites by conventional processes have not been successful to satisfy the requirements, except SiC/SiC composites by NITE-methods. Toward the early realization of SiC/SiC components into fusion reactor systems process development of NITE-process has been continued. Followed to the brief introduction of recently developed DEMO-NITE process, baseline properties and hydrogen and helium gas leak tightness is presented. SiC/SiC claddings with 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in wall thickness are tested by gas leak tightness system developed. The leak tightness measurements are done room temperature to 400 °C. Excellent gas leak tightness equivalent or superior to Zircaloy claddings for light water fission reactors is confirmed. The excellent gas leak tightness suggests nearly perfect suppression of large gas leak path in DEMO-NITE SiC/SiC.

  17. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-01-01

    : identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project

  18. Training Guidelines in Non-Destructive Testing Techniques: Leak Testing at Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology for many decades. The prime reason for this interest has been the need for stringent standards for quality assurance for safe operation of nuclear and other industrial installations. The IAEA successfully executed a number of programmes, including technical cooperation projects (national and regional) and coordinated research projects (CRPs), in which NDT was an important part. Through these programmes, a large number of personnel have been trained in Member States, leading to the establishment of national certifying bodies responsible for the training and certification of NDT personnel. Consequently, a state of self-sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many Member States. All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines, in order to orient the IAEA experts who were involved in training and certification programmes, and to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and certification processes, and consequent competence of NDT personnel.

  19. Program for aerodynamic performance tests of helium gas compressor model of the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Kunimoto, Kazuhiko; Yan, Xing; Itaka, Hidehiko; Mori, Eiji

    2003-01-01

    Research and development program for helium gas compressor aerodynamics was planned for the power conversion system of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The axial compressor with polytropic efficiency of 90% and surge margin more than 30% was designed with 3-dimensional aerodynamic design. Performance and surge margin of the helium gas compressor tends to be lower due to the higher boss ratio which makes the tip clearance wide relative to the blade height, as well as due to a larger number of stages. The compressor was designed on the basis of methods and data for the aerodynamic design of industrial open-cycle gas-turbine. To validate the design of the helium gas compressor of the GTHTR300, aerodynamic performance tests were planned, and a 1/3-scale, 4-stage compressor model was designed. In the tests, the performance data of the helium gas compressor model will be acquired by using helium gas as a working fluid. The maximum design pressure at the model inlet is 0.88 MPa, which allows the Reynolds number to be sufficiently high. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  20. Activation analysis and waste management of China ITER helium cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.R., E-mail: hanjingru@163.co [North China Electric Power University, School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Zhu-Xin-Zhuang, De-Wai, Beijing 102206 (China); Chen, Y.X.; Han, R. [North China Electric Power University, School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Zhu-Xin-Zhuang, De-Wai, Beijing 102206 (China); Feng, K.M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Forrest, R.A. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Activation characteristics have been assessed for the ITER China helium cooled solid breeder (CH-HCSB) 3 x 6 test blanket module (TBM). Taking a representative irradiation scenario, the activation calculations were performed by FISPACT code. Neutron fluxes distributions in the TBM were provided by a preceding MCNP calculation. These fluxes were passed to FISPACT for the activation calculation. The main activation parameters of the HCSB-TBM were calculated and discussed, such as activity, afterheat and contact dose rate. Meanwhile, the dominant radioactivity nuclides and reaction channel pathways have been identified. According to the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) waste management strategy, the activated materials can be re-used following the remote handling recycling options. The results will provide useful indications for further optimization design and waste management of the TBM.

  1. Design verification and acceptance tests of the ASST-A helium refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganni, V.; Apparao, T.V.V.R.

    1993-07-01

    Three similar helium refrigerator systems have been installed at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) N15 site; the ASST-A system, which will be used for the accelerator system's full cell string test; the N15-B system, which will be used for string testing in the tunnel; and a third plant, dedicated to magnet testing at the Magnet Testing Laboratory. The ASST-A and N15-B systems will ultimately be a part of the collider's N15 sector station equipment. Each of these three systems has many subsystems, but the design basis for the main refrigerator is the same. Each system has a guaranteed capacity of 2000 W of refrigeration and 20 g/s liquefaction at 4.5K. The testing and design verification of the ASST-A refrigeration system consisted of parametric tests on the compressors and the total system. A summary of the initial performance test data is given in this paper. The tests were conducted for two cases: in the first, all four compressors were operating; in the second, only one compressor in each stage was operating. In each case, tests were conducted in three modes of operation described later on. The process design basis supplied by the manufacturers and used in the design of the main components -- the compressor, and expanders and heat exchangers for the coldbox -- were used to reduce the actual test data using process simulation methodology. In addition, the test results and the process design submitted by the manufacturer were analyzed using exergy analysis. This paper presents both the process and the exergy analyses of the manufacturer's design and the actual test data for Case 1. The process analyses are presented in the form of T-S diagrams. The results of the exergy analyses comparing the exergy losses of each component and the total system for the manufacturer's design and the test data are presented in the tables

  2. Design of helium-gas supplying facility of out-of-pile demonstration test for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-09-01

    One of the objectives of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature heat utilization. Prior to connect a heat utilization system to the HTTR, a series of out-of-pile demonstration test is indispensable to improve components` performance, to demonstrate operation, control and safety technologies and to verify analysis codes for design and safety evaluation. After critical review and discussion on the out-of-pile demonstration test, a test facility have been designed. In this report, a helium-gas supplying facility simulated the HTTR system was described in detail, which supplies High-temperature helium-gas of 900degC to a steam reforming facility mocking-up the HTTR heat utilization system. Components of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) were selected to reuse in the helium-gas supplying facility in order to decrease construction cost. Structures and specifications of new components such as a high-temperature heater and a preheater were decided after evaluation of thermal and hydraulic performance and strength. (author)

  3. Radiation hardness tests of piezoelectric actuators with fast neutrons at liquid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M.; Martinet, G.; Hammoudi, N.; Chatelet, F.; Olivier, A.; Blivet, S.; Galet, F. [CNRS-IN2P3-IPN Orsay, Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    Piezoelectric actuators, which are integrated into the cold tuning system and used to compensate the small mechanical deformations of the cavity wall induced by Lorentz forces due to the high electromagnetic surface field, may be located in the radiation environment during particle accelerator operation. In order to provide for a reliable operation of the accelerator, the performance and life time of piezoelectric actuators ({approx}24.000 units for ILC) should not show any significant degradation for long periods (i.e. machine life duration: {approx}20 years), even when subjected to intense radiation (i.e. gamma rays and fast neutrons). An experimental program, aimed at investigating the effect of fast neutrons radiation on the characteristics of piezoelectric actuators at liquid helium temperature (i.e. T{approx}4.2 K), was proposed for the working package WPNo.8 devoted to tuners development in the frame of CARE project. A neutrons irradiation facility, already installed at the CERI cyclotron located at Orleans (France), was upgraded and adapted for actuators irradiations tests purpose. A deuterons beam (maximum energy and beam current: 25 MeV and 35{mu}A) collides with a thin (thickness: 3 mm) beryllium target producing a high neutrons flux with low gamma dose ({approx}20%): a neutrons fluence of more than 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} is achieved in {approx}20 hours of exposure. A dedicated cryostat was developed at IPN Orsay and used previously for radiation hardness test of calibrated cryogenic thermometers and pressure transducers used in LHC superconducting magnets. This cryostat could be operated either with liquid helium or liquid argon. This irradiation facility was upgraded for allowing fast turn-over of experiments and a dedicated experimental set-up was designed, fabricated, installed at CERI and successfully operated for radiation hardness tests of several piezoelectric actuators at T{approx}4.2 K. This new apparatus allows on-line automatic measurements

  4. Radiation hardness tests of piezoelectric actuators with fast neutrons at liquid helium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, M.; Martinet, G.; Hammoudi, N.; Chatelet, F.; Olivier, A.; Blivet, S.; Galet, F.

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators, which are integrated into the cold tuning system and used to compensate the small mechanical deformations of the cavity wall induced by Lorentz forces due to the high electromagnetic surface field, may be located in the radiation environment during particle accelerator operation. In order to provide for a reliable operation of the accelerator, the performance and life time of piezoelectric actuators (∼24.000 units for ILC) should not show any significant degradation for long periods (i.e. machine life duration: ∼20 years), even when subjected to intense radiation (i.e. gamma rays and fast neutrons). An experimental program, aimed at investigating the effect of fast neutrons radiation on the characteristics of piezoelectric actuators at liquid helium temperature (i.e. T∼4.2 K), was proposed for the working package WPNo.8 devoted to tuners development in the frame of CARE project. A neutrons irradiation facility, already installed at the CERI cyclotron located at Orleans (France), was upgraded and adapted for actuators irradiations tests purpose. A deuterons beam (maximum energy and beam current: 25 MeV and 35μA) collides with a thin (thickness: 3 mm) beryllium target producing a high neutrons flux with low gamma dose (∼20%): a neutrons fluence of more than 10 14 n/cm 2 is achieved in ∼20 hours of exposure. A dedicated cryostat was developed at IPN Orsay and used previously for radiation hardness test of calibrated cryogenic thermometers and pressure transducers used in LHC superconducting magnets. This cryostat could be operated either with liquid helium or liquid argon. This irradiation facility was upgraded for allowing fast turn-over of experiments and a dedicated experimental set-up was designed, fabricated, installed at CERI and successfully operated for radiation hardness tests of several piezoelectric actuators at T∼4.2 K. This new apparatus allows on-line automatic measurements of actuators characteristics and the

  5. Breakdown voltage at the electric terminals of GCFR-core flow test loop fuel rod simulators in helium and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, W.R.; Conley, T.B.

    1979-12-01

    Tests were performed to determine the ac and dc breakdown voltage at the terminal ends of a fuel rod simulator (FRS) in helium and air atmospheres. The tests were performed at low pressures (1 to 2 atm) and at temperatures from 20 to 350 0 C (68 to 660 0 F). The area of concern was the 0.64-mm (0.025-in.) gap between the coaxial conductor of the FRS and the sheaths of the four internal thermocouples as they exit the FRS. The tests were prformed to ensure a sufficient safety margin during Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) operations that require potentials up to 350 V ac at the FRS terminals. The primary conclusion from the test results is that the CFTL cannot be operated safely if the terminal ends of the FRSs are surrounded by a helium atmosphere but can be operated safely in air

  6. Detection of heavy-water leaks in nuclear reactors : a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.; Gor, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, BARC has designed, developed and produced several high sensitivity mass spectrometer helium leak detectors over a period of two decades. Sometimes back, when there was a problem of detecting heavy water leaks in situ in one of the nuclear power reactors of the Department of Atomic Energy, it was referred to this division for a technical solution. After discussing with the site engineers, the various problems involved in the on-line detection of heavy water leaks especially near the end fittings of the coolant assemblies, a novel method of leak detection was developed. Some of the salient features of the method and the results obtained in the laboratory tests are given in this paper. (author)

  7. Analysis of small leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Hofmann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with 'small leaks' are described and requirements are derived for experimental facilities and computer codes. Based on these requirements, a valuation of the existing experimental facilities and codes is presented. Facilities for integral tests in relatively large scale (ex. LOFT) are suitable for small leak test in principle, however minor changes (instrumentation, secondary side) are necessary for the evaluation of certain phenomena. The 'advanced blowdown codes' are capable of describing most of the phenomena occurring during small leak events, however a substantial amount of code development and verification is still needed. In addition, the use of transient codes in small leak analysis is demonstrated. There are some areas (neutronics feedback, influence of control system) in which the use of transient codes is possible and advantageous. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  8. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4651 for HNF-4650 SN-268 encasement leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-335 for project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm Encasement Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4650, SN-268 Encasement Leak Detection ANA-W-LDSTA-335, was conducted between 22 June and 01 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure, were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure

  9. Mapping of Ambient Magnetic Fields within Liquid Helium Dewar for Testing of a DC SQUID Magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhouse, Randal

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore the cavity lights phenomenon, Experimental Facilities Department at SLAC is testing a DC SQUID magnetometer. Due to the nature of the SQUID magnetometer and the intended tests, the earth's magnetic field must be negated. It is proposed to reduce ambient fields using bucking coils. First, however, an accurate map of the magnetic field inside the liquid helium Dewar where the experiment is going to take place needed to be made. This map was made using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on a 3D positioning device made for this purpose. A ten inch tall volume within the Dewar was measured at data points approximately an inch from each other in all three axes. A LabVEIW program took readings from the magnetometer at 2 ms intervals for 1000 readings in such a way as to eliminate any ambient 60 Hz signals that may be present in the data. This data was stored in spreadsheet format and was analyzed to determine how the magnetic field within the Dewar was changing as a function of position

  10. Mechanical compression tests of beryllium pebbles after neutron irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Compression tests of highly neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles have been performed. • Irradiation hardening of beryllium pebbles decreases the steady-state strain-rates. • The steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles exceed their swelling rates. - Abstract: Results: of mechanical compression tests of irradiated and non-irradiated beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 and 2 mm are presented. The neutron irradiation was performed in the HFR in Petten, The Netherlands at 686–968 K up to 1890–2950 appm helium production. The irradiation at 686 and 753 K cause irradiation hardening due to the gas bubble formation in beryllium. The irradiation-induced hardening leads to decrease of steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles compared to non-irradiated ones. In contrary, after irradiation at higher temperatures of 861 and 968 K, the steady-state strain-rates of the pebbles increase because annealing of irradiation defects and softening of the material take place. It was shown that the steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles always exceed their swelling rates.

  11. Thermal performance test of hot gas ducts of helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, Makoto; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ioka, Ikuo; Umenishi, Koji; Kondo, Yasuo; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Shimomura, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A hot gas duct provided with internal thermal insulation is supposed to be used for an experimental very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) which has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). This type of hot gas duct has not been used so far in industrial facilities, and only a couple of tests on such a large-scale model of hot gas duct have been conducted. The present test was to investigate the thermal performance of the hot gas ducts which are installed as parts of a helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) of JAERI. Uniform temperature and heat flux distributions at the surface of the duct were observed, the experimental correlation being obtained for the effective thermal conductivity of the internal thermal insulation layer. The measured temperature distribution of the pressure tube was in good agreement with the calculation by a TRUMP heat transfer computer code. The temperature distribution of the inner tube of VHTR hot gas duct was evaluated, and no hot spot was detected. These results would be very valuable for the design and development of VHTR. (author)

  12. WRSS jumper leak assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is: (1) to assemble and document the facts associated with three recently installed jumpers which have leaked either during actual process operation or during post installation testing; (2) to describe the corrective actions taken and to identify any process improvements which need to be implemented in the Hanford jumper design and installation activities; and (3) to document WRSS jumper leak lessons learned for use by future projects and other jumper design, fabrication, and installation activities

  13. Operational tests of the BNL 24.8 kW, 3.80K helium refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R.J.; Schlafke, A.P.; Sondericker, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The BNL 24.8 kW refrigeration system is completely installed and major portions of the acceptance tests have been completed. So far, the equipment tested has performed at or above design levels. The room temperature helium compressor station has been completely tested and accepted. The two-stage oil injected screw compressor system exhibited an isothermal efficiency of 57% while delivering a helium flow in excess of 4400 g/s. Data on the performance of the make-up gas cryogenic purifier is also given. The refrigerator turbomachinery, 13 expanders and three cold compressors, has been tested at room temperature for mechanical integrity and control stability. The first cooldown to operating temperature will be attempted in late August, 1985

  14. Operational tests of the BNL 24.8 kW, 3.8 K helium refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The BNL 24.8 kW refrigeration system is completely installed and major portions of the acceptance tests have been completed. So far, the equipment tested has performed at or above design levels. The room temperature helium compressor station has been completely tested and accepted. The two-stage oil injected screw compressor system exhibited an isothermal efficiency of 57% while delivering a helium flow in excess of 4400 g/s. Data on the performance of the make-up gas cryogenic purifier is given. The refrigerator turbomachinery, 13 expanders and three cold compressors, has been tested at room temperature for mechanical integrity and control stability. The first cooldown to operating temperature will be attempted in late August, 1985. 2 refs., 5 figs

  15. Performance Testing of Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Helium Screw Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2015-08-01

    Oil injected screw compressors have essentially superseded all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, reliability, minimal vibration, and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium refrigeration systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. It is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design the compression system to match the refrigeration process. It is also important to identify those primary compressor skid exergetic loss mechanisms which may be reduced, thereby offering the possibility of significantly reducing the input power to helium refrigeration processes which are extremely energy intensive. This paper summarizes the results collected during the commissioning of the new compressor system for Jefferson Lab's (JLab's) 12 GeV upgrade. The compressor skid packages were designed by JLab and built to print by industry. They incorporate a number of modifications not typical of helium screw compressor packages and most importantly allow a very wide range of operation so that JLab's patented Floating Pressure Process can be fully utilized. This paper also summarizes key features of the skid design that allow this process and facilitate the maintenance and reliability of these helium compressor systems.

  16. Cryosorption of helium on argon frost TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] neutral beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Cropper, M.B.; Dylla, H.F.

    1989-11-01

    Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on TFTR neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are ∼ 25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, > 20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a two-fold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 torr-l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2x10 -5 torr from an initial value of 10 -8 torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 torr-l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity. 29 refs., 7 figs

  17. Very High Temperature Test of Alloy617 Compact Heat Exchanger in Helium Experimental Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Park, Byung-Ha; Kim, Eung-Seon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) is a key-challenged high temperature component which determines the efficiency and the economy of VHTR system. Heat generated in the VHTR fuel block is transferred from the VHTR to the intermediate loop through IHX. In the present, the shell-helical tube heat exchanger is generally used as IHX of the helium cooled reactor. Recently, a Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) is one of the candidates for the IHX in a VHTR because its operation temperature and pressure are larger than any other compact heat exchanger types. These test results show that there is no problem in operation of HELP at the very high temperature experimental condition and the alloy617 compact heat exchanger can be operated in the very high temperature condition above 850℃. In the future, the high temperature structural analysis will be studied to estimate the thermal stress during transient and thermal shock condition. The conditions and evaluation standard for the alloy 617 diffusion bonding will be minutely studied to fabricate the large-scale PCHE for the high temperature condition.

  18. Activation analysis of Chinese ITER helium cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingru; Chen Yixue; Ma Xubo; Wang Shouhai; Forrest, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Chinese ITER helium cooled solid breeder(CH-HCSB) test blanket module (TBM) of the 3 x 6 sub-modules options, the activation characteristics of the TBM were calculated. Three-dimensional neutronic calculations were performed using the Monte-Carlo code MCNP and the nuclear data library FENDL/2. Furthermore, the activation calculations of HCSB-TBM were carried out with the European activation system EASY-2007. At shutdown the total activity is 1.29 x 10 16 Bq, and the total afterheat is 2.46 kW. They are both dominated by the Eurofer steel. The activity and afterheat are both in the safe range of TBM design, and will not have a great impact on the environment. Meanwhile,on basis of the calculated contact dose rate, the activated materials can be re-used following the remote handling recycling options. The activation results demonstrate that the current HCSB-TBM design can satisfy the ITER safety design requirements from the activation point of view. (authors)

  19. Development of monitoring system using acoustic emission for detection of helium gas leakage for primary cooling system and flow-induced vibration for heat transfer tube of heat exchangers for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Furusawa, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Yanagibashi, Minoru

    1998-10-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) uses helium gas for its primary coolant, whose leakage inside reactor containment vessel is considered in design of the HTTR. It is necessary to detect leakage of helium gas at an early stage so that total amount of the leakage should be as small as possible. On the other hand, heat transfer tubes of heat exchangers of the HTTR are designed not to vibrate at normal operation, but the flow-induced vibration is to be monitored to provide against an emergency. Thus monitoring system of acoustic emission for detection of primary coolant leakage and vibration of heat transfer tubes was developed and applied to the HTTR. Before the application to the HTTR, leakage detection test was performed using 1/4 scaled model of outer tube of primary concentric hot gas duct. Result of the test covers detectable minimum leakage rate and effect of difference in gas, pressure, shape of leakage path and distance from the leaking point. Detectable minimum leakage rate was about 5 Ncc/sec. The monitoring system is promising in leakage detection, though countermeasure to noise is to be needed after the HTTR starts operating. (author)

  20. Flame photometric detection of sodium leaks: Tests on a fullscale model for the control gear sodium rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundy, B.R.; Knowles, P.

    1971-01-01

    The proposed arrangement for detecting sodium leaks from the large flanges of the Control Gear Sodium Rig (Test Section No. 8, MCTR) at REML is to jacket then in a secondary containment from which air samples will be continuously pumped. Pipework feeds the air to a flame photometer which responds if soditun is present. To prove that sodium smoke could be transferred through the system, tests were performed on a fullscale model by burning small amounts of sodium in different jackets. Large signals free from fluctuations were obtained in all tests, peak response occurring in 2 1/4 minutes or less. The signal quickly cleared after isolating the appropriate vessel. A waiting period of several hours was sufficient to reduce the signal to zero, no cleaning of pipework, etc being necessary. In contrast, samples of two lagging materials heated to 400 °C gave no response with the photometer at maximum sensitivity. (author)

  1. Repair of EL4 leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The reactor shutdown was decided on the 15th of November 1984, because the evolution of the carbon dioxide quantity in the helium blanket of the heavy water. Leaks have been localized on three different channels. Repairs have been made in hard conditions taking into account the reactor state (materials strongly irradiated). The restart has been authorized on the 24th of January 1985 [fr

  2. Detailed Leak Detection Test Plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the pipelines that comprise the active, singly contained, portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (FFA) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new or replacement tank systems with secondary containment (Category A), existing tank systems with secondary containment (Category B), existing tank systems without secondary containment (Category C), and tank systems that have been removed from service (Category D). The FFA specifically requires that DOE demonstrate that the Category C systems are not leaking. This plan and schedule addresses testing of the Category C pipelines and the pipelines which are part of Category B tank systems that do not fully meet the requirements for secondary containment as listed in the FFA. A key feature of the plan is that it is based on the use of performance standards for the conduct of release detection testing, and on the use of methods whose performance has been evaluated and shown to meet those standards. Another feature of the plan is that it is based in part on relevant portions of current federal EPA regulations applicable to underground storage tanks and pipelines (UST systems) that store and transfer petroleum products and other hazardous substances. While the FFA does not require that the testing at ORNL follow these regulations, the regulations do provide industry- and regulator-accepted performance standards, as well as a schedule for repeated testing of UST components

  3. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Dong Won; Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon

    2016-01-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  4. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  5. Standard test method for determining whether gas-leak-detector fluid solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of brass alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an accelerated test method for evaluating the tendency of gas leak detection fluids (LDFs) to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass components in compressed gas service. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  7. Design, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning of the Helium Refrigeration system Supporting Superconducting Radio Frequency Testing at Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, F.; Fila, A.; Nguyen, C.; Tatsumoto, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a scientific user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC). The FRIB linear accelerator (LINAC) will be comprised of cryomodules each with multiple Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities operating at 2 K. A helium refrigeration system was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned in the SRF high bay building to test and certify these cavities and cryomodules before installation in the FRIB LINAC tunnel. The helium refrigeration system includes a helium refrigerator which has nominal capacity of 900 W at 4 K, 5000 L liquid helium storage Dewar, helium gas storage, two room temperature vacuum pumps capable of 2.5 g/s each for 2 K testing, purifier, purifier recovery compressor, and the distribution system for liquid nitrogen and helium. The helium refrigeration system is now operational supporting three below grade cavity testing Dewars and one cryomodule testing bunker meeting the required throughput of 1 cavity per day.

  8. Evaluation of helium cooling for fusion divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    The divertors of future fusion reactors will have a power throughput of several hundred MW. The peak heat flux on the diverter surface is estimated to be 5 to 15 MW/m 2 at an average heat flux of 2 MW/m 2 . The divertors have a requirement of both minimum temperature (100 degrees C) and maximum temperature. The minimum temperature is dictated by the requirement to reduce the absorption of plasma, and the maximum temperature is determined by the thermo-mechanical properties of the plasma facing materials. Coolants that have been considered for fusion reactors are water, liquid metals and helium. Helium cooling has been shown to be very attractive from safety and other considerations. Helium is chemically and neutronically inert and is suitable for power conversion. The challenges associated with helium cooling are: (1) Manifold sizes; (2) Pumping power; and (3) Leak prevention. In this paper the first two of the above design issues are addressed. A variety of heat transfer enhancement techniques are considered to demonstrate that the manifold sizes and the pumping power can be reduced to acceptable levels. A helium-cooled diverter module was designed and fabricated by GA for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . This module was recently tested at Sandia National Laboratories. At an inlet pressure of 4 MPa, the module was tested at a steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . The pumping power required was less than 1% of the power removed. These results verified the design prediction

  9. Testing of degradation of alloy 800 H in impure helium at 760 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, J.; Vilémová, Monika; Sajdl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 464, September (2015), s. 221-229 ISSN 0022-3115 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : High temperature corrosion * impure helium * 800 H * Generation IV nuclear reactors Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311515002019#

  10. The J-resistance curve Leak-before-Break test program on material for the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Darlington Leak-Before-Break (DLBB) approach has been developed for large diameter (21, 22, 24 inch) SA106B heat transport (HT) piping and SA105 fittings as a design alternative to pipewhip restraints and in recognition of the questionable benefits of providing such restraints. Ontario Hydro's DLBB approach is based on the elastic plastic fracture mechanics method. In this test program, J-resistance curves were determined from actual pipe heats that were used in the construction of the Darlington heat transport systems (Units 1 and 2). Test blocks were prepared using four different welding procedures for nuclear Class I piping. The test program was designed to take into account the effect of various factors such as test temperature, crack plane orientation, welding effects, etc., which have influence on fracture properties. A total of 91 tests were conducted. An acceptable lower bound J-resistance curve for the piping steels was obtained by machining maximum thickness specimens from the pipes and by testing side grooved compact tension specimens. Test results showed that all pipes, welds and heat-affected zone materials within the scope of the DLBB program exhibited uppershelf toughness behaviour. All specimens showed high crack initiation toughness Jsub(lc), rising J-resistance curve and stable and ductile crack extension. Toughness of product forms depended on the direction of crack extension (circumferential versus axial crack orientation). Toughness of DLBB welds and parent materials at 250 0 C was lower than that at 20 0 C. (author)

  11. The influence of data collection rate, containment size and data smoothing on containment Integrated Leak Rate Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.T.; Langan, J.P.; Norris, W.E.; Lurie, D.

    1988-01-01

    Phase I of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract investigated nuclear power plant Integrated Leak Rate Tests (ILRTs) using data gathered at many domestic and foreign ILRTs. The study evaluated ILRTs with the ANS criteria (in ANSI/ANS-56.8-1987) and the proposed extended ANS criteria (in draft Regulatory Guide, Task MS 021-5, October 1986). The study considered (1) the effects of data collection rates on ILRT conclusions, (2) a possible relationship between containment size, data collection rate and ILRT duration, (3) the impact of the proposed extended ANS methodology on ILRTs, and (4) the influence of data smoothing on ILRT data. The study was performed using 20 sets of Type A and 17 sets of verification data

  12. European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) test blanket. ITER design description document. Status 1.12.1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Dalle Donne, M.; Fischer, U.; Gordeev, S.; Hutter, E.; Kleefeldt, K.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, G.; Ruatto, P.; Schleisiek, K.; Schnauder, H.

