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Sample records for helium generation rates

  1. Helium generation reaction rates for 6Li and 10B in benchmark facilities

    Farrar, Harry IV; Oliver, B.M.; Lippincott, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The helium generation rates for 10 B and 6 Li have been measured in two benchmark reactor facilities having neutron spectra similar to those found in a breeder reactor. The irradiations took place in the Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurements Facility (CFRMF) and in the 10% enriched 235 U critical assembly, BIG-10. The helium reaction rates were obtained by precise high-sensitivity gas mass spectrometric analyses of the helium content of numerous small samples. Comparison of these reaction rates with other reaction rates measured in the same facilities, and with rates calculated from published cross sections and from best estimates of the neutron spectral shapes, indicate significant discrepancies in the calculated values. Additional irradiations in other benchmark facilities have been undertaken to better determine the energy ranges where the discrepancies lie

  2. Influence of helium generation rate and temperature history on mechanical properties of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated in FFTF at relatively low displacement rates

    Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In agreement with earlier studies conducted at higher displacement rates, evolution of mechanical properties of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated at lower displacement rates in the 59 Ni isotopic doping experiment does not appear to be strongly affected by large differences in helium generation rate. This insensitivity to helium/dpa ratio is exhibited during both isothermal and non-isothermal irradiation. The overall behavior of the model alloys used in this study is dominated by the tendency to converge to a saturation strength level that is independent of thermomechanical starting state and helium/dpa ratio, but which is dependent on irradiation temperature and alloy composition

  3. Helium refrigerator-liquefier system for MHD generator

    Akiyama, Y.; Ishii, H.; Mori, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Wada, R.; Ando, M.

    1974-01-01

    MHD power generators have been investigated in the Electro-Technical Laboratory as one of the National Research and Development Programmes. A helium refrigerator-liquefier system has been developed to cool the superconducting magnet for a 1000 kW class MHD power generator. The turboexpander with low temperature gas bearings and an alternator had been developed for the MHD project at the Electro-Technical Laboratory previously. The liquefaction capacity is 250 iota/h and the refrigeration power is 2.9 kW at 20 K. The superconducting magnet is 50 tons and the cryostat has a liquid helium volume of 2700 iota. The evaporation rate is 60 to 80 iota/h. It takes, in all 2 to 3 weeks to fill the cryostat with liquid helium. (author)

  4. Helium generation and diffusion in graphite and some carbides

    Holt, J.B.; Guinan, M.W.; Hosmer, D.W.; Condit, R.H.; Borg, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The cross section for the generation of helium in neutron irradiated carbon was found to be 654 mb at 14.4 MeV and 744 mb at 14.9 MeV. Extrapolating to 14.1 MeV (the fusion reactor spectrum) gives 615 mb. The diffusion of helium in dense polycrystalline graphite and in pyrographite was measured and found to be D = 7.2 x 10 -7 m 2 s -1 exp (-80 kJ/RT). It is assumed that diffusion is primarily in the basal plane direction in crystals of the graphite. In polycrystalline graphite the path length is a factor of √2 longer than the measured distance due to the random orientation mismatch between successive grains. Isochronal anneals (measured helium release as the specimen is steadily heated) were run and maximum release rates were found at 200 0 C in polycrystalline graphite, 1000 0 C in pyrographite, 1350 0 C in boron carbide, and 1350 0 and 2400 0 C (two peaks) in silicon carbide. It is concluded that in these candidates for curtain materials in fusion reactors the helium releases can probably occur without bubble formation in graphites, may occur in boron carbide, but will probably cause bubble formation in silicon carbide. 7 figures

  5. Helium generation in fusion-reactor materials. Progress report, October-December 1982

    Kneff, D.W.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure helium generation rates of materials for Magnetic Fusion Reactor applications in the Be(d,n) neutron environment, to characterize this neutron environment, and to develop helium accumulation neutron dosimeters for routine neutron fluence and energy spectrum measurements in Be(d,n) and Li(d,n) neutron fields

  6. Hydrogen generation using the modular helium reactor

    Richards, M.; Shenoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    Process heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor can be used to drive a set of chemical reactions, with the net result of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. For example, process heat at temperatures in the range 850 deg.C to 950 deg.C can drive the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical process to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. Electricity can also be used to split water, using conventional, low-temperature electrolysis. An example of a hybrid process is high-temperature electrolysis (HTE), in which process heat is used to generate steam, which is then supplied to an electrolyser to generate hydrogen. In this paper we investigate the coupling of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) to the SI process and HTE. These concepts are referred to as the H2-MHR. Optimization of the MHR core design to produce higher coolant outlet temperatures is also discussed. The use of fixed orifices to control the flow distribution is a promising design solution for increasing the coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak fuel temperatures significantly

  7. Helium generation in fusion reactor materials. Technical progress report, April--September 1977

    1978-01-01

    The near-term objectives of this program are to measure the spectrum-integrated helium generation rates and cross sections of a number of pure elements and alloys in several high-intensity neutron sources, and to develop and demonstrate neutron dosimetry procedures using some of these materials. To this end, four neutron irradiation experiments have now been run: one using accelerator-produced d-Be neutrons, two using the accelerator-produced d-T reaction, and one in the neutron field of a mixed-spectrum fission reactor. All of these irradiations have incorporated a large number of helium-generation materials

  8. Growth rate effects on the formation of dislocation loops around deep helium bubbles in Tungsten

    Sandoval, Luis; Perez, Danny; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Voter, Arthur Ford

    2016-01-01

    Here, the growth process of spherical helium bubbles located 6 nm below a (100) surface is studied using molecular dynamics and parallel replica dynamics simulations, over growth rates from 10"6 to 10"1"2 helium atoms per second. Slower growth rates lead to a release of pressure and lower helium content as compared with fast growth cases. In addition, at slower growth rates, helium bubbles are not decorated by multiple dislocation loops, as these tend to merge or emit given sufficient time. At faster rates, dislocation loops nucleate faster than they can emit, leading to a more complicated dislocation structure around the bubble.

  9. Effects of displacement damage and helium production rates on the nucleation and growth of helium bubbles - Positron annihilation spectroscopy aspects

    Krsjak, Vladimir; Degmova, Jarmila; Sojak, Stanislav; Slugen, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    Fe-12 wt% Cr model alloy samples were implanted by 250 keV He2+ ions to three different fluencies (3 × 1017, 9 × 1017 and 1.5 × 1018 cm-2) at T steel samples [1] irradiated in the frame of a two-years irradiation program of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source. Bi-modal defect distribution represented by two defect components in positron lifetime spectrum reveals two distinct helium bubbles growth mechanisms. While at the lower helium production rate of the spallation environment, the bubbles grow primarily by migration and coalescence, at the high production rates of helium in the implanted samples, the results indicate this growth is driven by Ostwald ripening mechanism. A competitive growth process via emission of interstitial atoms (clusters) is discussed in terms of low-temperature He implantations.

  10. The independence of irradiation creep in austenitic alloys of displacement rate and helium to dpa ratio

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The majority of high fluence data on the void swelling and irradiation creep of austenitic steels were generated at relatively high displacement rates and relatively low helium/dpa levels that are not characteristic of the conditions anticipated in ITER and other anticipated fusion environments. After reanalyzing the available data, this paper shows that irradiation creep is not directly sensitive to either the helium/dpa ratio or the displacement rate, other than through their possible influence on void swelling, since one component of the irradiation creep rate varies with no correlation to the instantaneous swelling rate. Until recently, however, the non-swelling-related creep component was also thought to exhibit its own strong dependence on displacement rate, increasing at lower fluxes. This perception originally arose from the work of Lewthwaite and Mosedale at temperatures in the 270-350{degrees}C range. More recently this perception was thought to extend to higher irradiation temperatures. It now appears, however, that this interpretation is incorrect, and in fact the steady-state value of the non-swelling component of irradiation creep is actually insensitive to displacement rate. The perceived flux dependence appears to arise from a failure to properly interpret the impact of the transient regime of irradiation creep.

  11. The effect of helium generation and irradiation temperature on tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Vlasov, V.V.; Kovalev, A.M.; Chakin, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation condition on tritium release from beryllium is described in this paper. Beryllium samples were irradiated in the SM reactor with neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) of (0.37-2.0) x 10 22 cm -2 at 70-100degC and 650-700degC. Mass-spectrometer technique was used in out of tritium release experiments during stepped-temperature anneal within a temperature range from 250 to 1300degC. The total amount of helium accumulated in irradiated beryllium samples varied from 521 appm to 3061 appm. The first signs of tritium release were detected at temperature of 406-553degC. It was shown that irradiation temperature and helium generation level significantly affect the tritium release. A fraction of 44 - 74 % of tritium content in samples irradiated at low temperature (70 - 100degC) is release from beryllium at an annealing temperature below 800degC, whereas for samples after high temperature irradiation (650 - 700 degC) tritium release did not exceed 14 %. Majority of tritium (∼68%) is released within a temperature range from 800 to 920 degC. The increase of helium generation from 521 appm to 3061 appm results in lowering the temperature of maximal tritium release rate and the upper temperature of tritium release from beryllium by 100-130degC and 200-240degC, correspondingly. On the basis of data obtained, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in beryllium were calculated. (author)

  12. Cross section for calculating the helium formation rate in construction materials irradiated by nucleons at energies to 800 MeV

    Konobeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, effects related to the formation of helium in irradiated construction materials have been studied extensively. Data on the nuclear cross sections for producing helium in these materials form the initial information necessary for such investigations. If the spectrum of the incoming particles is known, the value of the helium production cross section makes it possible to calculate the helium generation rate. In recent years, plans and simulating experiments on radiating materials with high-energy particles made it necessary to determine the helium production cross sections in constructionmaterials, which are irradiated by protons and neutrons with energies to 800 MeV. Helium-formation cross sections have been calculated at these energies. However, a correct description of the experimental data for various construction materials does not yet exist. For example, the calculated helium-formation cross sections turned out to overestimate the experimental data, and to underestimate the experimental data. The objective here is to calculate the helium-formation cross sections for various construction materials, which are irradiated by protons and neutrons to energies from 20 to 800 MeV, and to analyze the probable causes of deviations between experimental and earlier calculated cross sections

  13. Semiclassical calculation of ionisation rate for Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field

    Wang De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The ionisation of Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field above the classical ionisation threshold has been examined using the semiclassical method, with particular emphasis on discussing the influence of the core scattering on the escape dynamics of electrons. The results show that the Rydberg helium atoms ionise by emitting a train of electron pulses. Unlike the case of the ionisation of Rydberg hydrogen atom in parallel electric and magnetic fields, where the pulses of the electron are caused by the external magnetic field, the pulse trains for Rydberg helium atoms are created through core scattering. Each peak in the ionisation rate corresponds to the contribution of one core-scattered combination trajectory. This fact further illustrates that the ionic core scattering leads to the chaotic property of the Rydberg helium atom in external fields. Our studies provide a simple explanation for the escape dynamics in the ionisation of nonhydrogenic atoms in external fields. (atomic and molecular physics)

  14. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  15. Cooling of superconducting electric generators by liquid helium

    Nakayama, W.; Ogata, H.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting generators have a great potential in future electric supply systems in increasing the efficiency of generators and in enhancing the stability of power network systems. Recognition of possible advantages over gas-cooled and water-cooled generators has led research institutes and manufacturers in several countries to wage substantial research and development efforts. The authors show the electric power capacities of the test generators already built, under construction, or in the planning stage. Since earlier attempts, steady improvements in the design of generators have been made, and experience of generator operation has been accumulated

  16. Numerical Study on the Helium Flow Characteristics for Steam Generator Subsystem of HTR

    Ha, Jung Hoon; Ham, Jin Ki; Ki, Min-Hwan; Lee, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR), one of the 4th generation reactors, utilizes helium as the primary coolant. A Steam Generator Subsystem (SGS) is installed to transfer heat from the primary coolant to feed water and subsequently produce steam so that it supplies electricity as well as process heat over a wide range. The SGS is composed of a helical heat exchanger, shrouds directing the flow of the shell side helium and support systems, which are located within the steam generator vessel. In this study, helium flow characteristics in the SGS were investigated at various operating conditions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A full-scale 3-D model of the SGS was developed and the reynolds stress model with standard wall treatment was used as a turbulence model. The CFD result was compared to that of the concept design of the steam cycle modular helium reactor for the design verification of the SGS. From the CFD analysis, it was found that the primary coolant flow had non-uniform distribution while it passed the inlet in the helical heat exchanger. In order to make the uniform primary coolant flow uniform, a special type of screen was suggested in front of the helical heat exchanger. As a result, the overall design adequacy of the SGS has been evaluated. (author)

  17. INTERSTELLAR METASTABLE HELIUM ABSORPTION AS A PROBE OF THE COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE

    Indriolo, Nick; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hobbs, L. M.; Hinkle, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    The ionization rate of interstellar material by cosmic rays has been a major source of controversy, with different estimates varying by three orders of magnitude. Observational constraints of this rate have all depended on analyzing the chemistry of various molecules that are produced following cosmic-ray ionization, and in many cases these analyses contain significant uncertainties. Even in the simplest case (H + 3 ), the derived ionization rate depends on an (uncertain) estimate of the absorption path length. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of inferring the cosmic-ray ionization rate using the 10830 A absorption line of metastable helium. Observations through the diffuse clouds toward HD 183143 are presented, but yield only an upper limit on the metastable helium column density. A thorough investigation of He + chemistry reveals that only a small fraction of He + will recombine into the triplet state and populate the metastable level. In addition, excitation to the triplet manifold of helium by secondary electrons must be accounted for as it is the dominant mechanism which produces He* in some environments. Incorporating these various formation and destruction pathways, we derive new equations for the steady state abundance of metastable helium. Using these equations in concert with our observations, we find ζ He -15 s -1 , an upper limit about 5 times larger than the ionization rate previously inferred for this sight line using H + 3 . While observations of interstellar He* are extremely difficult at present, and the background chemistry is not nearly as simple as previously thought, potential future observations of metastable helium would provide an independent check on the cosmic-ray ionization rate derived from H + 3 in diffuse molecular clouds, and, perhaps more importantly, allow the first direct measurements of the ionization rate in diffuse atomic clouds.

  18. Isotopic alloying to tailor helium production rates in mixed spectrum reactors

    Mansur, L.K.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Stoller, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The purposes of this work are to increase the understanding of mechanisms by which helium affects microstructure and properties, to aid in the development of materials for fusion reactors, and to obtain data from fission reactors in regimes of direct interest for fusion reactor applications. Isotopic alloying is examined as a means of manipulating the ratio of helium transmutations to atom displacements in mixed spectrum reactors. The application explored is based on artificially altering the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of nickel to systematically vary the fraction of 58 Ni in nickel bearing alloys. The method of calculating helium production rates is described. Results of example calculations for proposed experiments in the High Flux Isotope Reactor are discussed

  19. First Study of Helium Gas Purification System as Primary Coolant of Co-Generation Reactor

    Piping Supriatna

    2009-01-01

    The technological progress of NPP Generation-I on 1950’s, Generation-II, Generation-III recently on going, and Generation-IV which will be implemented on next year 2025, concept of nuclear power technology implementation not only for generate electrical energy, but also for other application which called cogeneration reactor. Commonly the type of this reactor is High Temperature Reactor (HTR), which have other capabilities like Hydrogen production, desalination, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), etc. The cogeneration reactor (HTR) produce thermal output higher than commonly Nuclear Power Plant, and need special Heat Exchanger with helium gas as coolant. In order to preserve heat transfer with high efficiency, constant purity of the gas must be maintained as well as possible, especially contamination from its impurities. In this report has been done study for design concept of HTR primary coolant gas purification system, including methodology by sampling He gas from Primary Coolant and purification by using Physical Helium Splitting Membrane. The examination has been designed in physical simulator by using heater as reactor core. The result of study show that the of Primary Coolant Gas Purification System is enable to be implemented on cogeneration reactor. (author)

  20. Evaluation of sulfur hexafluoride and helium for steam generator leak location: Final report

    Kassen, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Since the use of sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer for identifying sources of primary to secondary leakage in PWR steam generators appeared to offer significant sensitivity advantages, the thermal stability of sulfur hexafluoride in water was evaluated at steam generator operating temperature. Significant decomposition was observed after 2 to 4 hours at temperature. Key decomposition products were fluoride and sulfide ions. Based on this observation and these limited test results, the use of SF 6 for PWR steam generator leak location can not be recommended at this time. A survey of 15 utilities was conducted in regard to their application experience with the helium tracer-mass spectroscopy technique for steam generator leak location. Although several successful steam generator integrity programs do not include use of this technique, it has proven to be a useful addition to the inspection program at some plants. No corrosion concerns appear to be associated with this technique

  1. Effective regimes of runaway electron beam generation in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Shut'ko, Yu. V.

    2010-04-01

    Runaway electron beam parameters and current-voltage characteristics of discharge in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen at pressures in the range of several Torr to several hundred Torr have been studied. It is found that the maximum amplitudes of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) with a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps are achieved in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen at a pressure of ˜60, ˜30, and ˜10 Torr, respectively. It is shown that, as the gas pressure is increased in the indicated range, the breakdown voltage of the gas-filled gap decreases, which leads to a decrease in the SAEB current amplitude. At pressures of helium within 20-60 Torr, hydrogen within 10-30 Torr, and nitrogen within 3-10 Torr, the regime of the runaway electron beam generation changes and, by varying the pressure in the gas-filled diode in the indicated intervals, it is possible to smoothly control the current pulse duration (FWHM) from ˜100 to ˜500 ps, while the beam current amplitude increases by a factor of 1.5-3.