    1997-04-01

    The Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is based on the use of separate small lithium orthosilicate and beryllium pebble beds placed between radial toroidal cooling plates. The cooling is provided by helium at 8 MPa. The tritium produced in the pebble beds is purged by the flow of helium at 0.1 MPa. The structural material is martensitic steel. It is foreseen, after an extended R and D work, to test in ITER a blanket module based on the HCPB design, which is one of the two European proposals for the ITER Test Blanket Programme. To facilitate the handling operation the Blanket Test Module (BTM) is bolted to a surrounding water cooled frame fixed to the ITER shield blanket back plate. For the design of the test module, three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutronic calculations and thermohydraulic and stress analyses for the operation during the Basic Performance Phase (BPP) and during the Extended Performance Phase (EPP) of ITER have been performed. The behaviour of the test module during LOCA and LOFA has been investigated. Conceptual designs of the required ancillary loops have been performed. The present report is the updated version of the Design Description Document (DDD) for the HCPB Test Module. It has been written in accordance with a scheme given by the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) and accounts for the comments made by the JCT to the previous version of this report. This work has been performed in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhne and it is supported by the European Union within the European Fusion Technology Program. (orig.) [de

  13. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  14. A 6 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator for CERN's Cryogenic Test Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gistau, G.M.; Bonneton, M.

    1994-01-01

    For purposes of testing the present LEP superconducting resonant cavities and the future LHC magnets, CERN built a test station the cryogenic power of which is presently supplied by a dedicated 6 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator. The thermodynamic cycle is discussed and special emphasis is put on a new cryogenic expansion turbine operating in the liquid phase. Information is given about: the cycle screw compressors' performances, the general performance of the refrigerator, the expected efficiency enhancement due to the liquid turbine, an off-design turn down operation

  15. Helium-cooled pebble bed test blanket module alternative design and fabrication routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, M.

    2007-01-01

    According to first results of the recently started European DEMO study, a new blanket integration philosophy was developed applying so-called multi-module segments. These consist of a number of blanket modules flexibly mounted onto a common vertical manifold structure that can be used for replacing all modules in one segment at one time through vertical remote-handling ports. This principle gives new freedom in the design choices applied to the blanket modules itself. Based on the alternative design options considered for DEMO also the ITER test blanket module was newly analyzed. As a result of these activities it was decided to keep the major principles of the reference design like stiffening grid, breeder unit concept and perpendicular arrangement of pebble beds related to the First Wall because of the very positive results of thermo-mechanical and neutronics studies. The present paper gives an overview on possible further design optimization and alternative fabrication routes. One of the most significant improvements in terms of the hydraulic performance of the Helium cooled reactor can be reached with a new First Wall concept. That concept is based on an internal heat transfer enhancement technique and allows drastically reducing the flow velocity in the FW cooling channels. Small ribs perpendicular to the flow direction (transverse-rib roughness) are arranged on the inner surface of the First Wall cooling channels at the plasma side. In the breeder units cooling plates which are mostly parallel but bent into U-shape at the plasma-side are considered. In this design all flow channels are parallel and straight with the flow entering on one side of the parallel plate sections and exiting on the other side. The ceramic pebble beds are embedded between two pairs of such type of cooling plates. Different modifications could possibly be combined, whereby the most relevant discussed in this paper are (i) rib-cooled First Wall channels, (ii) U-bent cooling plates for

  16. Performance of carbon-based hot frit substrates: I, Low pressure helium and hydrogen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, R.; Adams, J.; Svandrlik, J.; Powell, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    The performance of various carbon-based materials in flowing, high-temperature helium and hydrogen is described. These materials which are candidate hot frit substrates for possible application in a PBR include various grades of graphite, carbon-carbon and vitreous carbon. Vitreous carbon showed extremely good performance in helium, while that of the various graphite grades was quite variable and, in some cases, poor. Purified grades performed better than unpurified grades, but in all cases large sample-to-sample variations in weight loss were observed. For carbon-carbon samples, the performance was intermediate. Since the weight loss in these samples was in large measure due to the loss of the densification media, improvements in the performance of carbon-carbon may be possible. With respect to the performance in hydrogen, high weight losses were observed, re-enforcing the need for coating carbon-based materials for service in a flowing hydrogen environment

  17. SEALING SIMULATED LEAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-09-01

    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  18. Investigation into the cause of leak in the pipe of the corrosion test apparatus of IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Suwa, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    The thermochemical water-splitting hydrogen production IS process utilizes corrosive chemicals such as sulfuric acid and hydriodic acid. Corrosion tests in IS process environments have been carried out to get the corrosion data of materials. In the corrosion test in 90wt% sulfuric acid at 400degC, the leak of sulfuric acid was observed in a pipe connected with a reflux condenser. The cause of the leakage is a significant knowledge for the operation of the test apparatus. Therefore the cause was investigated. A 1mm wide through hole was detected in the pipe around the welding bead. By visual observation after cutting the pipe, the wall thickness of the pipe became thin at the inside welding bead around the through hole. In addition, EMPA showed that the inhomogeneous distribution of the constituent elements of the pipe was observed around the through hole. For these reasons, it is estimated that the lowering of the corrosion resistance by the sensitization at the welding caused the leakage. (author)

  19. Acceptance test procedure for the 105-KW isolation barrier leak rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared in accordance with CM-6-1 EP 4.2, Standard Engineering Practices

  20. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  1. Characterization of leaks from compressed hydrogen dispensing systems and related components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; San Marchi, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chernicoff, W.P.; Englom, L. [US DOT-RSPA, Research and Special Programs Administration, 400 7th St SW Washington, DC 20590 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    The equations are developed for the calculation of leak flow rates in various leak regimes. Leaks due to pressure-driven convection and due to permeation through metals are considered. For convective leaks, the conditions under which the flow transitions from laminar to turbulent and from subsonic to choked (sonic) flow are discussed. Equations are presented to calculate leak rates for subsonic laminar and turbulent flows, as well as choked (sonic) flow rates. Given the advantages of using noncombustible gases for leak testing and measurement, equations are also developed for calculating the equivalent leak rate of helium when it is used as a surrogate for the combustible gases hydrogen and methane in each of these flow regimes. Equations are derived for the permeation rate of hydrogen through several common metals. Tabulated data is presented for the permeation rates of hydrogen through pure iron and two types of stainless steel over a pressure range from 5000 to 15,000psi and a temperature range of -40-100{sup |}C. The results clearly show the sensitivity of flux to temperature, with over an order of magnitude increase in flux as the temperature is increased from ambient to 373K (100{sup |}C). Permeation rates are also found to vary significantly with material. For example, permeation rates for construction steel (as estimated from pure iron) are about three orders of magnitude higher than 403 stainless steel and nearly five orders of magnitude higher than type 316L stainless steel for a given temperature and pressure. Under many combinations of pressure and temperature, leak rates for Fe exceed the permissible gaseous hydrogen leak rates, while rates for 316L stainless steel are well below permissible permeation rates at all combinations of temperature and pressure considered. (author)

  2. Experimental test of a supercritical helium heat exchanger dedicated to EUROTRANS 150 kW CW power coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.

    2010-05-01

    The coaxial power coupler needed for beta = 0.65 superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the proton beam. The estimated RF losses on the power coupler outer conductor in standing wave mode operation are 46 W. To remove these heat loads, a full scale copper coil heat exchanger brazed around the outer conductor was designed and tested using supercritical helium at T = 6 K as a coolant. Our main objective was to minimise the heat loads to cold extremity of SRF cavity maintained at 2 K or 4.2 K. A dedicated test facility named SUPERCRYLOOP was developed and successfully operated in order to measure the performance of the cold heat exchanger. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryomodule. After a short introduction, a brief discussion about the problem of power coupler cooling systems in different machines is made. After that, we describe the experimental set-up and test apparatus. Then, a heat exchanger thermal model will be developed with FEM code COSMOS/M to estimate the different heat transfer coefficients by comparison between numerical simulation results and experimental data in order to validate the design. Finally, thermo-hydraulic behavior of supercritical helium has been investigated as function of different parameters (inlet pressure, flow rate, heat loads).

  3. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4647 for HNF-4646 241-B pit leak detection ANB-WT-LDSTA-231 for project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm B Pit Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications. The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4646,241-AN-B-Pit Leak Detection ANB-WT-LDSTA-231 was conducted between 26 June and 02 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions. The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure

  4. Engineering structure design and fabrication process of small sized China helium-cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zeming; Chen Lu; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design and analysis for china helium-cooled solid breeder (CHHC-SB) test blanket module (TBM) have been carried out recently. As partial verification that the original size module was reasonable and the development process was feasible, fabrication work of a small sized module was to be carried out targetedly. In this paper, detailed design and structure analysis of small sized TBM was carried out based on preliminary design work, fabrication process and integrated assembly process was proposed, so a fabrication for the trial engineering of TBM was layed successfully. (authors)

  5. Purge Procedures and Leak Testing for the Morgan Breathing System (MBS) 2000 Closed-Circuit Oxygen Rebreather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fothergill, David

    2005-01-01

    .... Since purging accounts for most of the O2 used when breathing on the MBS 2000, optimizing the purge procedure will maximize the duration of the O2 supply and minimize oxygen leaks into the chamber atmosphere...

  6. In-Situ Leak Testing And Replacement Of Glovebox Isolator, Or Containment Unit Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Julio M.; Macdonald, John M.; Steckle, Jr., Warren P.

    2004-11-02

    A test plug for in-situ testing a glove installed in a glovebox is provided that uses a top plate and a base plate, and a diametrically expandable sealing mechanism fitting between the two plates. The sealing mechanism engages the base plate to diametrically expand when the variable distance between the top plate and the bottom plate is reduced. An inlet valve included on the top plate is used to introducing a pressurized gas to the interior of the glove, and a pressure gauge located on the top plate is used to monitor the interior glove pressure.

  7. Determination of helium in beryl minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Barcellos, E. de.

    1985-08-01

    In order to obtain the diffusion coefficients of helium in beryl and phenacite samples at various temperatures, helium leak rates were measured in these minerals at these temperatures. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to obtain helium leak rates and the gas flow was plotted against time. The gas quantity determined by MS was first obtained at various temperatures until no helium leak rate was detected. After that, these samples were irradiated with fast neutrons to produce helium which was measured again. This procedure was used to estimate the experimental error. The quantity of helium produced by interaction of gamma radiation with beryl minerals was theoretically calculated from the amount of thorium-232 at the neighbourhood of the samples. The quantity of helium produced in the minerals due to uranium and thorium decay was calculated using the amount of these heavy elements, and the results were compared with the amounts determined by MS. The amount of potassium-40 was determined in order to derive the quantity of argonium-40, since some workers found argonium in excess in these minerals. The quantity of helium in the beryl samples (s) was determined in the center and in the surface of the samples in order to obtain informations about the effectiveness of the Be(α, η) He reaction. Beryl and phenacite minerals were choosen in this research since they are opposite each other with respect to the helium contents. Both have beryllium in their compositon but beryl hold a large amount of helium while phenacite, in spite of having about three times more beryllium than beryl, do not hold the gas. (author) [pt

  8. On-site leak testing of negative-pressure filtration units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    DOP, dioctylphthalate [or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)], commonly used as a plasticizer, has been used to produce test aerosols for in-place filter testing of HEPA filters and for quantitative respirator fit testing for over 30 years. Some questions arose about 10 years ago regarding the safety and potential health hazards of this material. Therefore, over the years many substitute materials for test aerosols have come into use in the field. A study was undertaken recently at the Harvard School of Public Health evaluating particle size distribution of the substitute materials using a Laskin nozzle aerosol generator. In concurrent preliminary studies performed at Air Techniques it was determined that the substitute liquids do not give the same concentration levels as DOP. This study will report on the various DOP alternatives and the concentrations of aerosols produced in the Laskin nozzle type aerosol generator in comparison with the concentration normally produced using DOP. Substitutes include di(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DOS), mineral oil, Ondina EL, Kaydol, corn oil, Emery 3004 and polyethylene glycol

  9. Experiments on leak-selfwastage and leak-propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.; Vagt, P.; Westenbrugge, J.K. van; Joziasse, J.

    1984-01-01

    During the last years a considerable number of selfwastage experiments with small leaks of different shape and size and for different ferritic materials (2 1/4% Cr - and 12% Cr-steel) were performed by TNO and by INTERATOM, using several sodium test facilities. Many fabrication-methods of artificial micro-leaks were applied and examined. Selfplugging-, selfwastage- and reopening-effects were observed and evaluated during different time periods and under various test conditions. The main results will be discussed. Concerning the leak propagation program of INTERATOM, the first series of experiments was carried out this year. A short status report and some first results will be given. (author)

  10. Gas-cooled fast-breeder reactor. Helium Circulator Test Facility updated design cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Costs which are included in the cost estimate are: Titles I, II, and III Architect-Engineering Services; Titles I, II, and III General Atomic Services; site clearing, grading, and excavation; bulk materials and labor of installation; mechanical and electrical equipment with installation; allowance for contractors' overhead, profit, and insurance; escalation on materials and labor; a contingency; and installation of GAC supplied equipment and materials. The total estimated cost of the facility in As Spent Dollars is $27,700,000. Also included is a cost comparison of the updated design and the previous conceptual design. There would be a considerable penalty for the direct-cooled system over the indirect-cooled system due to the excessive cost of the large diameter helium loop piping to an outdoor heat exchanger. The indirect cooled system which utilizes a helium/Dowtherm G heat exchanger and correspondingly smaller and lower pressure piping to its outdoor air cooler proved to be the more economical of the two systems

  11. Heat leak testing of a superconducting RHIC dipole magnet at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLalio, J.T.; Brown, D.P.; Sondericker, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently performing heat load tests on a superconducting dipole magnet. The magnet is a prototype of the 360, 8 cm bore, arc dipole magnets that will be used in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RMC). An accurate measurement of the heat load is needed to eliminate cumulative errors when determining the REUC cryogenic system load requirements. The test setup consists of a dipole positioned between two quadrupoles in a common vacuum tank and heat shield. Piping and instrumentation are arranged to facilitate measurement of the heat load on the primary 4.6 K magnet load and the secondary 55 K heat shield load. Initial results suggest that the primary heat load is well below design allowances. The secondary load was found to be higher than estimated, but remained close to the budgeted amount. Overall, the dipole performed to specifications

  12. Helium cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sciver, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Twenty five years have elapsed since the original publication of Helium Cryogenics. During this time, a considerable amount of research and development involving helium fluids has been carried out culminating in several large-scale projects. Furthermore, the field has matured through these efforts so that there is now a broad engineering base to assist the development of future projects. Helium Cryogenics, 2nd edition brings these advances in helium cryogenics together in an updated form. As in the original edition, the author's approach is to survey the field of cryogenics with emphasis on helium fluids. This approach is more specialized and fundamental than that contained in other cryogenics books, which treat the associated range of cryogenic fluids. As a result, the level of treatment is more advanced and assumes a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles, including some quantum mechanics. The goal throughout the work is to bridge the gap between the physics and engineering aspe...

  13. Leak rates and structural integrity tests for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant primary containment. Regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani Alegria, Yuri Raul; Salgado Gonzalez, Julio Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    In the Appendix A General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants of the US Code of Federal Regulations title 10 part 50 (10CFR50) is established the Criterion 1 Quality standards and records which requires that structures, systems and components important to safety should be tested to quality standards according with the importance of the safety function to be performed. This regulation has been adopted by the Mexican Regulatory Body (CNSNS) for their nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Practical-scale tests of cryogenic molecular sieve for separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Taylor, D.J.; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Earlier bench-scale work at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory examined a number of adsorbents for their suitability for separating low-concentration hydrogen (no tritium) from helium. One of the effective adsorbents was Linde 5A molecular sieve. Recently, experiments including tritium were conducted using practical-scale adsorbers. These tests used existing cryogenic molecular sieve beds (CMSB's) which each contain about 1.6 kg of Linde 5A molecular sieve. They are part of the TSTA integrated tritium processing system. Gas was fed to each CMSB at about 13 SLPM with a nominal composition of 99% He, 0.98% H 2 and 0.02% HT. In all cases, for an extended period of time, the beds allowed no detectable (via Raman spectroscopy) hydrogen isotopes to escape in the bed effluent. Thereafter, the hydrogen isotopes appeared in the bed exit with a relatively sharp breakthrough curve. This work concludes that cryogenic molecular sieve adsorption is an practical and effective means of separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from a helium carrier

  15. Interface strength of SiC/SiC composites with and without helium implantation using micro-indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Ohtsuka, S.

    1998-01-01

    Helium implantation effects on interface strength of SiC/SiC composite were studied using the micro-indentation fiber push-out method. Helium implantation was carried out with an accelerator at about 400 K. Total amount of implanted helium was approximately 10000 appm. Increase of the fiber push-in load was observed in as-implanted specimen. After post-implantation-annealing at 1673 K for 1 h, the change of the fiber push-in load by helium implantation was not observed. Effects of helium implantation on the interface are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); DuBois, L.J. [Commonwealth Edison, Zion, IL (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corporation, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  17. Test Plan for the Demonstration of Geophysical Techniques for Single-Shell Tank Leak Detection at the Hanford Mock Tank Site: Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2001-07-31

    As part of the Leak Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation (LDMM) program conducted by CH2M HILL 105-A during FY 2001. These tests are being conducted to assess the applicability of these methods (Electrical Resistance Tomography [ERT], High Resolution Resistivity [HRR], Cross-Borehole Seismography [XBS], Cross-Borehole Radar [XBR], and Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction [CEMI]) to the detection and measurement of Single Shell Tank (SST) leaks into the vadose zone during planned sluicing operations. The testing in FY 2001 will result in the selection of up to two methods for further testing in FY 2002. In parallel with the geophysical tests, a Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT) study will be conducted simultaneously at the Mock Tank to assess the effectiveness of this technology in detecting and quantifying tank leaks in the vadose zone. Preparatory and background work using Cone Penetrometer methods (CPT) will be conducted at the Mock Tank site and an adjacent test area to derive soil properties for groundtruthing purposes for all methods.

  18. 'ILRT' integrated leak reason test of the primary restraint of the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera C, G.

    2006-01-01

    Technical Specifications of the CLV. Its will be indicate in the development of this work which are the important points for the success of the ILRT tests, as well as the problem during its execution and the results that have taken us to enlarge the test period, with the affectations in the secondary variables of cost and recharge times. (Author)

  19. Vacuum leak detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  20. UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} utilization in high temperature engineering test reactor with helium coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waris, Abdul, E-mail: awaris@fi.itb.ac.id; Novitrian,; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Su’ud, Zaki [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Aji, Indarta K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is one of high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) types which has been developed by Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The HTTR is a graphite moderator, helium gas coolant, 30 MW thermal output and 950 °C outlet coolant temperature for high temperature test operation. Original HTTR uses UO{sub 2} fuel. In this study, we have evaluated the use of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in HTTR. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. The result shows that HTTR can obtain its criticality condition if the enrichment of {sup 235}U in loaded fuel is 18.0% or above.

  1. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. [Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  2. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves

  3. Experiments for post accident hydrogen dispersion in F.M. vault using helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, S.S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Mishra, S.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain postulated accident scenarios involving a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simultaneous with impairment of Emergency Core Cooling (ECC), generation of hydrogen due to reaction between the zirconium clad and coolant is predicted in the coolant channel. The hydrogen generated in the coolant channels would eventually get released either in Fuelling Machine (FM) vault or in the pump room atmosphere depending on the location of the break. Analytical studies carried out so far to estimate the time dependent hydrogen concentration in the accident FM Vault consider the entire vault as a single volume. Tests were, therefore, planned to assess the mixing within the FM vault atmosphere with and without the availability of cooling fan units by releasing a known quantity of helium (instead of hydrogen) at selected locations and monitoring the relative concentration of helium in air at various locations. Test was conducted by releasing about 360 1 helium over a period of to 4 minutes at preselected locations and by measuring the relative concentration (leak rates indicated by helium leak detectors) at various locations in the FM vault. The results of cases with fans operating indicate repeatable and consistent trends of good mixing in the vault. For other cases (non turbulent, still condition) the results are sensitive to various factors including orientation of release. The former set of cases (turbulent. fans operating) are more relevant for postulated accident conditions. (author). 1 tab., 18 figs

  4. Nuclear fuel element leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a leak detection system integral with a wall of a building used to fabricate nuclear fuel elements for detecting radiation leakage from the nuclear fuel elements as the fuel elements exit the building. The leak detecting system comprises a shielded compartment constructed to withstand environmental hazards extending into a similarly constructed building and having sealed doors on both ends along with leak detecting apparatus connected to the compartment. The leak detecting system provides a system for removing a nuclear fuel element from its fabrication building while testing for radiation leaks in the fuel element

  5. Leak detection by vibrational diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siklossy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities and methods of leak detection due to mechanical failures in nuclear power plants are reviewed on the basis of the literature. Great importance is attributed to vibrational diagnostic methods for their adventageous characteristics which enable them to become final leak detecting methods. The problems of noise analysis, e.g. leak detection by impact sound measurements, probe characteristics, gain problems, probe selection, off-line analysis and correlation functions, types of leak noises etc. are summarized. Leak detection based on noise analysis can be installed additionally to power plants. Its maintenance and testing is simple. On the other hand, it requires special training and measuring methods. (Sz.J.)

  6. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  7. 40 CFR 86.328-79 - Leak checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak checks. 86.328-79 Section 86.328... Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.328-79 Leak checks. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could...

  8. Transfer of hydrogen and helium through corrugated, flexible tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schippl, K.

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of liquid gas or cold gas through corrugated tubes is an alternative to rigid systems for the use in reactor technique. Advantages: flexibility for easy installation; these tubes together with their associated terminations and hardware are assembled, leak-tested and evacuated at the factory. This permits simple and cost saving installation on site. All tubes are helium leak-tested with a sensitivity of 10E -9 mbar 1/sec. Following the leak test, the vacuum space is pumped down to the operation vacuum level and properly sealed. The vacuum integrity is guaranteed as a result of the high degree of cleanliness observed during production and from the use of a specially selected better material inside the vacuum space. Disadvantage: pressure is limited to 20 bar. To fulfil all rules of the reactor safety, different tests have to be done. Because of the longitudinal weld of the corrugated tube, a bursting test of different sizes gives the best information of the liability of this kind of tube. It can be shown that the bursting pressure of such a tube is more than 5 times higher than the max. working pressure

  9. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis

  10. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis.

  11. Rapid heating tensile tests of high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel containing internal helium from radioactive decay of absorbed tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. This austenitic stainless steel is frequently used in the high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) metallurgical condition to take advantage of increased strength produced by cold work introduced by this process. Proper design of tritium-handling equipment will require an understanding of how helium-3, the product of radioactive decay of tritium, affects mechanical properties. This report describes results of elevated-temperature tensile testing of HERF 316L stainless steel specimens containing helium concentrations of 171 (calculated) atomic parts per million (appm). Results are compared with those reported previously for specimens containing 0 and 94 (measured) appm helium

  12. Non-destructive vacuum decay method for pre-filled syringe closure integrity testing compared with dye ingress testing and high-voltage leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Andrea; Amari, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the limitations of the traditional sterility test methods, in 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued the guidance "Container and Closure System Integrity Testing in Lieu of Sterility Testing as a Component of the Stability Protocol for Sterile Products" encouraging sterile drug manufacturers to use properly validated physical methods, apart from conventional microbial challenge testing, to confirm container closure integrity as part of the stability protocol. The case study presented in this article investigated the capability of four container closure integrity testing methods to detect simulated defects of different sizes and types on glass syringes, prefilled both with drug product intended for parenteral administration and sterile water. The drug product was a flu vaccine (Agrippal, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Vacuum decay, pharmacopoeial dye ingress test, Novartis specific dye ingress test, and high-voltage leak detection were, in succession, the methods involved in the comparative studies. The case study execution was preceded by the preparation of two independent sets of reference prefilled syringes, classified, respectively, as examples of conforming to closure integrity requirements (negative controls) and as defective (positive controls). Positive controls were, in turn, split in six groups, three of with holes laser-drilled through the prefilled syringe glass barrel, while the other three with capillary tubes embedded in the prefilled syringe plunger. These reference populations were then investigated by means of validated equipment used for container closure integrity testing of prefilled syringe commercial production; data were collected and analyzed to determine the detection rate and the percentage of false results. Results showed that the vacuum decay method had the highest performance in terms of detection sensitivity and also ensured the best reliability and repeatability of measurements. An innovative technical

  13. Helium refrigerator for 'SULTAN'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpagaus, M.; Erlach, H.; Quack, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe the helium refrigerator designed for the SULTAN test facility. SULTAN (Supraleiter-Testanlage) is intended to serve for the developments and testing of high field superconducting magnets. These magnets are needed mainly for future applications in nuclear fusion. (Auth.)

  14. Basis UST leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveria, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that gasoline and other petroleum products are leaking from underground storage tanks (USTs) at an alarming rate, seeping into soil and groundwater. Buried pipes are an even greater culprit, accounting for most suspected and detected leaks according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates. In response to this problem, the EPA issued regulations setting standards for preventing, detecting, reporting, and cleaning up leaks, as well as fiscal responsibility. However, federal regulations are only a minimum; some states have cracked down even harder Plant managers and engineers have a big job ahead of them. The EPA estimates that there are more than 75,000 fuel USTs at US industrial facilities. When considering leak detection systems, the person responsible for making the decision has five primary choices: inventory reconciliation combined with regular precision tightness tests; automatic tank gauging; groundwater monitoring; interstitial monitoring of double containment systems; and vapor monitoring

  15. Creep and fatigue properties of Incoloy 800H in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) helium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, J.G.Y.; Soo, P.; Epel, L.

    1978-01-01

    A mechanical test program to assess the effects of a simulated HTGR helium environment on the fatigue and creep properties of Incoloy 800H and other primary-circuit metals is described. The emphasis and the objectives of this work are directed toward obtaining information to assess the integrity and safety of an HTGR throughout its service life. The helium test environment selected for study contained 40 μ atm H 2 O, 200 μ atm H 2 , 40 μ atm CO, 10 μ atm CO 2 , and 20 μ atm CH 4 . It is believed that this ''wet'' environment simulates that which could exist in a steam-cycle HTGR containing some leaking steam-generator tubes. A recirculating helium loop operating at about 4 psi in which impurities can be maintained at a constant level, has been constructed to supply the desired environment for fatigue and creep testing

  16. Performance test results of helium gas circulator of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane will be connected to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) against development of nuclear heat utilization system. To obtain design and safety database of the HTTR hydrogen production system, mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}N{sub /}h was successfully produced in overall performance test. This report describes performance test results of a helium gas circulator in this facility. The circulator performance curves regarding to pressure-rise, input power and adiabatic thermal efficiency at standard revolution number were made based on the measured flow-rate, temperature and pressure data in overall performance test. The circulator performance prediction code was made based on these performance curves. The code can calculate revolution number, electric power and temperature-rise of the circulator using flow-rate, inlet temperature, inlet pressure and pressure-rise data. The verification of the code was carried out with the test data in FY 2002. Total pressure loss of the helium gas circulation loop was also evaluated. The circulator should be operated in conditions such as pressure from 2.7MPa to 4.0MPa and flow-rate from 250g/s to 400g/s and at maximum pressure-rise of 250 kPa in test operation. It was confirmed in above verification and evaluations that the circulator had performance to satisfy above conditions within operation limitation of the circulator such as maximum input-power of 150 kW and maximum revolution number of 12,000 rpm. (author)

  17. Development of sodium leak detectors for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.I.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Babu, B.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sodium leak detection system developed for PFBR using diverse principle. ► Miniature, remotely locatable diverse leak detector developed for Main Vessel. ► Mutual inductance type leak detectors designed and adapted for different locations. ► Sodium Ionisation detectors used for area monitoring. ► Crosswire type leak detector designed, developed and tested. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam near Chennai in India. The wide and high operating temperature, highly chemically active nature of sodium and its reaction with air make the sodium instrumentation complex over the conventional instrumentation. Over the years, traditional instruments such as wire type leak detectors, spark plug type leak detectors were developed and used in different sodium systems. The redundant and diverse leak detection method calls for development of special instrumentation for sodium systems which include sodium ionization (leak) detector for detecting minute sodium leak in addition to those systems based on mutual inductance principle. For detection of sodium leak from reactor Main Vessel (MV), diverse methods are used such as miniature, remotely locatable, Mutual Inductance type Leak Detector(MILD) and specially modified spark plug type leak detector. The design of MILD is suitably modified for detecting leak in double wall pipes and Diverse Safety Rod drive Mechanism (DSRDM). Steam/water leak in steam generator produces hydrogen and leads to high pressure and temperature in the system. Rupture disc is used as a safety device which punctures itself due to sudden pressure rise. To detect the discharge of sodium and its reaction products at the downstream of the rupture disc due to bursting of the rupture disc, cross wire type leak detector has been designed, developed and tested. The selection of the leak detection system depends on the location where leak has to be detected. This paper

  18. Leak rate models and leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Leak detection may be carried out by a number of detection systems, but selection of the systems must be carefully adapted to the fluid state and the location of the leak in the reactor coolant system. Computer programs for the calculation of leak rates contain different models to take into account the fluid state before its entrance into the crack, and they have to be verified by experiments; agreement between experiments and calculations is generally not satisfactory for very small leak rates resulting from narrow cracks or from a closing bending moment

  19. Test Report of Special Form Qualification Testing for the ORNL U ZipCan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Oscar A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This test report describes the special form testing activities performed on the two ZiPCans. One prototype test unit was subjected to the tests stipulated by 10 CFR 71.75 (d)(1)(i), ISO 2919:1999(E) Class 4 impact test, along with the leak rate test specified in 49 CFR 173.469(a)(4)(i). The other test unit was subjected to a leak rate test as specified in 173.469(a)(4)(i) and a heat test as specified in 49 CFR 173.469 (b)(4). Each test unit was leak tested before and after these respective tests. The leak rate tests performed were helium back-pressure tests and bubble tests, as specified in ANSI N14.5-2014.The measured leak rates were converted to standard condition leak rates as specified in ASTM E 493. The determined standardized leak rates from the test and calculation for both test units met the requirements for special form certification.

  20. Bed system performance in helium circulation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yean Jin; Jung, Kwang Jin; Ahn, Do Hee; Chung, Hong Suk [UST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Suk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei Hun [NFRI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, We have conducted an experiment for storing hydrogen to depleted uranium and zirconium cobalt. The helium blanket effect has been observed in experiments using metal hydrides. The collapse of the hydrogen isotopes are accompanied by the decay heat and helium-3. Helium-3 dramatically reduces the hydrogen isotope storage capacity by surrounding the metal. This phenomenon is called a helium blanket effect. In addition the authors are working on the recovery and removal techniques of helium-3. In this paper, we discuss the equipment used to test the helium blanket effect and the results of a helium circulation experiment. The helium-3 produced surrounds the storage material surface and thus disturbs the reaction of the storage material and the hydrogen isotope. Even if the amount of helium-3 is small, the storage capacity of the SDS bed significantly drops. This phenomenon is the helium blanket effect. To resolve this phenomenon, a circulating loop was introduced. Using a circulating system, helium can be separated from the storage material. We made a helium loop that includes a ZrCo bed. Then using a metal bellows pump, we tested the helium circulation.

  1. Study on water leak-tightness of small leaks on a 1 inch cylinder valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, T.; Kasai, Y.; Inabe, N.; Aritomi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Practical thresholds for water leak-tightness of small leaks were determined by experimentation. Measurements for small leak samples were taken of air leakage rates and water leakage rates for identical leak samples in order to identify parameters that influence water leak-tightness threshold. Four types of leaks were evaluated: a fine wire inserted in an O-ring seal, a glass capillary tube, a stainless steel orifice, and a scratched valve stem on a 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve. Experimental results demonstrated that the key parameter for water leak-tightness is the opening size of the leak hole. The maximum allowable hole size to achieve water leak-tightness ranged from 10 to 20 μm in diameter in this study. Experimental results with 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve samples demonstrated that the acceptance criteria for preshipment leakage test, 1x10 -3 ref-cm 3 .s -1 , as prescribed in ANSI N14.5 is an appropriate value from the point of view of water leak-tightness for enriched UF 6 packages. The mechanism of water leak-tightness is plugging by tiny particles existing in water. The water used in experiments in this study contained far fewer particles than in water assumed to be encountered under accident conditions of transport. Therefore, the water leak-tightness threshold determined in this study is a conservative value in a practical evaluation. (author)

  2. Experimental investigations of flow distribution in coolant system of Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilić, M.; Schlindwein, G., E-mail: georg.schlindwein@kit.edu; Meyder, R.; Kuhn, T.; Albrecht, O.; Zinn, K.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental investigations of flow distribution in HCPB TBM are presented. • Flow rates in channels close to the first wall are lower than nominal ones. • Flow distribution in central chambers of manifold 2 is close to the nominal one. • Flow distribution in the whole manifold 3 agrees well with the nominal one. - Abstract: This paper deals with investigations of flow distribution in the coolant system of the Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) for ITER. The investigations have been performed by manufacturing and testing of an experimental facility named GRICAMAN. The facility involves the upper poloidal half of HCPB TBM bounded at outlets of the first wall channels, at outlet of by-pass pipe and at outlets of cooling channels in breeding units. In this way, the focus is placed on the flow distribution in two mid manifolds of the 4-manifold system: (i) manifold 2 to which outlets of the first wall channels and inlet of by-pass pipe are attached and (ii) manifold 3 which supplies channels in breeding units with helium coolant. These two manifolds are connected with cooling channels in vertical/horizontal grids and caps. The experimental facility has been built keeping the internal structure of manifold 2 and manifold 3 exactly as designed in HCPB TBM. The cooling channels in stiffening grids, caps and breeding units are substituted by so-called equivalent channels which provide the same hydraulic resistance and inlet/outlet conditions, but have significantly simpler geometry than the real channels. Using the conditions of flow similarity, the air pressurized at 0.3 MPa and at ambient temperature has been used as working fluid instead of HCPB TBM helium coolant at 8 MPa and an average temperature of 370 °C. The flow distribution has been determined by flow rate measurements at each of 28 equivalent channels, while the pressure distribution has been obtained measuring differential pressure at more than 250 positions. The

  3. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  4. Online helium inventory monitoring of JLab cryogenic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, N.; Knudsen, P.; Wright, M.

    2017-12-01

    There are five cryogenic plants at Jefferson Lab which support the LINAC, experiment hall end-stations and test facility. The majority of JLab’s helium inventory, which is around 15 tons, is allocated in the LINAC cryo-modules, with the majority of the balance of helium distributed at the cryogenic-plant level mainly as stored gas and liquid for stable operation. Due to the organic evolution of the five plants and independent actions within the experiment halls, the traditional inventory management strategy suffers from rapid identification of potential leaks. This can easily result in losses many times higher than the normally accepted (average) loss rate. A real-time program to quickly identify potential excessive leakage was developed and tested. This program was written in MATLAB© for portability, easy diagnostics and modification. It interfaces directly with EPICS to access the cryogenic system state, and with and NIST REFPROP© for real fluid properties. This program was validated against the actual helium offloaded into the system. The present paper outlines the details of the inventory monitoring program, its validation and a sample of the achieved results.

  5. In situ radiation test of silicon and diamond detectors operating in superfluid helium and developed for beam loss monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfürst, C.; Dehning, B.; Sapinski, M.; Bartosik, M.R.; Eisel, T.; Fabjan, C.; Rementeria, C.A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Griesmayer, E. [CIVIDEC Instrumentation, GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Verbitskaya, E., E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@cern.ch [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zabrodskii, A.; Fadeeva, N.; Tuboltsev, Y.; Eremin, I. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Egorov, N. [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Härkönen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-05-11

    As a result of the foreseen increase in the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the discrimination between the collision products and possible magnet quench-provoking beam losses of the primary proton beams is becoming more critical for safe accelerator operation. We report the results of ongoing research efforts targeting the upgrading of the monitoring system by exploiting Beam Loss Monitor detectors based on semiconductors located as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. In practice, this means that the detectors will have to be immersed in superfluid helium inside the cold mass and operate at 1.9 K. Additionally, the monitoring system is expected to survive 20 years of LHC operation, resulting in an estimated radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 16} proton/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to a dose of about 2 MGy. In this study, we monitored the signal degradation during the in situ irradiation when silicon and single-crystal diamond detectors were situated in the liquid/superfluid helium and the dependences of the collected charge on fluence and bias voltage were obtained. It is shown that diamond and silicon detectors can operate at 1.9 K after 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} irradiation required for application as BLMs, while the rate of the signal degradation was larger in silicon detectors than in the diamond ones. For Si detectors this rate was controlled mainly by the operational mode, being larger at forward bias voltage. - Highlights: • Silicon and diamond detectors are proposed for beam loss monitoring at LHC. • The first in situ radiation test of Si and diamond detectors at 1.9 K is described. • Both diamond and silicon detectors survived after 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} irradiation at 1.9 K. • The rate of Si detectors degradation depends on bias polarity and is larger at V{sub forw}. • Sensitivity of Si detectors irradiated to 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} is independent on resistivity.

  6. RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4.0 modification for transient accident scenario of Test Blanket Modules in ITER involving helium flows into heavy liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J.; Pérez, M.; Mas de les Valls, E.; Batet, L.; Sandeep, T.; Chaudhari, V.; Reventós, F.

    2015-07-01

    The Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India, is currently involved in the design and development of its Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in ITER (International Thermo nuclear Experimental Reactor). The Indian TBM concept is a Lead-Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB), which utilizes lead-lithium eutectic alloy (LLE) as tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and coolant. The first wall facing the plasma is cooled by helium gas. In preparation of the regulatory safety files of ITER-TBM, a number of off-normal event sequences have been postulated. Thermal hydraulic safety analyses of the TBM system will be carried out with the system code RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4.0 which was initially designed to predict the behavior of light water reactor systems during normal and accidental conditions. In order to analyze some of the postulated off-normal events, there is the need to simulate the mixing of Helium and Lead-Lithium fluids. The Technical University of Catalonia is cooperating with IPR to implement the necessary changes in the code to allow for the mixing of helium and liquid metal. In the present study, the RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4 two-phase flow 6-equations structure has been modified to allow for the mixture of LLE in the liquid phase with dry Helium in the gas phase. Practically obtaining a two-fluid 6-equation model where each fluid is simulated with a set of energy, mass and momentum balance equations. A preliminary flow regime map for LLE and helium flow has been developed on the basis of numerical simulations with the OpenFOAM CFD toolkit. The new code modifications have been verified for vertical and horizontal configurations. (Author)

  7. Numerical examination of temperature control in helium-cooled high flux test module of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Shinji; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    For long term irradiation of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), test specimens are needed to retain constant temperature to avoid change of its irradiation characteristics. The constant temperatures control is one of the most challenging issues for the IFMIF test facilities. We have proposed a new concept of test module which is capable of precisely measuring temperature, keeping uniform temperature with enhanced cooling performance. In the system according to the new design, cooling performances and temperature distributions of specimens were examined numerically under diverse conditions. Some transient behaviors corresponding to the prescribed temperature control mode were perseveringly simulated. It was confirmed that the thermal characteristics of the new design satisfied the severe requirement of IFMIF

  8. Design, fabrication, commissioning, and testing of a 250 g/s, 2-K helium cold compressor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Ganni; D. M. Arenius; B. S. Bevins; W. C. Chronis; J. D. Creel; J. D. Wilson Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In June 1999 the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) Cryogenic Systems Group had completed the design, fabrication, and commissioning of a cold compressor system capable of pumping 250 g/s of 2-K helium vapor to a pressure above 1 bar. The 2-K cold box consists of five stages of centrifugal variable speed compressors with LN2 cooled drive motors and magnetic bearings, a plate fin heat exchanger, and an LN2 shield system. The new 2-K cold box (referred to as the SCN) was built as a redundant system to an existing four stage cold compressor SCM cold box that was commissioned in May 1994. The SCN has been in continuous service supporting the facility experiments since commissioning. This system has achieved a significant improvement in the total 2-K refrigeration system capacity and stability and has substantially increased the operating envelope both in cold compressor flow and operating pressure range. This paper describes the cold box configuration and the experience s in the design, fabrication, commissioning and performance evaluation. The capacity of the system for various operating pressures (0.040 to 0.025 bar at the load corresponding to a total compressor pressure ratio of 28 to 54) is presented. An effort is made to characterize the components and their operating data over the tested range. This includes the return side pressure drop in the distribution system, the heat exchanger, and the cold compressor characteristics. The system design parameters and their effects on performance are outlined

  9. Hermetic compartments leak-tightness enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the enhancement of the nuclear safety of the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP actions for the increase of the leak tightness are performed. The reconstruction has been done in the following directions: hermetic compartments leak tightness enhancement; air lock installation; installation of air lock in SP 4 vent system; integrated leakage rate test to hermetic compartments with leak detection. After 'major' leaks on the hermetic boundary components had been eliminated, since 1994 works on a higher qualitative level began. The essence of the works consists in the detection and identification of leaks in the structural component of the hermetic boundary during the planned refueling outages. The results of the Small Reconstruction and gradual enhancement of leak tightness are presented

  10. Design and analysis of hot internals for the reactivity control and reserve shutdown units under test at the helium test facility - HTR2008-58159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, E. J. J.; Craig, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design process followed by Westinghouse Electric South Africa for the insertion of hot internals into the Reactivity Control System (RCS) and Reserve Shutdown System (RSS) Units Under Test (UUTs) at the Helium Test Facility (HTF) at Pelindaba (South Africa)). The aim of the UUTs is to allow the validation of the high temperature operation of the RCS and RSS systems for implementation into the proposed Demonstration Power Plant of the PBMR. The units use electrical heaters to obtain pebble-bed reactor thermal conditions for both the control rods and small absorber spheres (SAS) under a pressurized helium environment. Design challenges include providing for strength under elevated temperatures (900 deg. C maximum); pressure boundary integrity (9 MPa maximum); separation of different volumes (representing core barrel, reactor citadel and other Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) volumes); thermal protection of carbon steel vessels by using thermal insulation; allowing for diverse thermal expansion coefficients of different materials; allowing for de-pressurization events within the insulation and internals having access for temperature, pressure, stress and proximity sensors and electrical wiring through high pressure penetrations; and provision for assembly of the hot internals both on and off-site. thermal analyses using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were performed to evaluate both worst-case and operational conditions of the UUTs. Factors that were considered include thermal insulation properties, heat transfer modes (internal radiation, external radiation and natural convection, forced internal convection for cooling) and operating pressure (ranging from 1 to 9 MPa). The thermal design uses elements originally proposed for hot gas duct design. The results obtained show that the proposed design satisfies ASME VIII requirements of the pressure boundary and that all challenges are successfully met. (authors)

  11. Development of sodium leak detection technology using laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Design and functional test using prototype sodium detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Ito, Chikara; Harano, Hideki; Okazaki, Koki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor, highly sensitive technology is required to detect small amounts of sodium leaking from the cooling system piping or components. The conventional sodium leak detectors have a fundamental difficulty in improving the detection sensitivity for a sodium leak because of the presence of salinity ( 23 NaCl) in the atmosphere around the components and piping of cooling systems. In order to overcome this problem, an innovative technology has been developed to selectively detect the radioactive sodium ( 22 Na) produced by a neutron reaction in the primary cooling system using Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). In this method, sodium ions produced with the two processes of (1) atomization of sodium aerosols and (2) resonance ionization of sodium atom, are detected selectively using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The 22 Na can be distinguished from the stable isotope ( 23 Na) by mass spectrometry, which is the advantage of RIMS comparing to the other methods. The design and the construction of the prototype system based on fundamental experiments are shown in the paper. The aerodynamic lens was newly introduced, which can transfer aerosols at atmospheric pressure into a vacuum chamber while increasing the aerosol density at the same time. Furthermore, the ionization process was applied by using the external electric field after resonance exciting from the ground level to the Rydberg level in order to increase the ionization efficiency. The preliminary test results using the stable isotope ( 23 Na) showed that prototype system could easily detect sodium aerosol of 100 ppb, equivalent to the sensitivity of the conventional detectors. (author)

  12. Gas Flow Validation with Panda Tests from the OECD SETH Benchmark Covering Steam/Air and Steam/Helium/Air Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.; Travis, J.R.; Breitung, W.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The CFD code GASFLOW solves the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes Equations with multiple gas species. GASFLOW was developed for nonnuclear and nuclear applications. The major nuclear applications of GASFLOW are 3D analyses of steam/hydrogen distributions in complex PWR containment buildings to simulate scenarios of beyond design basis accidents. Validation of GASFLOW has been a continuously ongoing process together with the development of this code. This contribution reports the results from the open posttest GASFLOW calculations that have been performed for new experiments from the OECD SETH Benchmark. Discussed are the steam distribution tests 9 and 9 bis, 21 and 21 bis involving comparable sequences with and without steam condensation and the last SETH test 25 with steam/helium release and condensation. The latter one involves lighter gas mixture sources like they can result in real accidents. The helium is taken as simulant for hydrogen

  13. Assessment of tritiated activities in the radwaste generated from ITER Chinese helium cooled ceramic breeding test blanket module system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chang An, E-mail: chenchangan@caep.cn; Liu, Lingbo; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Xin; Yao, Yong; Song, Jiangfeng

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Approaches were developed for calculation/evaluation of tritium activities in the materials and components of a TBM system, with tritium permeation being considered for the first time. • Almost all tritiated materials and components were considered in CNHCCB TBM system including the TBM set, connection pipes, and the ancillary tritium handling systems. • Tritium activity data in HCCB TBM system were updated. Some of which in directly tritium contacted components are to be 2 or 4 magnitudes higher than the original neutron transmutation calculations. • The radwaste amount from both operation and decommission of HCCB TBM system was evaluated. - Abstract: Chinese Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeding Test blanket Module (CNHCCB TBM) will be tested in the ITER machine for the feasibility of in pile tritium production for a future magnetic confinement fusion reactor. The tritium inventories/retentions in the material/components were evaluated and updated mainly based on the tritium diffusion/permeation theory and the analysis of some reported data. Tritiated activities rank from less than 10 Bq g{sup −1} to 10{sup 9} Bq g{sup −1} for the different materials or components, which are generally higher than those from the previous neutron transmutation calculation. The amounts of tritiated radwaste were also estimated according to the operation, decommission, maintenance and replacement strategies, which vary from several tens of kilograms to tons in the different operation phases. The data can be used both for the tritium radiological safety evaluation and radwaste management of CNHCCB TBM set and its ancillary systems.

  14. Small sodium-to-gas leak behavior in relation to LMFBR leak detection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopenfeld, J.; Taylor, G.R.; James, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Various aspects of sodium-to-gas leaks which must be considered in the design of leak detection systems for LMFBR's are discussed. Attention is focused primarily on small, weeping type leaks. Corrosion rates of steels in fused sodium hydroxide and corrosion damage observed at the site of small leaks lead to the conclusion that the sodium-gas reaction products could attack the primary hot leg piping at rates up to 0.08 mils per hour. Based on theoretical considerations of the corrosion mechanism and on visual observations of pipe topography following small sodium leak tests, it is concluded that pipe damage will be manifested by the formation of small detectable leaks prior to the appearance of larger leaks. The case for uniform pipe corrosion along the pipe circumference or along a vertical section of the pipe is also examined. Using a theoretical model for the gravity flow of sodium and reaction products along the pipe surface and a mass transport controlled corrosion process, it is shown that below sodium leak rates of about 30 g/hr for the primary piping corrosion damage will not extend beyond one radius distance from the leak site. A method of estimating the time delay between the initiation of such leaks and the development of a larger leak due to increased pipe stresses resulting from corrosion is presented

  15. Performance evaluation of PFBR wire type sodium leak detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, G.; Rajan, K.K.; Nashine, B.K.; Chandramouli, S.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Performance evaluation of wire type leak detectors was conducted in LEENA facility by creating sodium leaks. → The lowest leak rate of 214 g/h was detected in 50 min and the highest detection time was 6 h for a leak rate of 222 g/h. → Factors affecting the leak detection time are packing density of thermal insulation, layout of heater, temperature, etc. → Relationship between leak rate and detection time was established and a leak rate of 100 g/h is likely to be detected in 11.1 h. → Contact resistance of leaked sodium increased to 3.5 kilo ohms in 20 h. - Abstract: Wire type leak detectors working on conductivity principle are used for detecting sodium leak in the secondary sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors. It is required to assess the performance of these detectors and confirm that they are meeting the requirements. A test facility by name LEENA was constructed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam to test the wire type leak detector lay out by simulating different sodium leak rates. This test facility consists of a sodium dump tank, a test vessel, interconnecting pipelines with valves, micro filter and test section with leak simulators. There are three different test sections in the test set up of length 1000 mm each. These test sections simulate piping of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) secondary circuit and the wire type leak detector layout in full scale. All test sections are provided with leak simulators. A leak simulator consists of a hole of size one mm drilled in the test section and closed with a tapered pin. The tapered pin position in the hole is adjusted by a screw mechanism and there by the annular gap of flow area is varied for getting different leak rates. Various experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the leak detectors by creating different sodium leak rates. This paper deals with the details of wire type leak detector layout for the secondary sodium circuit of

  16. Compilation of three-dimensional coordinates and specific data of the instrumentation of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel/high temperature helium test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausinger, D.

    1977-04-01

    The positions of the thermoelements, strain gauges of various types, and of Gloetzl instruments installed by SGAE in the model vessel of the Common Project Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel/High Temperature Helium Test Rig are defined in cylindrical coordinates. The specific data of the instruments are given like configuration of multiple instruments; type, group and number of the instrument; number of cable and of channel; calibration factors; resistances of instruments and cables. (author)

  17. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS. II. THE WARSAW TEST PARTICLE MODEL (WTPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P., E-mail: jsokol@cbk.waw.pl [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    We have developed a refined and optimized version of the Warsaw Test Particle Model of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere, specially tailored for analysis of IBEX-Lo observations. The former version of the model was used in the analysis of neutral He observed by IBEX that resulted in an unexpected conclusion that the interstellar neutral He flow vector was different than previously thought and that a new population of neutral He, dubbed the Warm Breeze, exists in the heliosphere. It was also used in the reanalysis of Ulysses observations that confirmed the original findings on the flow vector, but suggested a significantly higher temperature. The present version of the model has two strains targeted for different applications, based on an identical paradigm, but differing in the implementation and in the treatment of ionization losses. We present the model in detail and discuss numerous effects related to the measurement process that potentially modify the resulting flux of ISN He observed by IBEX, and identify those of them that should not be omitted in the simulations to avoid biasing the results. This paper is part of a coordinated series of papers presenting the current state of analysis of IBEX-Lo observations of ISN He. Details of the analysis method are presented by Swaczyna et al. and results of the analysis are presented by Bzowski et al.

  18. Design of a single variable helium effects experiment for irradiation in FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] using alloys enriched in nickel 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Brager, H.R.; Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Nickel enriched in nickel 59 was extracted from the fragments of a fracture toughness specimen of Inconel 600 irradiated in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The nickel contained 2.0% nickel 59. Three heats of austenitic steel doped with nickel-59 were prepared and inserted in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The experiment was single variable in helium effects because chemically identical alloys without nickel-59 were being irradiated side by side with the doped material. The alloys doped with nickel 59 produced 10 to 100 times more helium than the control alloys. The materials included ternary and quaternary alloys in the form of transmission electron microscope (TEM) discs and miniature tensile specimens. The helium to dpa ratio was in the range 5 to 35 and was nearly constant throughout the irradiation. The exposures ranged from 0.25 to 50 displacements per atom (dpa) over the duration of the experiment. The irradiation temperatures covered the range of 360 to 600 0 C

  19. Test Results of a 1.2 kg/s Centrifugal Liquid Helium Pump for the ATLAS Superconducting Toroid Magnet System

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Passardi, Giorgio; Pirotte, O; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The toroid superconducting magnet of ATLAS-LHC experiment at CERN will be indirectly cooled by means of forced flow of liquid helium at about 4.5 K. A centrifugal pump will be used, providing a mass flow of 1.2 kg/s and a differential pressure of 40 kPa (ca. 400 mbar) at about 4300 rpm. Two pumps are foreseen, one for redundancy, in order to feed in parallel the cooling circuits of the Barrel and the two End-Caps toroid magnets. The paper describes the tests carried out at CERN to measure the characteristic curves, i.e. the head versus the mass flow at different rotational speeds, as well as the pump total efficiency. The pump is of the "fullemission" type, i.e. with curved blades and it is equipped with an exchangeable inducer. A dedicated pump test facility has been constructed at CERN, which includes a Coriolis-type liquid helium mass flow meter. This facility is connected to the helium refrigerator used for the tests at CERN of the racetrack magnets of the Barrel and of the End-Cap toroids.

  20. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  1. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  2. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC. Following a market survey (MS-2602/LHC/LHC) carried out amoung 37 firms in twelve Member States and six firms in two non-Member States, a price enquiry for qualifying prototypes was sent on 20 November 1998 to nine selected firms and the received prototypes were evaluated. As a result of this process a request for quotation was sent to one firm The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT/FISHER-ROSEMOUNT (CH), without competitive tendering, for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for an amount of 1 804 840 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, with options for up to 10 additional cryogenic helium mass flowmeters and an extension of the guarantee period to five years for all units for an amount of 219 090 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 2 023 930 Swi...