  2. Disalignment rate coefficient of neon excited atoms due to helium atom collisions at low temperatures

    Seo, M; Shimamura, T; Furutani, T; Hasuo, M; Bahrim, C; Fujimoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Disalignment of neon excited atoms in the fine-structure 2p i levels (in Paschen notation) of the 2p 5 3p configuration is investigated in a helium-neon glow discharge at temperatures between 15 and 77 K. At several temperatures, we plot the disalignment rate as a function of the helium atom density for Ne* (2p 2 or 2p 7 ) + He(1s 2 ) collisions. The slope of this dependence gives the disalignment rate coefficient. For both collisions, the experimental data for the disalignment rate coefficient show a more rapid decrease with the decrease in temperature below 40 K than our quantum close-coupling calculations based on the model potential of Hennecart and Masnou-Seeuws (1985 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 18 657). This finding suggests that the disalignment cross section rapidly decreases below a few millielectronvolts, in disagreement with our theoretical quantum calculations which predict a strong increase below 1 meV. The disagreement suggests that the long-range electrostatic potentials are significantly more repulsive than in the aforementioned model

  3. Method and apparatus for replenishing the helium bath in the rotor of a superconducting generator

    Hofmann, A.; Schnapper, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to replenish a helium bath in the super-conducting rotor of an electrical machine, in which bath liquid helium boils at subatmospheric pressure, with liquid helium from a helium reservoir, the liquid helium in the reservoir being at ambient pressure and a part of the liquid helium changing to the vapor phase during flow from the reservoir to the bath, liquid helium is introduced into the bath at a distance from the rotor axis of rotation, the liquid and vapor phases of the helium flowing from the reservoir to the bath are separated from one another in a phase separator fixed to the rotor, and the separated vapor phase is extracted from the separator. (MM) [de

  4. Relative Role of Gas Generation and Displacement Rates in Cavity Nucleation and Growth

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Foreman, A. J E.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of helium diffusion and clustering during irradiation are analysed. Using the “homogeneous” nucleation theory , the effect of damage rate on cavity density is calculated for different gas generation to damage rate ratios. The influence of gas mobility on cavity nucleation has been...

  5. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  6. Characterization of new a-Si:H detectors fabricated from amorphous silicon deposited at high rate by helium enhanced PECVD

    Pochet, T.; Ilie, A.; Foulon, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the characterization of new detectors fabricated from a-Si:H films deposited at high rates through the dilution of SiH 4 in helium. Rates of up to ten times (5.5 micrometer/h) that of the standard technique are obtained, allowing for the feasible fabrication of detectors having thickness up to 100 micrometers. The electrical characteristics (depletion voltage, residual space charge density) of the helium diluted material, have been investigated and compared to that of the standard material. The response of detectors, made from both materials, to 5.5 MeV alpha particles are compared. 6 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs

  7. Influence of short heat pulses on the helium boiling heat transfer rate

    Andreev, V.K.; Deev, V.I.; Savin, A.N.; Kutsenko, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Investigation results on heat transfer in the process of helium boiling on a heated wall under conditions of pulsed heat effect are described. Results of the given study point to one of possible ways of heat exchange intensification in boiling helium by supplying short heat pulse to the heater. Even short-time noncontrolled or incidental increase in the heater capacity during experiment with boiling helium can result in a considerable disagreement of experimental data on heat transfer

  8. Study on flow rate measurement and visualization of helium-air exchange flow through a small opening

    Fumizawa, Motoo

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental investigation on buoyancy-driven exchange flows through horizontal and inclined openings. The method of the mass increment was developed to measure the flow rate in helium-air system and a displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the flow. As the result, the followings were obtained: Flow visualization results indicate that the upward and downward plumes of helium and air break through the opening intermittently, and they swing in the lateral direction through the horizontal opening. It is clearly visualized that the exchange flows through the inclined openings take place smoothly and stably in the separated passages. The inclination angle for the maximum Froude number decreases with increasing length-to-diameter ratio in the helium-air system, on the contrary to Mercer's experimental results in the water-brine system indicating that the angle remains almost constant. (author)

  9. Study of steam, helium and supercritical CO2 turbine power generations in prototype fusion power reactor

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Muto, Yasushi; Kato, Yasuyoshi; Nishio, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Nomoto, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    Power generation systems such as steam turbine cycle, helium turbine cycle and supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) turbine cycle are examined for the prototype nuclear fusion reactor. Their achievable cycle thermal efficiencies are revealed to be 40%, 34% and 42% levels for the heat source outlet coolant temperature of 480degC, respectively, if no other restriction is imposed. In the current technology, however, low temperature divertor heat source is included. In this actual case, the steam turbine system and the S-CO 2 turbine system were compared in the light of cycle efficiency and plant cost. The values of cycle efficiency were 37.7% and 36.4% for the steam cycle and S-CO 2 cycle, respectively. The construction cost was estimated by means of component volume. The volume became 16,590 m 3 and 7240 m 3 for the steam turbine system and S-CO 2 turbine system, respectively. In addition, separation of permeated tritium from the coolant is much easier in S-CO 2 than in H 2 O. Therefore, the S-CO 2 turbine system is recommended to the fusion reactor system than the steam turbine system. (author)

  10. Correlation for boron carbide helium release in fast reactors

    Basmajian, J.A.; Pitner, A.L.

    1977-04-01

    An empirical helium correlation for the helium release from boron carbide has been developed. The correlation provides a good fit to the experimental data in the temperature range from 800 to 1350 0 K, and burnup levels up to 80 x 10 20 captures/cm 3 . The correlation has the capability of extrapolation to 2200 0 K (3500 0 F) and 200 x 10 20 captures/cm 3 . In this range the helium release rate will not exceed the generation rate

  11. Liquid helium target

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  12. Metallicity-Dependent Isotopic Abundances and the Impact of Helium Rate Uncertainties in Massive Stars

    West, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    model compared to the linear interpolation method, for the six s--only isotopes along the weak s--process path. As a second project, we study the sensitivity of presupernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars to variations of the helium-burning reaction rates within the range of their uncertainties. The current solar abundances from Lodders (2010) are used for the initial stellar composition. We compute a grid of 12 initial stellar masses and 176 models per stellar mass to explore the effects of independently varying the 12C(alpha,gamma)16O and 3alpha reaction rates, denoted Ralpha,12 and R3alpha, respectively. The production factors of both the intermediate-mass elements (A=16--40) and the s--only isotopes along the weak s--process path ( 70Ge, 76Se, 80Kr, 82Kr, 86Sr, and 87Sr) were found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions for variations of R3alpha and Ralpha,12 of +/-25%; the s--only isotopes, however, tend to favor higher values of R3alpha than the intermediate-mass isotopes. The experimental uncertainty (one standard deviation) in R3alpha(Ralpha,12 ) is approximately +/-10%(+/-25%). The results show that a more accurate measurement of one of these rates would decrease the uncertainty in the other as inferred from the present calculations. We also observe sharp changes in production factors and standard deviations for small changes in the reaction rates, due to differences in the convection structure of the star. The compactness parameter was used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and hence contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We also provide the approximate remnant masses for each model and the carbon mass fractions at the end of core-helium burning as a key parameter for later evolution stages.

  13. The local authority rating of independent generators

    Chapman, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of the rating is given covering the public utilities. Formula rating of the nationalised electricity supply industry is described with independent generators' rates, the effect of privatisation and the longer term outlook considered. The need to convince the UK government that power generating machinery should no more be rated than any manufacturing or process machinery, and that all power producers should be treated the same is noted. (Author)

  14. Helium turbo-expander with an alternator

    Akiyama, Yoshitane

    1980-01-01

    Study was made on a helium turbo-expander, the heart of helium refrigerator systems, in order to develop a system which satisfies the required conditions. A helium turbo-expander with externally pressurized helium gas bearings at the temperature of liquid nitrogen and an alternator as a brake have been employed. The essential difference between a helium turbo-expander and a nitrogen turbo-expander was clarified. The gas bearing lubricated with nitrogen at room temperature and the gas bearing lubricated with helium at low temperature were tested. The flow rate of helium in a helium refrigerator for a large superconducting magnet is comparatively small, therefore a helium turbine must be small, but the standard for large turbine design can be applied to such small turbine. Using the alternator as a brake, the turbo-expander was easily controllable electrically. The prototype turbo-expander was made, and the liquefaction test with it and MHD power generation test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  15. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Zhou, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Power source is an important parameter that can affect the characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs), because it can play a key role on the discharge characteristics and ionization process of APPJs. In this paper, the characteristics of helium APPJs sustained by both nanosecond-pulse and microsecond-pulse generators are compared from the aspects of plume length, discharge current, consumption power, energy, and optical emission spectrum. Experimental results showed that the pulsed APPJ was initiated near the high-voltage electrode with a small curvature radius, and then the stable helium APPJ could be observed when the applied voltage increased. Moreover, the discharge current of the nanosecond-pulse APPJ was larger than that of the microsecond-pulse APPJ. Furthermore, although the nanosecond-pulse generator consumed less energy than the microsecond-pulse generator, longer plume length, larger instantaneous power per pulse and stronger spectral line intensity could be obtained in the nanosecond-pulse excitation case. In addition, some discussion indicated that the rise time of the applied voltage could play a prominent role on the generation of APPJs

  16. Design of multi-input multi-output controller for magnetic bearing which suspends helium gas-turbine generator rotor for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    Takada, Shoji; Funatake, Yoshio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    A design of a MIMO controller, which links magnetic forces of multiple magnetic bearings by feedback of multiple measurement values of vibration of a rotor, was proposed for the radial magnetic bearings for the generator rotor of helium gas turbine with a power output of 300 MWe. The generator rotor is a flexible rotor, which passes over the forth critical speed. A controller transfer function was derived at the forth critical speed, in which the bending vibration mode is similar to the one which is excited by unbalance mass to reduce a modeling error. A 1404-dimensional un-symmetric coefficient matrix of equation of state for the rotating rotor affected by Jayro effect was reduced by a modal decomposition using Schur decomposition to reduce a reduction error. The numerical results showed that unbalance response of rotor was 53 and 80 μm p-p , respectively, well below the allowable limits both at the rated and critical speeds. (author)

  17. Measurement of OH density and air-helium mixture ratio in an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet

    Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    The absolute density of OH radicals in an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet is measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The plasma jet is generated in room air by applying a pulsed high voltage onto a quartz tube with helium gas flow. The time-averaged OH density is 0.10 ppm near the quartz tube nozzle, decreasing away from the nozzle. OH radicals are produced from water vapour in the helium flow, which is humidified by water adsorbed on the inner surface of the helium line and the quartz tube. When helium is artificially humidified using a water bubbler, the OH density increases with humidity and reaches 2.5 ppm when the water vapour content is 200 ppm. Two-dimensional distribution of air-helium mixture ratio in the plasma jet is also measured using the decay rate of the LIF signal waveform which is determined by the quenching rate of laser-excited OH radicals. (paper)

  18. Evidence of the 2s2p(1P) doubly excited state in the harmonic generation spectrum of helium

    Ngoko Djiokap, J. M.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    By solving the two-active-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation in an intense, ultrashort laser field, we investigate evidence of electron correlations in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum of helium. As the frequency of the driving laser pulse varies from 4.6 to 6.6 eV, the 13th, 11th, and 9th harmonics sequentially become resonant with the transition between the ground state and the isolated 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state of helium, which dramatically enhances these harmonics and changes their profiles. When each of the 9th and 13th harmonics are in resonance with this autoionizing state, there is also a low-order multiphoton resonance with a Rydberg state, resulting in a particularly large enhancement of these harmonics relative to neighboring harmonics. When the 11th harmonic is in resonance with the 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state, the 13th harmonic is simultaneously in resonance with numerous higher-energy autoionizing states, resulting in a competition between these two harmonics for intensity. These results demonstrate that even electron correlations occurring over a narrow energy interval can have a significant effect on strong-field processes such as harmonic generation.

  19. Estimation of restaurant solid waste generation rates

    Heck, H.H.; Major, I.

    2002-01-01

    Most solid waste utilities try to create a billing schedule that is proportional to solid waste generation rates. This research was trying to determine if the current billing rate structure was appropriate or if a different rate structure should be implemented. A multiple regression model with forward stepwise addition was developed which accurately predicts weekly solid waste generation rates for restaurants. The model was based on a study of daily solid waste generation at twenty-one different businesses. The weight and volume of solid waste generated was measure daily for two weeks during the winter and two weeks during the summer. Researchers followed the collection truck and measured the volume and weight of the container contents. Data was collected on the following independent variables describing each establishment; weight of waste per collection, volume per collection, container utilization factor, building area, contract haulers bill, yearly property tax, yearly solid waste tax, average number of collections per week, type of restaurant, modal number of collections per week, storage container size, waste density, number of employees, number of hours open per week, and weekly collection capacity (collections per week times storage container size). Independent variables were added to the regression equation based on their partial correlation coefficient and confidence level. The regression equations developed had correlation coefficients of 0.87 to 1.00, which was much better than the correlation coefficient (0.84) of an existing model DeGeare and Ongerth (1971) and a correlation coefficient of 0.54 based on the current solid waste disposal tax. (author)

  20. Influence of heating rate on corrosion behavior of Ni-base heat resistant alloys in simulated VHTR helium environment

    Kurata, Yuji; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1985-04-01

    The influence of heating rate on corrosion and carbon transfer was studied for Ni-base heat resistant alloys exposed to simulated VHTR(very high temperature reactor) coolant environment. Special attention was focused to relationship between oxidation and carburization at early stage of exposure. Tests were conducted on two heats of Hastelloy XR with different boron(B) content and the developmental alloys, 113MA and KSN. Two kinds of heating rates, i.e. 80 0 C/min and 2 0 C/min, were employed. Corrosion tests were carried out at 900 0 C up to 500 h in JAERI Type B helium, one of the simulated VHTR primary coolant specifications. Under higher heating rate, oxidation resistance of both heats of Hastelloy XR(2.8 ppmB and 40 ppmB) were equivalent and among the best, then KSN and 113MA followed in the order. Under lower heating rate only alloy, i.e. Hastelloy XR with 2.8 ppmB, showed some deteriorated oxidation resistance while all others being unaffected by the heating rate. On the other hand the carbon transfer behavior showed strong dependence on the heating rate. In case of higher heating rate, significant carburization occured at early stage of exposure and thereafter the progress of carburization was slow in all the alloys. On the other hand only slow carburization was the case throughout the exposure in case of lower heating rate. The carburization in VHTR helium environment was interpreted as to be affected by oxide film formation in the early stage of exposure. The carbon pick-up was largest in Hastelloy XR with 40 ppmB and it was followed by Hastelloy XR with 2.8 ppmB. 113MA and KSN were carburized only slightly. The observed difference of carbon pick-up among the alloys tested was interpreted to be attributed mainly to the difference of the carbon activity, the carbide precipitation characteristics among the alloys tested. (author)

  1. Henry's law and accumulation of weak source for crust-derived helium: A case study of Weihe Basin, China

    Yuhong Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crust-derived helium is generated from the radioactive decay of uranium, thorium and other radioactive elements in geological bodies. Compared with conventional natural gas, helium is a typical weak source gas as a result of extremely slow generation rate and absence of helium-generating peak. It is associated with methane or carbon dioxide reservoirs frequently and related to groundwater closely. Helium can meet the industry standard with 0.1% in volume fraction. In order to study the accumulation mechanism of helium, the previous research on Henry's coefficient and solubility of helium, nitrogen and methane are summarized and the key roles of Henry's Law in the helium migration, accumulation and preservation are discussed by simulating calculation taking Weihe Basin as an example. According to the Law, the gas solubility in dilute solution is controlled by the gas partial pressure and the Henry's coefficient. Compared with the carrier gases, the Henry's constant of helium is high, with striking difference at low and high temperature. In addition, the helium partial pressure is greatly different in helium source rocks and gas reservoirs, resulting in the great differences of helium solubility in the two places. The accumulation progresses are as follows. Firstly, helium can dissolve into water and migrate out of helium source rocks due to the high helium solubility, which is caused by high helium partial pressure and high temperature in source rock. Secondly, when dissolved helium is transported to the shallow gas reservoir, it is prone to be out of solution and into reservoir due to the extremely low partial pressure and low temperature. Meanwhile part of carrier gases dissolves into water, as if helium is “replaced” out. Furthermore, the low concentration funnel of dissolved helium is formed near the gas reservoir, then other dissolved helium continues to migrate towards the gas reservoir, which greatly improves the helium accumulation

  2. Rapid heating tensile tests of high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel containing internal helium from radioactive decay of absorbed tritium

    Mosley, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. This austenitic stainless steel is frequently used in the high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) metallurgical condition to take advantage of increased strength produced by cold work introduced by this process. Proper design of tritium-handling equipment will require an understanding of how helium-3, the product of radioactive decay of tritium, affects mechanical properties. This report describes results of elevated-temperature tensile testing of HERF 316L stainless steel specimens containing helium concentrations of 171 (calculated) atomic parts per million (appm). Results are compared with those reported previously for specimens containing 0 and 94 (measured) appm helium

  3. Mockup experiments to investigate the leak rate correlation between mercury and helium for the mercury target system of J-PARC

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Checking the seal performance of the mercury piping network is very important for the mercury target system operation of J-PARC, and the test method for leaks using the pressure change measurement is preferable for this purpose because it can be carried out easily and precisely by measuring the pressure change, and it is free from the risk of mercury contamination. The piping network is pressurized by helium gas. Thus, the correlation between the helium leak rate and mercury leak flow rate was investigated experimentally by carrying out leak tests for helium and mercury with an identical mockup flange model. The results showed that the mercury leak flow rates of the experimental data were lower than those of the estimated value by 64% on average. It was also found that the threshold of the helium leak rate at which good seal performance for mercury can be obtained exists between 2.18 x 10 -4 and 1.01 x 10 -2 Pa.m 3 /s. This fact confirmed the sufficient safety margin of the mercury target system against the mercury leak, where 1 x 10 -6 Pa.m 3 /s was adopted as the seal performance criterion. (author)

  4. High-order sum and difference-frequency generation in helium

    Crane, J.K.; Perry, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation provides a new method for generating coherent, XUV radiation. These harmonics are characterized by a rapid, pertubative drop at low orders, followed by a broad plateau extending to photon energies of 150 eV in the lighter, rare gas atoms. An experimentally observed limit coincides with the theoretical limit for harmonic generation in neutral atoms given by the expression E c (eV)=IP(0)+3U p (I), where E c is the energy cutoff of the harmonic plateau, IP(O) is the field-free ionization potential and U p is the electron quiver energy at the maximum intensity, I seen by the atom. As part of an effort to develop this technique into a general purpose XUV source, extensive work to understand the phase-matching between the harmonic and driving fields, and the resulting effect on the conversion efficiency, angular distribution and spectral brightness has been undertaken at several. Though, certain aspects of the harmonically generated radiation such as the polarization, relative strength of a given harmonic, and the plateau extent, are defined by the single atom-field interaction. Specifically, the single-atom harmonic spectrum is determined primarily by the interaction of a driven, quasi-free electron with the atomic potential. Using two, independent fields one can affect the electron motion by controlling the relative strength, polarization, and phase of the fields and alter the harmonic spectrum. In this paper we discuss initial, two-color experiments where we drive the atom with two fields of different frequencies: 1053 nm (1ω) and 526 nm (2ω). In addition to the higher, odd harmonics, we observe sets of three additional peaks that we attribute to sum and difference-frequency generation between the two fields. By controlling the relative polarization between the two fields we can control the relative strength of the harmonic and mixing components, as well as the polarization of the output XUV photon

  5. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  6. Tritium permeation through helium-heated steam generators of ceramic breeder blankets for DEMO

    Fuetterer, M.A.; Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.