  3. Permanent underwater leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, L; McStay, D; Moodie, D; Kane, D

    2009-01-01

    A new optoelectronic sensor for the real time monitoring of key components such as valves and connectors within the subsea production equipment for leaks of hydraulic fluid is reported. The sensor is capable of detecting low concentrations of such fluids, allowing the early detection of small leaks, and the ability to monitor the evolution of the leak-rate with time, hence providing an important new tool in complying with environmental requirements, enabling early intervention and optimising subsea production

  4. Study on Leak Detection of the Pipeline System by Acoustic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, D. J.; Kim, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Leak detection testing for the pipeline system was performed by the acoustic emission method. It was found that the detected signal spectrum was influenced by the frequency response of sensors and pressure changes. AE parameters and frequency spectrum distributions were used to analyze the leak signals. The slope rise time of AE parameters were the important factors for distinguishing leak signals. The amplitude of leak signal was more affected by the changes of leak, rate and pressure than those of leak type

  5. O uso do teste de escape do balonete como fator preditor de laringoespasmo The use of the cuff leak test as a factor to predict laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Montano Paternostro Saback

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O desmame da ventilação mecânica é um desafio na prática da unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI e está relacionado a diversas complicações. Uma dessas complicações relaciona-se ao laringoespasmo pós-extubação, evento que muitas vezes pode ser previsto através do teste de escape do balonete (TEB. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar que o TEB é um método simples, confiável e de baixo custo para avaliar o grau de obstrução de via aérea superior em pacientes no processo de desmame da ventilação mecânica. CONTEÚDO: Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura através das bases de dados MedLine, SciElo e LILACS com publicações entre 1995 e 2007. Os artigos incluídos abordaram o uso do teste do balonete como índice preditivo para laringoespasmo e falha na extubação traqueal. Não fizeram parte estudos com animais e revisões bibliográficas. Procurou-se relacionar o TEB com tempo de ventilação mecânica, idade e grupos específicos de pacientes que se beneficiaram com a técnica. CONCUSÕES: O TEB pode ser considerado bom índice preditivo para identificar a presença de laringoespasmo pós-extubação, quando levadas em consideração as características da população estudada.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Weaning patients from mechanical ventilation is a challenge in the intensive care unit (ICU practice and is related to some complications. One of these is the pos-extubation laryngospasm, an event that can be anticipated for the cuff leak test (CLT. The objective was demonstrate that the CLT is a simple, reliable and low costs method to available the presence of obstruction in high airway in patients under weaning ventilator. CONTENTS: It was made a systematic review in databases MedLine, SciElo and LILACS with articles from 1995 to 2007. The selected studies focused the use of the CLT to predict laryngospasm and extubation failure. It was excluded studies with animals and others

  6. Ultrasensitive leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, C.R.; Davidson, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a method of detecting leaks to a sensitivity of 1.0 x 10 -13 std/cm 3 /s in vacuum devices and to develop a qualifiable standard leak to provide system calibration at this leak rate. The development work demonstrated that minimum detectable leak rates of 6.5 x 10 -14 std/cm 3 /s and 5.5 x 10 -15 std/cm 3 /s are possible for respective analog and digital measurement modes

  7. Dynamic pressure measures for long pipeline leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likun Wang; Hongchao Wang; Min Xiong; Bin Xu; Dongjie Tan; Hengzhang Zhou [PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang (China). R and D Center

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline leak detection method based on dynamic pressure is studied. The feature of dynamic pressure which is generated by the leakage of pipeline is analyzed. The dynamic pressure method is compared with the static pressure method for the advantages and disadvantages in pipeline leak detection. The dynamic pressure signal is suitable for pipeline leak detection for quick-change of pipeline internal pressure. Field tests show that the dynamic pressure method detects pipeline leak rapidly and precisely. (author)

  8. Numerical Analysis for Heat transfer characteristic of Helium cooling system in Helium cooled ceramic reflector Test Module Blanket (HCCR-TBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The main objectives of ITER project can be summarized into three types as follows - Plasma operation for a long time - Large tokamak device technology - Test blanket module (TBM) installation and verification The thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed in the He cooling channel in the BZ region of the HCCR TBM. The maximum temperature in the breeder material is equal to the limit temperature in the present design cooling channel. Nuclear fusion energy has advantage in terms of safety, resource availability, cost and waste management. There is not enough experimental results about the fusion reactor due to the severe experiments restrictions like vacuum environment, plasma production and significant nuclear heating at the same time. Much research and time is required for the commercial fusion reactor. For technical verification against the commercialization of fusion reactor, 7 countries which are EU, USA, Japan, Russia, China, India, and South Korea are building an ITER in the south of France. New designed cooling channels were proposed to improve the cooling performance. The swirl flow accelerates the mixture flow in the channels.

  9. Acoustic leak detection in piping systems, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Akira; Naohara, Nobuyuki; Aihara, Akihiko

    1983-01-01

    To monitor a high-pressure piping of nuclear power plants, a possibility of acoustic leak detection method has been experimentally studied in practical field tests and laboratory tests. Characteristics of background noise in field test and the results of experiment are summarized as follows: (1) The level of background noise in primary loop (PWR) was almost constant under actual plant operation. But it is possible that it rises at the condition of the pressure in primary loop. (2) Based on many experience of laboratory tests and practical field tests. The leak monitoring system for practical field was designed and developed. To improve the reliability, a judgment of leak on this system is used three factors of noise level, duration time of phenomena and frequency spectrum of noise signal emitted from the leak point. (author)

  10. Pipeline leak detection using volatile tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.M.; Golding, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of leak detection for underground storage tanks and pipelines adds volatile tracers to the products in the tanks and analyzes the surrounding shallow soil gases for tracer vapors. This method has several advantages: the success of the test is not limited by the size and structural design of the vessels, tanks can be tested at any fill level without taking the tank out of service, the location of a leak along a pipeline is clearly marked by the location of the tracer, and liquid leaks as small as 0.2 liters per hour (lph) can be detected. A limitation is: the backfill material must have some degree of air permeability in the zone above the water table. Several field tests document the success achieved using this method. A tracer leak detection system was installed at Homestead AFB after several other testing methods failed to locate a leak at a valve pit location along approximately 4 kilometers of fuel transfer piping. The leak was detected to the side of the valve pit at a depth of approximately 2.5 meters below the ground surface. Another installation of Edwards AFB involved the collection of 415 soil gas samples along approximately 3,050 meters of 15.25-centimeter fiberglass pipeline. Fourteen separate leaks were detected

  11. Humos monitoring system of leaks in to the containment atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Zaloudek, J.; Matal, O. Jr.; Klinga, J.; Brom, J.

    1997-01-01

    HUmidity MOnitoring System (HUMOS) has been developed and designed to detect the presence of leak in selected primary circuit high energy pipelines and components that are evaluated from the point of view of Leak Before Break (LBB) requirements. It also requires to apply technical tools for detection and identification of coolant leaks from primary circuit and components of PWRs reactors. Safety significant of leaks depend on: leak source (location); leak rate, and leak duration. Therefore to detect and monitor coolant leaks in to the containment atmosphere during reactor operation is one of important safety measures. As potential leak sources flange connection in the upper head region of WWER reactors can be considered. HUMOS does not rely on the release of radioactivity to detect leaks but rather the relies on detection of moisture in the air resulting from a primary boundary leak. Because HUMOS relies on moisture and temperature detection, leaks can be detected without requiring the reactor to be critical. Therefore leaks can be detected during integrity pressure tests and any other mode of operation provided the reactor ventilation system is operating and primary circuit and components are pressurized. 3 figs

  12. Use of stable helium tracer for the early detection of impaired pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, H.; Richards, P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Methodology and instrumentation are being developed to measure distal airway closure, a very sensitive diagnostic technique for the early detection of emphysema and other obstructive lung diseases and premature closure indicating abnormalities. The procedure is rapid and involves the inhalation of only a 1 ml bolus of readily available stable 4 He, continuous measurement of its concentration in the exhaled air with a helium leak detector type of mass spectrometer, and the subsequent analysis of the single-breath washout curve. Helium appears to be an ideal tracer, well-suited for testing in clinics and hospitals, as well as for epidemiological studies relating the effects of atmospheric pollutants and lung impairment and for screening of large populations for pulmonary dysfunction

  13. Sonic Helium Detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years.

  14. Sonic helium detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.J.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years

  15. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  16. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  17. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU ll Card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 ATG with SPU-II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and the alarms functionality

  18. Technical basis for inner container leak detection sensitivity goals in 3013 DE surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    Helium leak checking of 3013 inner container lids is under consideration for addition to DE Surveillance tasks as an improved means to detect any through-wall flaws that may have formed during storage. This white paper evaluates whether leak checking at DE could replace and improve upon the current method of comparing gas compositions and pressures within the inner and outer containers. We have used viscous and molecular flow equations in ANSI N14.5 to calculate what the measured standard helium leak rate would be for hypothetical leaks of three different sizes. For comparison, we have also calculated the effects on gas composition and pressure differences as a function of pre-DE storage time for the same three leak sizes, using molecular and viscous flow equations as well as diffusion equations to predict the relevant gas transport. For a hypothetical leak that would be measured at 1x10-7 std cc/sec, likely an achievable sensitivity using helium leak checking at DE, the calculations predict no measurable effect on pressure difference or gas composition as measured by DE gas analysis. We also calculate that it would take over 200 years for water vapor to diffuse through a 10-7 std cc/sec leak enough to raise the RH outer container to half the RH value in the inner container. A leak 100 times larger, which would be measured at 1x10-5 std cc/sec, the same water vapor diffusion would take at least 14 years. Our conclusion is that helium leak checking will be useful even at a sensitivity of 1x10-5 std cc/sec, and a significant improvement over current DE methods at a sensitivity of 1x10-7 std cc/sec.

  19. 80 K - Helium circuit with innovative, gas-bearing, oil-free turbo compressor. Conception, realization, commissioning and test of the 80 K refrigeration supply for the superconducting electron source at HZB; 80 K - Helium-Kreis mit innovativem, gasgelagertem, oelfreiem Turbokompressor. Konzeption, Realisierung, Inbetriebnahme und Test der 80 K-Kaelteversorgung fuer die supraleitenden Elektronenquelle am HZB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckner, Felix [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The system presented in this paper supplies the test module for the superconducting electron source (GunLab) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) with 500 W cooling capacity at 80 K.Since direct evaporation of liquid nitrogen in the module is not desirable for safety reasons, the system operates with an intermediate helium circuit. In order to use not only the latent cold of liquid nitrogen, but also the sensitive component, a new concept consisting of a dual heat exchanger and a bath cryostat is used. The coldbox also contains an adjustable bypass with integrated electric heater for test purposes.A new type of warm compressor is used to circulate the helium. The turbo compressor is oil-free, gas-stored and in helium-tight semi-hermetic design. In order to take advantage of these unique properties, Fischer Engineering AG has adapted the turbo compressor for use with helium.The paper concludes with a test of the system and an insight into the current operating experience, as well as a preview of the next, larger version of bERLinPro. [German] Die in diesem Paper vorgestellte Anlage versorgt das Testmodul fuer die supraleitende Elektronenquelle (GunLab) am Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) mit 500 W Kuehlleistung bei 80 K. Da eine Direktverdampfung von Fluessigstickstoff im Modul aus Sicherheitsgruenden nicht erwuenscht ist, arbeitet die Anlage mit einem Heliumzwischenkreis. Um nicht nur die latente Kaelte des fluessigen Stickstoffs, sondern auch den sensiblen Anteil zu nutzen, wird ein neues Konzept, bestehend aus einem Dualwaermeuebertrager und einem Badkryostaten verwendet. Die Coldbox enthaelt fuer Testzwecke darueber hinaus einen regelbaren Bypass mit inte-griertem elektrischem Heizer. Fuer die Umwaelzung des Heliums kommt eine neue Art eines warmen Kompressors zum Einsatz. Der Turbokom-pressor ist oelfrei, gasgelagert und in heliumdichter halb-hermetischer Bauweise ausgefuehrt. Um dessen, in dieser Leistungsklasse einzigartigen Eigenschaften zu nutzen, wurde der

  20. Leak detection system for RBMK coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkashov, Ju.M.; Strelkov, B.P.; Korolev, Yu.V.; Eperin, A.P.; Kozlov, E.P.; Belyanin, L.A.; Vanukov, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    In report the description of an object of the control is submitted, requests to control of leak-tightness and functioning of system are formulated, analysis of a current status on NPP with RBMK is submitted, review of methods of the leak-tightness monitoring, their advantage and defects with reference to conditions and features of a design RBMK is indicated, some results of tests and operation of various monitoring methods are submitted, requests on interaction of operative staff, leak-tightness monitoring system and protection system of reactor are submitted. (author). 11 figs, 1 tab

  1. Acoustic leak detector in Monju steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachi, E.; Inoue, T.

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic leak detectors are equipped with the Monju steam generators for one of the R and D activities, which are the same type of the detectors developed in the PNC 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility. Although they are an additional leak detection system to the regular one in Monju SG, they would also detect the intermediate or large leaks of the SG tube failures. The extrapolation method of a background noise analysis is expected to be verified by Monju SG data. (author). 4 figs

  2. Leak detection system for RBMK coolant circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkashov, Ju M; Strelkov, B P; Korolev, Yu V; Eperin, A P; Kozlov, E P; Belyanin, L A; Vanukov, V N [Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering

    1997-12-31

    In report the description of an object of the control is submitted, requests to control of leak-tightness and functioning of system are formulated, analysis of a current status on NPP with RBMK is submitted, review of methods of the leak-tightness monitoring, their advantage and defects with reference to conditions and features of a design RBMK is indicated, some results of tests and operation of various monitoring methods are submitted, requests on interaction of operative staff, leak-tightness monitoring system and protection system of reactor are submitted. (author). 11 figs, 1 tab.

  3. Special storage of leaking fuel at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Janos; Szőke, L.; Burján, T.; Lukács, R.; Hózer, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the activities related with spent, hermetic as well as leaking fuel handling and storage, including: Spent fuel pool; Transportation criteria for the spent fuel assemblies and Interim spent fuel dry storage; Short-term storage in the spent fuel pool; Identification of the leaking assemblies by the TS-device; Present conception of Identification, handling of the leaking FAs; Modified transport procedure for the leaking FAs; Calculation of solved activity inside the leaking fuel rod; Solved activity limit values for the leaking FAs; Long-term storage in the interim spent Fuel dry storage are presented. At the end authors’ concluded that: 1) The leaking FA can be transported to the interim dry storage together with the other spent fuel assemblies in the transport container. 2) The transport-documentation of the leaking FA has to contain: isotope inventory, calculated solved activity values of the failed FA and the quantity of failed fuel rods. 3) Performing three leakage tests of the identified leaking FA before the transportation in the 5FP. it is useful to decrease the solved activity concentration inside the leaking FA and give additional information about the extent of the leakage. 4) We can calculate simply the solved activity of the leaking FA. 5) The modified transport procedure will have to be authorized. 6) The radiological effects of the leaking FA are negligible relative to the natural background radiation

  4. Evaluation of pipeline leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauz, W.D.; Flora, J.D.; Hennon, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Leaking underground storage tank system presents an environmental concern and a potential health hazard. It is well known that leaks in the piping associated with these systems account for a sizeable fraction of the leaks. EPA has established performance standards for pipeline leak detection systems, and published a document presenting test protocols for evaluating these systems against the standards. This paper discusses a number of facets and important features of evaluating such systems, and presents results from tests of several systems. The importance of temperature differences between the ground and the product in the line is shown both in theory and with test data. The impact of the amount of soil moisture present is addressed, along with the effect of frozen soil. These features are addressed both for line tightness test systems, which must detect leaks of 0.10 gal/h (0.38 L/h) at 150% of normal line pressure, or 0.20 gal/h (0.76 L/h) at normal line pressure, and for automatic line leak detectors that must detect leaks of 3 gal/h (11 L/h) at 10 psi (69 kPa) within an hour of the occurrence of the leak. This paper also addresses some statistical aspects of the evaluation of these systems. Reasons for keeping the evaluation process ''blind'' to the evaluated company are given, along with methods for assuring that the tests are blind. Most importantly, a test procedure is presented for evaluating systems that report a flow rate (not just a pass/fail decision) that is much more efficient than the procedure presented in the EPA protocol, and is just as stringent

  5. Helium turbo-expander with an alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshitane

    1980-01-01

    Study was made on a helium turbo-expander, the heart of helium refrigerator systems, in order to develop a system which satisfies the required conditions. A helium turbo-expander with externally pressurized helium gas bearings at the temperature of liquid nitrogen and an alternator as a brake have been employed. The essential difference between a helium turbo-expander and a nitrogen turbo-expander was clarified. The gas bearing lubricated with nitrogen at room temperature and the gas bearing lubricated with helium at low temperature were tested. The flow rate of helium in a helium refrigerator for a large superconducting magnet is comparatively small, therefore a helium turbine must be small, but the standard for large turbine design can be applied to such small turbine. Using the alternator as a brake, the turbo-expander was easily controllable electrically. The prototype turbo-expander was made, and the liquefaction test with it and MHD power generation test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  6. Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. In situ radiation test of silicon and diamond detectors operating in superfluid helium and developed for beam loss monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfürst, C.; Dehning, B.; Sapinski, M.; Bartosik, M. R.; Eisel, T.; Fabjan, C.; Rementeria, C. A.; Griesmayer, E.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zabrodskii, A.; Fadeeva, N.; Tuboltsev, Y.; Eremin, I.; Egorov, N.; Härkönen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the foreseen increase in the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the discrimination between the collision products and possible magnet quench-provoking beam losses of the primary proton beams is becoming more critical for safe accelerator operation. We report the results of ongoing research efforts targeting the upgrading of the monitoring system by exploiting Beam Loss Monitor detectors based on semiconductors located as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. In practice, this means that the detectors will have to be immersed in superfluid helium inside the cold mass and operate at 1.9 K. Additionally, the monitoring system is expected to survive 20 years of LHC operation, resulting in an estimated radiation fluence of 1×1016 proton/cm2, which corresponds to a dose of about 2 MGy. In this study, we monitored the signal degradation during the in situ irradiation when silicon and single-crystal diamond detectors were situated in the liquid/superfluid helium and the dependences of the collected charge on fluence and bias voltage were obtained. It is shown that diamond and silicon detectors can operate at 1.9 K after 1×1016 p/cm2 irradiation required for application as BLMs, while the rate of the signal degradation was larger in silicon detectors than in the diamond ones. For Si detectors this rate was controlled mainly by the operational mode, being larger at forward bias voltage.

  8. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation, commissioning and testing at CERN of eight helium dryer units for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation, commissioning and testing at CERN of eight helium dryer units for the LHC. Following a market survey carried out among 42 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2722/LHC/LHC) was sent on 10 August 2000 to seven firms and three consortia, consisting of two firms each, in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from three firms and two consortia in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm COSMI (IT), the lowest bidder fulfilling the technical requirements, for the design, supply, installation, commissioning and testing at CERN of eight helium dryer units for a total amount of 3 514 779 euros, (5 307 329 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for additional equipment for heating the adsorber bed and additional heat exchanger/condenser equipment, for an additional amount of 80 081 euros (120 923 Swiss fra...

  9. Simulation experiments for a large leak sodium-water reaction analysis. Volume 4. IHTS/relief system simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploeger, D.W.

    1978-09-01

    Tests were performed in which a simplified 1/8-scale model of the intermediate heat transfer system and relief system of a LMFBR was subjected to a simulated sodium-water reaction in a steam generator. Pressures in the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and in the pipe were measured. The flow of water through the relief system was photographed and its velocity was measured. The forces on the relief system elbows resulting from the fluid flow were also measured. The tests were performed primarily to validate pulse propagation codes used for design and for direct use as design data

  10. The physics of confined flow and its application to water leaks, water permeation and water nanoflows: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Wenwen; Rigozzi, Michelle K; McKenzie, David R

    2016-01-01

    This review assesses the current state of understanding of the calculation of the rate of flow of gases, vapours and liquids confined in channels, in porous media and in permeable materials with an emphasis on the flow of water and its vapour. One motivation is to investigate the relation between the permeation rate of moisture and that of a noncondensable test gas such as helium, another is to assist in unifying theory and experiment across disparate fields. Available theories of single component ideal gas flows in channels of defined geometry (cylindrical, rectangular and elliptical) are described and their predictions compared with measurement over a wide range of conditions defined by the Knudsen number. Theory for two phase flows is assembled in order to understand the behaviour of four standard water leak configurations: vapour, slug, Washburn and liquid flow, distinguished by the number and location of phase boundaries (menisci). Air may or may not be present as a background gas. Slip length is an important parameter that greatly affects leak rates. Measurements of water vapour flows confirm that water vapour shows ideal gas behaviour. Results on carbon nanotubes show that smooth walls may lead to anomalously high slip lengths arising from the properties of ‘confined’ water. In porous media, behaviour can be matched to the four standard leaks. Traditional membrane permeation models consider that the permeant dissolves, diffuses and evaporates at the outlet side, ideas we align with those from channel flow. Recent results on graphite oxide membranes show examples where helium which does not permeate while at the same time moisture is almost unimpeded, again a result of confined water. We conclude that while there is no a priori relation between a noncondensable gas flow and a moisture flow, measurements using helium will give results within two orders of magnitude of the moisture flow rate, except in the case where there is anomalous slip or confined

  11. The physics of confined flow and its application to water leaks, water permeation and water nanoflows: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenwen; Rigozzi, Michelle K; McKenzie, David R

    2016-02-01

    This review assesses the current state of understanding of the calculation of the rate of flow of gases, vapours and liquids confined in channels, in porous media and in permeable materials with an emphasis on the flow of water and its vapour. One motivation is to investigate the relation between the permeation rate of moisture and that of a noncondensable test gas such as helium, another is to assist in unifying theory and experiment across disparate fields. Available theories of single component ideal gas flows in channels of defined geometry (cylindrical, rectangular and elliptical) are described and their predictions compared with measurement over a wide range of conditions defined by the Knudsen number. Theory for two phase flows is assembled in order to understand the behaviour of four standard water leak configurations: vapour, slug, Washburn and liquid flow, distinguished by the number and location of phase boundaries (menisci). Air may or may not be present as a background gas. Slip length is an important parameter that greatly affects leak rates. Measurements of water vapour flows confirm that water vapour shows ideal gas behaviour. Results on carbon nanotubes show that smooth walls may lead to anomalously high slip lengths arising from the properties of 'confined' water. In porous media, behaviour can be matched to the four standard leaks. Traditional membrane permeation models consider that the permeant dissolves, diffuses and evaporates at the outlet side, ideas we align with those from channel flow. Recent results on graphite oxide membranes show examples where helium which does not permeate while at the same time moisture is almost unimpeded, again a result of confined water. We conclude that while there is no a priori relation between a noncondensable gas flow and a moisture flow, measurements using helium will give results within two orders of magnitude of the moisture flow rate, except in the case where there is anomalous slip or confined water

  12. Traumatic orbital CSF leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borumandi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) leak through the nose and ear, the orbital CSF leak is a rare and underreported condition following head trauma. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with oedematous eyelid swelling and ecchymosis after a seemingly trivial fall onto the right orbit. Apart from the above, she was clinically unremarkable. The CT scan revealed a minimally displaced fracture of the orbital roof with no emphysema or intracranial bleeding. The fractured orbital roof in combination with the oedematous eyelid swelling raised the suspicion for orbital CSF leak. The MRI of the neurocranium demonstrated a small-sized CSF fistula extending from the anterior cranial fossa to the right orbit. The patient was treated conservatively and the lid swelling resolved completely after 5 days. Although rare, orbital CSF leak needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital swelling following orbital trauma. PMID:24323381

  13. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  14. Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chis, Timur

    2009-01-01

    Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

  15. Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

  16. Low Level Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA has transferred the improved portable leak detector technology to UE Systems, Inc.. This instrument was developed to detect leaks in fluid systems of critical launch and ground support equipment. This system incorporates innovative electronic circuitry, improved transducers, collecting horns, and contact sensors that provide a much higher degree of reliability, sensitivity and versatility over previously used systems. Potential commercial uses are pipelines, underground utilities, air-conditioning systems, petrochemical systems, aerospace, power transmission lines and medical devices.

  17. Role of Outgassing of ITER Vacuum Vessel In-Wall Shielding Materials in Leak Detection of ITER Vacuum Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, A.; Pathak, H. A.; Mehta, B. K.; Phull, G. S.; Laad, R.; Shaikh, M. S.; George, S.; Joshi, K.; Khan, Z.

    2017-04-01

    ITER Vacuum Vessel is a torus-shaped, double wall structure. The space between the double walls of the VV is filled with In-Wall Shielding Blocks (IWS) and Water. The main purpose of IWS is to provide neutron shielding during ITER plasma operation and to reduce ripple of Toroidal Magnetic Field (TF). Although In-Wall Shield Blocks (IWS) will be submerged in water in between the walls of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV), Outgassing Rate (OGR) of IWS materials plays a significant role in leak detection of Vacuum Vessel of ITER. Thermal Outgassing Rate of a material critically depends on the Surface Roughness of material. During leak detection process using RGA equipped Leak detector and tracer gas Helium, there will be a spill over of mass 3 and mass 2 to mass 4 which creates a background reading. Helium background will have contribution of Hydrogen too. So it is necessary to ensure the low OGR of Hydrogen. To achieve an effective leak test it is required to obtain a background below 1 × 10-8 mbar 1 s-1 and hence the maximum Outgassing rate of IWS Materials should comply with the maximum Outgassing rate required for hydrogen i.e. 1 x 10-10 mbar 1 s-1 cm-2 at room temperature. As IWS Materials are special materials developed for ITER project, it is necessary to ensure the compliance of Outgassing rate with the requirement. There is a possibility of diffusing the gasses in material at the time of production. So, to validate the production process of materials as well as manufacturing of final product from this material, three coupons of each IWS material have been manufactured with the same technique which is being used in manufacturing of IWS blocks. Manufacturing records of these coupons have been approved by ITER-IO (International Organization). Outgassing rates of these coupons have been measured at room temperature and found in acceptable limit to obtain the required Helium Background. On the basis of these measurements, test reports have been generated and got

  18. A proposed structural, risk-informed approach to the periodicity of CANDU-6 nuclear containment integrated leak rate testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba, N. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Komljenovic, D. [Hydro-Quebec, Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant, Becancour, Quebec (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Vaillancourt, R.; Chretien, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant, Becancour, Quebec (Canada); Gocevski, V. [Hydro-Quebec Equipements, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    As ultimate lines of defense against leakage of large amounts of radioactive material to the environment in case of major reactor accidents, containments have been monitored through well designed periodic tests to ensure their proper performance. Regulatory organizations have imposed types and frequencies of containment tests based on highly-conservative deterministic approaches, and judgments of knowledgeable experts. Recent developments in the perception and methods of risk evaluation have been applied to rationalize the leakage-rate testing frequencies while maintaining risks within acceptable levels, preserving the integrity of containments, and respecting the defense-in-depth philosophy. The objective of this paper is to introduce a proposed risk-informed decision making framework on the periodicity of nuclear containment ILRTs for CANDU-6 nuclear power plants based on five main decision criteria, namely: 1) the containment structural integrity; 2) inputs from PSA Level-2; 3) the requirements of deterministic safety analyses and defense-in-depth concepts; 4- the obligations under regulatory and standard requirements; and 5) the return of experience from nuclear containments historic performance. The concepts of dormant reliability and structural fragility will guide the assessment of the containment structural integrity, within the general context of a global containment life cycle management program. This study is oriented towards the requirements of CANDU-6 reactors, in general, and Hydro-Quebec's Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, in particular. The present article is the first part in a series of papers that will comprehensively detail the proposed research. (author)

  19. A proposed structural, risk-informed approach to the periodicity of CANDU-6 nuclear containment integrated leak rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba, N.; Komljenovic, D.; Chouinard, L.; Vaillancourt, R.; Chretien, G.; Gocevski, V.