    1994-01-01

    The specifications of permeation barriers, tritium recovery process maintaining a very low tritium activity in the coolant, and control of the coolant chemistry, required the evaluation of the tritium losses through the steam generators and include the definition of its operating conditions by thermodynamic cycle calculations and its thermal-hydraulic design. For both tasks specific computer tools were developed. The obtained geometry, surface area, and temperature profiles along the heat exchanger tubes were then used to estimate the daily tritium permeation into the steam cycle. Steam oxidized Incoloy 800 austenitic stainless steel was identified as the best suited existing material; in nominal steady-state operation, the tritium escape into the steam cycle could be restricted to less than 10 Ci/d. Tritium permeation during temperature and pressure transients in the steam generator (destruction and possible self-healing of the permeation barrier) is identified to bear a large tritium release potential. Solutions are proposed. (from authors). 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Tritium permeation through helium-heated steam generators of ceramic breeder blankets for DEMO

    Fuetterer, M A; Raepsaet, X; Proust, E

    1994-12-31

    The specifications of permeation barriers, tritium recovery process maintaining a very low tritium activity in the coolant, and control of the coolant chemistry, required the evaluation of the tritium losses through the steam generators and include the definition of its operating conditions by thermodynamic cycle calculations and its thermal-hydraulic design. For both tasks specific computer tools were developed. The obtained geometry, surface area, and temperature profiles along the heat exchanger tubes were then used to estimate the daily tritium permeation into the steam cycle. Steam oxidized Incoloy 800 austenitic stainless steel was identified as the best suited existing material; in nominal steady-state operation, the tritium escape into the steam cycle could be restricted to less than 10 Ci/d. Tritium permeation during temperature and pressure transients in the steam generator (destruction and possible self-healing of the permeation barrier) is identified to bear a large tritium release potential. Solutions are proposed. (from authors). 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Liquid helium

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  9. A liquid helium saver

    Avenel, O.; Der Nigohossian, G.; Roubeau, P.

    1976-01-01

    A cryostat equipped with a 'liquid helium saver' is described. A mass flow rate M of helium gas at high pressure is injected in a counter-flow heat exchanger extending from room to liquid helium temperature. After isenthalpic expansion through a calibrated flow impedance this helium gas returns via the low pressure side of the heat exchanger. The helium boil-off of the cryostat represents a mass flow rate m, which provides additional precooling of the incoming helium gas. Two operating regimes appear possible giving nearly the same efficiency: (1) high pressure (20 to 25 atm) and minimum flow (M . L/W approximately = 1.5) which would be used in an open circuit with helium taken from a high pressure cylinder; and (2) low pressure (approximately = 3 atm), high flow (M . L/W > 10) which would be used in a closed circuit with a rubber diaphragm pumping-compressing unit; both provide a minimum theoretical boil-off factor of about 8%. Experimental results are reported. (U.K.)

  10. Room temperature desorption of helium-3 from metal tritides

    Beavis, L.C.; Kass, W.J.

    1976-10-01

    It has long been known that helium-3 accumulates in metal tritides as tritium decays. Early in life nearly 100% of the helium-3 is retained in the lattice, but when a critical concentration is reached (material dependent), the lattice will no longer retain the helium-3 and it is emitted at about the generation rate. Measurements were recently made on a number of erbium tritides with varying concentrations in the ditritide phase. The expected early release characteristics are observed for all of the samples. However, ditritides with higher tritium concentrations reach the rapid release state at much lower helium-3 concentrations. For instance, the helium to metal concentration for rapid release in the unsaturated ditritide is about 0.22, whereas it is only one-tenth this value in the saturated ditritide. The additional tritium in the tritide appears to be the cause of this effect

  11. Helium cryogenics

    Van Sciver, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Twenty five years have elapsed since the original publication of Helium Cryogenics. During this time, a considerable amount of research and development involving helium fluids has been carried out culminating in several large-scale projects. Furthermore, the field has matured through these efforts so that there is now a broad engineering base to assist the development of future projects. Helium Cryogenics, 2nd edition brings these advances in helium cryogenics together in an updated form. As in the original edition, the author's approach is to survey the field of cryogenics with emphasis on helium fluids. This approach is more specialized and fundamental than that contained in other cryogenics books, which treat the associated range of cryogenic fluids. As a result, the level of treatment is more advanced and assumes a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles, including some quantum mechanics. The goal throughout the work is to bridge the gap between the physics and engineering aspe...

  12. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    Dethloff, Christian; Gaganidze, Ermile; Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V.; Aktaa, Jarir

    2012-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different 10 B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  13. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    Dethloff, Christian, E-mail: christian.dethloff@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gaganidze, Ermile [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy Str. 42, 432970 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Aktaa, Jarir [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different {sup 10}B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  14. State of the Art Report for a Bearing for VHTR Helium Circulator

    Lee, Jae Seon; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Yong Wan; Lee, Won Jae

    2008-10-01

    A helium circulator in a VHTR(Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) plays a core role which translates thermal energy at high temperature from a nuclear core to a steam generator. Helium as a operating coolant circulates a primary circuit in high temperature and high pressure state, and controls thermal output of a nuclear core by controlling flow rate. A helium circulator is the only rotating machinery in a VHTR, and its reliability should be guaranteed for reliable operation of a reactor and stable production of hydrogen. Generally a main helium circulator is installed on the top of a steam generator vessel, and helium is circulated only by a main helium circulator in a normal operation state. An auxiliary or shutdown circulator is installed at the bottom of a reactor vessel, and it is an auxiliary circulator for shutting down a reactor in case of refueling or accelerating cooling down in case of fast cooling. Since a rotating shaft of a helium circulator is supported by bearings, bearings are the important machine elements which determines reliability of a helium circulator and a nuclear reactor. Various types of support bearings have been developed and applied for circulator bearings since 1960s, and it is still developing for developing VHTRs. So it is necessary to review and analyze the current technical state of helium circulator support bearings to develop bearings for Koran developing VHTR helium circulator

  15. 3D numerical simulation of fluid–solid coupled heat transfer with variable property in a LBE-helium heat exchanger

    Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190 (China); North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, 36 Beihuan Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450011 (China); Cai, Jun, E-mail: caijun@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Xunfeng, E-mail: lixunfeng@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Huai, Xiulan, E-mail: hxl@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yongwei, E-mail: wangyongwei@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer in heat exchanger can be improved by increasing helium's flow rate. • The outlet temperature of helium decreases with increasing helium's flow rate. • Balance is necessary between good heat transfer and high helium outlet temperature. - Abstract: LBE-helium experimental loop of ADS (LELA) and LBE-helium heat exchanger have been designed and constructed with the supporting of the “ADS Transmutation System” project of Chinese Academy of Sciences. In order to investigate the flow and heat transfer characteristics between LBE and helium, 3D numerical simulation of fluid–solid coupled heat transfer with variable property in the LBE-helium heat exchanger is conducted in the present study. The effects of mass-flow-rates of helium and LBE in the shell-side and tube-side on the heat transfer performance are addressed. It is found that the heat transfer performance can be significantly improved by increasing helium mass-flow-rate in the shell-side. In order to easily and quickly obtain the outlet temperatures of helium and LBE, a concept of modified effectiveness is introduced and correlated as the function of tube-side to shell-side heat capacity rate ratio. The results show that the outlet temperature of helium decreases with increasing helium mass-flow-rate. Therefore, considering the utilization of high-temperature helium in the future, for example power generation, there should be a tradeoff between good heat transfer performance and high outlet helium temperature when confirming helium mass-flow-rate.

  16. Dose rate visualization of radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    Schwarz, R.A.; Kessler, S.F.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

    1995-09-01

    Advanced visualization techniques can be used to investigate gamma ray and neutron dose rates around complex dose rate intensive operations. A method has been developed where thousands of dose points are calculated using the MCNP(Monte Carlo N-Particle) computer code and then displayed to create color contour plots of the dose rate for complex geometries. Once these contour plots are created, they are sequenced together creating an animation to dynamically show how the dose rate changes with changes in the geometry or source over time

  17. Dose rate visualization of radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    Schwarz, R.A.; Kessler, S.F.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced visualization techniques can be used to investigate gamma ray and neutron dose rates around complex dose rate intensive operations. A method has been developed where thousands of dose points are calculated using the MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) computer code (Briesmeister 1993) and then displayed to create color contour plots of the dose rate for complex geometries. Once these contour plots are created, they are sequenced together creating an animation to dynamically show how the dose rate changes with changes in the geometry or source over time. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  19. Helium production in mixed spectrum reactor-irradiated pure elements

    Kneff, D.W.; Oliver, B.M.; Skowronski, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to apply helium accumulation neutron dosimetry to the measurement of neutron fluences and energy spectra in mixed-spectrum fission reactors utilized for fusion materials testing, and to measure helium generation rates of materials in these irradiation environments. Helium generation measurements have been made for several Fe, Cu Ti, Nb, Cr, and Pt samples irradiated in the mixed-spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results have been used to integrally test the ENDF/B-V Gas Production File, by comparing the measurements with helium generation predictions made by Argonne National Laboratory using ENDF/B-V cross sections and adjusted reactor spectra. The comparisons indicate consistency between the helium measurements and ENDF/B-V for iron, but cross section discrepancies exist for helium production by fast neutrons in Cu, Ti, Nb, and Cr (the latter for ORR). The Fe, Cu, and Ti work updates and extends previous measurements

  20. Effect of helium on void swelling in vanadium

    Brimhall, J.L.; Simonen, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    Little difference in void microstructural swelling of vanadium is observed when helium is injected simultaneously with a 46- or 5-MeV nickel beam as compared to no helium injection, at least at high dose rates. At lower dose rates, a strong helium effect is seen when the helium is injected prior to heavy ion bombardment. The effect of the helium is shown to be a strong function of the overall displacement damage rate

  1. Cosmological helium production simplified

    Bernstein, J.; Brown, L.S.; Feinberg, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a simplified model of helium synthesis in the early universe. The purpose of the model is to explain clearly the physical ideas relevant to the cosmological helium synthesis, in a manner that does not overlay these ideas with complex computer calculations. The model closely follows the standard calculation, except that it neglects the small effect of Fermi-Dirac statistics for the leptons. We also neglect the temperature difference between photons and neutrinos during the period in which neutrons and protons interconvert. These approximations allow us to express the neutron-proton conversion rates in a closed form, which agrees to 10% accuracy or better with the exact rates. Using these analytic expressions for the rates, we reduce the calculation of the neutron-proton ratio as a function of temperature to a simple numerical integral. We also estimate the effect of neutron decay on the helium abundance. Our result for this quantity agrees well with precise computer calculations. We use our semi-analytic formulas to determine how the predicted helium abundance varies with such parameters as the neutron life-time, the baryon to photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and a possible electron-neutrino chemical potential. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Preliminary Overview of a Helium Cooling System for the Secondary Helium Loop in VHTR-based SI Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Shin, Youngjoon; Cho, Mintaek; Kim, Dahee; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Yongwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear hydrogen production facilities consist of a very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (VHTR) system, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) system, and a sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical process. This study focuses on the coupling system between the IHX system and SI thermochemical process. To prevent the propagation of the thermal disturbance owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components from the IHX system to the VHTR system, a helium cooling system for the secondary helium of the IHX is required. In this paper, the helium cooling system has been studied. The temperature fluctuation of the secondary helium owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process was then calculated based on the proposed coupling system model. Finally, the preliminary conceptual design of the helium cooling system with a steam generator and forced-draft air-cooled heat exchanger to mitigate the thermal disturbance has been carried out. A conceptual flow diagram of a helium cooling system between the IHX and SI thermochemical processes in VHTR-based SI hydrogen production facilities has been proposed. A helium cooling system for the secondary helium of the IHX in this flow diagram prevents the propagation of the thermal disturbance from the IHX system to the VHTR system, owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components. As a result of a dynamic simulation to anticipate the fluctuations of the secondary helium temperature owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components with a hydrogen production rate of 60 mol·H{sub 2}/s, it is recommended that the maximum helium cooling capacity to recover the normal operation temperature of 450 .deg. C is 31,933.4 kJ/s. To satisfy this helium cooling capacity, a U-type steam generator, which has a heat transfer area of 12 m{sup 2}, and a forced-draft air-cooled condenser, which has a heat transfer area of 12,388.67 m{sup 2}, are required for the secondary helium cooling system.

  3. Empirical rate equation model and rate calculations of hydrogen generation for Hanford tank waste

    HU, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical rate equations are derived to estimate hydrogen generation based on chemical reactions, radiolysis of water and organic compounds, and corrosion processes. A comparison of the generation rates observed in the field with the rates calculated for twenty eight tanks shows agreement within a factor of two to three

  4. Helium behaviour in nuclear glasses

    Fares, T.

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the study of helium behavior in R7T7 nuclear waste glass. Helium is generated by the minor actinides alpha decays incorporated in the glass matrix. Therefore, four types of materials were used in this work. These are non radioactive R7T7 glasses saturated with helium under pressure, glasses implanted with 3 He + ions, glasses doped with curium and glasses irradiated in nuclear reactor. The study of helium solubility in saturated R7T7 glass has shown that helium atoms are inserted in the glass free volume. The results yielded a solubility of about 10 16 at. cm -3 atm. -1 . The incorporation limit of helium in this type of glass has been determined; its value amounted to about 2*10 21 at. cm -3 , corresponding to 2.5 at.%. Diffusion studies have shown that the helium migration is controlled by the single population dissolved in the glass free volume. An ideal diffusion model was used to simulate the helium release data which allowed to determine diffusion coefficients obeying to the following Arrhenius law: D = D 0 exp(-E a /kBT), where D 0 = 2.2*10 -2 and 5.4*10 -3 cm 2 s -1 and E a = 0.61 eV for the helium saturated and the curium doped glass respectively. These results reflect a thermally activated diffusion mechanism which seems to be not influenced by the glass radiation damage and helium concentrations studied in the present work (up to 8*10 19 at. g -1 , corresponding to 0.1 at.%). Characterizations of the macroscopic, structural and microstructural properties of glasses irradiated in nuclear reactor did not reveal any impact associated with the presence of helium at high concentrations. The observed modifications i.e. a swelling of 0.7 %, a decrease in hardness by 38 %, an increase between 8 and 34 % of the fracture toughness and a stabilization of the glass structure under irradiation, were attributed to the glass nuclear damage induced by the irradiation in reactor. Characterizations by SEM and TEM of R7T7 glasses implanted

  5. Observation of reduction of secondary electron emission from helium ion impact due to plasma-generated nanostructured tungsten fuzz

    Hollmann, E M; Doerner, R P; Nishijima, D; Pigarov, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Growth of nanostructured fuzz on a tungsten target in a helium plasma is found to cause a significant (∼3×) reduction in ion impact secondary electron emission in a linear plasma device. The ion impact secondary electron emission is separated from the electron impact secondary electron emission by varying the target bias voltage and fitting to expected contributions from electron impact, both thermal and non-thermal; with the non-thermal electron contribution being modeled using Monte-Carlo simulations. The observed (∼3×) reduction is similar in magnitude to the (∼2×) reduction observed in previous work for the effect of tungsten fuzz formation on secondary electron emission due to electron impact. It is hypothesized that the observed reduction results from re-absorption of secondary electrons in the tungsten fuzz. (paper)

  6. Can producer currency pricing models generate volatile real exchange rates?

    Povoledo, L.

    2012-01-01

    If the elasticities of substitution between traded and nontraded and between Home and Foreign traded goods are sufficiently low, then the real exchange rate generated by a model with full producer currency pricing is as volatile as in the data.