    2010-01-01

    As ultimate lines of defense against leakage of large amounts of radioactive material to the environment in case of major reactor accidents, containments have been monitored through well designed periodic tests to ensure their proper performance. Regulatory organizations have imposed types and frequencies of containment tests based on highly-conservative deterministic approaches, and judgments of knowledgeable experts. Recent developments in the perception and methods of risk evaluation have been applied to rationalize the leakage-rate testing frequencies while maintaining risks within acceptable levels, preserving the integrity of containments, and respecting the defense-in-depth philosophy. The objective of this paper is to introduce a proposed risk-informed decision making framework on the periodicity of nuclear containment ILRTs for CANDU-6 nuclear power plants based on five main decision criteria, namely: 1) the containment structural integrity; 2) inputs from PSA Level-2; 3) the requirements of deterministic safety analyses and defense-in-depth concepts; 4- the obligations under regulatory and standard requirements; and 5) the return of experience from nuclear containments historic performance. The concepts of dormant reliability and structural fragility will guide the assessment of the containment structural integrity, within the general context of a global containment life cycle management program. This study is oriented towards the requirements of CANDU-6 reactors, in general, and Hydro-Quebec's Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, in particular. The present article is the first part in a series of papers that will comprehensively detail the proposed research. (author)

  20. Leak detection of KNI seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, G.; Peter, A.; Windberg, P.

    1990-03-01

    In Unit 3 and 4 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, KNI type seals are used as lead-throughs with conical nickel sealing rings. Their failure can be critical for the operation of the reactor. An Acoustical Leak Detection System (ALDS) was constructed and tested for the operational testing of the seals. Some individual papers are presented in this collection on the calibration and testing of the ALDS intended to be placed on the top of the reactor vessels. The papers include simulation measurements of Unit 3 of NPP, laboratory experiments, evaluation of measurements, and further development needs with the ALDS. (R.P.) 50 figs.; 19 tabs

  1. Prestressed concrete vessels suitable for helium high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, G.E.; Kinkead, A.N.

    1967-02-01

    In considering prestressed concrete vessels for use with helium cooled high temperature reactors, a number of new problems arise and projected designs involve new approaches and new solutions. These reactors, having high coolant outlet temperature from the core and relatively high power densities, can be built into compact designs which permit usefully high working pressures. Consequently, steam generators and circulating units tend to be small. Although circuit activity can be kept quite low with coated particle fuels, designs which involve entry for subsequent repair are not favoured, and coupled with the preferred aim of using fully shop fabricated units within the designs with removable steam generators which involve no tube welding inside the vessel. A particular solution uses a number of slim cylindrical assemblies housed in the wall of the pressure vessel and this vessel design concept is presented. The use of helium requires very high sealing standards and one of the important requirements is a vessel design which permits leak testing during construction, so that a repair seal can be made to any faulty part in a liner seam. Very good demountable joint seals can be made without particular difficulty and Dragon experience is used to provide solutions which are suitable for prestressed concrete vessel penetrations. The concept layout is given of a vessel meeting these requirements; the basis of design is outlined and special features of importance discussed. (author)

  2. Leak testing in isolation in Almaraz NPP valves; Pruebas de fugas en valvulas de aislamiento en C.N. Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rocasolano, J.; Delgado Flores, E.

    2014-07-01

    The components, object of this paper are isolation valves of the containment of waste heat, injection safety and water extraction systems of sealing of the main pumps. A review and improvement of the methodology applied by means of an analysis of the provision and operation of certain systems, as well as practice followed by other plants in the US, aims to achieve a more effective testing program by reducing doses to staff, the generation of radioactive waste by drainage systems, and the risks of introduction of parts loose in the primary. (Author)

  3. Management of vacuum leak-detection processes, calibration, and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    Vacuum leak detection requires integrated management action to ensure the successful production of apparatus having required leak tightness. Implementation of properly planned, scheduled, and engineered procedures and test arrangements are an absolute necessity to prevent unexpected, impractical, technically inadequate, or unnecessarily costly incidents in leak-testing operations. The use of standard procedures, leak standards appropriate to the task, and accurate calibration systems or devices is necessary to validate the integrity of any leak-test procedure. In this paper, the need for implementing these practices is discussed using case histories of typical examples of large complex vacuum systems. Aggressive management practices are of primary importance throughout a project's life cycle to ensure the lowest cost; this includes successful leak testing of components. It should be noted that the opinions and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of the author and are not those of the Los Alamos National Laboratory or the Department of Energy

  4. A study on the evaluation of internal leak in valve using acoustic emission method(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Lee, Wook Ryun; Park, Jong Hyuck; Kim, Kwang Hong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the feasibility of acoustic emission method for the internal leak from the valves. In this study, valve leak tests using various types of specimen simulated seat damage were performed in order to analyzer acoustic emission properties when leaks arise in valve seat. As a result of leak test for specimens simulated valve seat, we conformed that leak sound level increased in proportion to the increase of hole diameter and leak velocity, and decreased in proportion to the increase of leak depth. And also, leak sound level has hysteresis for leak velocity. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the acoustic emission method for monitoring of leak was feasible.

  5. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  6. Study on the Fluid Leak Diagnosis for Steam Valve in Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Guk; Park, Jong-Hyuck; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sun-Ki; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the applicability of acoustic emission(AE) method for the internal fluid leak from the valves. In this study, 4 inch gate steam valve leak tests were performed in order to analyze AE properties when leaks arise in valve seat. As a result of leak test for valve seat in a secondary system of power plant, we conformed that leak sound level increased in proportion to the increase of leak rate, and leak rates were compared to simulated tests. The resulting plots of leak rate versus peak frequency and AE signal level were the primary basis for determining the feasibility of quantifying leak acoustically. Previously, the large amount of data attained also allowed a favorable investigation of the effects of different leak paths, leak rates, pressure differentials through simulated test. All results of application tests are compared with results of simulated test. From the application tests, it was suggested that the AE method for diagnosis of steam leak was applicable. This paper presents quantitative measurements of fluid valve leak conditions by the analysis of AE parameter, FFT(fast fourier transform) and RMS(root mean square) level. Test apparatus were fabricated to accept a variety of leaking steam valves in order to determine what characteristics of AE signal change with leak conditions. The data for each valve were generated by varying the leak rate and recording the averaged RMS level versus time and frequency versus amplitude(FFT). Leak rates were varied by the valve differential pressure and valve size and leaking valves were observed in service. Most of the data analysis involved plotting the leak rate versus RMS level at a specific frequency to determine how well the two variables correlate in terms of accuracy, resolution, and repeatability

  7. Software-aided operation of modern industrial leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse Bley, W. [INFICON GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    When leak-testing parts with the tracer gas method, the ''no-indication'' response of the leak detector leaves the operator with the question whether there is really no leak present or the test instrument may be in a faulty (= insensitive) condition. Moreover, an operator being absent-minded or distracted may easily move the sniffer tip to the wrong spot on the test object or at least not to all required test areas. To make sure that the uncertainty about sensitivity is avoided specific artificial leaks (''test leaks'') are routinely used for frequent verification of the correct function and calibration of the leak detector. However, absent-minded, distracted or even lazy operators are not detected in this way. Recent software features implemented into INFICON leak detectors can help prevent mistakes of the above kind. Such features include intelligent filtering of the signal (preventing spurious noise), suppression of interfering gas effects, dynamic zeroing of the signal, simple on-site function tests with a built-in test leak, a complete spectrum of indications (optical, acoustical, tactile,..) if the trigger for leaky objects is exceeded and more. As an example of the latest achievements in this field the operator-controlling features of the new ECOTEC E3000 refrigerant leak detector from INFICON are described in some detail. It will become quite clear that product quality (in this case of refrigerators and air conditioners) is greatly enhanced by such supervising functions. (orig.)

  8. Leak detector for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Mikio.

    1991-01-01

    A branched pipe is disposed to a leak off pipeline led from a flange surface which connects the main body and the upper lid of a reactor pressure vessel. An exhaust pump is disposed to the branched pipe and a moisture gage is disposed on the side of the exhaustion and a dry air supplier is connected to the branched pipe. Upon conducting a pressure-proof leak test for the reactor pressure vessel, the exhaust pump is operated and an electromagnet valve disposed at the upstream of the dry air supplier is opened and closed repeatedly. The humidity of air sucked by the exhaust pump is detected by the moisture gage. If leaks should be caused in the joining surface of the flange, leaked water is diffused as steams. Accordingly, occurrence of leak can be detected instantly based on the comparison with the moisture level of the dry air as a standard. In this way, a leak test can be conducted reliably in a short period of time with no change of for the reactor pressure container itself. (I.N.)

  9. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  10. Manufacture and test of seismic bellows for ITER magnet feeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Lu, Kun; Sheng, Liang; Song, Yuntao; Su, Jinjin; Su, Man; Gung, Chenyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The design of the double bellows was iterated with the results of analysis based on the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) standard. • The seismic bellows was tested with cyclic pressurization of the interlayer space to 2 bars absolute pressure for 5 cycles. • 200 cycles of tensile fatigue test with 90 mm of stretching from the nominal design length. • A full tensile test with 315 mm of stretching from its nominal length was conducted. • The prototype bellows was qualified for its leak tightness (less than 1 × 10 −9 Pam 3 /s of helium) at all time during the qualification test. - Abstract: This paper presents the key manufacturing and testing processes of the prototype ITER feeder seismic bellows. The design of the double bellows was iterated with the results of analysis based on the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) standard. Each inner and outer bellows was supported in dedicated molds and formed by a hydraulic pressure machine rated at 800 tons. The double bellows were constructed by welding individual collars to the end flanges. The seismic bellows was tested with cyclic pressurization of the interlayer space to 2 bars absolute pressure for 5 cycles. This was followed by 200 cycles of tensile fatigue test with 90 mm of stretching from the nominal design length. After the mechanical fatigue test, a full tensile test with 315 mm of stretching from its nominal length was conducted. Helium leak tests, with the sensitivity of the helium leak detector set to 1 × 10 −9 Pa m 3 /s of helium, were performed at different stages of pressure and mechanical tests. The prototype bellows was qualified for its leak tightness at all time during the qualification test.

  11. Manufacture and test of seismic bellows for ITER magnet feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chen, E-mail: liuchen@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, ShuShanhu Road No. 350, Hefei (China); Lu, Kun [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, ShuShanhu Road No. 350, Hefei (China); Sheng, Liang [AEROSUN-TOLA Expansion Joint Co., Ltd., Jiangjun Road No. 199, Nanjing (China); Song, Yuntao; Su, Jinjin [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, ShuShanhu Road No. 350, Hefei (China); Su, Man; Gung, Chenyu [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The design of the double bellows was iterated with the results of analysis based on the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) standard. • The seismic bellows was tested with cyclic pressurization of the interlayer space to 2 bars absolute pressure for 5 cycles. • 200 cycles of tensile fatigue test with 90 mm of stretching from the nominal design length. • A full tensile test with 315 mm of stretching from its nominal length was conducted. • The prototype bellows was qualified for its leak tightness (less than 1 × 10{sup −9} Pam{sup 3}/s of helium) at all time during the qualification test. - Abstract: This paper presents the key manufacturing and testing processes of the prototype ITER feeder seismic bellows. The design of the double bellows was iterated with the results of analysis based on the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) standard. Each inner and outer bellows was supported in dedicated molds and formed by a hydraulic pressure machine rated at 800 tons. The double bellows were constructed by welding individual collars to the end flanges. The seismic bellows was tested with cyclic pressurization of the interlayer space to 2 bars absolute pressure for 5 cycles. This was followed by 200 cycles of tensile fatigue test with 90 mm of stretching from the nominal design length. After the mechanical fatigue test, a full tensile test with 315 mm of stretching from its nominal length was conducted. Helium leak tests, with the sensitivity of the helium leak detector set to 1 × 10{sup −9} Pa m{sup 3}/s of helium, were performed at different stages of pressure and mechanical tests. The prototype bellows was qualified for its leak tightness at all time during the qualification test.

  12. A helium regenerative compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  13. Leak detection of SF6 gas pressure vessel safety devices at BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninawe, N.G.; Sharma, S.C.; Nair, J.P.; Sparrow, H.; Bolar, P.C.; Gudekar, P.V.; Mahapatra, S.; Vishwakarma, R.S.; Ramjilal; Matkar, U.V.; Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Pelletron accelerator is in operation since last more than 26 years. To achieve desired voltage gradient SF6 gas of about 20 tons is used to have 75-80 psig pressure in main accelerator tank. During accelerator tank maintenance gas is transferred to four storage tanks, kept in open space in the vicinity of sea. Recently refurbishment and retrofitting of four storage tanks was carried out which includes the installation of new drift space, rupture disc assembly, relief valves and manual valves along with civil and painting work. All components to be installed were tested for high pressure. Helium gas sniffer technique was used to check micro leaks for new joints for all components before installing for storage tanks. Subsequently, the tanks were tested up to 90 psig SF6 gradually in succession. No pressure drop was observed in storage tanks. This work was carried out as per recommendation of the then particle accelerator committee (PASC). (author)

  14. Environmental risk comparisons with internal methods of UST leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The past five years have seen a variety of advances in how leaks can be detected from within underground storage tanks. Any leak-detection approach employed within a storage tanks must be conducted at specific time intervals and meet certain leak-rate criteria according to federal and state regulations. Nevertheless, the potential environmental consequences of leak detection approaches differ widely. Internal, volumetric UST monitoring techniques have developed over time including: (1) inventory control with stick measurements, (2) precision tank testing, (3) automatic tank gauging (ATG), (4) statistical inventory reconciliation (SIR), and (5) statistical techniques with automatic tank gauging. An ATG focuses on the advantage of precise data but measured for only a brief period. On the other hand, stick data has less precision but when combined with SIR over extended periods it too can detect low leak rates. Graphs demonstrate the comparable amounts of fuel than can leak out of a tank before being detected by these techniques. The results indicate that annual tank testing has the greatest potential for large volumes of fuel leaking without detection while new statistical approaches with an ATG have the least potential. The environmental implications of the volumes of fuel leaked prior to detection are site specific. For example, if storage tank is surrounded by a high water table and in a sole-source aquifer even small leaks may cause problems. The user must also consider regulatory risks. The level of environmental and regulatory risk should influence selection of the UST leak detection method

  15. Evaluation of advanced and current leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guide 1.45 recommends the use of at least three different detection methods in reactors to detect leakage. Monitoring of both sump-flow and airborne particulate radioactivity is mandatory. A third method can involve either monitoring of condensate flow rate from air coolers or monitoring of airborne gaseous radioactivity. Although the methods currently used for leak detection reflect the state of the art, other techniques may be developed and used. Since the recommendations of Regulatory Guide 1.45 are not mandatory, Licensee Event Report Compilations have been reviewed to help establish actual capabilities for leak detection. The review of event reports, which had previously covered the period of June 1985 to August 1986 has been extended, and now covers events to June 1987. The total number of significant events is now 83. These reports have provided documented, sometimes detailed, summaries of reactor leaks. They have helped establish the capabilities of existing systems to detect and locate leaks. Differences between PWRs and BWRs with regard to leak detection have now been analyzed. With regard to detection methods, the greatest differences between reactor types are as follows: (a) The sump pump is reported as the detection method more frequently in BWRs than in PWRs (64% vs. 35%). (b) The radiation monitor is reported as the detection method (excluding false alarms) more frequently in PWRs. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate advanced acoustic leak detection methods are directed toward the generation and analysis of acoustic data from large (0.5 to 10 gal/min) leaks and modification of the software of the GARD/ANL advanced acoustic leak detection system. In order to reach the goal of 10 gal/min leaks, the Steam Generator Test Facility at ANL has been modified to carry out the leak testing. Tests were carried out with water at 525 deg. F and 1100 psi leaking through a fatigue crack in a 4-in

  16. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, G; Pintsuk, G; Linke, J; Hirai, T; Norajitra, P; Reiser, J; Giniyatulin, R; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ∼14 MW m -2 , the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  17. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, G.; Hirai, T.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, J.; Giniyatulin, R.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.

    2009-12-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ~14 MW m-2, the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  18. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  19. Fuel rod leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize 133 Xe is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of 133 Xe appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  20. Study on the Measurement of Valve Leak Rate Using Acoustic Emission Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Guk; Park, Jong-Hyuck; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sun-Ki; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    This study is to estimate the feasibility of acoustic emission(AE) method for the internal leak from the valves. In this study, 4 inch ball water valve leak tests using three different leak path and various leak rates were performed in order to analyze AE properties when leaks arise in valve seat. As a result of leak test for specimens simulated valve seat, we conformed that leak sound amplitude increased in proportion to the increase of leak rate, and leak rates were plotted versus peak acoustic amplitudes recorded within those two narrow frequency bands on each spectrum plot. The resulting plots of leak rate versus peak AE amplitude were the primary basis for determining the feasibility of quantifying leak acoustically. The large amount of data attained also allowed a favorable investigation of the effects of different leak paths, leak rates, pressure differentials and AE sensors on the AE amplitude spectrum. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the AE method for monitoring of leak was feasible. This paper describes quantitative measurements of fluid valve leak rates by the analysis of AE. Experimental apparatus were fabricated to accept a variety of leaking water valves in order to determine what characteristics of AE signal change with leak rate. The data for each valve were generated by varying the leak rate and recording the time averaged amplitude of AE versus frequency. Leak rates were varied by modifying the valve seating surfaces in ways designed to simulate actual defects observed in service. Most of the data analysis involved plotting the leak rate versus signal amplitude at a specific frequency to determine how well the two variables correlate in terms of accuracy, resolution, and repeatability

  1. Modeling Secondary Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Möbius, Eberhard; Wood, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate, analytic heliospheric neutral test-particle code for helium atoms from the interstellar medium (ISM) is coupled to global heliospheric models dominated by hydrogen and protons from the solar wind and the ISM. This coupling enables the forward-calculation of secondary helium neutrals from first principles. Secondaries are produced predominantly in the outer heliosheath, upwind of the heliopause, by charge exchange of helium ions with neutral atoms. The forward model integrates the secondary production terms along neutral trajectories and calculates the combined neutral helium phase space density in the innermost heliosphere where it can be related to in-situ observations. The phase space density of the secondary component is lower than that of primary neutral helium, but its presence can change the analysis of primaries and the ISM, and can yield valuable insight into the characteristics of the plasma in the outer heliosheath. (paper)

  2. Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication for Leak Detection Relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.; JOHNS, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    This Test Plan provides a test method to dedicate the leak detection relays used on the new Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skids. The new skids are fabricated on-site. The leak detection system is a safety class system per the Authorization Basis

  3. Safety quality classification test of the sealed neutron sources used in start-up neutron source rods for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunbing; Guo Gang; Chao Jinglan; Duan Liming

    1992-01-01

    According to the regulations listed in the GB4075, the safety quality classification tests have been carried out for the neutron sources. The test items include temperature, external pressure, impact, vibration and puncture, Two dummy sealed sources are used for each test item. The testing equipment used have been examined and verified to be qualified by the measuring department which is admitted by the National standard Bureau. The leak rate of each tested sample is measured by UL-100 Helium Leak Detector (its minimum detectable leak rate is 1 x 10 -10 Pa·m 3 ·s -1 ). The samples with leak rate less than 1.33 x 10 -8 Pa·m 3 ·s -1 are considered up to the standard. The test results show the safety quality classification class of the neutron sources have reached the class of GB/E66545 which exceeds the preset class

  4. Remote leak detection for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walthers, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The planned design for the TFTR (TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor) remote leak detection system consists of a central console which controls the application of tracer gas to possible leak areas. Seals are tested by admitting tracer gas to machined cavities on the atmospheric side of the seal. The tracer gas is brought to the seal cavity by 1 / 8 -inch diameter tubes which connect to local tracer gas/vacuum manifolds located outside the protective radiation shielding. Vacuum shell walls and welds are checked by flowing tracer gas through annular heating/cooling passages. The detector will be either an MSLD (mass spectrometer leak detector) or an RGA (residual gas analyzer), the location of which is not finalized. Feasibility tests performed and planned include response and sensitivity measurements of possible tubing/detector configurations with several tracer gases

  5. Ultrasonic leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning ultrasonic microphone was used to detect the presence and locate the sources of hydraulic noises in piping systems in a reactor environment. The intensity changes of the noises correspond to changes of flow conditions within the system caused by throttled valves, flow rate changes, and leaks. (author)

  6. Leak detection and location in MONJU steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Kosugi, T.

    1978-01-01

    Leak detection system of MONJU steam generator depends mostly on in-sodium hydrogen detectors. The requirements on leak detector performance are determined from the point of view of protecting tube leak propagation due to wastage, and the process of determining the performance is shown briefly. Research and development activities on in-sodium hydrogen detectors are described and the specifications of leak detectors for MONJU are also presented. In-cover-gas hydrogen detector and acoustic detector are under development. Research and development activities on the leak location after steam generator shutdown by such methods as an electromagnetic method and ultrasonic method are described. The results of the research and development work on inserting the test probes into tubes are described also. An idea for finding the condition of tubes in the neighbourhood of the leak is also presented. (author)

  7. Leak detection and location in MONJU steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T; Kosugi, T [Prototype Reactor Office, Tokyo (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    Leak detection system of MONJU steam generator depends mostly on in-sodium hydrogen detectors. The requirements on leak detector performance are determined from the point of view of protecting tube leak propagation due to wastage, and the process of determining the performance is shown briefly. Research and development activities on in-sodium hydrogen detectors are described and the specifications of leak detectors for MONJU are also presented. In-cover-gas hydrogen detector and acoustic detector are under development. Research and development activities on the leak location after steam generator shutdown by such methods as an electromagnetic method and ultrasonic method are described. The results of the research and development work on inserting the test probes into tubes are described also. An idea for finding the condition of tubes in the neighbourhood of the leak is also presented. (author)

  8. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  9. Standard practice for leaks using ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Practice A, Pressurization—This practice covers procedures for calibration of ultrasonic instruments, location, and estimated measurements of gas leakage to atmosphere by the airborne ultrasonic technique. 1.2 In general practice this should be limited to leaks detected by two classifications of instruments, Class I and Class II. Class I instruments should have a minimum detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−7 mol/s (1.5 × 10−2 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Class II instruments should have a minimal detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−6 mol/s (1.5 × 10−1 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Refer to Guide E432 for additional information. 1.3 Practice B, Ultrasonic Transmitter—For object under test not capable of being pressurized but capable of having ultrasonic tone placed/injected into the test area to act as an ultrasonic leak trace source. 1.3.1 This practice is limited to leaks producing leakage o...

  10. Leaking Fuel Impacts and Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Zoltan; Szabo, Peter; Somfai, Barbara; Cherubini, Marco; Aldworth, Robin; Waeckel, Nicolas; Delorme, Tim; Dickson, Raymond; Fujii, Hajime; Rey Gayo, Jose Maria; Grant, Wade; Gorzel, Andreas; Hellwig, Christian; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Klouzal, Jan; Miklos, Marek; Nagase, Fumihisa; Nilsson, Marcus; Petit, Marc; Richards, Stuart; Lundqvist Saleh, Tobias; Stepniewski, Marek; Sim, Ki Seob; ); Rehacek, Radomir; Kissane, Martin; )

    2014-01-01

    The impact of leaking fuel rods on the operation of nuclear power plants and the practices of handling leaking fuel has been reviewed by the CSNI Working Group on Fuel Safety in order to promote a better understanding on the handling of leaking fuel in power reactors, as well as to discuss and review the current practices in member countries to help in decisions on the specification of reactor operation conditions with leaking fuel rods and on the handling of leaking fuel after removal from reactor. Experts from 15 countries provided data on the handling of leaking fuel in PWR, BWR, VVER and PHWR reactor types. The review covered the operation of NPP reactors with leaking fuel, wet and dry storage and transport of leaking assemblies. The methods and applied instruments to identify leaking fuel assemblies and the repair of them were addressed in the review. Special attention was paid to the activity release from leaking rods in the reactor and under storage conditions. The consideration of leaking fuel in safety analyses on core behaviour during postulated accidents was also discussed in the review. The main conclusions of the review pointed out that the activity release from leaking fuel rods in the reactor can be handled by technological systems, or in case of failure of too many rods the reactor can be shutdown to minimize activity release. Under accident conditions and operational transients the leaking rods may produce coolant activity concentration peaks. The storage of spent leaking fuel is normally characterised by moderate release of radionuclides from the fuel. The power plants apply limits for activity concentration to limit the amount of leaking rods in the core. In different countries, the accident analyses take into consideration the potential release from leaking fuel rods in design basis accidents in different ways. Some power plants apply special tools for handling and repair of leaking assemblies and rods. The leaking rods are stored together with

  11. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  12. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  13. Location and repair of air leaks in the ATF vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Gabbard, W.A.; Schaich, C.R.; Yarber, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of partial pressure rate-of-rise and base pressure measurements, it was determined that the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel had an air leak in the low 10 -4 mbarx ell/s range. Pinpointing this leak by conventional helium leak-checking procedures was not possible, because large portions of the outside of the vessel are covered by the helical field coils and a structural shell. Various alternative leak detection schemes that were considered are summarized and their advantages and disadvantages noted. In the method ultimately employed, gum-rubber patches of various sizes ranging from 12.7 by 12.7 cm to 20.3 by 30.5 cm were positioned on the inside surfaces of the vessel and evacuated by the leak detector (LD). After roughly 5% of the surface was inspected in this way, a leak of >10 -5 mbar xL/s was discovered and localized to an area of 5 by 5 cm. Dye penetrant applied to this area disclosed three pinholes. Two small slag pockets were discovered while these points were being ground out. After these were rewelded, no further leakage could be found in the repaired area. Global leak rates measured after the machine was reevacuated indicated that this leak was about 30% of the overall leak rate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Location and repair of air leaks in the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Gabbard, W.A.; Schaich, C.R.; Yarber, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of partial pressure rate-of-rise and base pressure measurements, it was determined that the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel had an air leak in the low 10 -4 mbar-ell/s range. Pinpointing this leak by conventional helium leak-checking procedures was not possible, because large portions of the outside of the vessel are covered by the helcial field coils and a structural shell. Various alternative leak-detection schemes that were considered are summarized and their advantages and disadvantages noted. In the method ultimately employed, gun-rubber patches of various sizes ranging from 12.7 by 12.7 cm to 20.3 by 30.5 cm were positioned on the inside surfaces of the vessel and evacuated by the leak detector (LD). After roughly 5% of the surface was inspected in this way, a leak of > 10 -5 mbar-ell/s was discovered and localized to an area of 5 by 5 cm. Dye penetrant applied to this area disclosed three pinholes. Two small slag pockets were discovered while these points were being ground out. After these were rewelded, no furthered leakage could be found in the repaired area. Global leak rates measured after the machine was reevacuated indicated that this leak was about 30% of the overall leak rate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Does a dyon leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, B.