  7. Renewable electricity generation in India—A learning rate analysis

    Partridge, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The cost of electricity generation using renewable technologies is widely assumed to be higher than the cost for conventional generation technologies, but likely to fall with growing experience of the technologies concerned. This paper tests the second part of that statement using learning rate analysis, based on large samples of wind and small hydro projects in India, and projects likely changes in these costs through 2020. It is the first study of learning rates for renewable generation technologies in India, and only the second in any developing country—it provides valuable input to the development of Indian energy policy and will be relevant to policy makers in other developing countries. The paper considers some potential problems with learning rate analysis raised by Nordhaus (2009. The Perils of the Learning Model for Modeling Endogenous Technological Change. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 14638). By taking account of these issues, it is possible both to improve the models used for making cost projections and to examine the potential impact of remaining forecasting problems. - Highlights: • The first learning rate analysis of wind generation costs in India. • Only the second learning rate analysis for wind in any developing country. • Reviews missing variable and related issues in learning rate analysis. • Finds a 17.7% learning rate for wind generation costs in India. • Finds no significant learning effect for small hydro

  8. BIG-10 fission product generation and reaction rates

    Rogers, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Fission product generation rates for high quality fission foils and reaction rates of nonfission foils have been measured by gamma ray activation analyses. These foils were irradiated in the BIG-10 facility and the activities were measured by NaI counting techniques

  9. Helium crystals

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  10. Moment generating function approach to pricing interest rate and foreign exchange rate claims

    Dijkstra, T.K.; Yao, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses moment generating functions to provide a general framework to model international term structures and to price interest rate and foreign exchange rate claims. When moment generating functions of state variables have a closed-form formula, closed-form formulas for bond prices are

  11. Expansion of the cathode spot and generation of shock waves in the plasma of a volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium

    Omarov, O. A.; Kurbanismailov, V. S.; Arslanbekov, M. A.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.; Al-Shatravi, Ali J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the cathode spot and the generation of shock waves during the formation and development of a pulsed volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium were studied by analyzing the emission spectra of the cathode plasma and the spatiotemporal behavior of the plasma glow. The transition of a diffuse volume discharge in a centimeter-long gap into a high-current diffuse mode when the gas pressure increased from 1 to 5 atm and the applied voltage rose from the statistical breakdown voltage to a 100% overvoltage was investigated. Analytical expressions for the radius of the cathode spot and its expansion velocity obtained in the framework of a spherically symmetric model agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  12. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  13. Assessment of tritiated activities in the radwaste generated from ITER Chinese helium cooled ceramic breeding test blanket module system

    Chen, Chang An, E-mail: chenchangan@caep.cn; Liu, Lingbo; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Xin; Yao, Yong; Song, Jiangfeng

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Approaches were developed for calculation/evaluation of tritium activities in the materials and components of a TBM system, with tritium permeation being considered for the first time. • Almost all tritiated materials and components were considered in CNHCCB TBM system including the TBM set, connection pipes, and the ancillary tritium handling systems. • Tritium activity data in HCCB TBM system were updated. Some of which in directly tritium contacted components are to be 2 or 4 magnitudes higher than the original neutron transmutation calculations. • The radwaste amount from both operation and decommission of HCCB TBM system was evaluated. - Abstract: Chinese Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeding Test blanket Module (CNHCCB TBM) will be tested in the ITER machine for the feasibility of in pile tritium production for a future magnetic confinement fusion reactor. The tritium inventories/retentions in the material/components were evaluated and updated mainly based on the tritium diffusion/permeation theory and the analysis of some reported data. Tritiated activities rank from less than 10 Bq g{sup −1} to 10{sup 9} Bq g{sup −1} for the different materials or components, which are generally higher than those from the previous neutron transmutation calculation. The amounts of tritiated radwaste were also estimated according to the operation, decommission, maintenance and replacement strategies, which vary from several tens of kilograms to tons in the different operation phases. The data can be used both for the tritium radiological safety evaluation and radwaste management of CNHCCB TBM set and its ancillary systems.

  14. Helium turbomachine design for GT-MHR power plant

    McDonald, C.F.; Orlando, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    The power conversion system in the gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) power plant is based on a highly recuperated closed Brayton cycle. The major component in the direct cycle system is a helium closed-cycle gas turbine rated at 286 MW(e). The rotating group consists of an intercooled helium turbocompressor coupled to a synchronous generator. The vertical rotating assembly is installed in a steel vessel, together with the other major components (i.e., recuperator, precooler, intercooler, and connecting ducts and support structures). The rotor is supported on an active magnetic bearing system. The turbine operates directly on the reactor helium coolant, and with a temperature of 850 degree C (1562 degree F) the plant efficiency is over 47%. This paper addresses the design and development planning of the helium turbomachine, and emphasizes that with the utilization of proven technology, this second generation nuclear power plant could be in service in the first decade of the 21st century

  15. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  16. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  17. Assessment of healthcare waste generation rate and its ...

    Assessment of healthcare waste generation rate and its management system in health centers of Bench Maji Zone. ... Background: It is known that the basic role of healthcare system is to preserve the health of patients and protect the public from diseases. However, in the process of performing these activities, health ...

  18. Study of helium behaviour in body-centered cubic structures for new nuclear reactor generations: experimental approach in well characterized materials

    Gorondy-Novak, Sofia Maria

    2017-01-01

    The presence of helium produced during the operation of future fast reactors and fusion reactors in core structural materials induces a deterioration of their mechanical properties (hardening, swelling, embrittlement). In order to pursue the development of the metallic structural alloys, it is necessary to comprehend the He interaction with the metal lattice thus the point in common is the study of the metallic components with body-centered cubic structure (bcc) of future alloys, such as iron and/or vanadium. Ion implantation of ions "4He was employed with the aim of simulating the damaging effects associated with the helium accumulation, the point defects' creation (vacancies, self-interstitials) and the He cluster formation in future reactors. Helium evolution in pure iron and pure vanadium has been revealed from the point of view of the trapping sites' nature and well as the helium migration mechanisms and the nucleation/growth of bubbles. These phenomena were studied by coupling different complementary techniques. Despite of the fact that some mechanisms involved seem to be similar for both bcc metals, the comparison between the helium behavior in iron and vanadium shows certain differences. Microstructural defects, including grain boundaries and implanted helium concentration (dose) in both bcc metals will play significant roles on the helium behavior at high temperature. The acquired experimental data coupled with simulation methods contribute to the future development in terms of kinetic and thermodynamic data management of helium behavior in the metal components of the alloys of nuclear interest. (author) [fr

  19. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen and helium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by RF plasma sputtering

    Kazunari Katayama; Kazumi Imaoka; Takayuki Okamura; Masabumi Nishikawa

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of tritium behavior in plasma facing materials is an important issue for fusion reactor from viewpoints of fuel control and radiation safety. Tungsten is used as a plasma facing material in the divertor region of ITER. However, investigation of hydrogen isotope behavior in tungsten deposition layer is not sufficient so far. It is also necessary to evaluate an effect of helium on a formation of deposition layer and an accumulation of hydrogen isotopes because helium generated by fusion reaction exists in fusion plasma. In this study, tungsten deposition layers were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen and helium RF plasma. An erosion rate and a deposition rate of tungsten were estimated by weight measurement. Hydrogen and helium retention were investigated by thermal desorption method. Tungsten deposition was performed using a capacitively-coupled RF plasma device equipped with parallel-plate electrodes. A tungsten target was mounted on one electrode which is supplied with RF power at 200 W. Tungsten substrates were mounted on the other electrode which is at ground potential. The plasma discharge was continued for 120 hours where pressure of hydrogen or helium was controlled to be 10 Pa. The amounts of hydrogen and helium released from deposition layers was quantified by a gas chromatograph. The erosion rate of target tungsten under helium plasma was estimated to be 1.8 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. The deposition rate on tungsten substrate under helium plasma was estimated to be 4.1 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. Atomic ratio of hydrogen to tungsten in a deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma was estimated to be 0.17 by heating to 600 o C. From a deposition layer formed by helium plasma, not only helium but also hydrogen was released by heating to 500 o C. Atomic ratios of helium and hydrogen to tungsten were estimated to be 0.080 and 0.075, respectively. The trapped hydrogen is probably impurity hydrogen

  1. PERMCAT experiments with tritium at high helium flow rates relevant for the tritium extraction systems using the CAPER facility at TLK

    Bükki-Deme, András, E-mail: andras.buekki-deme@kit.edu; Demange, David; Le, Thanh-Long; Fanghänel, Eleonore; Simon, Karl-Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We examined PERMCAT reactor efficiency processing tritiated water at high Helium carrier flow rates. • We have found that – as expected from previous studies – that the swamping ratio (ratio between the impurity and purge side flow rates) has a key effect on the decontamination factors. • On the other hand, some rather unexpected effects tend to show that the limiting phenomena of such specific operation of PERMCAT reactors (at high impurity flow rates, thus short residence time) lies on the kinetics of the isotope exchange reactions. - Abstract: Experiments are still necessary to consolidate the processes retained for the Tritium Extraction Systems of the European ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM). A PERMCAT reactor combines a catalyst promoting isotope exchange reactions and a Pd/Ag membrane allowing tritium recovery from complex gaseous mixtures containing tritium in different chemical forms. Originally developed for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing, the PERMCAT process is also candidate to detritiate the water arising from an adsorption column installed in the TBM ancillary systems. We discuss the results of an extensive experimental campaign using a PERMCAT reactor to process Q{sub 2}O containing impurity gas mixtures at high flow rates. Two different experimental configurations were studied, namely PERMCAT stand-alone, and PERMCAT in combination with a zeolite molecular sieve bed (MSB, previously loaded with Q{sub 2}O) under regeneration. On the one hand, many expected behaviors were observed, such as the key influence of the swamping ratio (ratio between the impurity and purge side flow rates) on the decontamination factors. On the other hand, some rather unexpected effects tend to show that the limiting phenomena of such specific operation of PERMCAT reactors (at high flow rates, thus short residence time) lies on the kinetics of the isotope exchange reactions.

  2. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from CO2 arc welding.

    Ojima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    CO poisoning has been a serious industrial hazard in Japanese workplaces. Although incomplete combustion is the major cause of CO generation, there is a risk of CO poisoning during some welding operations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the generation rate of CO from CO2 arc welding under controlled laboratory conditions and estimate the ventilation requirements for the prevention of CO poisoning. Bead on plate welding was carried out with an automatic welding robot on a rolled steel base metal under several conditions. The concentration of emitted CO from the welding was measured by a real-time CO monitor in a well-ventilated laboratory that was free from ambient CO contamination. The generation rate of CO was obtained from the three measurements-the flow rate of the welding exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the arcing time. Then the ventilation requirement to prevent CO poisoning was calculated. The generation rate of CO was found to be 386-883 ml/min with a solid wire and 331-1,293 ml/min with a flux cored wire respectively. It was found that the CO concentration in a room would be maintained theoretically below the OSHA PEL (50 ppm) providing the ventilation rate in the room was 6.6-25.9 m3/min. The actual ventilation requirement was then estimated to be 6.6-259 m3/min considering incomplete mixing. In order to prevent CO poisoning, some countermeasures against gaseous emission as well as welding fumes should be taken eagerly.

  3. Self-trapping of helium in metals

    Wilson, W.D.; Bisson, C.L.; Baskes, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Atomistic calculations are presented which demonstrate that helium atoms in a metal lattice are able to cluster with each other, producing vacancies and nearby self-interstitial defects. Even a small number of helium atoms is found to be sufficient to create these large distortions. As few as five interstitial helium can spontaneously produce a lattice vacancy and nearby self-interstitial. An eight-helium-atom cluster gives rise to two such defects, and 16 helium atoms to more than five self-interstitial vacancy pairs. It was noted that the self-interstitials prefer to agglomerate on the same ''side'' of the helium cluster rather than to spread themselves out uniformly. The binding energy of each additional helium atom to these clusters increases with helium concentration and the trap is apparently unsaturable. A rate theory using these atomistic binding energies has been used to calculate the kinetics of helium-bubble nucleation and growth. The results are consistent with measurements of the properties of helium resulting from tritium decay

  4. Standard Guide for Simulation of Helium Effects in Irradiated Metals

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides advice for conducting experiments to investigate the effects of helium on the properties of metals where the technique for introducing the helium differs in some way from the actual mechanism of introduction of helium in service. Simulation techniques considered for introducing helium shall include charged particle implantation, exposure to α-emitting radioisotopes, and tritium decay techniques. Procedures for the analysis of helium content and helium distribution within the specimen are also recommended. 1.2 Two other methods for introducing helium into irradiated materials are not covered in this guide. They are the enhancement of helium production in nickel-bearing alloys by spectral tailoring in mixed-spectrum fission reactors, and isotopic tailoring in both fast and mixed-spectrum fission reactors. These techniques are described in Refs (1-5). Dual ion beam techniques (6) for simultaneously implanting helium and generating displacement damage are also not included here. This lat...

  5. Determination of LEDs degradation with entropy generation rate

    Cuadras, Angel; Yao, Jiaqiang; Quilez, Marcos

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method to assess the degradation and aging of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on irreversible entropy generation rate. We degraded several LEDs and monitored their entropy generation rate ( S ˙ ) in accelerated tests. We compared the thermoelectrical results with the optical light emission evolution during degradation. We find a good relationship between aging and S ˙ (t), because S ˙ is both related to device parameters and optical performance. We propose a threshold of S ˙ (t) as a reliable damage indicator of LED end-of-life that can avoid the need to perform optical measurements to assess optical aging. The method lays beyond the typical statistical laws for lifetime prediction provided by manufacturers. We tested different LED colors and electrical stresses to validate the electrical LED model and we analyzed the degradation mechanisms of the devices.

  6. Ab initio calculation of harmonic generation spectra of helium using a time-dependent non-Hermitian formalism

    Gilary, I.; Kaprálová, Petra; Moiseyev, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2006), 052505-1 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100550501; GA MŠk(CZ) LC512 Grant - others:Israel Science Foundation(IL) 1152/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : high-order harmonic generation * symmetry selection rules * even harmonics * complex scaling * F-produkt Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.047, year: 2006

  7. Helium diffusion in nickel at high temperatures

    Philipps, V.

    1980-09-01

    Helium has been implanted at certain temperatures between 800 and 1250 0 C into single and polycrystalline Ni-samples with implantation depths between 15 and 90 μm. Simultaneously the helium reemission from the sample is measured by a mass-spectrometer. It has been shown that the time dependence of the observed reemission rate is governed by volume diffusion of the helium. Measuring this time dependence as a function of temperature the helium diffusion constant has been determined. The He-diffusion is interpreted as a interstitial diffusion hindered by thermal vacancies. Depending on the implantation depth more or less of the implanted helium remains in the sample and forms large helium bubbles. (orig./GSCH)

  8. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds

  9. Final Report on Investigations of the influence of Helium concentration and implantation rate on Cavity Nucleation and Growth during neutron irradiation of Fe and EUROFER 97

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, Bachu Narain; Golubov, S.

    This report presents results of investigations of damage accumulation during neutron irradiation of pure iron and EUROFER 97 steel with or without prior helium implantation. The defect microstructure, in particular the cavities, was characterized using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) and...

  10. Final Report on investigations of the influence of helium concentration and implantation rate on cavity nucleation and growth during neutron irradiation of Fe and EUROFER 97

    Eldrup, M.; Singh, B.N.; Golubov, S.

    2010-09-01

    Model have been carried out for neutron irradiation with and without prior He implantation and for different implantation rates for comparison with the experimental results. Further, the purpose was to evaluate the role of helium in cavity nucleation and growth during 14 MeV neutron irradiation in a fusion reactor. Calculations were carried out for the experimental temperatures of 323 K and 623 K, i.e. below and above the recovery stage V. In general, the calculations agree qualitatively with the experimental observations and in some cases quantitatively. In this way the calculations give an experimentally supported detailed insight into the evolution of the cavity microstructure under different conditions. (author)

  11. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    Gelles, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of 60 Ni which produces no helium, 59 Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ( Nat Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of 59 Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to ∼7 dpa at 300 and 400 degrees C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400 degrees C than at 300 degrees C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from 59 Ni and Nat Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400 degrees C. At 300 degrees C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400 degrees C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces

  12. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of {sup 60}Ni which produces no helium, {sup 59}Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ({sup Nat}Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of {sup 59}Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to {approx}7 dpa at 300 and 400{degrees}C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400{degrees}C than at 300{degrees}C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from {sup 59}Ni and {sup Nat}Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400{degrees}C. At 300{degrees}C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400{degrees}C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces.

  13. Helium supply demand in future years

    Laverick, C.

    1975-01-01

    Adequate helium will be available to the year 2000 AD to meet anticipated helium demands for present day applications and the development of new superconducting technologies of potential importance to the nation. It is almost certain that there will not be enough helium at acceptable financial and energy cost after the turn of the century to meet the needs of the many promising helium based technologies now under development. Serious consideration should be given to establishing priorities in development and application based upon their relative value to the country. In the first half of the next century, three ways of estimating helium demand lead to cumulative ranges of from 75 to 125 Gcf (economic study), 89 to 470 Gcf (projected national energy growth rates) and 154 to 328 Gcf (needs for new technologies). These needs contrast with estimated helium resources in natural gas after 2000 AD which may be as low as 10 or 126 Gcf depending upon how the federal helium program is managed and the nation's natural gas resources are utilized. The technological and financial return on a modest national investment in further helium storage and a rational long term helium program promises to be considerable

  14. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  15. Vapor generation rate model for dispersed drop flow

    Unal, C.; Tuzla, K.; Cokmez-Tuzla, A.F.; Chen, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of predictions of existing nonequilibrium post-CHF heat transfer models with the recently obtained rod bundle data has been performed. The models used the experimental conditions and wall temperatures to predict the heat flux and vapor temperatures at the location of interest. No existing model was able to reasonably predict the vapor superheat and the wall heat flux simultaneously. Most of the models, except Chen-Sundaram-Ozkaynak, failed to predict the wall heat flux, while all of the models could not predict the vapor superheat data or trends. A recently developed two-region heat transfer model, the Webb-Chen two-region model, did not give a reasonable prediction of the vapor generation rate in the far field of the CHF point. A new correlation was formulated to predict the vapor generation rate in convective dispersed droplet flow in terms of thermal-hydraulic parameters and thermodynamic properties. A comparison of predictions of the two-region heat transfer model, with the use of a presently developed correlation, with all the existing post-CHF data, including single-tube and rod bundle, showed significant improvements in predicting the vapor superheat and tube wall heat flux trends. (orig.)