    1983-01-01

    In the presence of a CP-nonconservation measured by an angle theta, the ground state of a point magnetic monopole is shown to have an electric charge of value -etheta/2π which changes discontinuously to zero for massless fermions. A new version of Levinson's theorem is also given. The latter effect as well as the S-wave helicity flip of a dyon can be interpreted as a leak at the origin

  16. Aspects of leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant

  17. Aspects of leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

  18. Creep properties of base metal and welded joint of Hastelloy XR produced for High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor in simulated primary coolant helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Shindo, Masami; Suzuki, Tomio; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Mutoh, Isao; Hiraga, Kenjiro

    1999-01-01

    Creep tests of base metal, weld metal and welded joint of Hastelloy XR, which had the same chemical composition as Hastelloy XR produced for an intermediate heat exchanger of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, were conducted in simulated primary coolant helium. The weld metal and welded joint showed almost equal to or longer rupture time than the base metal of Hastelloy XR at 850 and 900degC, although they gave shorter rupture time at 950degC under low stress and at 1,000degC. The welded joint of Hastelloy XR ruptured at the base metal region at 850 and 900degC. On the other hand, it ruptured at the weld metal region at 950 and 1,000degC. The steady-state creep rate of weld metal of Hastelloy XR was lower than that of base metal at 850, 900 and 950degC. The creep rupture strengths of base metal, weld metal and welded joint of Hastelloy XR obtained in this study were confirmed to be much higher than the design allowable creep-rupture stress (S R ) of the Design Allowable Limits below 950degC. (author)

  19. Leak processing system for valve gland portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Masami

    1990-01-01

    When a process fluid for a valve to be checked is at such a normal temperature as during reactor operation, leaked fluid can be detected depending on the temperature increase accompanying the leakage. However, detection is difficult if the temperature of the process fluid for the valve to be checked is low and, if leakage is detected after the reactor start-up, repair has to be applied after the shutdown of the plant. Then, gland leak is detected by detecting the pressure instead of the temperature in the pipeline system and the leak flow rate is calculated based on the pressure. As a result, leakage is detected irrespective of the temperature of the leaked fluid and, for instance, leakage can be detected even in a case where the temperature is not high as in the case of pressure proof test for the pressure vessel before start-up. It can contribute much to the improvement of the plant operation efficiency and can determine the leak flow rate at a high accuracy. (N.H.)

  20. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  1. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  2. Helium localisation in tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, J.L.; Lozes, G.

    1982-06-01

    Study of titanium and LaNi 5 type alloys tritides lattice parameters evolution revealed that helium created by tritium decay remains in interstitial sites up to a limit material dependant concentration. Beyond this one exceeding helium precipites in voids [fr

  3. Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Leak after Bariatric Surgery: MBASQIP Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Reza Fazl; Li, Shiri; Inaba, Colette; Penalosa, Patrick; Hinojosa, Marcelo W; Smith, Brian R; Stamos, Michael J; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2018-03-30

    Gastrointestinal leak remains one of the most dreaded complications in bariatric surgery. We aimed to evaluate risk factors and the impact of common perioperative interventions on the development of leak in patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Using the 2015 database of accredited centers, data were analyzed for patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Emergent, revisional, and converted cases were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors for leak, including provocative testing of anastomosis, surgical drain placement, and use of postoperative swallow study. Data from 133,478 patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (n = 92,495 [69.3%]) and LRYGB (n = 40,983 [30.7%]) were analyzed. Overall leak rate was 0.7% (938 of 133,478). Factors associated with increased risk for leak were oxygen dependency (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.97), hypoalbuminemia (AOR 1.66), sleep apnea (AOR 1.52), hypertension (AOR 1.36), and diabetes (AOR 1.18). Compared with LRYGB, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was associated with a lower risk of leak (AOR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.61; p leak rate was higher in patients with vs without a provocative test (0.8% vs 0.4%, respectively; p leak rate was higher in patients with vs without a surgical drain placed (1.6% vs 0.4%, respectively; p leak rate was similar between patients with vs without swallow study (0.7% vs 0.7%; p = 0.50). The overall rate of gastrointestinal leak in bariatric surgery is low. Certain preoperative factors, procedural type (LRYGB), and interventions (intraoperative provocative test and surgical drain placement) were associated with a higher risk for leaks. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic leak detection development in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.; Magee, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring systems that detect and locate a leak of water/steam from a defective tube in an LMFBR steam generator have been developed in the United States. A low frequency (approx. 10 KHz) system was developed by General Electric, and a high frequency (200 to 300 KHz) system by Rockwell International with support from Argonne National Laboratory. A comprehensive base technology program provided absolute signal amplitudes, background noise amplitudes, and signal source-to-detector transfer functions. Field tests of these systems demonstrated an ability to detect and locate simulated leaks under operating and quiescent conditions in an LMFBR steam generator. (author)

  5. Single-Shell Tank Leak Integrity Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, D. G. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Girardot, C. L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, T. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This document summarizes and evaluates the information in the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement Interim Milestone M-045-91F Targets completed between 2010 and 2015. 1) Common factors of SST liner failures (M-045-91F-T02), 2) the feasibility of testing for ionic conductivity between the inside and outside of SSTs (M-045-91F-T03, and 3) the causes, locations, and rates of leaks from leaking SSTs (M-045-91F-T04).

  6. Friendly fermions of helium-three

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggatt, T.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of helium in showing up the effects of atomic indistinguishability and as a material by which to test some of the most fundamental principles of quantum mechanics is discussed. Helium not only remains liquid down to zero temperature but of the two isotopes helium-three has intrinsic spin 1/2 and should therefore obey the Pauli principle, while helium-four has spin zero and is expected to undergo Bose condensation. Helium-three becomes superfluid at temperatures of a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero by the bulk liquid collecting its atoms into spinning pairs. There are three different superfluid phases, now conveniently called A, B and A 1 and each is characterised by a different behaviour of the spin and/or relative angular motion of the atoms composing the Cooper pairs. Problems surrounding the complicated physical system of helium-three are discussed. It is suggested that the combined coherence and directionality of superfluid helium-three should create some fascinating physics. (U.K.)

  7. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  8. Testing of ethylene propylene seals for the GA-4/GA-9 casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary O-ring seal of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks was tested for leakage with a full-scale mockup of the cask lid and flange. Tests were performed at temperatures of ambient, -41, 121, and 193 C. Shim plates between the lid and flange simulated gaps caused by thermal distortion. The testing used a helium mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). Results showed that the primary seal was leaktight for all test conditions. Helium permeation through the seal began in 13--23 minutes for the ambient tests and in 1--2 minutes for the tests at elevated temperatures. After each test several hours of pumping were typically required to reduce the MSLD background reading to an acceptable level for the next test, indicating that the seal had become saturated with helium. To verify that the test results showed permeation and not real leakage, several response checks were conducted in which a calibrated leak source was inserted in the detector line near the seal. When the leak source was activated the detector responded within seconds

  9. Testing of ethylene propylene seals for the GA-4/GA-9 casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary O-ring seal of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks was tested for leakage with a full-scale mockup of the cask lid and flange. Tests were performed at temperatures of ambient, -41 degrees, 121 degrees, and 193 degrees C. Shim plates between the lid and flange simulated gaps caused by thermal distortion. The testing used a helium mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). Results showed that the primary seal was leaktight for all test conditions. Helium permeation through the seal began in 13--23 minutes for the ambient tests and in 1--2 minutes for the tests at elevated temperatures. After each test several hours of the pumping were typically required to reduce the MSLD background reading to an acceptable level for the next test, indicating that the seal had become saturated with helium. To verify that the test results showed permeation and not real leakage, several response checks were conducted in which a calibrated leak source was inserted in the detector line near the seal. When the leak source was activated the detector responded within seconds

  10. Steam generator leak detection using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluchko, V.V.; Sokolov, B.M.; Bulanov, A.N.

    1982-05-01

    The main requirements to meet by a device for leak detection in sodium - water steam generators are determined. The potentialities of instrumentation designed based on the developed requirements have been tested using a model of a 550 kw steam generator [fr

  11. Radiation Protection Practices during the Helium Circulator Maintenance of the 10 MW High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor-Test Module (HTR-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxiang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current radiation protection methodology offers abundant experiences on light-water reactors, but very few studies on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR. To fill this gap, a comprehensive investigation was performed to the radiation protection practices in the helium circulator maintenance of the Chinese 10 MW HTR test module (HTR-10 in this paper. The investigation reveals the unique behaviour of HTR-10’s radiation sources in the maintenance as well as its radionuclide species and presents the radiation protection methods that were tailored to these features. Owing to these practices, the radioactivity level was kept low throughout the maintenance and only low-level radioactive waste was generated. The quantitative analysis further demonstrates that the decontamination efficiency was over 89% for surface contamination and over 34% for γ dose rate and the occupational exposure was much lower than both the limits of regulatory and the exposure levels in comparable literature. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the reported radiation protection practices, which directly provides hands-on experience for the future HTR-PM reactor and adds to the completeness of the radiation protection methodology.

  12. A liquid helium saver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenel, O.; Der Nigohossian, G.; Roubeau, P.

    1976-01-01

    A cryostat equipped with a 'liquid helium saver' is described. A mass flow rate M of helium gas at high pressure is injected in a counter-flow heat exchanger extending from room to liquid helium temperature. After isenthalpic expansion through a calibrated flow impedance this helium gas returns via the low pressure side of the heat exchanger. The helium boil-off of the cryostat represents a mass flow rate m, which provides additional precooling of the incoming helium gas. Two operating regimes appear possible giving nearly the same efficiency: (1) high pressure (20 to 25 atm) and minimum flow (M . L/W approximately = 1.5) which would be used in an open circuit with helium taken from a high pressure cylinder; and (2) low pressure (approximately = 3 atm), high flow (M . L/W > 10) which would be used in a closed circuit with a rubber diaphragm pumping-compressing unit; both provide a minimum theoretical boil-off factor of about 8%. Experimental results are reported. (U.K.)

  13. Development in design of test infrastructure for ITER prototype cryoline test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketan, Choukekar; Ritendra, Bhattacharya; Nitin, Shah; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Himanshu, Kapoor; Pratik, Patel; Uday, Kumar; Biswanath, Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    The prototype cryoline (PTCL) for ITER is a representative cryoline from the complex network of all cryolines for the project. PTCL consist of six process pipes (of which four are operating at 4 K temperature level while two are operating at 80 K temperature level), thermal shield and outer vacuum jacket. PTCL will be tested for its thermal performance, mechanical integrity, leak tightness and functioning of components at cryogenic temperatures. The test infrastructure requirements for testing of PTCL have been identified based on the optimized test methodology. The best suited infrastructure option to test PTCL involves 80K system with helium compressor, test boxes, liquid helium Dewar, liquid nitrogen Dewar and interconnecting cryolines. Process study and various analyses have been performed to finalize the specifications of test infrastructure. The present work describes study on global thermo-hydraulic analysis of PTCL test infrastructure. Preliminary process simulation using the ASPEN HYSYS® has been performed to study the dynamic behavior of 80K system. (author)

  14. Deconstructing Gender Stereotypes in Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Bawa Atmadja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The belief of Balinese people towards leak still survive. Leak is a magic based on durgaism that can transform a person from human to another form, such as apes, pigs, etc. People tend to regard leak as evil. In general, the evilness is constructed in gender stereotypes, so it is identified that leak are always women. This idea is a power game based on the ideology of patriarchy that provides legitimacy for men to dominate women with a plea for social harmony. As a result, women are marginalized in the Balinese society. Women should be aware of so it would provide encouragement for them to make emancipatory changes dialogically. Kepercayaan orang Bali terhadap leak tetap bertahan sampai saat ini. Leak adalah sihir yang berbasiskan durgaisme yang dapat mengakibatkan seseorang bisa merubah bentuk dari manusia ke wujud yang lain, misalnya kera, babi, dll. Leak termasuk magi hitam sehingga dinilai bersifat jelek. Pada umumnya perempuan diidentikkan dengan leak sehingga melahirkan asumsi yang bermuatan steriotip gender bahwa leak = perempuan. Gagasan ini merupakan permainan kekuasaan berbasis ideologi patriarkhi dan sekaligus memberikan legitimasi bagi laki-laki untuk menguasai perempuan dengan dalih demi keharmonisan sosial. Akibatnya, perempuan menjadi termarginalisasi pada masyarakat Bali.  Perempuan harus menyadarinya sehingga memberikan dorongan bagi mereka untuk melakukan perubahan secara dialogis emansipatoris.

  15. Superfluid He testing of titanium-stainless steel transitions fabricated by explosive welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Sabirov, B.; Shirkov, G.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental setup was constructed to test in liquid He bimetallic (titanium-stainless steel) tube joints which were manufactured by an explosive welding method. The leak levels of the samples tested at room temperature 7.5·10 -10 and 7.5·10 -9 Torr·1/s at 77 K, correspondingly, measured at FNAL (Batavia, USA) after the thermocycling have coincided with the earlier results obtained at JINR (Dubna, Russia) and INFN (Pisa, Italy) data for the same samples. For the liquid helium test the tubes were welded in pairs by their titanium ends. At the room temperature the leak level of the three tested samples was 4.9·10 -10 Torr·l/s. At the first cryogenic tests (4-6 K) one of the samples manifested a leak. The investigation will be continued since the explosive welding seems to be a very perspective new generation technology

  16. Radiation leaking protection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunami, Yoshio; Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactivity from leaking outside of a reactor container by way of pipeways passing therethrough, by supplying pressurized fluid between each of a plurality of valves for separating the pipeways. Constitution: Pressurized fluid is supplied between each of a plurality of valves for separating pipeways. For instance, water in a purified water tank is pressurized by a pressure pump and the pressure of the pressurized water is controlled by a differential pressure detector, a pressure controller and a pressure control valve. In the case if a main steam pipe is ruptured outside of the reactor container or to be repaired, the separation valves are wholly closed and then the pressurizing device is actuated to supply pressurized water containing no radioactivity from the purified water tank to the position between the valves. The pressure in the pressurized water is controlled such that it is always higher by a predetermined level than the pressure in the reactor. This prevents the radioacitivity in the reactor core from leaking outside of the container passing through the valves, whereby radiation exposure in the working can be reduced and the circumferential contamination upon accident of pipeway rupture can be decreased. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Fully automatic AI-based leak detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylman, Wojciech; Kolczynski, Jakub [Dept. of Microelectronics and Computer Science, Technical University of Lodz in Poland, ul. Wolczanska 221/223, Lodz (Poland); Anders, George J. [Kinectrics Inc., 800 Kipling Ave., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 6C4 (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents a fully automatic system intended to detect leaks of dielectric fluid in underground high-pressure, fluid-filled (HPFF) cables. The system combines a number of artificial intelligence (AI) and data processing techniques to achieve high detection capabilities for various rates of leaks, including leaks as small as 15 l per hour. The system achieves this level of precision mainly thanks to a novel auto-tuning procedure, enabling learning of the Bayesian network - the decision-making component of the system - using simulated leaks of various rates. Significant new developments extending the capabilities of the original leak detection system described in and form the basis of this paper. Tests conducted on the real-life HPFF cable system in New York City are also discussed. (author)

  18. Intraoperative air leak measured after lobectomy is associated with postoperative duration of air leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Salati, Michele; Pompili, Cecilia; Gentili, Paolo; Sabbatini, Armando

    2017-11-01

    To verify the association between the air leak objectively measured intraoperatively (IAL) using the ventilator and the air leak duration after pulmonary lobectomy. Prospective analysis on 111 patients submitted to pulmonary lobectomy (33 by video-assisted thoracic surgery). After resection, objective assessment of air leak (in milliliter per minute) was performed before closure of the chest by measuring the difference between a fixed inspired and expired volume, using a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg, a respiratory rate of 10 and a positive-end expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. A multivariable analysis was performed for identifying factors associated with duration of postoperative air leak. Average IAL was 158 ml/min (range 0-1500 ml/min). The best cut-off (receiver-operating characteristics analysis) associated with air leak longer than 5 days was 500 ml/min. Nine patients had IAL >500 ml/min (8%). They had a longer duration of postoperative air leak compared with those with a lower IAL (mean values, 10.1 days, SD 8.8 vs 1.5 days, SD 4.9 P leak duration after multivariable regression: left side resection (P = 0.018), upper site resection (P = 0.031) and IAL >500 ml/min (P leak duration was generated: 1.7 + 2.4 × left side + 2.2 × upper site + 8.8 × IAL >500. The air leak measurement using the ventilator parameters after lung resection may assist in estimating the risk of postoperative prolonged air leak. An IAL > 500 ml/min may warrant the use of intraoperative preventative measures, particularly after video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy where a submersion test is often unreliable. © 2017 European Society of Cardiology and European Atherosclerosis Association. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected no later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15 calendar...

  1. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it is...

  2. Experiences in integrated leak rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During a hypothetical design basis accident for nuclear power plants, the reactor containment system is relied upon to maintain radioactive exposure limits below acceptable limits. Integrated leak rate testing is a means of verifying that the leakage of radioactivity material from the reactor containment will be below allowable limits. Leakage rate computations are based on the ideal gas law. The absolute method of leakage rate testing utilizing mass point method of data analysis is recommended. Integrated leak rate testing data is obtained from pressure, drybulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, and flow measuring systems. Test data does not support the usual leakage (flow) - pressure square root relationship. The major source of potential leakage from the reactor containment is reactor containment isolation valves

  3. FFTF integrated leak rate computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a liquid-metal-cooled test reactor located on the Hanford site. The FFTF is the only reactor of this type designed and operated to meet the licensing requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Unique characteristics of the FFTF that present special challenges related to leak rate testing include thin wall containment vessel construction, cover gas systems that penetrate containment, and a low-pressure design basis accident. The successful completion of the third FFTF integrated leak rate test 5 days ahead of schedule and 10% under budget was a major achievement for the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The success of this operational safety test was due in large part to a special network (LAN) of three IBM PC/XT computers, which monitored the sensor data, calculated the containment vessel leak rate, and displayed test results. The equipment configuration allowed continuous monitoring of the progress of the test independent of the data acquisition and analysis functions, and it also provided overall improved system reliability by permitting immediate switching to backup computers in the event of equipment failure

  4. Leak detection and localization system through acoustics; Sistema de deteccao e localizacao de vazamentos por acustica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio [Aselco Automacao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Acoustic Leak Detection Systems (ALDS) are used on both liquid and gas pipelines as well as multi-phase flow pipelines to detect leaks quickly and provide a means of limiting product loss. The real-time acoustic signal is continuously compared against signature leak profiles for the particular operating and geometric conditions. These profiles were developed from a database established from over 20 years of experimental and field leak tests. This technique not only drastically reduces the false alarm rate, but also significantly improves the sensitivity and leak location accuracy. This system will also detect leaks with shut-in flow (zero flow rate in the pipeline). With the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) it not only improves leak location accuracy, but also allows for continuous leak detection during the loss of communications. (author)

  5. Sealing of leaks in the bioshield cooling system of three research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.; Taylor, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Water leaks have occurred in the bioshield cooling system of three research reactors. These leaks have been plugged with a sealant based on a blend of a water-based resin and a bentonite-type clay originally developed for sealing similar leaks on power reactors. The mechanism of sealing and development testing of the sealant are described. Application of the sealant to the three reactors sealed the leaks. However, unlike experience with leaks in steel and aluminium systems, some leaks reappeared after several months service - albeit at a leak rate only a very small fraction of the original leak rate. The recurrent defects were readily retreated with sealant and hence, in these instances, the treatment is an effective maintenance procedure for any ageing reactor rather than a permanent cure. (orig.)

  6. Teste de permeabilidade de vias aéreas pré-extubação: comparação entre três métodos em ventilação espontânea Cuff leak test preextubation: comparison between three methods in spontaneous ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha da Silva Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O teste de permeabilidade avalia obstrução de via aérea superior e é classicamente realizado em modo assistido-controlado de ventilação mecânica. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar este teste em ventilação espontânea, através de três diferentes métodos e compará-los. MÉTODO: Vinte pacientes intubados foram submetidos a três diferentes formas do teste de permeabilidade, todos em ventilação espontânea: com o ventilômetro e o paciente conectado ao ventilador (teste 1; através do display do ventilador mecânico (teste 2; e com o ventilômetro e o paciente desconectado do ventilador (teste 3. O vazamento ao redor do tubo traqueal (TT foi definido como a porcentagem decorrente da diferença entre o volume-corrente inspirado (balonete insuflado e expirado (balonete desinsuflado. Foram avaliadas as diferenças entre os três testes, bem como correlacionado a porcentagem de vazamento entre os testes com três variáveis: pressão do balonete, diâmetro do TT e tempo de intubação. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The cuff leak test aims to evaluate the presence of airway obstruction and normally is carried through in the controlled mode of mechanical ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cuff leak in patients breathing spontaneously, across three different methods, and to compare them. METHODS: Twenty intubated patients had been submitted to three different forms of cuff leak test, all of them in spontaneous respiration: measuring air leak buy using a ventilometer and with the patient connected to the mechanical ventilator (test 1; through the display of the mechanical ventilator (test 2; and with ventilometer and the patient detached from the mechanical ventilator (test 3. The air leak around the tracheal tube (TT was defined as the percentage difference between the inspired tidal volume (insufflated cuff and exhaled (deflated cuff. The air

  7. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  8. High-temperature helium-loop facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100 0 F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system. The experimental capabilities and test conand presents the results that have been obtained. The study has been conducted using a four-phase approach. The first phase develops the solution to the steady-state radon-diffusion equation in one-dimensieered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent f water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, BB, a 200 mK. In case 2), x-ray studies of isotopic phase separation in 3 He-- 4 He bcc solids were carried out by B. A. Fraass

  9. Liquid helium plant in Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapov, N.N.; Baldin, A.M.; Kovalenko, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The liquid-helium cooling capacity installed at the Laboratory of High Energies is about 5 kw at a 4.5 K temperature level. It is provided with four industrial helium liquefiers of 1.6 kw/4.5 K each. They have been made by the Russian enterprise NPO GELYMASH and upgraded by the specialists of the Laboratory. The first one was put into operation in 1980, the two others in 1991, and the last one is under commissioning. The development of the LHE cryoplant was concerned with the construction of the new superconducting accelerator Nuclotron aimed to accelerate nuclei and heavy ions up to energies of 6 GeV/u. The first test run at the Nuclotron was carried out in March 1993, and the total running time has been about 2000 hours up to now. Since 1992 the cryoplant has been intensively used by the users outside the Laboratory. More than a million liters of liquid helium was provided in 1993 for such users. The reliability of the cryoplant system was as high as 98 percent for 4500 hours of operation in 1993-1994. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Device provides controlled gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, S. K.; King, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    Modified palladium leak device provides a controlled release /leak/ of very small quantities of gas at low or medium pressures. It has no moving parts, requires less than 5 watts to operate, and is capable of releasing the gas either continuously or in pulses at adjustable flow rates.

  11. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  12. The Leaking Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Inge; Højgaard, Lis

    2002-01-01

    negotiations of cultural prescriptions of gendered subjectivity and identities, organizational understandings and procedures embedded in specific university cultures, traditional of different science disciplines, and the systemic logic and political rationale of the education and research system....... these positions, and one that maintains that a closer look at the statistics does not support this optimism because women’s percentage in recruitment positions is not increasing as the pool of potential female researchers increases, or to put it metaphorically, “the pipeline is leaking women all along” (Alper...... it identifies and describes a Danish verion of ‘the leaky pipeline’ from analyses of the ratios of women in science from high school through tenured positions. Finally it illustrates the cultural mechanisms at play in this process, based on the results of three studies. The first two analyze the educational...

  13. Effect of helium irradiation on fracture modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanamura, T.; Jesser, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the crack opening mode during in-situ HVEM tensile testing and how it is influenced by test temperature and helium irradiation. Most cracks were mixed mode I and II. However, between 250 0 C and room temperature the effect of helium irradiation is to increase the amount of mode I crack propagation. Mode II crack opening was observed as grain boundary sliding initiated by a predominantly mode I crack steeply intersecting the grain boundary. Mode II crack opening was absent in irradiated specimens tested between 250 0 C and room temperature, but could be restored by a post irradiation anneal

  14. Evaluation of methodologies for the calculation of leak rates for pressure retaining components with crack-like leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, Juergen; Heckmann, Klaus; Blaesius, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    For the demonstration of break preclusion for pressure retaining components in nuclear power plants, the nuclear safety standard KTA 3206 determines also the requirements for the leak-before-break verification. For this procedure, it has to be ensured that a wall-penetrating crack is subcritical with respect to instable growth, and that the resulting leakage under stationary operation conditions can be detected by a leak detection system. Within the scope of the project 3613R01332 analyses with respect to conservative estimates of the leak rates in case of detections regarding break preclusion were performed by means of leak rate models being available at GRS. For this purpose, conservative assumptions in the procedure were quantified by comparative calculations concerning selected leak rate experiments and the requirements regarding the determination of leak rates indicated in the KTA 3206 were verified and specified. Moreover, the models were extended and relevant recommendations for the calculation procedure were developed. During the investigations of leak rate tests the calculation methods were validated, qualified by means of both examples indicated in KTA 3206 and applied to a postulated leak accident in the cooling circuit of a PWR. For the calculation of leak rates several simplified solution methods which are included in the GRS program WinLeck were applied, and for the simulation of a leak accident the large-scale programs ANSYS Mechanical and ATHLET (thermohydraulics program developed by GRS) were used. When applying simplified methods for the calculation of leak rates using the limiting curve for the friction factor which has been derived during the project and which is included in the KTA 3206 attention has to be paid to the fact that in case of small flow lengths the entrance loss can dominate compared to the friction loss. However, the available data do not suffice in order to make a quantitative statement with respect to limits of applicability

  15. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Future Circular Collider (FCC accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar®—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  16. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Pawel; Chorowski, Maciej Pawel; Polinski, J

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  17. Steam leak detection in advance reactors via acoustics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Rao, A. Rama

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steam leak detection system is developed to detect any leak inside the reactor vault. → The technique uses leak noise frequency spectrum for leak detection. → Testing of system and method to locate the leak is also developed and discussed in present paper. - Abstract: Prediction of LOCA (loss of coolant activity) plays very important role in safety of nuclear reactor. Coolant is responsible for heat transfer from fuel bundles. Loss of coolant is an accidental situation which requires immediate shut down of reactor. Fall in system pressure during LOCA is the trip parameter used for initiating automatic reactor shut down. However, in primary heat transport system operating in two phase regimes, detection of small break LOCA is not simple. Due to very slow leak rates, time for the fall of pressure is significantly slow. From reactor safety point of view, it is extremely important to find reliable and effective alternative for detecting slow pressure drop in case of small break LOCA. One such technique is the acoustic signal caused by LOCA in small breaks. In boiling water reactors whose primary heat transport is to be driven by natural circulation, small break LOCA detection is important. For prompt action on post small break LOCA, steam leak detection system is developed to detect any leak inside the reactor vault. The detection technique is reliable and plays a very important role in ensuring safety of the reactor. Methodology developed for steam leak detection is discussed in present paper. The methods to locate the leak is also developed and discussed in present paper which is based on analysis of the signal.

  18. Creep-rupture behavior of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, Alloy 800H and Hastelloy Alloy X in a simulated HTGR helium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.; Wolwowicz, R.J.