  16. Post-giant evolution of helium stars

    Schoenberner, D.

    1977-01-01

    Extremely hydrogen deficient stars (helium stars and R Coronae Borealis variables) are considered to be remnants of double shell source stars (of the asymptotic giant branch). The evolution of stars with a condensed C/O-core and a helium envelope is followed numerically from the red giant stage to the white dwarf domain, crossing the regions of R CrB- and helium stars (so far analyzed). They have typically masses M/M(sun) = 0.7 and luminosities log L/L(sun) = 4.1. The time for crossing the helium star domain is some 10 3 years. The corresponding times in the R CrB-region amounts up to several 10 4 years. The lower limit of the death rate of helium stars is estimated to be 4 x 10 -14 pc -3 yr -1 . This value is only a factor of ten lower than the birth rate of all non-DA white dwarfs. It is therefore possible that the helium stars are the precursors of helium rich white dwarfs. As a consequence, a significant fraction of all stars which end their lives as white dwarfs should pass through the helium star phase. (orig.) [de

  17. A metastable helium trap for atomic collision physics

    Colla, M.; Gulley, R.; Uhlmann, L.; Hoogerland, M.D.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Buckman, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Metastable helium in the 2 3 S state is an important species for atom optics and atomic collision physics. Because of its large internal energy (20eV), long lifetime (∼8000s) and large collision cross section for a range of processes, metastable helium plays an important role in atmospheric physics, plasma discharges and gas laser physics. We have embarked on a program of studies on atom-atom and electron-atom collision processes involving cold metastable helium. We confine metastable helium atoms in a magneto-optic trap (MOT), which is loaded by a transversely collimated, slowed and 2-D focussed atomic beam. We employ diode laser tuned to the 1083 nm (2 3 S 1 - 2 3 P2 1 ) transition to generate laser cooling forces in both the loading beam and the trap. Approximately 10 million helium atoms are trapped at temperatures of ∼ 1mK. We use phase modulation spectroscopy to measure the trapped atomic density. The cold, trapped atoms can collide to produce either atomic He + or molecular He 2 + ions by Penning Ionisation (PI) or Associative Ionisation (AI). The rate of formation of these ions is dependant upon the detuning of the trapping laser from resonance. A further laser can be used to connect the 2 3 S 1 state to another higher lying excited state, and variation of the probe laser detuning used to measure interatomic collision potential. Electron-atom collision processes are studied using a monochromatic electron beam with a well defined spatial current distribution. The total trap loss due to electron collisions is measured as a function of electron energy. Results will be presented for these atomic collision physics measurements involving cold, trapped metastable helium atoms. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  18. Generating Fast and Accurate Compliance Reports for Various Data Rates

    Penugonda, Srinath

    As the demands on the industry data rates have increased there is a need for interoperable interfaces to function flawlessly. Added to this complexity, the number of I/O data lines are also increasing making it more time consuming to design and test. This in general leads to creating of compliance standards to which interfaces must adhere. The goal of this theses is to aid the Signal Integrity Engineers with a better and fast way of rendering a full picture of the interface compliance parameters. Three different interfaces at various data rates were chosen. They are: 25Gbps Very Short Reach (VSR) based on Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF), Mobile Industry Processer Interface (MIPI) particularly for camera based on MIPI Alliance organization upto 1.5Gbps and for a passive Universal Serial Bus (USB) Type-C cable based on USB organization particularly for generation-I with data rate of 10Gbps. After a full understanding of each of the interfaces, a complete end-to-end reports for each of the interfaces were developed with an easy to use user interface. A standard one-to-one comparison is done with commercially available software tools for the above mentioned interfaces. The tools were developed in MATLAB and Python. Data was usually obtained by probing at interconnect, from either an oscilloscope or vector network analyzer.

  19. Nucleation path of helium bubbles in metals during irradiation

    Morishita, Kazunori

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamical formalization is made for description of the nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in metals during irradiation. The proposed formalization is available or evaluating both microstructural changes in fusion first wall materials where helium is produced by (n, α) nuclear transmutation reactions, and those in fusion divertor materials where helium particles with low energy are directly implanted. Calculated nucleation barrier is significantly reduced by the presence of helium, showing that a helium bubble with an appropriate number of helium atoms depending on bubble size can nucleate without any large nucleation barriers, even at a condition where an empty void has very large nucleation barrier without helium. With the proposed thermodynamical formalization, the nucleation and growth process of helium bubbles in iron during irradiation is simulated by the kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) technique. It shows the nucleation path of a helium bubble on the (N He , N V ) space as functions of temperatures and the concentration of helium in the matrix, where N He and N V are the number of helium atoms and vacancies in the helium bubble, respectively. Bubble growth rates depend on the nucleation path and suggest that two different mechanisms operate for bubble growth: one is controlled by vacancy diffusion and the other is controlled by interstitial helium diffusion. (author)

  20. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  1. Determination of helium in beryl minerals

    Souza Barcellos, E. de.

    1985-08-01

    In order to obtain the diffusion coefficients of helium in beryl and phenacite samples at various temperatures, helium leak rates were measured in these minerals at these temperatures. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to obtain helium leak rates and the gas flow was plotted against time. The gas quantity determined by MS was first obtained at various temperatures until no helium leak rate was detected. After that, these samples were irradiated with fast neutrons to produce helium which was measured again. This procedure was used to estimate the experimental error. The quantity of helium produced by interaction of gamma radiation with beryl minerals was theoretically calculated from the amount of thorium-232 at the neighbourhood of the samples. The quantity of helium produced in the minerals due to uranium and thorium decay was calculated using the amount of these heavy elements, and the results were compared with the amounts determined by MS. The amount of potassium-40 was determined in order to derive the quantity of argonium-40, since some workers found argonium in excess in these minerals. The quantity of helium in the beryl samples (s) was determined in the center and in the surface of the samples in order to obtain informations about the effectiveness of the Be(α, η) He reaction. Beryl and phenacite minerals were choosen in this research since they are opposite each other with respect to the helium contents. Both have beryllium in their compositon but beryl hold a large amount of helium while phenacite, in spite of having about three times more beryllium than beryl, do not hold the gas. (author) [pt

  2. A helium regenerative compressor

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  3. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  4. Biogas generation in landfills. Equilibria, rates and yields

    Aakesson, M

    1997-05-01

    Landfilling in `cells` has become more common in recent years. Different waste streams are guided to different cells, among which the biocell is a landfill designed for biogas production. In this thesis, the dependence of biogas generation on waste composition was investigated. Six 8,000 m{sup 3} test cells, with contents ranging from mainly commercial waste to pure domestic waste and equipped with gas extraction systems and bottom plastic liners, were monitored for seven years. Great emphasis was given to the characterization of conversion processes and governing mechanism in the topics of bio-energetics, kinetics and capacities. A thermodynamic model, in which the oxidations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) (2rates and internal conditions observed during a two year period, demonstrated that high biogas rates corresponded with low VFA levels. To explain the discrepancies between theoretical methane potentials and quantified yields (in this study found to be 150-200 and 40-70 Nm{sup 3}/dry tonne, respectively), the possible nutritional limitation was investigated. Pools and emissions of chemical oxygen demand, N, P and K were quantified. Biomass pools were estimated from methane yields, growth yield coefficients, and bacterial mineral contents. However, results from commercial waste test cells showed that the assimilation of P exceeded the refuse content, which suggests the turnover of microbial biomass and questions the notion of nutritional limitation. In sum, the results showed that the advantages of a reduced content of readily biodegradable material, achieved by guidance or pretreatment, encompass several aspects of the performance. 84 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  5. Effect of helium on void formation in nickel

    Brimhall, J.L.; Simonen, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    This study examines the influence of helium on void formation in self-ion irradiated nickel. Helium was injected either simultaneously with, or prior to, the self-ion bombardment. The void microstructure was characterized as a function of helium deposition rate and the total heavy-ion dose. In particular, at 575 0 C and 5 X 10 -3 displacements per atom per second the void density is found to be proportional to the helium deposition rate. The dose dependence of swelling is initially dominated by helium driven nucleation. The void density rapidly saturates after which swelling continues with increasing dose only from void growth. It is concluded that helium promotes void nucleation in nickel with either helium implantation technique, pre-injection or simultaneous injection. Qualitative differences, however, are recognized. (Auth.)

  6. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  7. Electron Excitation Rate Coefficients for Transitions from the IS21S Ground State to the 1S2S1,3S and 1S2P1,3P0 Excited States of Helium

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Kingston, A. E.; McDowell, M. R. C.

    1984-03-01

    The available experimental and theoretical electron impact excitation cross section data for the transitions from the 1s2 1S ground state to the 1s2s 1,3S and 1s2p 1,3P0 excited states of helium are assessed. Based on this assessed data, excitation rate coefficients are calculated over a wide electron temperature range below 3.0×106K. A comparison with other published results suggests that the rates used should be lower by a factor of 2 or more.

  8. Properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment*1

    Chung, H. M.; Loomis, B. A.; Smith, D. L.

    1996-10-01

    One property of vanadium-base alloys that is not well understood in terms of their potential use a fusion reactor structural materials, is the effect of simultaneous generation of helium and neutron damage. In the present Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE), helium was produced uniformly in the specimen at linear rates of ≈ 0.4 to 4.2 appm helium/dpa by the decay of tritium during irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600°C in Li-filled capsules in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper presents results of postirradiation examination and tests of microstructure and mechanical properties of V5Ti, V3Ti1Si, V8Cr6Ti, and V4Cr4Ti (the latter alloy has been identified as the most promising candidate vanadium alloy). Effects of helium on tensile strength and ductility were insignificant after irradiation and testing at > 420°C. However, postirradiation ductilities at irradiation. Ductile—brittle transition behavior of the DHCE specimens was also determined from bend tests and fracture appearance of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks and broken tensile specimens. No brittle behavior was observed at temperatures > - 150°C in DHCE specimens. Predominantly brittle-cleavage fracture morphologies were observed only at - 196°C in some specimens that were irradiated to 31 dpa at 425°C during the DHCE. For the helium generation rates in this experiment (≈ 0.4-4.2 appm He/dpa), grain-boundary coalescence of helium microcavities was negligible and intergranular fracture was not observed.

  9. Experimental method to determine the role of helium in neutron-induced microstructural evolution

    Gelles, D.S.; Garner, F.A.

    1978-12-01

    A method is presented which allows the determination of the role of helium on microstructural evolution in complex alloys and which avoids many of the problems associated with other simulation experiments. It involves a direct comparison of the materials' response to a primary difference in fission and fusion environments, namely the rate of helium generation. This is accomplished by irradiating specimens in a fission reactor and conducting microstructural analyses which concentrate on alloy matrix regions adjacent to precipitates rich in boron or nitrogen. Procedures are outlined for calculation of background and injected helium levels as well as displacement doses generated by neutrons and alpha particles. An example of the analysis method is shown for an experimental austenitic stainless steel containing boride particles and irradiated to 3 and 7 x 10 22 n/cm 2

  10. Low-temperature centrifugal helium compressor

    Kawada, M.; Togo, S.; Akiyama, Y.; Wada, R.

    1974-01-01

    A centrifugal helium compressor with gas bearings, which can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, has been investigated. This compressor has the advantages that the compression ratio should be higher than the room temperature operation and that the contamination of helium could be eliminated. The outer diameter of the rotor is 112 mm. The experimental result for helium gas at low temperature shows a flow rate of 47 g/s and a compression ratio of 1.2 when the inlet pressure was 1 ata and the rotational speed 550 rev/s. The investigation is now focused on obtaining a compression ratio of 1.5. (author)

  11. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  12. Thermal instability of helium-burning shell in stars evolving toward carbon-detonation supernovae

    Sugimoto, D; Nomoto, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-07-01

    Artificially suppressing the occurrence of thermal pulses, evolution in the phase of a growing carbon-oxygen core was computed through the ignition of carbon burning. From this computation we chose two models with the core masses of 1.074 and 1.393 Msub(solar mass). Starting from these models, we followed by numerical computation the occurrence of thermal pulses in the helium-burning shell. We have found the following. More than 4000 thermal pulses take place through the evolutionary phase. The peak energy generation rate is 10/sup 7/Lsub(solar) at most, a rate too small to induce any major dynamical effect. After each pulse the convective envelope penetrates into the helium zone, and the products of helium burning, which contain carbon and s-process elements, are mixed into the convective envelope, which thereby develops composition characteristics of carbon stars.

  13. On the helium gas leak test

    Nishikawa, Akira; Ozaki, Susumu

    1975-01-01

    The helium gas leak test (Helium mass spectrometer testing) has a leak detection capacity of the highest level in practical leak tests and is going to be widely applied to high pressure vessels, atomic and vacuum equipments that require high tightness. To establish a standard test procedure several series of experiments were conducted and the results were investigated. The conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The hood method is quantitatively the most reliable method. The leak rate obtained by tests using 100% helium concentration should be the basis of the other method of test. (2) The integrating method, bell jar method, and vacuum spray method can be considered quantitative when particular conditions are satisfied. (3) The sniffer method is not to be considered quantitive. (4) The leak rate of the hood, integrating, and bell jar methods is approximately proportional to the square of the helium partial pressure. (auth.)

  14. Helium the disappearing element

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  15. Helium dilution refrigerator

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  16. Helium localisation in tritides

    Flament, J.L.; Lozes, G.

    1982-06-01

    Study of titanium and LaNi 5 type alloys tritides lattice parameters evolution revealed that helium created by tritium decay remains in interstitial sites up to a limit material dependant concentration. Beyond this one exceeding helium precipites in voids [fr

  17. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Rossing, T.

    1975-01-01

    The surface erosion of annealed aluminum and of sintered aluminum powder (SAP) due to blistering from implantation of 100-keV 4 He + ions at room temperature has been investigated. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering. The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release

  18. Helium leak testing the Westinghouse LCP coil

    Merritt, P.A.; Attaar, M.H.; Hordubay, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The tests, equipment, and techniques used to check the Westinghouse LCP coil for coolant flow path integrity and helium leakage are unique in terms of test sensitivity and application. This paper will discuss the various types of helium leak testing done on the LCP coil as it enters different stages of manufacture. The emphasis will be on the degree of test sensitivity achieved under shop conditions, and what equipment, techniques and tooling are required to achieve this sensitivity (5.9 x 10 -8 scc/sec). Other topics that will be discussed are helium flow and pressure drop testing which is used to detect any restrictions in the flow paths, and the LCP final acceptance test which is the final leak test performed on the coil prior to its being sent for testing. The overall allowable leak rate for this coil is 5 x 10 -6 scc/sec. A general evaluation of helium leak testing experience are included

  19. Impact-generated Tsunamis: An Over-rated Hazard

    Melosh, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of authors have suggested that oceanic waves (tsunami) created by the impact of relatively small asteroids into the Earth's oceans might cause widespread devastation to coastal cities. If correct, this suggests that asteroids > 100 m in diameter may pose a serious hazard to humanity and could require a substantial expansion of the current efforts to identify earth-crossing asteroids > 1 km in diameter. The debate on this hazard was recently altered by the release of a document previously inaccessible to the scientific community. In 1968 the US Office of Naval Research commissioned a summary of several decades of research into the hazard proposed by waves generated by nuclear explosions in the ocean. Authored by tsunami expert William Van Dorn, this 173-page report entitled Handbook of Explosion-Generated Water Waves affords new insight into the process of impact wave formation, propagation, and run up onto the shoreline.

  20. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered

  1. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  2. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Blagovechtchenski, A; Leontieva, V; Mitrioukhin, A [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  3. Measurement of the initial population and decay rate of the ($\\mu ^{4}He)_{2S}^{+}$ system in a helium target at 50 atm

    Bertin, A; Gorini, G; Pitzurra, O; Polacco, E; Torelli, G; Vitale, A; Zavattini, E

    1974-01-01

    The fraction ( epsilon /sub 25/) of negative muons captured by the 2S level of He atoms and the lifetime tau /sub 2S/ of the muons at this level has been observed with pure helium gas at 50 'atm' and 293K. epsilon /sub 2S/, with no Stark effect, =(4.3+or-0.6)*10/sup -2/, for max. Stark effect, =(3.5+or-0.5)*10/sup -2/ and is insignificantly pressure dependent. tau /sub 2S/=(1.43+or-0.15) mu sec. X-rays from a 2S level two-photon decay and the delayed muon decay electron were observed. (7 refs).

  4. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  5. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in 238 PuO 2 fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel

  6. submitter Next generation multi-scale biophysical characterization of high precision cancer particle radiotherapy using clinical proton, helium-, carbon- and oxygen ion beams

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Chaudhri, Naved; Krunic, Damir; Tessonnier, Thomas; Ferrari, Alfredo; Parodi, Katia; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Haberer, Thomas; Abdollahi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of particle therapy facilities worldwide landmarks a novel era of precision oncology. Implementation of robust biophysical readouts is urgently needed to assess the efficacy of different radiation qualities. This is the first report on biophysical evaluation of Monte Carlo simulated predictive models of prescribed dose for four particle qualities i.e., proton, helium-, carbon- or oxygen ions using raster-scanning technology and clinical therapy settings at HIT. A high level of agreement was found between the in silico simulations, the physical dosimetry and the clonogenic tumor cell survival. The cell fluorescence ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) technology was employed to detect particle traverse per cell nucleus. Across a panel of radiobiological surrogates studied such as late ROS accumulation and apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) chiefly correlated with the radiation species-specific spatio-temporal pattern of DNA double strand break ...