    1979-12-01

    Creep-rupture testing was conducted on 1 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, Alloy 800H and Hastelloy Alloy X in flowing helium containing nominal concentration of following gases: 1500 μatm H 2 , 450 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH 4 , 50 μatm H 2 O and 5 μatm CO 2 . This environment is believed to represent maximum permissible levels of impurities in the primary coolant for the steam-cycle system of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) when it is operating continuously with a water and/or steam leak at technical specification limits. Two or three heats of material for each alloy were investigated. Tests were conducted at 482 0 C and 760 0 C (1200 0 F and 1400 0 F) for Alloy 800H, and at 760 0 C and 871 0 C (1400 0 F and 1600 0 F) for Hastelloy Alloy X for times up to 10,000 h. Selected tests were performed on same heat of material in both air and helium environments to make a direct comparison of creep-rupture behaviors between two environments. Metallurgical evaluation was performed on selected post test specimens with respect to gas-metal interactions which included oxidation, carburization and/or decarburization. Correlation between gaseous corrosion and creep-rupture behavior was attempted. Limited tests were also performed to investigate the specimen size effects on creep-rupture behavior in the helium environment

  19. Incidence and risk factors predisposing anastomotic leak after transhiatal esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabai, Abbas; Hashemi, Mozaffar; Mohajeri, Gholamreza; Ahmadinejad, Mojtaba; Khan, Ishfaq Abass; Haghdani, Saeid

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify the incidence and risk factors of anastomotic leaks following transhiatal esophagectomy (THE). A prospective study was conducted on 61 patients treated for carcinoma of the esophagus between 2006 and 2007. We examined the following variables: age, gender, preoperative cardiovascular function, intraoperative complications such as hypotension, arrhythmia, mediastinal manipulation period, blood loss volume, blood transfusion, duration of surgery, postoperative complications such as anastomotic leak, anastomotic stricture, requiring reoperation, respiratory complications, and total morbidity and mortality. Variables were compared between the patients with and without anastomotic leak. T-test for quantitative variables and Chi-square test for qualitative variables were used to find out any relationship. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Out of 61 patients, anastomotic leaks occurred in 13 (21.3%). Weight loss, forced expiratory volume (FEV1) < 2 lit, preoperative albumin, intaoperative blood loss volume, and respiratory complication were associated with the anastomotic leak in patients undergoing THE. Anastomotic leaks were the leading cause of postoperative morbidity, anastomotic stricture, and reoperation. Anastomotic leakage is a life-threatening postoperative complication. Careful attention to the factors contributing to the development of a leak can reduce the incidence of anastomotic complications postoperatively. (author)

  20. Retention of hydrogen isotopes and helium in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Mitsumasa; Sato, Rikiya; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-10-01

    In the present study, a thin foil of nickel was irradiated by H{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} to a fluence of 1.2-6.0x10{sup 20}/m{sup 2} using the TBTS (Tritium Beam Test System) apparatus. The thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) technique was employed to evaluate the total amount of retained hydrogen isotope and helium atoms in nickel. In the spectra, two peaks appeared at 440-585K and 720-735K for helium. Hydrogen isotopes irradiation after helium preirradiation were found to enhance the helium release and to decrease the peak temperatures. Helium irradiation after hydrogen isotopes preirradiation were found to enhance the helium release, but the peak temperature showed little difference from that without preirradiation. (author)

  1. Experimental Validation of the LHC Helium Relief System Flow Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fydrych, J; Riddone, G

    2006-01-01

    In case of simultaneous resistive transitions in a whole sector of magnets in the Large Hadron Collider, the helium would be vented from the cold masses to a dedicated recovery system. During the discharge the cold helium will eventually enter a pipe at room temperature. During the first period of the flow the helium will be heated intensely due to the pipe heat capacity. To study the changes of the helium thermodynamic and flow parameters we have simulated numerically the most critical flow cases. To verify and validate numerical results, a dedicated laboratory test rig representing the helium relief system has been designed and commissioned. Both numerical and experimental results allow us to determine the distributions of the helium parameters along the pipes as well as mechanical strains and stresses.

  2. Autonomous Cryogenic Leak Detector for Improving Launch Site Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Kisholoy

    2013-01-01

    NASA, military, and commercial satellite users need launch services that are highly reliable, less complex, easier to test, and cost effective. This project has developed a tapered optical fiber sensor for detecting hydrogen. The invention involves incorporating chemical indicators on the tapered end of an optical fiber using organically modified silicate nanomaterials. The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and qualify various mission-critical chemicals. Historically, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are the first five gases of HGDL focus. The use of these cryogenic fluids in the area of propulsion offers challenges. Due to their extreme low temperatures, these fluids induce contraction of the materials they contact, a potential cause of leakage. Among them, hydrogen is of particular concern. Small sensors are needed in multiple locations without adding to the structural weight. The most vulnerable parts of the engine are the connection flanges on the transfer lines, which have to support cycles of large thermal amplitude. The thermal protection of the engine provides a closed area, increasing the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere. Thus, even a small leak represents an unacceptable hazardous condition during loading operations, in flight, or after an aborted launch. Tapered fibers were first fabricated from 1/1.3-mm core/cladding (silica/ plastic) optical fibers. Typically a 1-ft (approx. 30- cm) section of the 1-mm fiber is cut from the bundle and marked with a pen into five 2-.-in. (.5.7-cm) sections. A propane torch is applied at every alternate mark to burn the jacket and soften the glass core. While the core is softening, the two ends of the fiber are pulled apart slowly to create fine tapers of .- to .-in. (.6- to 12-mm) long on the 1-mm optical fiber. Following this, the non-tapered ends of the fibers are polished to a 0.3-micron finish

  3. Implementation of gas concentration measurement systems using mass spectrometry in containment thermal-hydraulics test facilities: different approaches for calibration and measurement with steam/air/helium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auban, O.; Malet, J.; Brun, P.; Brinster, J.; Quillico, J. J.; Studer, E.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic test facilities are used to investigate various containment phenomena such as, for example, mixing and stratification of gases or steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable. Experiments are also required for validation of codes possessing capabilities for modelling such three-dimensional effects. The need for advanced instrumentation allowing to measure gas concentration in such conditions (typically: 100-180 .deg. C; 1-10 bar) and to get sufficiently refined information about spatial distribution of the different gas species has become apparent. This paper deals with the implementation of gas analysis systems using some commercial Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers (QMS) that have been recently added to the basic instrumentation in three thermal-hydraulics test facilities namely MISTRA (CEA, France), TOSQAN (IRSN, France) and PANDA (PSI, Switzerland). In recent years, QMS have increasingly been selected for various applications because of attractive metrological characteristics (sensibility, span of concentration range, response time, stability, etc.), relatively compact size and low cost. Although commercial QMS are sold as 'turnkey' systems, these instruments are delicate to bring into operation. As QMS are not absolute instruments, reliable calibration procedures are required for quantitative measurements. A mass spectrometer can be regarded as an ionisation gauge with subsequent separation system for the different ion species. The calculation of gas concentrations considers the partial pressure of a particular gas species to be proportional to the ion current it generates. Anyway, one must know the QMS sensitivity to the gases of interest and the only practical method is to use calibration gases. Calibration must be carried out using mixtures whose compositions are close to any possible sample compositions and the procedure selected should duplicate as closely as possible the measurement conditions established during the real experiment

  4. Nuclear Fuel Test Rod Fabrication for Data Acquisition Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A nuclear fuel test rod must be fabricated with precise welding and assembly technologies, and confirmed for their soundness. Recently, we have developed various kinds of processing systems such as an orbital TIG welding system, a fiber laser welding system, an automated drilling system and a helium leak analyzer, which are able to fabricate the nuclear fuel test rods and rigs, and keep inspection systems to confirm the soundness of the nuclear fuel test rods and rids. The orbital TIG welding system can be used with two kinds of welding methods. One can perform the round welding for end-caps of a nuclear fuel test rod by an orbital head mounted in a low-pressure chamber. The other can do spot welding for a pin-hole of a nuclear fuel test rod in a high-pressure chamber to fill up helium gas of high pressure. The fiber laser welding system can weld cylindrical and 3 axis samples such as parts of a nuclear fuel test rod and instrumentation sensors which is moved by an index chuck and a 3 axis (X, Y, Z) servo stage controlled by the CNC program. To measure the real-time temperature change at the center of the nuclear fuel during the irradiation test, a thermocouple should be instrumented at that position. Therefore, a hole needs to be made at the center of fuel pellet to instrument the thermocouple. An automated drilling system can drill a fine hole into a fuel pellet without changing tools or breaking the work-piece. The helium leak analyzer (ASM-380 model of DEIXEN Co.) can check the leak of the nuclear fuel test rod filled with helium gas. This paper describes not only the assembly and fabrication methods used by the process systems, but also the results of the data acquisition test for the nuclear fuel test rod. A nuclear fuel test rod for the data acquisition test was fabricated using the welding and assembling echnologies acquired from previous tests

  5. Nuclear Fuel Test Rod Fabrication for Data Acquisition Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A nuclear fuel test rod must be fabricated with precise welding and assembly technologies, and confirmed for their soundness. Recently, we have developed various kinds of processing systems such as an orbital TIG welding system, a fiber laser welding system, an automated drilling system and a helium leak analyzer, which are able to fabricate the nuclear fuel test rods and rigs, and keep inspection systems to confirm the soundness of the nuclear fuel test rods and rids. The orbital TIG welding system can be used with two kinds of welding methods. One can perform the round welding for end-caps of a nuclear fuel test rod by an orbital head mounted in a low-pressure chamber. The other can do spot welding for a pin-hole of a nuclear fuel test rod in a high-pressure chamber to fill up helium gas of high pressure. The fiber laser welding system can weld cylindrical and 3 axis samples such as parts of a nuclear fuel test rod and instrumentation sensors which is moved by an index chuck and a 3 axis (X, Y, Z) servo stage controlled by the CNC program. To measure the real-time temperature change at the center of the nuclear fuel during the irradiation test, a thermocouple should be instrumented at that position. Therefore, a hole needs to be made at the center of fuel pellet to instrument the thermocouple. An automated drilling system can drill a fine hole into a fuel pellet without changing tools or breaking the work-piece. The helium leak analyzer (ASM-380 model of DEIXEN Co.) can check the leak of the nuclear fuel test rod filled with helium gas. This paper describes not only the assembly and fabrication methods used by the process systems, but also the results of the data acquisition test for the nuclear fuel test rod. A nuclear fuel test rod for the data acquisition test was fabricated using the welding and assembling echnologies acquired from previous tests.

  6. High-temperature helium embrittlement (T>=0,45Tsub(M)) of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batfalsky, P.

    1984-06-01

    High temperature helium embrittlement, swelling and irradiation creep are the main technical problem of fusion reactor materials. The expected helium production will be very high. The helium produced by (n,α)-processes precipitates into helium bubbles because its solubility in solid metals is very low. Under continuous helium production at high temperature and stress the helium bubbles grow and lead to intergranular early failure. Solution annealed foil specimens of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 were implanted with α-particles: 1. during creep tests at 1023 K (''in-beam'' test) 2. before the creep tests at high temperature (1023 K). The creep tests have been performed within large ranges of test parameter, e.g. applied stress, temperature, helium implantation rate and helium concentration. After the creep tests the microstructure was investigated using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. All the helium implanted specimens showed high temperature helium embrittlement, i.e. reduction of rupture time tsub(R) and ductility epsilonsub(R) and evidence of intergranular brittle fracture. The ''in-beam'' creep tests showed greater reduction of rupture time tsub(R) and ductility than the preimplanted creep tests. The comparison of this experimentally obtained data with various theoretical models of high temperature helium embrittlement showed that within the investigated parameter ranges the mechanism controlling the life time of the samples is probably the gas driven stable growth of the helium bubbles within the grain boundaries. (orig.)

  7. Helium mobility in advanced nuclear ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms able to drive the helium behaviour in transition metal carbides and nitrides submitted to thermal annealing or ion irradiation. TiC, TiN and ZrC polycrystals were implanted with 3 MeV 3 He ions at room temperature in the fluence range 2 * 10 15 et 6 * 10 16 cm -2 . Some of them have been pre-irradiated with self-ions (14 MeV Ti or Zr). Fully controlled thermal annealing tests were subsequently carried out in the temperature range 1000 - 1600 C for two hours. The evolution of the helium depth distribution in function of implantation dose, temperature and pre-irradiation dose was measured thanks to the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction 3 He(d, p 0 ) 4 He between 900 keV and 1.8 MeV. The microstructure of implanted and annealed samples was investigated by transmission electron microscopy on thin foils prepared using the FIB technique. Additional characterization tools, as X-ray diffraction and Raman microspectrometry, have been also applied in order to obtain complementary information. Among the most relevant results obtained, the following have to be outlined: - double-peak helium depth profile was measured on as implanted sample for the three compounds. The first peak is located near the end of range and includes the major part of helium, a second peak located close to the surface corresponds to the helium atoms trapped by the native vacancies; - the helium retention capacity in transition metal carbides and nitrides submitted to fully controlled thermal treatments varies according to ZrC 0.92 ≤ TiC 0.96 ≤ TiN 0.96 ; - whatever the investigated material, a self-ion-induced pre-damaging does not modify the initial helium profile extent. The influence of the post-implantation thermal treatment remains preponderant in any case; - the apparent diffusion coefficient of helium is in the range 4 * 10 -18 - 2 * 10 -17 m 2 s -1 in TiC0.96 and 3.5 * 10 -19 - 5.3 * 10 -18 m 2 s -1 in TiN 0.96 between

  8. The nature of free electrons in superfluid helium - a test of quantum mechanics and a basis to review its foundations and make a comparison to classical theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, R.L. [BlackLight Power, Inc., Cranbury, NJ (United States)

    2001-10-01

    The Schroedinger equation was originally postulated in 1926 as having a solution of the one electron atom. It gives the principal energy levels of the hydrogen atom as eigenvalues of eigenfunction solutions of the Laguerre differential equation. But, as the principal quantum number n>>1, the eigenfunctions become nonsensical. Despite its wide acceptance, on deeper inspection, the Schroedinger solution is plagued with many failings as well as difficulties in terms of a physical interpretation that have caused it to remain controversial since its inception. Only the one electron atom may be solved without approximations, but it fails to predict electron spin and leads to models with nonsensical consequences such as negative energy states of the vacuum, infinities, and negative kinetic energy. In addition to many predictions which simply do not agree with observations, the Schroedinger equation predicts noncausality, nonlocality, spooky actions at a distance or quantum telepathy, perpetual motion, and many internal inconsistencies where contradicting statements have to be taken true simultaneously. Recently, the behavior of free electrons in superfluid helium has again forced the issue of the meaning of the wave function. Electrons form bubbles in superfluid helium which reveal that the electron is real and that a physical interpretation of the wave function is necessary. Furthermore, when irradiated with light of energy of about a 0.5 to several electron volts (H.J. Marris, J. Low Temp. Phys. 120 (2000) 173), the electrons carry current at different rates as if they exist with different sizes. It has been proposed that the behavior of free electrons in superfluid helium can be explained in terms of the electron breaking into pieces at superfluid helium temperatures (H.J. Marris, J. Low Temp. Phys. 120 (2000) 173). Yet, the electron has proven to be indivisible even under particle accelerator collisions at 90 GeV (LEPII). The nature of the wave function must now be

  9. Status of U.S. evaluations of acoustic detection of in-sodium water leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, F.L.; Neely, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the United States testing program to evaluate acoustic leak detection and location systems on simulated water leaks in functional liquid sodium steam generators is provided. Testing was conducted on the modular hockey stick steam generator during the large leak test program in the LLTR, on the CRBR prototype hockey stick steam generators in SCTI, on a double wall tube steam generator installed in EBR-II and on the helical coil steam generator tested in SCTI. These test programs have demonstrated the acoustic leak detection system potential, however, additional development is required before the system can perform to its effective and required potential. (author). 6 figs

  10. Conceptual design of helium experimental loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xingfu; Feng Kaiming

    2007-01-01

    In a future demonstration fusion power station (DEMO), helium is envisaged as coolant for plasma facing components, such as blanket and dive,or. All these components have a very complex geometry, with many parallel cooling channels, involving a complex helium flow distribution. Test blanket modules (TBM) of this concept will under go various tests in the experimental reactor ITER. For the qualification of TBM, it is indispensable to test mock-ups in a helium loop under realistic pressure and temperature profiles, in order to validate design codes, especially regarding mass flow and heat transition processes in narrow cooling channels. Similar testing must be performed for DEMO blanket, currently under development. A Helium Experimental Loop (HELOOP) is planed to be built for TBM tests. The design parameter of temperature, pressure, flow rate is 550 degree C, 10 MPa, l kg/s respectively. In particular, HELOOP is able to: perform full-scale tests of TBM under realistic conditions; test other components of the He-cooling system in ITER; qualify the purification circuit; obtain information for the design of the ITER cooling system. The main requirements and characteristics of the HELOOP facility and a preliminary conceptual design are described in the paper. (authors)

  11. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  12. Tube leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Bunji; Takamura, Koichi; Matsuda, Shigehiro; Kiyosawa, Shun-ichi; Asami, Toru; Yamada, Hiroshi; Naruse, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention detects occurrence of leakage in a steam generator, a steam heating tube, or a heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant. Namely, an vibration sensor is disposed at the rear end of a rod-like supersonic resonance member. A node portion for the vibrations of the resonance member is held by a holding member and attached to a wall surface of a can such as a boiler. With such a constitution, the resonance member is resonated by supersonic waves generated upon leakage of the tube. The vibrations are measured by the vibration sensor at the rear end. Presence of leakage is detected by utilizing one or more of resonance frequencies. Since the device adopts a resonance phenomenon, a conduction efficiency of the vibrations is high, thereby enabling to detect leakage at high sensitivity. In addition, the supersonic wave resonance member has its top end directly protruded into a pressure vessel such as a boiler by using a metal or a ceramic which is excellent in heat and pressure resistance. Accordingly, the sound of leak can be detected efficiently. (I.S.)

  13. Analysis of SX farm leak histories - Historical leak model (HLM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report uses readily available historical information to better define the volume, chemical composition, and Cs-137/Sr-90 amounts for leaks that have occurred in the past for tanks SX-108, SX-109, SX-111, and SX-112. In particular a Historical Leak Model (HLM) is developed that is a month by month reconciliation of tank levels, fill records, and calculated boil-off rates for these tanks. The HLM analysis is an independent leak estimate that reconstructs the tank thermal histories thereby deriving each tank's evaporative volume loss and by difference, its unaccounted losses as well. The HLM analysis was meant to demonstrate the viability of its approach, not necessarily to establish the HLM leak estimates as being definitive. Past leak estimates for these tanks have invariably resorted to soil wetting arguments but the extent of soil contaminated by each leak has always been highly uncertain. There is also a great deal of uncertainty with the HLM that was not quantified in this report, but will be addressed later. These four tanks (among others) were used from 1956 to 1975 for storage of high-level waste from the Redox process at Hanford. During their operation, tank waste temperatures were often as high as 150 C (300 F), but were more typically around 130 C. The primary tank cooling was by evaporation of tank waste and therefore periodic replacement of lost volume with water was necessary to maintain each tank's inventory. This active reflux of waste resulted in very substantial turnovers in tank inventory as well as significant structural degradation of these tanks. As a result of the loss of structural integrity, each of these tanks leaked during their active periods of operation. Unfortunately, the large turnover in tank volume associated with their reflux cooling has made a determination of leak volumes very difficult. During much of these tanks operational histories, inventory losses because of evaporative cooling could have effectively masked any volume

  14. Concentration device for leak liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Matsuda, Ken; Takabori, Ken-ichi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve radioactivity recovery and volume-reducing rates, as well as enable safety and easy handling for leak liquids resulted from reptures in coolant circuits. Constitution: The device of the invention comprises an evaporation vessel filled with leak fluids to a predetermined level, an airtight vessel disposed in the evaporation vessel containing hydrophilic porous material partially immersed in the leak fluids and means for heating the hydrophilic material. In this device, leak liquids are absorbed in the hydrophilic porous material, a great amount of water is evaporated from the outer surface of the hydrophilic porous material exposed above the liquid surface, and salts and radioactive material are remained on the inside and the outer surface of the porous material. The evaporated water content is condensated and recovered in a cooler and the remaining salts, etc. are discarded together with the porous material. The volume-reducing property can be improved by constituting the porous material with burnable material. (Takahashi, M.)

  15. Cosmological helium production simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Brown, L.S.; Feinberg, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a simplified model of helium synthesis in the early universe. The purpose of the model is to explain clearly the physical ideas relevant to the cosmological helium synthesis, in a manner that does not overlay these ideas with complex computer calculations. The model closely follows the standard calculation, except that it neglects the small effect of Fermi-Dirac statistics for the leptons. We also neglect the temperature difference between photons and neutrinos during the period in which neutrons and protons interconvert. These approximations allow us to express the neutron-proton conversion rates in a closed form, which agrees to 10% accuracy or better with the exact rates. Using these analytic expressions for the rates, we reduce the calculation of the neutron-proton ratio as a function of temperature to a simple numerical integral. We also estimate the effect of neutron decay on the helium abundance. Our result for this quantity agrees well with precise computer calculations. We use our semi-analytic formulas to determine how the predicted helium abundance varies with such parameters as the neutron life-time, the baryon to photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and a possible electron-neutrino chemical potential. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Hydride transport vessel vibration and shock test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, D.G.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed vibration and shock testing on a Savannah River Hydride Transport Vessel (HTV) which is used for bulk shipments of tritium. This testing is required to qualify the HTV for transport in the H1616 shipping container. The main requirement for shipment in the H1616 is that the contents (in this case the HTV) have a tritium leak rate of less than 1x10{sup {minus}7} cc/sec after being subjected to shock and vibration normally incident to transport. Helium leak tests performed before and after the vibration and shock testing showed that the HTV remained leaktight under the specified conditions. This report documents the tests performed and the test results.

  17. Hydride transport vessel vibration and shock test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, D.G.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed vibration and shock testing on a Savannah River Hydride Transport Vessel (HTV) which is used for bulk shipments of tritium. This testing is required to qualify the HTV for transport in the H1616 shipping container. The main requirement for shipment in the H1616 is that the contents (in this case the HTV) have a tritium leak rate of less than 1x10 -7 cc/sec after being subjected to shock and vibration normally incident to transport. Helium leak tests performed before and after the vibration and shock testing showed that the HTV remained leaktight under the specified conditions. This report documents the tests performed and the test results

  18. Liquid helium cooling of the MFTF superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanSant, J.H.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1986-09-01

    During acceptance testing of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), we measured these tests: liquid helium heat loads and flow rates in selected magnets. We used the data from these tests to estimate helium vapor quality in the magnets so that we could determine if adequate conductor cooling conditions had occurred. We compared the measured quality and flow with estimates from a theoretical model developed for the MFTF magnets. The comparison is reasonably good, considering influences that can greatly affect these values. This paper describes the methods employed in making the measurements and developing the theoretical estimates. It also describes the helium system that maintained the magnets at required operating conditions

  19. Helium effect on mechanical property of fusion reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Norikazu; Chuto, Toshinori; Murase, Yoshiharu; Nakagawa, Johsei

    2004-01-01

    High-energy neutrons produced in fusion reactor core caused helium in the structural materials of fusion reactors, such as blankets. We injected alpha particles accelerated by the cyclotron to the samples of martensite steel (9Cr3WVTaB). Equivalent helium doses injected to the sample is estimated to be up to 300 ppm, which were estimated to be equivalent to helium accumulation after the 1-year reactor operation. Creep tests of the samples were made to investigate helium embrittlement. There were no appreciable changes in the relation between the stresses and the rupture time, the minimum creep rate and the applied stress. Grain boundary effect by helium was not observed in ruptured surfaces. Fatigue tests were made for SUS304 samples, which contain helium up to 150 ppm. After 0.05 Hz cyclic stress tests, it was shown that the fatigue lifetime (cycles to rupture and extension to failure) are 1/5 in 150 ppm helium samples compared with no helium samples. The experimental results suggest martensite steel is promising for structural materials of fusion reactors. (Y. Tanaka)

  20. Mapping urban pipeline leaks: Methane leaks across Boston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Nathan G.; Ackley, Robert; Crosson, Eric R.; Down, Adrian; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Brondfield, Max; Karr, Jonathan D.; Zhao Kaiguang; Jackson, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas is the largest source of anthropogenic emissions of methane (CH 4 ) in the United States. To assess pipeline emissions across a major city, we mapped CH 4 leaks across all 785 road miles in the city of Boston using a cavity-ring-down mobile CH 4 analyzer. We identified 3356 CH 4 leaks with concentrations exceeding up to 15 times the global background level. Separately, we measured δ 13 CH 4 isotopic signatures from a subset of these leaks. The δ 13 CH 4 signatures (mean = −42.8‰ ± 1.3‰ s.e.; n = 32) strongly indicate a fossil fuel source rather than a biogenic source for most of the leaks; natural gas sampled across the city had average δ 13 CH 4 values of −36.8‰ (±0.7‰ s.e., n = 10), whereas CH 4 collected from landfill sites, wetlands, and sewer systems had δ 13 CH 4 signatures ∼20‰ lighter (μ = −57.8‰, ±1.6‰ s.e., n = 8). Repairing leaky natural gas distribution systems will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase consumer health and safety, and save money. Highlights: ► We mapped 3356 methane leaks in Boston. ► Methane leaks in Boston carry an isotopic signature of pipeline natural gas. ► Replacing failing gas pipelines will provide safety, environmental, and economic benefits. - We identified 3356 methane leaks in Boston, with isotopic characteristics consistent with pipeline natural gas.

  1. Automatic Leak Detection in Buried Plastic Pipes of Water Supply Networks by Means of Vibration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of strategies for controlling water leaks is essential in order to reduce losses affecting distribution networks of drinking water. This paper focuses on leak detection by using vibration monitoring techniques. The long-term goal is the development of a system for automatic early detection of burst leaks in service pipes. An experimental campaign was started to measure vibrations transmitted along water pipes by real burst leaks occurring in actual water supply networks. The first experimental data were used for assessing the leak detection performance of a prototypal algorithm based on the calculation of the standard deviation of acceleration signals. The experimental campaign is here described and discussed. The proposed algorithm, enhanced by means of proper signal filtering techniques, was successfully tested on all monitored leaks, thus proving effective for leak detection purpose.

  2. Acoustic emission technique for leak detection in an end shield of a pressurized heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyanasundaram, P.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the successful application of the Acoustic Emission Technique (AET) for detection and location of leak paths present on the inaccessible side of an end shield of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The methodology was based on the fact that air and water leak AE signals have different characteristic features. Baseline data was generated from a sound end-shield of a PHWR for characterizing the background noise. A mock up end-shield system with saw cut leak paths was used to verify the validity of the methodology. It was found that air leak signals under pressurisation (as low as 3 psi) could be detected by frequency domain analysis. Signals due to air leaks from various locations of a defective end-shield were acquired and analysed. It was possible to detect and locate leak paths. Presence of detected leak paths were further confirmed by alternate test. (orig.)

  3. Screw compressor system for industrial-scale helium refrigerators or industrial ammonia screw compressors for helium refrigeration systems; Schraubenkompressor-System fuer Helium-Grosskaelteanlage oder Ammoniak-Schraubenverdichter aus Industrieanwendungen fuer Helium-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, O.; Mosemann, D.; Zaytsev, D. [GEA Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Material characteristics, requirements and measured data of ammonia and helium compression are compared. The compressor lines for industrial ammonia and helium refrigerators are presented, and important characteristics of the compressors are explained. The test stand for performance measurements with helium and ammonia is described, and results are presented. In spite of the different characteristics of the fluids, the compressor-specific efficiencies (supply characteristic, quality characteristic) were found to be largely identical. The values calculated for helium on the basis of NH3 test runs were found to be realistic, which means that the decades of experience with ammonia in industrial applications can be applied to helium compression as well. The design of screw compressor aggregates (skids) in industrial refrigeration is discussed and illustrated by examples. (orig.)