  7. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  8. Reducing Uncertainties in the Production of the Gamma-emitting Nuclei {sup 26}Al, {sup 44}Ti, and {sup 60}Fe in Core-collapse Supernovae by Using Effective Helium Burning Rates

    Austin, Sam M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 640 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander, E-mail: austin@nscl.msu.edu, E-mail: christopher.west@metrostate.edu, E-mail: Alexander.Heger@Monash.edu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We have used effective reaction rates (ERRs) for the helium burning reactions to predict the yield of the gamma-emitting nuclei {sup 26}Al, {sup 44}Ti, and {sup 60}Fe in core-collapse supernovae (SNe). The variations in the predicted yields for values of the reaction rates allowed by the ERR are much smaller than obtained previously, and smaller than other uncertainties. A “filter” for SN nucleosynthesis yields based on pre-SN structure was used to estimate the effect of failed SNe on the initial mass function averaged yields; this substantially reduced the yields of all these isotopes, but the predicted yield ratio {sup 60}Fe/{sup 26}Al was little affected. The robustness of this ratio is promising for comparison with data, but it is larger than observed in nature; possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  9. Neutron-induced helium implantation in GCFR cladding

    Yamada, H.; Poeppel, R.B.; Sevy, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    The neutron-induced implantation of helium atoms on the exterior surfaces of the cladding of a prototypic gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) has been investigated analytically. A flux of recoil helium particles as high as 4.2 x 10 10 He/cm 2 .s at the cladding surface has been calculated at the peak power location in the core of a 300-MWe GCFR. The calculated profile of the helium implantation rates indicates that although some helium is implanted as deep as 20 μm, more than 99% of helium particles are implanted in the first 2-μm-deep layer below the cladding surface. Therefore, the implanted helium particles should mainly affect surface properties of the GCFR cladding

  10. Effect of helium plasma gas flow rate on the properties of WC-12 wt.%Co coatings sprayed by atmospheric plasma

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cermet coatings of WC-12wt.%Co are extensively used to improve the wear resistance of a wide range of technical components. This paper analyses the influence of the plasma gas flow of helium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-12wt.%Co coatings deposited by plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS. In order to obtain homogeneous and denser coatings, three different flows of He ( 8 l/min., 16 l/min. and 32 l/min were used in the research. With the application of He, coatings achieved higher values of hardness due to less degradation of the primary WC carbides. The main goal was to deposit dense and homogeneous layers of WC-12wt.%Co coatings with improved wear resistance for different applications. The test results of the microstructure of the layers were evaluated under a light microscope. The analysis of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the deposited layers was made in accordance with the standard of Pratt-Whitney. The morphology of the powder particles and the microstructure of the best coating was examined on the SEM (scanning electron microscope. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of the layers was done by applying the HV0.3 method for microhardness testing and by applying tensile testing to test the bond strength. The research has shown that the flow of He plasma gas significantly affects the microstructure, the mechanical properties and the structure of WC-12 wt.%Co coatings.

  11. Creep properties of Hastelloy X in a carburizing helium environment

    Nakanishi, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the environmental effect on the creep behavior of Hastelloy X at 900 0 C in helium and air. Since helium coolant in HTGR is expected to be carburizing and very weakly oxidizing for most metals, testings were focused on the effect of carburizing and slight oxidation. Carburization decreases secondary creep strain rate and delays tertiary creep initiation. On the other hand, the crack growth rate on the specimen surface is enhanced due to very weak oxidation in helium, therefore the tertiary creep strain rate becomes larger than that in air. The rupture time of Hastelloy X was shorter in helium when compared with in air. Stress versus rupture time curves for both environments do not deviate with each other during up to 5000 hours test, and a ratio of rupture stress in helium to that in air was about 0.9

  12. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  13. High-temperature helium-loop facility

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100 0 F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system. The experimental capabilities and test conand presents the results that have been obtained. The study has been conducted using a four-phase approach. The first phase develops the solution to the steady-state radon-diffusion equation in one-dimensieered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent f water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, BB, a 200 mK. In case 2), x-ray studies of isotopic phase separation in 3 He-- 4 He bcc solids were carried out by B. A. Fraass

  14. Experiments for post accident hydrogen dispersion in F.M. vault using helium

    Bajaj, S.S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Mishra, S.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain postulated accident scenarios involving a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simultaneous with impairment of Emergency Core Cooling (ECC), generation of hydrogen due to reaction between the zirconium clad and coolant is predicted in the coolant channel. The hydrogen generated in the coolant channels would eventually get released either in Fuelling Machine (FM) vault or in the pump room atmosphere depending on the location of the break. Analytical studies carried out so far to estimate the time dependent hydrogen concentration in the accident FM Vault consider the entire vault as a single volume. Tests were, therefore, planned to assess the mixing within the FM vault atmosphere with and without the availability of cooling fan units by releasing a known quantity of helium (instead of hydrogen) at selected locations and monitoring the relative concentration of helium in air at various locations. Test was conducted by releasing about 360 1 helium over a period of to 4 minutes at preselected locations and by measuring the relative concentration (leak rates indicated by helium leak detectors) at various locations in the FM vault. The results of cases with fans operating indicate repeatable and consistent trends of good mixing in the vault. For other cases (non turbulent, still condition) the results are sensitive to various factors including orientation of release. The former set of cases (turbulent. fans operating) are more relevant for postulated accident conditions. (author). 1 tab., 18 figs

  15. Helium refrigerator for 'SULTAN'

    Arpagaus, M.; Erlach, H.; Quack, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe the helium refrigerator designed for the SULTAN test facility. SULTAN (Supraleiter-Testanlage) is intended to serve for the developments and testing of high field superconducting magnets. These magnets are needed mainly for future applications in nuclear fusion. (Auth.)

  16. Developing models for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation rate.

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation rate. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive models can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical model developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation rate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop models for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation rate. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation rate and develop predictive models. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation rate has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop models for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these models, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different models were developed based on the types of hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. On the equivalence between the minimum entropy generation rate and the maximum conversion rate for a reactive system

    Bispo, Heleno; Silva, Nilton; Brito, Romildo; Manzi, João

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimum entropy generation (MEG) principle improved the reaction performance. • MEG rate and the maximum conversion equivalence have been analyzed. • Temperature and residence time are used to the domain establishment of MEG. • Satisfying the temperature and residence time relationship results a optimal performance. - Abstract: The analysis of the equivalence between the minimum entropy generation (MEG) rate and the maximum conversion rate for a reactive system is the main purpose of this paper. While being used as a strategy of optimization, the minimum entropy production was applied to the production of propylene glycol in a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) with a view to determining the best operating conditions, and under such conditions, a high conversion rate was found. The effects of the key variables and restrictions on the validity domain of MEG were investigated, which raises issues that are included within a broad discussion. The results from simulations indicate that from the chemical reaction standpoint a maximum conversion rate can be considered as equivalent to MEG. Such a result can be clearly explained by examining the classical Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, where the molecules of the reactive system under the condition of the MEG rate present a distribution of energy with reduced dispersion resulting in a better quality of collision between molecules with a higher conversion rate

  18. Atmospheric helium and geomagnetic field reversals.

    Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during geomagnetic field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.

  19. Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia.

    Mah, Chooi Mei; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Ho, Chin Siong

    2016-12-01

    Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m -2 , the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m -2 , and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m -2 . © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Estimation of construction and demolition waste using waste generation rates in Chennai, India.

    Ram, V G; Kalidindi, Satyanarayana N

    2017-06-01

    A large amount of construction and demolition waste is being generated owing to rapid urbanisation in Indian cities. A reliable estimate of construction and demolition waste generation is essential to create awareness about this stream of solid waste among the government bodies in India. However, the required data to estimate construction and demolition waste generation in India are unavailable or not explicitly documented. This study proposed an approach to estimate construction and demolition waste generation using waste generation rates and demonstrated it by estimating construction and demolition waste generation in Chennai city. The demolition waste generation rates of primary materials were determined through regression analysis using waste generation data from 45 case studies. Materials, such as wood, electrical wires, doors, windows and reinforcement steel, were found to be salvaged and sold on the secondary market. Concrete and masonry debris were dumped in either landfills or unauthorised places. The total quantity of construction and demolition debris generated in Chennai city in 2013 was estimated to be 1.14 million tonnes. The proportion of masonry debris was found to be 76% of the total quantity of demolition debris. Construction and demolition debris forms about 36% of the total solid waste generated in Chennai city. A gross underestimation of construction and demolition waste generation in some earlier studies in India has also been shown. The methodology proposed could be utilised by government bodies, policymakers and researchers to generate reliable estimates of construction and demolition waste in other developing countries facing similar challenges of limited data availability.

  1. System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst

    Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

    2014-12-30

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

  2. Measuring the linear heat generation rate of a nuclear reactor fuel pin

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    A miniature gamma thermometer is described which is capable of travelling through bores distributed in an array through a nuclear reactor core and measure the linear heat generation rate of the fuel pins. (U.K.)

  3. Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube

    Woehlbier, John G.; Dobson, Ian; Booske, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of a steady state multifrequency model of a traveling wave tube amplifier is exploited to describe the generation of intermodulation frequencies and calculate their growth rates. The model describes the evolution of Fourier coefficients of circuit and electron beam quantities and has the form of differential equations with quadratic nonlinearities. Intermodulation frequencies are sequentially generated by the quadratic nonlinearities in a series solution of the differential equations. A formula for maximum intermodulation growth rates is derived and compared to simulation results

  4. Estimation of shutdown heat generation rates in GHARR-1 due to ...

    Fission products decay power and residual fission power generated after shutdown of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) by reactivity insertion accident were estimated by solution of the decay and residual heat equations. A Matlab program code was developed to simulate the heat generation rates by fission product ...

  5. Helium effect on mechanical property of fusion reactor structural materials

    Yamamoto, Norikazu; Chuto, Toshinori; Murase, Yoshiharu; Nakagawa, Johsei

    2004-01-01

    High-energy neutrons produced in fusion reactor core caused helium in the structural materials of fusion reactors, such as blankets. We injected alpha particles accelerated by the cyclotron to the samples of martensite steel (9Cr3WVTaB). Equivalent helium doses injected to the sample is estimated to be up to 300 ppm, which were estimated to be equivalent to helium accumulation after the 1-year reactor operation. Creep tests of the samples were made to investigate helium embrittlement. There were no appreciable changes in the relation between the stresses and the rupture time, the minimum creep rate and the applied stress. Grain boundary effect by helium was not observed in ruptured surfaces. Fatigue tests were made for SUS304 samples, which contain helium up to 150 ppm. After 0.05 Hz cyclic stress tests, it was shown that the fatigue lifetime (cycles to rupture and extension to failure) are 1/5 in 150 ppm helium samples compared with no helium samples. The experimental results suggest martensite steel is promising for structural materials of fusion reactors. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Helium hammer in superfluid transfer

    Tward, E.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    Large transient pressure pulses, referred to as a helium hammer, which occurred in the transfer line of the main cryogenic tank during the development tests of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, launched on January 25, 1983, are analyzed, and the measures taken to prevent a failure described. The modifications include an installation of a 2.3-liter surge tank upstream, and a back-up relief valve downstream, of a burst disk. The surge tank is designed to attenuate a 0.33-MPa pressure pulse at the inlet down to 0.092 MPa at the outlet. A mechanism of the pulse generation is suggested, which involves flashing and rapid recondensation of the small amount of liquid entering the warm section of a transition to room temperature.

  7. Neutral helium beam probe

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  8. Antiprotonic helium atomcules

    Sauge Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available About 3% of antiprotons ( stopped in helium are long-lived with microsecond lifetimes, against picoseconds in all other materials. This unusual longevity has been ascribed to the trapping of on metastable bound states in He+ helium atom-molecules thus named atomcules. Apart from their unique dual structure investigated by laser spectroscopy – a near-circular quasi-classical Rydberg atom with l ~ n – 1 ~ 37 or a special diatomic molecule with a negatively charged nucleus in high rotational state with J = l – the chemical physics aspects of their interaction with other atoms or molecules constitute an interesting topic for molecular physics. While atomcules may resist to million collisions in helium, molecular contaminants such as H2 are likely to destroy them in a single one, down to very low temperatures. In the Born-Oppenheimer framework, we interpret the molecular interaction obtained by ab initio quantum chemical calculations in terms of classical reactive channels, with activation barriers accounting for the experiments carried out in He and H2. From classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the thermalization stage strongly quenches initial populations, thus reduced to a recovered 3 % trapping fraction. This work illustrates the pertinence of chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter. New insights into the physico-chemistry of cold interstellar radicals are anticipated.

  9. Generator replacement is associated with an increased rate of ICD lead alerts.

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Cruz, Cesar; Hoskins, Michael H; Jones, Paul; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel; DeLurgio, David B; Langberg, Jonathan J

    2014-10-01

    Lead malfunction is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). We have shown that the failure of recalled high-voltage leads significantly increases after ICD generator replacement. However, generator replacement has not been recognized as a predictor of lead failure in general. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of ICD generator exchange on the rate of ICD lead alerts. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze a database of remotely monitored ICDs. The model assessed the impact of generator exchange on the rate of lead alerts after ICD generator replacement. The analysis included 60,219 patients followed for 37 ± 19 months. The 5-year lead survival was 99.3% (95% confidence interval 99.2%-99.4%). Of 60,219 patients, 7458 patients (12.9%) underwent ICD generator exchange without lead replacement. After generator replacement, the rate of lead alerts was more than 5-fold higher than in controls with leads of the same age without generator replacement (hazard ratio 5.19; 95% confidence interval 3.45-7.84). A large number of lead alerted within 3 months of generator replacement. Lead alerts were more common in patients with single- vs dual-chamber ICDs and in younger patients. Sex was not associated with lead alerts. Routine generator replacement is associated with a 5-fold higher risk of lead alert compared to age-matched leads without generator replacement. This suggests the need for intense surveillance after generator replacement and the development of techniques to minimize the risk of lead damage during generator replacement. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    With fossil fuels running out and global energy demand increasing, the need for alternative energy sources is apparent. Nuclear fusion using Helium-3 may be a solution. Helium-3 is a rare isotope on Earth, but it is abundant on the Moon. Throughout the space community lunar Helium-3 is often cited as a major reason to return to the Moon. Despite the potential of lunar Helium-3 mining, little research has been conducted on a full end-to-end mission. This abstract presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by students from Delft University of Technology. The goal of the study was to assess whether a continuous end-to-end mission to mine Helium-3 on the Moon and return it to Earth is a viable option for the future energy market. The set requirements for the representative end-to-end mission were to provide 10% of the global energy demand in the year 2040. The mission elements have been selected with multiple trade-offs among both conservative and novel concepts. A mission architecture with multiple decoupled elements for each transportation segment (LEO, transfer, lunar surface) was found to be the best option. It was found that the most critical element is the lunar mining operation itself. To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. The required heating power, if mining both day and night, would add up to 39 GW. The resulting power system mass for the lunar operations would be in the order of 60,000 to 200,000 tons. A fleet of three lunar ascent/descent vehicles and 22 continuous-thrust vehicles for orbit transfer would be required. The costs of the mission elements have been spread out over expected lifetimes. The resulting profits from Helium

  11. A mechanical analysis of metallic tritide aging by helium bubble growth

    Montheillet, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines (SMS), CNRS UMR 5146 (PECM), 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: montheil@emse.fr; Delaplanche, D.; Fabre, A.; Munier, E.; Thiebaut, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-10-25

    A simple mechanical model is proposed for the aging of a metallic tritide. The material is assumed to be elastic-power law viscoplastic. Part of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay form spherical bubbles that weaken the elastic moduli of the overall material. By contrast, others can be stored in solid solution in the matrix and are likely to increase the moduli. Two variants of the model are compared, assuming either instantaneous or finite rate diffusion of helium. They predict globally similar evolutions of the gas pressure inside the bubbles, the geometrical parameters (bubble radius, overall swelling), as well as the matrix and overall elastic moduli. The results are in good agreement with atomistic calculations of the pressure evolution. Furthermore, recent experimental measurements of the Young modulus changes during aging are better reproduced when He diffusion rate is finite, thus supporting the second variant of the model.

  12. A mechanical analysis of metallic tritide aging by helium bubble growth

    Montheillet, F.; Delaplanche, D.; Fabre, A.; Munier, E.; Thiebaut, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple mechanical model is proposed for the aging of a metallic tritide. The material is assumed to be elastic-power law viscoplastic. Part of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay form spherical bubbles that weaken the elastic moduli of the overall material. By contrast, others can be stored in solid solution in the matrix and are likely to increase the moduli. Two variants of the model are compared, assuming either instantaneous or finite rate diffusion of helium. They predict globally similar evolutions of the gas pressure inside the bubbles, the geometrical parameters (bubble radius, overall swelling), as well as the matrix and overall elastic moduli. The results are in good agreement with atomistic calculations of the pressure evolution. Furthermore, recent experimental measurements of the Young modulus changes during aging are better reproduced when He diffusion rate is finite, thus supporting the second variant of the model

  13. Influence of the helium-pressure on diode-pumped alkali-vapor laser

    Gao, Fei; Chen, Fei; Xie, Ji-jiang; Zhang, Lai-ming; Li, Dian-jun; Yang, Gui-long; Guo, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Diode-pumped alkali-vapor laser (DPAL) is a kind of laser attracted much attention for its merits, such as high quantum efficiency, excellent beam quality, favorable thermal management, and potential scalability to high power and so on. Based on the rate-equation theory of end-pumped DPAL, the performances of DPAL using Cs-vapor collisionally broadened by helium are simulated and studied. With the increase of helium pressure, the numerical results show that: 1) the absorption line-width increases and the stimulated absorption cross-section decreases contrarily; 2) the threshold pumping power decreases to minimum and then rolls over to increase linearly; 3) the absorption efficiency rises to maximum initially due to enough large stimulated absorption cross-section in the far wings of collisionally broadened D2 transition (absorption transition), and then begins to reduce; 4) an optimal value of helium pressure exists to obtain the highest output power, leading to an optimal optical-optical efficiency. Furthermore, to generate the self-oscillation of laser, a critical value of helium pressure occurs when small-signal gain equals to the threshold gain.

  14. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state helium-4

    de Reuck, K M; McCarty, R D

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Helium-4 presents the IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables for the thermodynamic properties of helium. The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project has therefore encouraged the critical analysis of the available thermodynamic measurements for helium and their synthesis into tables. This book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the experimental results and compares with the equations used to generate the tables. These equations are supplemented by a vapor pressure equation, which represents the 1958 He-4 scale of temperature that is

  15. Use of helium in uranium exploration, Grants district

    DeVoto, R.H.; Mead, R.H.; Martin, J.P.; Bergquist, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous generation of inert helium gas from uranium and its daughter products provides a potentially useful means for remote detection of uranium deposits. The practicality of conducting helium surveys in the atmosphere, soil gas, and ground water to explore for buried uranium deposits has been tested in the Grants district and in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. No detectable helium anomalies related to buried or surface uranium deposits were found in the atmosphere. However, reproducible helium-in-soil-gas anomalies were detected spatially related to uranium deposits buried from 50 to 800 ft deep. Diurnal and atmospheric effects can cause helium content variations (noise) in soil gas that are as great as the anomalies observed from instantaneous soil-gas samples. Cumulative soil-gas helium analyses, such as those obtained from collecting undisturbed soil samples and degassing them in the laboratory, may reveal anomalies from 5 to 100 percent above background. Ground water samples from the Grants district, New Mexico, and the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, have distinctly anomalous helium values spatially related to buried uranium deposits. In the southern Powder River Basin, helium values 20 to 200 percent above background occur 2 to 18 mile down the ground-water flow path from known uranium roll-front deposits. In the Grants district, helium contents 40 to 700 percent above background levels are present in ground waters from the host sandstone in the vicinity of uranium deposits and from aquifers up to 3,000 ft stratigraphically above the deep uranium deposits. The use of helium in soil and ground-water surveys, along with uranium and radon analyses of the same materials, is strongly recommended is expensive, deep, uranium-exploration programs such as those being conducted in the Grants district

  16. Common cause failure rate estimates for diesel generators in nuclear power plants

    Steverson, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Common cause fault rates for diesel generators in nuclear power plants are estimated, using Licensee Event Reports for the years 1976 through 1978. The binomial failure rate method, used for obtaining the estimates, is briefly explained. Issues discussed include correct classification of common cause events, grouping of the events into homogeneous data subsets, and dealing with plant-to-plant variation

  17. An Architecturally Constrained Model of Random Number Generation and its Application to Modelling the Effect of Generation Rate

    Nicholas J. Sexton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Random number generation (RNG is a complex cognitive task for human subjects, requiring deliberative control to avoid production of habitual, stereotyped sequences. Under various manipulations (e.g., speeded responding, transcranial magnetic stimulation, or neurological damage the performance of human subjects deteriorates, as reflected in a number of qualitatively distinct, dissociable biases. For example, the intrusion of stereotyped behaviour (e.g., counting increases at faster rates of generation. Theoretical accounts of the task postulate that it requires the integrated operation of multiple, computationally heterogeneous cognitive control ('executive' processes. We present a computational model of RNG, within the framework of a novel, neuropsychologically-inspired cognitive architecture, ESPro. Manipulating the rate of sequence generation in the model reproduced a number of key effects observed in empirical studies, including increasing sequence stereotypy at faster rates. Within the model, this was due to time limitations on the interaction of supervisory control processes, namely, task setting, proposal of responses, monitoring, and response inhibition. The model thus supports the fractionation of executive function into multiple, computationally heterogeneous processes.

  18. Tritium and helium-3 in metals

    Lasser, R.

    1989-01-01

    The book surveys recent results on the behaviour of tritium and its decay product helium-3 metals. In contrast to many earlier books which discuss the properties of the stable hydrogen isotopes without mentioning tritium, this book reviews mainly the results on tritium in metals. Due to the difficulties in preparing metal tritide samples, very important quantities such as diffusivity, superconductivity, solubility, etc. have only been determined very recently. The book not only presents the measured tritium data, but also the isotopic dependency of the different physical properties by comparing H, D and T results. A chapter is devoted to helium-3 in metals. Aspects such as helium release, generation of helium bubbles, swelling, and change of the lattice parameter upon aging are discussed. The book provides the reader with up-to-date information and deep insight into the behaviour of H, D, T and He-3 in metals. Further important topics such a tritium production, its risks, handling and discharge to the environment are also addressed

  19. Surface electrons of helium films

    Studart, N.; Hipolito, O.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of some properties of two-dimensional electrons on a liquid helium film adsorbed on a solid substrate are reviewed. We describe the spectrum of electron bound states on bulk helium as well on helium films. The correlational properties, such as the structure factor and correlation energy, are determined as functions of the film thickness for different types of substrates in the framework of a Generalized Random-Phase Approximation. The collective excitations of this system are also described. The results for electrons on the surface of thin films and bulk helium are easily obtained. we examine the electron interaction with the excitations of the liquid helium surface resulting in a new polaron state, which was observed very recently. The ground state energy and the effective mass of this polaron are determined by using the path-integral formalism and unitary-transformation method. Recent speculations about the phase diagram of electrons on the helium film are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  20. High-temperature helium embrittlement (T>=0,45Tsub(M)) of metals

    Batfalsky, P.

    1984-06-01

    High temperature helium embrittlement, swelling and irradiation creep are the main technical problem of fusion reactor materials. The expected helium production will be very high. The helium produced by (n,α)-processes precipitates into helium bubbles because its solubility in solid metals is very low. Under continuous helium production at high temperature and stress the helium bubbles grow and lead to intergranular early failure. Solution annealed foil specimens of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 were implanted with α-particles: 1. during creep tests at 1023 K (''in-beam'' test) 2. before the creep tests at high temperature (1023 K). The creep tests have been performed within large ranges of test parameter, e.g. applied stress, temperature, helium implantation rate and helium concentration. After the creep tests the microstructure was investigated using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. All the helium implanted specimens showed high temperature helium embrittlement, i.e. reduction of rupture time tsub(R) and ductility epsilonsub(R) and evidence of intergranular brittle fracture. The ''in-beam'' creep tests showed greater reduction of rupture time tsub(R) and ductility than the preimplanted creep tests. The comparison of this experimentally obtained data with various theoretical models of high temperature helium embrittlement showed that within the investigated parameter ranges the mechanism controlling the life time of the samples is probably the gas driven stable growth of the helium bubbles within the grain boundaries. (orig.)

  1. Design and study of Engineering Test Facility - Helium Circulator

    Jiang Huijing; Ye Ping; Zhao Gang; Geng Yinan; Wang Jie

    2015-01-01

    Helium circulator is one of the key equipment of High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Pebble-bed Module (HTR-PM). In order to simulate most normal and accident operating conditions of helium circulator in HTR-PM, a full scale, rated flow rate and power, engineering test loop, which was called Engineering Test Facility - Helium Circulator (ETF-HC), was designed and established. Two prototypes of helium circulator, which was supported by Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) or sealed by dry gas seals, would be tested on ETF-HC. Therefore, special interchangeable design was under consideration. ETF-HC was constructed compactly, which consisted of eleven sub-systems. In order to reduce the flow resistance of the circuit, special ducts, elbows, valves and flowmeters were selected. Two stages of heat exchange loops were designed and a helium - high pressure pure water heat exchanger was applied to ensure water wouldn't be vaporized while simulating accident conditions. Commissioning tests were carried out and operation results showed that ETF-HC meets the requirement of helium circulator operation. On this test facility, different kinds of experiments were supposed to be held, including mechanical and aerodynamic performance tests, durability tests and so on. These tests would provide the features and performance of helium circulator and verify its feasibility, availability and reliability. (author)

  2. Canada's helium output rising fast

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  3. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  4. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  5. Conceptual design of helium experimental loop

    Yu Xingfu; Feng Kaiming

    2007-01-01

    In a future demonstration fusion power station (DEMO), helium is envisaged as coolant for plasma facing components, such as blanket and dive,or. All these components have a very complex geometry, with many parallel cooling channels, involving a complex helium flow distribution. Test blanket modules (TBM) of this concept will under go various tests in the experimental reactor ITER. For the qualification of TBM, it is indispensable to test mock-ups in a helium loop under realistic pressure and temperature profiles, in order to validate design codes, especially regarding mass flow and heat transition processes in narrow cooling channels. Similar testing must be performed for DEMO blanket, currently under development. A Helium Experimental Loop (HELOOP) is planed to be built for TBM tests. The design parameter of temperature, pressure, flow rate is 550 degree C, 10 MPa, l kg/s respectively. In particular, HELOOP is able to: perform full-scale tests of TBM under realistic conditions; test other components of the He-cooling system in ITER; qualify the purification circuit; obtain information for the design of the ITER cooling system. The main requirements and characteristics of the HELOOP facility and a preliminary conceptual design are described in the paper. (authors)

  6. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cherman, Aleksey, E-mail: bedaque@umd.edu, E-mail: evanb@umd.edu, E-mail: a.cherman@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-10

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  7. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  8. Generation of µW level plateau harmonics at high repetition rate.

    Hädrich, S; Krebs, M; Rothhardt, J; Carstens, H; Demmler, S; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2011-09-26

    The process of high harmonic generation allows for coherent transfer of infrared laser light to the extreme ultraviolet spectral range opening a variety of applications. The low conversion efficiency of this process calls for optimization or higher repetition rate intense ultrashort pulse lasers. Here we present state-of-the-art fiber laser systems for the generation of high harmonics up to 1 MHz repetition rate. We perform measurements of the average power with a calibrated spectrometer and achieved µW harmonics between 45 nm and 61 nm (H23-H17) at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. Additionally, we show the potential for few-cycle pulses at high average power and repetition rate that may enable water-window harmonics at unprecedented repetition rate. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    Shimada, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Merrill, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  10. Modeling Space-Time Dependent Helium Bubble Evolution in Tungsten Armor under IFE Conditions

    Qiyang Hu; Shahram Sharafat; Nasr Ghoniem

    2006-01-01

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is a coordinated effort to develop Laser Inertial Fusion Energy. The implosion of the D-T target produces a spectrum of neutrons, X-rays, and charged particles, which arrive at the first wall (FW) at different times within about 2.5 μs at a frequency of 5 to 10 Hz. Helium is one of several high-energy charged particle constituents impinging on the candidate tungsten armored low activation ferritic steel First Wall. The spread of the implanted debris and burn helium energies results in a unique space-time dependent implantation profile that spans about 10 μm in tungsten. Co-implantation of X-rays and other ions results in spatially dependent damage profiles and rapid space-time dependent temperature spikes and gradients. The rate of helium transport and helium bubble formation will vary significantly throughout the implanted region. Furthermore, helium will also be transported via the migration of helium bubbles and non-equilibrium helium-vacancy clusters. The HEROS code was developed at UCLA to model the spatial and time-dependent helium bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence, and migration under transient damage rates and transient temperature gradients. The HEROS code is based on kinetic rate theory, which includes clustering of helium and vacancies, helium mobility, helium-vacancy cluster stability, cavity nucleation and growth and other microstructural features such as interstitial loop evolution, grain boundaries, and precipitates. The HEROS code is based on space-time discretization of reaction-diffusion type equations to account for migration of mobile species between neighboring bins as single atoms, clusters, or bubbles. HAPL chamber FW implantation conditions are used to model helium bubble evolution in the implanted tungsten. Helium recycling rate predictions are compared with experimental results of helium ion implantation experiments. (author)

  11. Motor unit firing rate patterns during voluntary muscle force generation: a simulation study

    Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Muscle force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU) recruitment and changes in the discharge rate of active MUs. There have been two basic MU recruitment and firing rate paradigms reported in the literature, which describe the control of the MUs during force generation. The first (termed the reverse ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits lower firing rates for lower threshold units, with higher firing rates occurring in higher threshold units. The second (termed the ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits an inverse arrangement, with lower threshold units reaching higher firing rates. Approach. Using a simulation of the MU activity in a hand muscle, this study examined the force generation capacity and the variability of the muscle force magnitude at different excitation levels of the MU pool under these two different MU control paradigms. We sought to determine which rate/recruitment scheme was more efficient for force generation, and which scheme gave rise to the lowest force variability. Main results. We found that the force output of both firing patterns leads to graded force output at low excitation levels, and that the force generation capacity of the two different paradigms diverged around 50% excitation. In the reverse ‘onion skin’ pattern, at 100% excitation, the force output reached up to 88% of maximum force, whereas for the ‘onion skin’ pattern, the force output only reached up to 54% of maximum force at 100% excitation. The force variability was lower at the low to moderate force levels under the ‘onion skin’ paradigm than with the reverse ‘onion skin’ firing patterns, but this effect was reversed at high force levels. Significance. This study captures the influence of MU recruitment and firing rate organization on muscle force properties, and our results suggest that the different firing organizations can be beneficial at different levels of voluntary muscle force generation and perhaps for different tasks.

  12. Liquid helium cooling of the MFTF superconducting magnets

    VanSant, J.H.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1986-09-01

    During acceptance testing of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), we measured these tests: liquid helium heat loads and flow rates in selected magnets. We used the data from these tests to estimate helium vapor quality in the magnets so that we could determine if adequate conductor cooling conditions had occurred. We compared the measured quality and flow with estimates from a theoretical model developed for the MFTF magnets. The comparison is reasonably good, considering influences that can greatly affect these values. This paper describes the methods employed in making the measurements and developing the theoretical estimates. It also describes the helium system that maintained the magnets at required operating conditions

  13. New helium sniffing device for locating very fine leaks

    Murakami, Y.; Shimomura, Y.; Abe, T.; Obara, K.

    1984-01-01

    A new helium sniffing method for leak checking large vacuum vessels is described. The low sensitivity problem of the conventional helium sniffing method has been overcome by increasing the gas draw rate from around leaks into the detector up to about 0.1 Pa m 3 /s. The devised system consists of a flexible stainless steel capillary tube 0.6 mm i.d. and 10 m long, a sorption pump using molecular sieve, and a helium leak detector in series. This method is particularly useful for locating very fine leaks down to 10 -11 Pa m 3 /s. Relevant theoretical considerations and experimental results are presented

  14. A reciprocating liquid helium pump used for forced flow of supercritical helium

    Krafft, G.; Zahn, G.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a small double acting piston pump for circulating helium in a closed heat transfer loop is described. The pump was manufactured by LINDE AG, Munich, West Germany. The measured flow rate of supercritical helium was about 17 gs -1 (500 lhr -1 ) with a differential pressure of Δp = 0.5 x 10 5 Nm -2 at a working pressure of p = 6 x 10 5 Nm -2 . At differential pressures beyond 0.5 x 10 5 Nm -2 the volumetric efficiency decreases. (author)

  15. Orion A helium abundance

    Tsivilev, A.P.; Ershov, A.A.; Smirnov, G.T.; Sorochenko, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The 22.4-GHz (H,He)66-alpha and 36.5-GHz (H,He)56-alpha radio recombination lines have been observed at several Jaffe-Pankonin positions in the central part of the Orion A source. The measured relative abundance of ionized helium increases with distance, averaging 11.6 percent at peripheral points. The observed behavior is interpreted by a blister-type model nebula, which implies that Orion A has a true He abundance of 12 percent, is moving with a radial velocity of 5 km/sec, and is expanding. 18 references

  16. Simulation of liquid helium

    Ceperley, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    The author discusses simulation methods for quantum mechanical systems at finite temperatures. Recently it has been shown that static properties of some quantum systems can be obtained by simulation in a straightforward manner using path integrals, albeit with an order of magnitude more computing effort needed than for the corresponding classical systems. Some dynamical information can be gleaned from these simulations as will be discussed below. But this is very limited - there is no quantum version of the molecular dynamics method. The path integral method is illustrated by discussing the application to liquid helium. 12 refs., 8 figs

  17. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  18. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  19. A Comparison of the Predicted Tube Plugging Rate for Alloy 600HTMA Steam Generator

    Boo, Myung Hwan; Kang, Yong Seok [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    To manage components that are used in long term operations such as steam generation, it is important to know the tube plugging rate, which can cause the performance degradation. The life of components can be predicted by the method using determinism and probability theory. With a method using probability theory, damage prediction of tube is possible. In this study, damage prediction for steam generation (SG) tube is performed using Weibull distribution and predicted plugging rate (life) is compared with the simple sum plugging number and case by case (failure cause) plugging number

  20. NEUTRON GENERATOR FACILITY AT SFU: GEANT4 DOSE RATE PREDICTION AND VERIFICATION.

    Williams, J; Chester, A; Domingo, T; Rizwan, U; Starosta, K; Voss, P

    2016-11-01

    Detailed dose rate maps for a neutron generator facility at Simon Fraser University were produced via the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework. Predicted neutron dose rates throughout the facility were compared with radiation survey measurements made during the facility commissioning process. When accounting for thermal neutrons, the prediction and measurement agree within a factor of 2 or better in most survey locations, and within 10 % inside the vault housing the neutron generator. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Synchronous Generators Rated Speed’s Influence on Electromagnetic Stresses and on Costs

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the design of synchronous generators is very important to establish the values of their electromagnetic stresses. The specific literature recommends that these stress values are to be chosen from the curves obtained during experimental design, where the independent values are the polar pitch and the number of pole pairs. The authors of this work propose a method of finding the dependency between the electromagnetic stress and the synchronous generator rated speed to rapidly estimate the stresses in a given interval of rated speed values.

  2. Nonlinear radiative heat flux and heat source/sink on entropy generation minimization rate

    Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Waleed Ahmed; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Entropy generation minimization in nonlinear radiative mixed convective flow towards a variable thicked surface is addressed. Entropy generation for momentum and temperature is carried out. The source for this flow analysis is stretching velocity of sheet. Transformations are used to reduce system of partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Total entropy generation rate is determined. Series solutions for the zeroth and mth order deformation systems are computed. Domain of convergence for obtained solutions is identified. Velocity, temperature and concentration fields are plotted and interpreted. Entropy equation is studied through nonlinear mixed convection and radiative heat flux. Velocity and temperature gradients are discussed through graphs. Meaningful results are concluded in the final remarks.