  4. Creep properties of Hastelloy X in a carburizing helium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the environmental effect on the creep behavior of Hastelloy X at 900 0 C in helium and air. Since helium coolant in HTGR is expected to be carburizing and very weakly oxidizing for most metals, testings were focused on the effect of carburizing and slight oxidation. Carburization decreases secondary creep strain rate and delays tertiary creep initiation. On the other hand, the crack growth rate on the specimen surface is enhanced due to very weak oxidation in helium, therefore the tertiary creep strain rate becomes larger than that in air. The rupture time of Hastelloy X was shorter in helium when compared with in air. Stress versus rupture time curves for both environments do not deviate with each other during up to 5000 hours test, and a ratio of rupture stress in helium to that in air was about 0.9

  5. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 2: BOT helium cooled solid breeder blanket. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Bojarsky, E.; Deckers, H.; Dienst, W.; Doerr, L.; Fischer, U.; Giese, H.; Guenther, E.; Haefner, H.E.; Hofmann, P.; Kappler, F.; Knitter, R.; Kuechle, M.; Moellendorf, U. von; Norajitra, P.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Reimann, G.; Reiser, H.; Schulz, B.; Schumacher, G.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Sordon, G.; Tsukiyama, T.; Wedemeyer, H.; Weimar, P.; Werle, H.; Wiegner, E.; Zimmermann, H.

    1991-10-01

    The BOT (Breeder Outside Tube) Helium Cooled Breeder Blanket for a fusion Demo reactor and the status of the R and D program is presented. This is the KfK contribution to the European Program for the Demo relevant test plankets to be irradiated in NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4928) contains the summary, volume 2 (KfK 4929) a more detailed version of the report. In both volumes are described the reasons for the selected design, the reference blanket design for the Demo reactor, the design of test blanket including the ancillary systems together with the present status of the relative R and D program in the fields of neutronic and thermohydraulic calculations, of the electromagnetic forces caused by disruptions, of the development and irradiation of the ceramic breeder material, of the tritium release and recovery, and of the technological investigations. An outlook is given on the required R and D program for the BOT Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the proposed test program in NET/ITER. (orig.) [de

  6. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 2: BOT helium cooled solid breeder blanket. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Bojarsky, E.; Deckers, H.; Dienst, W.; Doerr, L.; Fischer, U.; Giese, H.; Guenther, E.; Haefner, H.E.; Hofmann, P.; Kappler, F.; Knitter, R.; Kuechle, M.; Moellendorf, U. von; Norajitra, P.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Reimann, G.; Reiser, H.; Schulz, B.; Schumacher, G.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Sordon, G.; Tsukiyama, T.; Wedemeyer, H.; Weimar, P.; Werle, H.; Wiegner, E.; Zimmermann, H.

    1991-10-01

    The BOT (Breeder Outside Tube) Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket for a fusion Demo reactor and the status of the R and D program is presented. This is the KfK contribution to the European Program for the Demo relevant test blankets to be irradiated in NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4928) contains the summary, volume 2 (KfK 4929) a more detailed version of the report. In both volumes are described the reasons for the selected design, the reference blanket design for the Demo reactor, the design of the test blanket including the ancillary systems together with the present status of the relative R and D program in the fields of neutronic and thermohydraulic calculations, of the electromagnetic forces caused by disruptions, of the development and irradiation of the ceramic breeder material, of the tritium release and recovery, and of the technological investigations. An outlook is given on the required R and D program for the BOT Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the proposed test program in NET/ITER. (orig.) [de

  7. Rotary magnetic refrigerator for superfluid helium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakuraku, Y.; Ogata, H.

    1986-01-01

    A new rotary-magnetic refrigerator designed to obtain superfluid helium temperatures by executing a magnetic Carnot cycle is developed. A rotor containing 12 magnetic refrigerants (gadolinium-gallium-garnet) is immersed in liquid helium at 4.2 K and rotated at constant speed in a steady magnetic field distribution. Performance tests demonstrate that the new rotary refrigerator is capable of obtaining a temperature of 1.48 K. The maximum useful cooling power obtained at 1.8 K is 1.81 W which corresponds to a refrigeration efficiency of 34%

  8. Sealing performance test for main flange of pressure vessel of T2 test section in HENDEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kiminori; Kondou, Yasuo; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Asami, Masanobu.

    1990-12-01

    A pressure vessel of T 2 test section in helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) was fabricated to the same scale of the reactor pressure vessel made of 2(1/4)Cr-1Mo steel in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Also, the sealing structure of a main flange of pressure vessel in T 2 test section was composed of the double metal O-rings and Ω-seal which would be used in the sealing structure of HTTR. The sealing performance test for the main flange of the pressure vessel in T 2 test section was carried out to confirm the integrity of sealing structure of a main flange in HTTR. T 2 test section has been operated about 7700 hours in previous 18 cycles. The leakage of helium gas from inner metal O-ring was measured by the static pressurized process under the operating condition of HTTR (helium gas: 400degC, 40kg/cm 2 G, 4gk/s). The calculated leakage of helium gas was less than 9.6x10 -7 atm·cm 3 /sec. From the result, it is expected that the sealing structure of main flange in HTTR would maintain the leak tightness in the life. (author)

  9. Estimating particle release through gas leaks in dry powder shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-06-01

    Information is presented from which an estimate can be made of the release of plutonium oxide from shipping containers. The leak diameter is estimated from gas leak tests of the container and an estimate is made of gas leak rate as a function of pressure over the time of interest in the accident. These calculations are limited in accuracy because of assumptions regarding leak geometry and the basic formulations of hydrodynamic flow for the assumed conditions. Sonic flow is assumed to be the limiting gas flow rate. Particles leaking from the air space above the powder will be limited by the low availability of particles due to rapid settling, the very limited driving force (pressure buildup) during the first minute, and the deposition in the leak channel. Equations are given to estimate deposition losses. Leaks of particles occurring below the level of the bulk powder will be limited by mechanical interference when leaks are of dimension smaller than particle sizes present. Some limiting cases can be calculated. When the leak dimension is large compared to the particle sizes present, maximum particle releases can be estimated, but will be very conservative. Further theoretical and experimental studies are needed to better define the hydrodynamics of gas flow in leaks of the size being considered, and to establish particle transport rates through known geometry leak paths

  10. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer

    2013-11-01

    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  11. Rio Vista gas leak study: Belleaire Gas Field, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Rio Vista gas leak study evaluated methods for remotely sensing gas leaks from buried pipelines and developed methods to elucidate methane transport and microbial oxidation in soils. Remote-sensing methods were evaluated by singing gas leaks along an abandoned Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E) gas field collection line in northern California and applying surface-based and airborne remote-sensing techniques in the field, including thermal imaging, laser imaging, and multispectral imagery. The remote-sensing techniques exhibited limitations in range and in their ability to correlate with ground truth data. To elucidate methane transport and microbial oxidation in soils, a study of a controlled leak permitted field testing of methods so that such processes could be monitored and evaluated. Monitoring and evaluation techniques included (1) field measurement of soil-gas concentrations, temperatures, and pressures; (2) laboratory measurement of soil physical/chemical properties and activity of methane-oxidizing microorganisms by means of field samples; and (3) development of a preliminary numerical analysis technique for combined soil-gas transport/methane oxidation. Soil-gas concentrations at various depths responded rapidly to the high rate of gas leakage. The number of methane-oxidizing microorganisms in site soils rapidly increased when the gas leak was initiated and decreased after the leak was terminated. The preliminary field, laboratory, and numerical analysis techniques tested for this study of a controlled gas leak could be successfully applied to future studies of gas leaks. Because soil-gas movement is rapid and temporally variable, the use of several complementary techniques that permit generalization of site-specific results is favored

  12. High Reynolds number flows using liquid and gaseous helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to liquid and gaseous helium as test fluids, high Reynolds number test requirements in low speed aerodynamics, the measurement of subsonic flow around an appended body of revolution at cryogenic conditions in the NTF, water tunnels, flow visualization, the six component magnetic suspension system for wind tunnel testing, and recent aerodynamic measurements with magnetic suspension systems. Attention is also given to application of a flow visualization technique to a superflow experiment, experimental investigations of He II flows at high Reynolds numbers, a study of homogeneous turbulence in superfluid helium, and thermal convection in liquid helium

  13. The leakage problem in vacuum system. Realization of a mass spectrometer detecting leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1954-11-01

    In the first part of this paper we consider the problem of leaks in vacuum systems, and their detection. We consider in particular the method of detection by means of a helium spectrometer. The second part deals with the experimental set p. The analyser and the ion source have been studied in great detail, and we have also discussed the technological and mechanical aspects of the apparatus and its performances. (author) [fr

  14. Anastomotic leak detection by electrolyte electrical resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Daniel T; Cline, Adam M; Johnson, Scott B

    2010-08-01

    To characterize a new method of postoperative gastrointestinal leak detection based on electrical resistance changes due to extravasated electrolyte contrast. Postoperative gastrointestinal leak results in increased patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs that can be mitigated by early diagnosis. A sensitive and specific diagnostic test that could be performed at the bedside has the potential to shorten the time to diagnosis and thereby improve the quality of treatment. Anaesthetized rats underwent celiotomy and creation of a 5-mm gastrotomy. In experimental animals, electrical resistance changes were measured with a direct current ohmmeter after the introduction of 5 cc of 23.4% NaCl electrolyte solution via gavage and measured with a more sensitive alternating current ohmmeter after the gavage of 1-5 cc of 0.9% NaCl. Comparison was made to negative controls and statistical analysis was performed. Leakage from the gastrotomy induced by as little as 1 cc of gavage-delivered 0.9% NaCl contrast solution was detectable as a statistically significant drop in electrical resistance when compared to results from negative controls. Electrical resistance change associated with electrolyte-gated leak detection is highly sensitive and specific and has the potential to be rapidly translated into clinical settings.

  15. Leak monitoring method for a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To confirm leakages from a container upon nuclear reactor operation. Method: Leakages from a nuclear reactor container has been prevented by lowering the inner pressure of the container relative to the external pressure. In the conventional method of calculating the leakage by applying an inner pressure to the container and measuring the pressure change, etc. after the elapse of a pre-determined time, the measurement has to be conducted at periodical inspection when the nuclear reactor is shut-down. In view of the above, the leak test is conducted in the present invention by applying a slight inner pressure to the inside of the reactor container by supplying gases from a gas supply system and detecting the flow rate of the gases in the gas supply system while maintaining the slight inner pressure constant by controlling the supply and discharge of the gases. By applying such a inner pressure as causing no effect to the reactor operation, it is possible to monitor the leaks during operation and to detect the flow rate value surely and continuously if the leak is resulted. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  17. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Mitigated Transfer Line Leaks that Result in Surface Pools and Spray Leaks into Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEY, B.E.

    1999-12-07

    This analysis provides radiological and toxicological consequence calculations for postulated mitigated leaks during transfers of six waste compositions. Leaks in Cleanout Boxes equipped with supplemental covers and leaks in pits are analyzed.

  19. Mitigated Transfer Line Leaks that Result in Surface Pools and Spray Leaks into Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEY, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis provides radiological and toxicological consequence calculations for postulated mitigated leaks during transfers of six waste compositions. Leaks in Cleanout Boxes equipped with supplemental covers and leaks in pits are analyzed

  20. Plan for support of large-plant (post-CRBR) needs in large-leak sodium-water reaction area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Work in the large leak test and analysis area of steam generator development has been carried out at GE-ARSD under 189a SG037 since 1973. The currently planned master schedule for the SG037 program is shown. Principal activities are the large leak testing program being carried out at the Large Leak Test Rig and the analysis methods development. The plan for supporting the large plant (post-CRBR) needs in the large leak sodium-water reaction area is outlined. Most of the needs will be answered in the current SG037 large leak program

  1. The LHC test string first operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Casas-Cubillos, J; Coull, L; Cruikshank, P; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Faugeras, Paul E; Flemsæter, B; Guinaudeau, H; Hagedorn, Dietrich; Hilbert, B; Krainz, G; Kos, N; Lavielle, D; Lebrun, P; Leo, G; Mathewson, A G; Missiaen, D; Momal, F; Parma, Vittorio; Quesnel, Jean Pierre; Richter, D; Riddone, G; Rijllart, A; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Rohmig, P; Saban, R I; Schmidt, R; Serio, L; Skiadelli, M; Suraci, A; Tavian, L; Walckiers, L; Wallén, E; Van Weelderen, R; Williams, L; McInturff, A

    1996-01-01

    CERN operates the first version of the LHC Test String which consists of one quadrupole and three 10-m twin aperture dipole magnets. An experimental programme aiming at the validation of the LHC systems started in February 1995. During this programme the string has been powered 100 times 35 of which at 12.4 kA or above. The experiments have yielded a number of results some of which, like quench recovery for cryogenics, have modified the design of subsystems of LHC. Others, like controlled helium leaks in the cold bore and quench propagation bewteen magnets, have given a better understanding on the evolution of the phenomena inside a string of superconducting magnets cooled at superfluid helium temperatures. Following the experimental programme, the string will be powered up and powered down in one hour cycles as a fatigue test of the structure thus simulating 20 years of operation of LHC.

  2. Maintaining leak tightness capability of Caorso BWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, P.; Di Palo, L.; Grimaldi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987 the local leak rate test (LLRT) results of the primary containment were revised, with the following main goals: to highlight recurring problems, leading to lack of leak tightness of the primary containment; to individuate the pertinent degradation mechanisms; to assess the corrective actions already implemented and to plan further improvements, if necessary; and to optimize the preventive maintenance program on the containment, particularly the inspection frequency. All LLRTs in the past operating period, both before (as found) and after (as left) maintenance were analyzed, in terms of leakage rate and equivalent area of leak, for each penetration. Corrective actions already implemented included replacement of some valves with better quality type one, passivation of the carbon steel pipes and improvement of the pertinent surveillance procedures. Long term corrective actions, now under consideration, will include the following: more extensive passivation of pipes, carrying humid air, so that oxidation could be drastically reduced; better chemistry control in fluid systems; extensive replacement of the butterfly valves presently used; implementation of the LLRT practice, such to quantitatively measure the leakage rate, also in presence of large leak; and reduction of the time interval between periodical tests, on the basis of the results of the previous ones. Following these guidelines, future overall leakage tests would be performed in as found condition, aimed to verify the effectiveness of the entire maintenance and testing program of the primary containment and of its capability to maintain leak tightness during the time between two subsequent tests

  3. Antiprotonic helium atomcules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauge Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available About 3% of antiprotons ( stopped in helium are long-lived with microsecond lifetimes, against picoseconds in all other materials. This unusual longevity has been ascribed to the trapping of on metastable bound states in He+ helium atom-molecules thus named atomcules. Apart from their unique dual structure investigated by laser spectroscopy – a near-circular quasi-classical Rydberg atom with l ~ n – 1 ~ 37 or a special diatomic molecule with a negatively charged nucleus in high rotational state with J = l – the chemical physics aspects of their interaction with other atoms or molecules constitute an interesting topic for molecular physics. While atomcules may resist to million collisions in helium, molecular contaminants such as H2 are likely to destroy them in a single one, down to very low temperatures. In the Born-Oppenheimer framework, we interpret the molecular interaction obtained by ab initio quantum chemical calculations in terms of classical reactive channels, with activation barriers accounting for the experiments carried out in He and H2. From classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the thermalization stage strongly quenches initial populations, thus reduced to a recovered 3 % trapping fraction. This work illustrates the pertinence of chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter. New insights into the physico-chemistry of cold interstellar radicals are anticipated.

  4. Nanoscale Capillary Flows in Alumina: Testing the Limits of Classical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenwen; McKenzie, David R

    2016-07-21

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes have well-formed cylindrical channels, as small as 10 nm in diameter, in a close packed hexagonal array. The channels in AAO membranes simulate very small leaks that may be present for example in an aluminum oxide device encapsulation. The 10 nm alumina channel is the smallest that has been studied to date for its moisture flow properties and provides a stringent test of classical capillary theory. We measure the rate at which moisture penetrates channels with diameters in the range of 10 to 120 nm with moist air present at 1 atm on one side and dry air at the same total pressure on the other. We extend classical theory for water leak rates at high humidities by allowing for variable meniscus curvature at the entrance and show that the extended theory explains why the flow increases greatly when capillary filling occurs and enables the contact angle to be determined. At low humidities our measurements for air-filled channels agree well with theory for the interdiffusive flow of water vapor in air. The flow rate of water-filled channels is one order of magnitude less than expected from classical capillary filling theory and is coincidentally equal to the helium flow rate, validating the use of helium leak testing for evaluating moisture flows in aluminum oxide leaks.

  5. Leak rate measurements on bimetallic transition samples for ILC cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Chernikov, A.; Sabirov, B.

    2008-01-01

    The results of leak test of bimetallic (titanium-stainless steel) transition elements produced by explosion welding are presented. Vacuum and high-pressure tests of the sample for leakage were carried out at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Similar tests were also carried out under thermal cycling conditions

  6. Space Shuttle RCS Oxidizer Leak Repair for STS-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, R. A.; Faget, N. M.

    1989-01-01

    Following propellant loading of the Space Shuttle's reaction control system (RCS) for mission STS 26, an oxidizer leak was detected in the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod, where the RCS is located. Subsequent investigation determined that the leak was isolated at a mechanical Dynatube fitting near the RCS nitrogen tetroxide tank. An intense effort was initiated to design, fabricate, and qualify a sealing device to stop the oxidizer leak externally so that the Space Shuttle launch could proceed. It was discovered that sealing devices called clamshells were widely used throughout the petrochemical and power generation industries to stop leaks developed in large diameter pipes which carry steam or other hazardous fluids. These clamshells are available in different diameters and strengths and are placed around the pipe at the location of the leak. A sealing compound is then injected under high pressure into the clamshell to stop the leak. This technology was scaled down and applied to the problem of stopping the leak on the Orbiter, which was on a half-inch diameter line in a nearly inaccessible location. Many obstacles had to be overcome such as determining that the sealing material would be compatible with the nitrogen tetroxide and ensuring that the clamshell would actually fit around the Dynatube fitting without interfering with other lines which were in close proximity. The effort at the NASA Johnson Space Center included materials compatibility testing of several sealants, design of a clamshell to fit in the confined compartment, and manufacture and qualification of the flight hardware. A clamshell was successfully placed around the Dynatube fitting on the Orbiter and the oxidizer leak was terminated. Then it was decided to apply this technology further and design clamshells for other mechanical fittings onboard the Orbiter and develop sealing compounds which will be compatible with fuels such as monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The potential exists for

  7. Detection of pressure tube leaks relying on moisture beetles only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchington, J.M.; Choi, A.; Jin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A major decision was made for Pickering NGS A Annulus Gas System (ACS) that detection of a pressure tube (PT) leak should be achieved by using only moisture beetles and that dew point monitors would provide 'early warning' without status to shut down the reactor. Experience with Unit 3 has shown that dew point monitoring of pressure tube leaks was particularly subject to gas leaks and surface adsorption effects. Unit 4 was the first one to be converted during the full scale pressure tube replacement programme. Because of the fundamental change in design philosophy, moisture injection tests were carried out during commissioning to demonstrate that performance matched design. In particular it was necessary to show that leak before break (LBB) would be achieved if a leak occurred in the limiting string. Units 1 and 3 have since been converted. No decision has been taken to convert Pickering B units as gas leaks are small and no significant adsorption effects are anticipated. Hence dew point monitoring will not be impaired. (author)

  8. The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report

  9. Temperature monitoring and leak detection in sodium circuits of FBR using Raman distributed fiber optic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Murali, N.; Sosamma, S.; Babu Rao, C.; Kumar, Anish; Purnachandra Rao, B.; Jayakumar, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the fiber optic temperature sensor based leak detection in the coolant circuits of fast breeder reactor. These sensors measure the temperature based on spontaneous Raman scattering principle and is not influenced by the electromagnetic interference. Various experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the fiber optic sensor based leak detection using Raman distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS). This paper also deals with the details of fiber optic sensor type leak detector layout for the coolant circuit of FBR, performance requirement of leak detection system, description of the test facility, experimental procedure and test results of various experiments conducted. (author)

  10. Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluid leak detection represents a problem that has attracted the interest of researchers, but not exclusively because in industries and services leaks are frequently common. Indeed, in water or gas supplies, chemical or thermal plants, sea-lines or cooling/heating systems leakage rates can cause important economic losses and sometimes, what it is more relevant, environmental pollution with human, animal or plant lives at risk. This last issue has led to increased national and international regulations with different degrees of severity regarding environmental conservation.[...

  11. HUMOS monitoring system of leaks into the containment atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Zaloudek, J.; Matal, O. Jr.; Klinga, J.; Brom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The detection and monitoring of coolant leaks into the containment atmosphere during reactor operation is a major safety measure. Using the HUMOS monitoring system, leaks can be detected in pressure tests of integrity and in any other mode of operation when the reactor ventilation system is operating and the primary circuit and its components are pressurized. Performance tests, the design, hardware and software of the HUMOS system are briefly described. A test was performed to demonstrate that a small amount of humidity released by leakage into the containment air can be detected. (M.D.)

  12. Surface electrons of helium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studart, N.; Hipolito, O.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of some properties of two-dimensional electrons on a liquid helium film adsorbed on a solid substrate are reviewed. We describe the spectrum of electron bound states on bulk helium as well on helium films. The correlational properties, such as the structure factor and correlation energy, are determined as functions of the film thickness for different types of substrates in the framework of a Generalized Random-Phase Approximation. The collective excitations of this system are also described. The results for electrons on the surface of thin films and bulk helium are easily obtained. we examine the electron interaction with the excitations of the liquid helium surface resulting in a new polaron state, which was observed very recently. The ground state energy and the effective mass of this polaron are determined by using the path-integral formalism and unitary-transformation method. Recent speculations about the phase diagram of electrons on the helium film are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  13. INNOVATIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR LEAK DETECTION IN CHALLENGING PIPE TYPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    the LeakFinderRT system is composed of leak sensors, a wireless signal transmission system, and a personal computer equipped with cross-correlation...Correlux: As shown in Figure 5.5, the Correlux system is composed of two leak sensors, a wireless signal transmission system, and a correlating device...investment ratio TB Test Bed UEM Utility and Energy Management vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the U.S. Department of

  14. Seven Ventilators Challenged With Leaks During Neonatal Nasal CPAP: An Experimental Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevhammar, Thomas; Nilsson, Kjell; Zetterström, Henrik; Jonsson, Baldvin

    2015-07-01

    Nasal CPAP is the most common respiratory support for neonates. Several factors are considered important for effective treatment, including leaks at the patient interface and the delivery of pressure-stable CPAP. Investigations of pressure stability during leaks should include both the change in the mean delivered CPAP and the pressure variation during each breath. The aim of this study was to examine the response of ventilators delivering nasal CPAP when challenged with leaks at the patient interface. Seven ventilators providing nasal CPAP at 4 cm H2O were challenged with leaks during simulated neonatal breathing. Leak was applied for 15 consecutive breaths at a constant level (1-4 L/min). The 2 aspects of pressure stability were evaluated by measuring the mean delivered CPAP and the amplitude of pressure swings before, during, and after leaks. The ability to maintain the delivered CPAP and the amplitude of pressure swings varied greatly among the 7 ventilators before, during, and after leaks. Four of the ventilators tested have built-in leak compensation. There was no simple relationship between maintaining delivered CPAP during leaks and providing CPAP with low pressure swing amplitude. Maintaining the delivered CPAP and providing this without pressure swings are 2 separate aspects of pressure stability, and investigations concerning the clinical importance of pressure stability should address both aspects. This study also shows that compensation for leaks does not necessarily provide pressure-stable CPAP. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  16. Acoustic leak detection and ultrasonic crack detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Groenwald, R.

    1983-10-01

    A program is under way to assess the effectiveness of current and proposed techniques for acoustic leak detection (ALD) in reactor coolant systems. An ALD facility has been constructed and tests have begun on five laboratory-grown cracks (three fatigue and two thermal-fatigue and two field-induced IGSCC specimens. After ultrasonic testing revealed cracks in the Georgia Power Co. HATCH-1 BWR recirculation header, the utility installed an ALD system. Data from HATCH-1 have given an indication of the background noise level at a BWR recirculation header sweepolet weld. The HATCH leak detection system was tested to determine the sensitivity and dynamic range. Other background data have been acquired at the Watts Bar Nuclear Reactor in Tennessee. An ANL waveguide system, including transducer and electronics, was installed and tested on an accumulator safety injection pipe. The possibility of using ultrasonic wave scattering patterns to discriminate between IGSCCs and geometric reflectors has been explored. Thirteen reflectors (field IGSCCs, graphite wool IGSCCs, weld roots, and slits) were examined. Work with cast stainless steel (SS) included sound velocity and attenuation in isotropic and anisotropic cast SS. Reducing anisotropy does not help reduce attenuation in large-grained material. Large artificial flaws (e.g., a 1-cm-deep notch with a 4-cm path) could not be detected in isotropic centrifugally cast SS (1 to 2-mm grains) by longitudinal or shear waves at frequencies of 1 MHz or greater, but could be detected with 0.5-MHz shear waves. 13 figures

  17. Cost analysis of revisions to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J, leak tests for primary and secondary containments of light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Nelson, W.; Simpkins, B.; Riordan, B.; Godfrey, P.; Cohen, S.; Beal, S.; Goldin, D.

    1985-09-01

    The report examines the differences between the existing and proposed Appendix J and identifies eleven substantive areas where quantifiable impacts will likely result. The analysis indicated that there are four areas of change which tend to dominate all others in terms of cost impacts. The applicable paragraph numbers from Draft E2 of the Appendix J revision and the nature of the change follows: III.A(4) and III.A(6) - Test Pressure and Testing at Reduced Pressure No Longer Allowed; III.A(7)(b)(i) Acceptance Criteria 1.0 L/sub a/ Acceptable ''As Found'' Leakage; III.A(8)(2) Retesting Following Failure of ''As Found'' Type A Test - Corrective Action Plan, and III.A(8)(b)(ii) Option To Do More Frequent Type B and C Testing Rather Than More Type A Penalty Tests. The best estimate is that the proposed Appendix J would result in a cost savings ranging from about $100 million to $160 million, and increase routing occupational exposure on the order of 10,000 person-rem. These estimates capture the total impact to industry and the NRC over the assumed operating life of all existing and planned future power reactors. All dollar impacts projected to occur in future years have been present worthed at discount rates ranging from 5% to 10%

  18. Leak before break experience in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.; Moan, G.D.; Coleman, C.E.

    1988-04-01

    The paper describes how the requirements for Leak-Before-Break are met in CANDU reactors. The requirements are based on operational and laboratory experience. After the onset of leakage in a fuel channel from a delayed hydride crack, time is available to the operator to take action before the crack grows to an unstable length. The time available is calculated using different models which use crack growth data from small specimen tests. When the results from crack growth behaviour experiments, carried out on components removed from reactor are used in the model, the time available for operator response is about 100 hours

  19. LOCATING LEAKS WITH ACOUSTIC TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water distribution systems in this country are almost 100 years old. About 26 percent of piping in these systems is made of unlined cast iron or steel and is in poor condition. Many methods that locate leaks in these pipes are time-consuming, costly, disruptive to operations...

  20. Pipe Leak Detection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that one of the nation’s biggest infrastructural needs is the replacement or rehabilitation of the water distribution and transmission systems. The institution of more effective pipe leak detection technology will im...