  3. Growth process of helium bubbles in aluminium

    Shiraishi, Haruki; Sakairi, Hideo; Yagi, Eiichi; Karasawa, Takashi; Hashiguti, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The growth process of helium bubbles in α-particle bombarded pure aluminum during isothermal anneal ranging 200 to 645 0 C and 1 to 100 hr was observed by a transmission electron microscope and the possible growth mechanisms are discussed. The effects of helium concentration and cold work were investigated. The helium bubbles are detectable only at the anneal above 550 0 C in both annealed and cold worked samples. The cold work does not cause any extra coarsening trend of bubbles. The observed types of bubble distribution in the grain interior are divided into two categories, irrespective of helium concentration and cold work; (1) the fine and uniform bubble distribution, in which case the average size is limited to about 200 A or less in diameter even at the anneal just below the melting point, and (2) the coarsened and non-uniform bubble distribution ranging 500 to 4000 A in diameter. The intermediate size bubbles are scarcely found in any cases. In the above fine bubble distribution, the increase of helium concentration by a factor of two increases the density by the same factor of two, but does not change the mean size of bubbles. Corresponding to the above two characteristic bubble distributions, it is concluded that two different mechanisms are operative in this experiment; (1) the growth of bubbles by the Brownian motion, in which the growth rate of bubbles is decreased to almost zero by bubble faceting and this results in the bubble size constancy during the prolonged annealing, and (2) the growth of bubbles by the grain boundary sweep-out mechanism, by which the abrupt coarsening of bubbles is caused. The lack of existence of the intermediate size bubbles is explained in this way. (auth.)

  4. Ultralow temperature helium compressor for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. started the development of an ultralow temperature helium compressor for helium liquefaction in 1984 jointly with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and has delivered the first practical machine to the Superconductive Magnet Laboratory of JAERI. For a large superconductive magnet to be used in the stable state for a fusion reactor, conventional superconductive materials (NbTi, NbTi 3 Sn, etc.) must be used, being cooled forcibly with supercritical helium. The supercritical helium which is compressed above the critical pressure of 228 kPa has a stable cooling effect since the thermal conductivity does not change due to the evaporation of liquid helium. In order to maintain the temperature of the supercritical helium below 4 K before it enters a magnet, a heat exchanger is used. The compressor that IHI has developed has the ability to reduce the vapor pressure of liquid helium from atmospheric pressure to 50.7 kPa, and can attain the temperature of 3.5 K. The specification of this single stage centrifugal compressor is: mass flow rate 25 - 64 g/s, speed 80,000 rpm, adiabatic efficiency 62 - 69 %. The structure and the performance are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Helium production in reactor materials

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1975-02-01

    Comparisons of integral helium production measurements with predictions based on ENDF/B Version IV cross sections have been made. It is concluded that an ENDF/B helium production cross section file should be established in order to ensure a complete and consistent cross section evaluation to meet accuracies required for LMFBR, CTR, and LWR applications. (U.S.)

  6. A description of bubble growth and gas release of helium implanted tungsten

    Sharafat, S.; Hu, Q.; Ghoniem, N.; Tkahashi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Bubble growth and gas release during annealing of helium implanted tungsten is described using a Kinetic Monte Carlo approach. The implanted spatial profiles of stable bubble nuclei are first determined using the Kinetic Rate Theory based helium evolution code, HEROS. The effects of implantation energy, temperature, and bias forces, such as temperature- and stress gradients on bubble migration and coalescence are investigated to explain experimental gas release measurements. This comprehensive helium bubble evolution and release model, demonstrates the impact of near surface (< 1 um) versus deep helium implantation on bubble evolution. Near surface implanted helium bubbles readily attain large equilibrium sizes, while matrix bubbles remain small with high helium pressures. Using the computer simulation, the various stages of helium bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence, and migration are demonstrated and compared with available experimental results. (authors)

  7. Generator exchange is associated with an increased rate of Sprint Fidelis lead failure.

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Patel, Ayesha; Mengistu, Andenet; Hoskins, Michael; El-Chami, Mikhael; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel; DeLurgio, David; Langberg, Jonathan J

    2012-10-01

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis defibrillator lead is at an increased risk for failure and was recalled in October 2007. Approximately 268,000 leads were implanted, and more than 100,000 patients still have active Fidelis leads. A number of studies have examined the rate and clinical predictors of lead failure, but none has addressed the effect of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator exchange on subsequent lead failure. Although the manufacturer asserts that "Sprint Fidelis performance after device change-out is similar to lead performance without device change-out," published data are lacking. To assess the effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator exchange on the rate of Fidelis lead failure. A chart review was conducted in patients who underwent implantation of a Fidelis lead. Patients with a functioning Fidelis lead at generator exchange were compared with controls with leads implanted for a comparable amount of time not undergoing ICD replacement. A total of 1366 patients received a Fidelis lead prior to the recall, of which 479 were still actively followed. Seventy-two patients with a functioning lead underwent generator exchange without lead replacement. Following generator replacement, 15 leads failed. Sixty percent of the Fidelis leads failed within 3 months. Generator exchange increased the rate of lead failure compared with matched controls (20.8% vs 2.54%; P exchange is associated with a higher than expected rate of Fidelis lead failure, often within 3 months. The risk-benefit ratio of Fidelis lead replacement at the time of generator exchange may be greater than appreciated. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isothermal calorimeter for measurements of time-dependent heat generation rate in individual supercapacitor electrodes

    Munteshari, Obaidallah; Lau, Jonathan; Krishnan, Atindra; Dunn, Bruce; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Heat generation in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) may lead to temperature rise and reduce their lifetime and performance. This study aims to measure the time-dependent heat generation rate in individual carbon electrode of EDLCs under various charging conditions. First, the design, fabrication, and validation of an isothermal calorimeter are presented. The calorimeter consisted of two thermoelectric heat flux sensors connected to a data acquisition system, two identical and cold plates fed with a circulating coolant, and an electrochemical test section connected to a potentiostat/galvanostat system. The EDLC cells consisted of two identical activated carbon electrodes and a separator immersed in an electrolyte. Measurements were performed on three cells with different electrolytes under galvanostatic cycling for different current density and polarity. The measured time-averaged irreversible heat generation rate was in excellent agreement with predictions for Joule heating. The reversible heat generation rate in the positive electrode was exothermic during charging and endothermic during discharging. By contrast, the negative electrode featured both exothermic and endothermic heat generation during both charging and discharging. The results of this study can be used to validate existing thermal models, to develop thermal management strategies, and to gain insight into physicochemical phenomena taking place during operation.

  9. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  10. Experimental technique to measure thoron generation rate of building material samples using RAD7 detector

    Csige, I.; Szabó, Zs.; Szabó, Cs.

    2013-01-01

    Thoron ( 220 Rn) is the second most abundant radon isotope in our living environment. In some dwellings it is present in significant amount which calls for its identification and remediation. Indoor thoron originates mainly from building materials. In this work we have developed and tested an experimental technique to measure thoron generation rate in building material samples using RAD7 radon-thoron detector. The mathematical model of the measurement technique provides the thoron concentration response of RAD7 as a function of the sample thickness. For experimental validation of the technique an adobe building material sample was selected for measuring the thoron concentration at nineteen different sample thicknesses. Fitting the parameters of the model to the measurement results, both the generation rate and the diffusion length of thoron was estimated. We have also determined the optimal sample thickness for estimating the thoron generation rate from a single measurement. -- Highlights: • RAD7 is used for the determination of thoron generation rate (emanation). • The described model takes into account the thoron decay and attenuation. • The model describes well the experimental results. • A single point measurement method is offered at a determined sample thickness

  11. FABGEN, a transient power-generation and isotope birth rate calculator

    Roland, H.C.

    1975-04-01

    A description is given of the FABGEN program, a fast-running program for calculating fuel element power-generation rates and selected fission product birth rates in a known neutron flux as functions of time. A first forward difference calculation is used, and the time step is one day. Provisions are made for including various fuel element lengths, variation of thermal flux with time, and use of different fertile isotopes. Five different fission products may be specified for birth-rate calculations. A daily summary may be output, or totals by days may be accumulated for final output. (U.S.)

  12. Helium (24He, 23He) within deuterated Pd-black

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1997-01-01

    Authors have clearly proven for the first time that deuterium nuclear reaction was continuously generated inside a highly deuterated solid by showing both of the excess energy and corresponding amount of helium as the reaction product generated simultaneously. Whenever there is a nuclear fusion reaction inside a metal, helium generated is unable to escape to the surroundings and is trapped in a frozen state inside that metal. The concentration of the helium within the metal will rise with increasing rate of reactions. Pd-black is under such state as the sample used and sealed within the 'closed QMS' developed by the authors (closed vessel including the Getter pump and the QMS). It is completely separated from the surroundings and the internal gases are removed to create super-vacuum. The reaction product released by the 'Sample-Heating' process (room temp. ↔ 1500(degC)) is thus the only matter which occupies the interior of the closed vessel and its detection by the QMS is assured. When the 'closed QMS' works under the above mentioned-state, it was clarified that the 'ash' or the reaction product of this fusion reaction within a solid is 2 4 He and 2 3 He and their ratio is 2 4 He/ 2 3 He ≅ 4. It can be concluded from the result that the main reaction product is 2 4 He and it is created directly as an inherent feature of the solid-state nuclear fusion. Authors think that the reaction process responsible for the creation of 2 3 He may be a different one from that created 2 4 He. One of which is the Rutherford reaction process and the other occurs based on the specific properties of solid, similar to the case of 2 4 He. The existence of 1 3 T will be required that the process is responsible for the generation of 2 3 He as the Rutherford reaction. The proof for the existence of 1 3 T within the 'closed QMS', however, was not obtained in this experiments. (author)

  13. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Hillol Guha

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 microm) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 micro

  14. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  15. Photoionization of helium dimers

    Havermeier, Tilo

    2010-01-01

    The helium dimer is one of the most weakly bound systems in the universe. This makes it an interesting quantum mechanical object for investigation. These Van der Waals Clusters can be produced in an expansion of a cryogenic gas jet through a small nozzle into vacuum. In the present experiment we examine the interaction of He dimers with synchrotron radiation at an energy range from 64 to 78 eV. We observed different pathways leading to single ionization of both He atoms of the dimer compound. This two close standing ions begin now to dissociate in cause of their coulomb potential. All charged fragments were detected in coincidence with a COLTRIMS system. Especially Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD) and the two step process (TS1) were clearly identified. Furthermore a distribution of the internuclear distance was obtained from the measured Kinetic Energy Release (KER). (orig.)

  16. Exotic helium molecules

    Portier, M.

    2007-12-01

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 P 0 ) molecule, or a 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 ± 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime τ = (1.4 ± 0.3) μs is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  17. Development of helium transfer coupling of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Kosuge, Eiji; Gocho, Yoshitsugu; Okumura, Kagao; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi [JapaneseSuperconductivity Organization, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Umemoto, Katsuya; Aizawa, Kiyoshi; Yokoyama, Minoru; Takao, Satoru, E-mail: gocho@jso--new-scm.co.j [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    Research and development of 1 MW superconducting motor are being made aiming at the efficiency improvement for the podded type ship propulsion. The basic machine configuration is similar to steam turbine generators, having a rotating horizontal shaft. As for the motor composed of rotating superconducting field, one of the most critical issues is to provide a technically viable helium transfer coupling (HTC). The field winding of 1 MW motor is cooled with cryogenic helium gas. The HTC needs to supply the cryogenic helium gas with an appropriate flow rate from the stationary part to the rotating field winding region through a hollowed shaft in order not to lose superconducting state of the winding. A full size prototype of HTC was developed prior to the actual one to demonstrate its technical acceptability. The fundamental data with regard to the supply of the refrigerated helium gas were successfully obtained at the rated speed. This work has been supported by New Energy, and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  18. Studies on the effects of helium on the microstructural evolution of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti

    Doraiswamy, N.; Kestel, B.; Alexander, D.E. [Argonne National Labs., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The favorable physical and mechanical properties of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti (wt.%), when subjected to neutron irradiation, has lead to considerable attention being focused on it for use in fusion reactor structural applications. However, there is limited data on the effects of helium on physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. Understanding these effects are important since helium will be generated by direct {alpha}-injection or transmutation reactions in the fusion environment, typically at a rate of {approx}5 appm He/dpa. Helium has been shown to cause substantial embrittlement, even at room temperature in vanadium and its alloys. Recent simulations of the fusion environment using the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiments (DHCE) have also indicated that the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys are altered by the presence of helium in post irradiation tests performed at room temperature. While the strengths were lower, room temperature ductilities of the DHCE specimens were higher than those of non-DHCE specimens. These changes have been attributed to the formation of different types of hardening centers in these alloys due to He trapping. Independent thermal desorption experiments suggest that these hardening centers may be associated with helium-vacancy-X (where X = O, N, and C) complexes. These complexes are stable below 290{degrees}C and persist at room temperature. However, there has been no direct microstructural evidence correlating the complexes with irradiation effects. An examination of the irradiation induced microstructure in samples preimplanted with He to different levels would enable such a correlation.

  19. Modeling of helium effects in metals: High temperature embrittlement

    Trinkaus, H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of helium on swelling, creep rupture and fatigue properties of fusion reactor materials subjected to (n,α)-reactions and/or direct α-injection, are controlled by bubble formation. The understanding of such effects requires therefore the modeling of (1) diffusional reactions of He atoms with other defects; (2) nucleation and growth of He bubbles; (3) transformation of such bubbles into cavities under continuous He generation and irradiation or creep stress. The present paper is focussed on the modeling of the (coupled) high temperature bubble nucleation and growth processes within and on grain boundaries. Two limiting cases are considered: di-atomic nucleation described by the simplest possible sets of rate equations, and multi-atomic nucleation described by classical nucleation theory. Scaling laws are derived which characterize the dependence of the bubble densities upon time (He-dose), He generation rate and temperature. Comparison with experimental data of AISI 316 SS α-implanted at temperatures around 1000 K indicates bubble nucleation of the multi-atomic type. The nucleation and growth models are applied to creep tests performed during α-implantation suggesting that in these cases gas driven bubble growth is the life time controlling mechanism. The narrow (creep stress/He generation rate) range of this mechanism in a mechanism map constructed from these tests indicates that in many reactor situations the time to rupture is probably controlled by stress driven cavity growth rather than by gas driven bubble growth. (orig.)

  20. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  1. Quantitative study of the production rate of droplets in a T-junction microdroplet generator

    Fu, Hai; Zeng, Wen; Li, Songjing

    2017-12-01

    In a T-junction microdroplet generator, a mathematical model which can quantify the production rate of droplets is demonstrated. The experiments of droplet formation are performed for different geometries of the T-junction microchannels, and good agreements are shown between the predicted and the measured values of the droplet production rates. From both theoretical and experimental study, the production rate of droplets varies nonlinearly with the flow-rate ratio of the two phases during droplet formation, and by fixing the flow-rate ratio, the production rate of droplets is approximately a linear function of the flow rate of the fluids. In particular, the coefficients of the linear relation are only determined by the geometrical parameters of the T-junction microchannel. As a result, our model can be validated experimentally, and especially for a specific geometry of the T-junction, the production rate of droplets can be precisely predicted and controlled based on the flow rate of the fluids.

  2. Emission Rates of Multiple Air Pollutants Generated from Chinese Residential Cooking.

    Chen, Chen; Zhao, Yuejing; Zhao, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Household air pollution generated from cooking is severe, especially for Chinese-style cooking. We measured the emission rates of multiple air pollutants including fine particles (PM 2.5 ), ultrafine particles (UFPs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene) that were generated from typical Chinese cooking in a residential kitchen. The experiment was designed through five-factor and five-level orthogonal testing. The five key factors were cooking method, ingredient weight, type of meat, type of oil, and meat/vegetable ratio. The measured emission rates (mean value ± standard deviation) of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), benzene, and toluene were 2.056 ± 3.034 mg/min, 9.102 ± 6.909 × 10 12 #/min, 1.273 ± 0.736 mg/min, 1.349 ± 1.376 mg/min, 0.074 ± 0.039 mg/min, and 0.004 ± 0.004 mg/min. Cooking method was the most influencing factor for the emission rates of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, TVOCs, and benzene but not for toluene. Meanwhile, the emission rate of PM 2.5 was also significantly influenced by ingredient weight, type of meat, and meat/vegetable ratio. Exhausting the range hood decreased the emission rates by approximately 58%, with a corresponding air change rate of 21.38/h for the kitchen room.

  3. High voltage nanosecond generator with pulse repetition rate of 1,000 p.p.s.

    Gubanov, V P; Korovin, S D; Stepchenko, A S [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A compact high voltage nanosecond generator is described with a pulse repetition rate up to 1000 p.p.s. The generator includes a 30-Ohm coaxial forming line charged by a built-in Tesla transformer with a high coupling coefficient, and a high voltage (N{sub 2}) gas gap switch with gas blowing between the electrodes. The maximum forming line charge voltage is 450 kV, the pulse duration is about 4 ns, and its amplitude for a matched load is up to 200 kV. (author). 3 figs., 9 refs.

  4. Heat generation and cooling of SSC magnets at high ramp rates

    Snitchler, G.; Capone, D.; Kovachev, V.; Schermer, R.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will address a summary of AC loss calculations (SSCL), experimental results on cable samples (Westinghouse STC), short model magnets test results (FNAL, KEK-Japan), and recent full length magnets test data on AC losses and quench current ramp rate sensitivity (FNAL, BNL). Possible sources of the observed enhanced heat generation and quench sensitivity for some magnets will be discussed. A model for cooling conditions of magnet coils considering heat generation distribution and specific anisotropy of the heat transfer will be presented. The crossover contact resistance in cables and curing procedure influence on resistivity, currently under study, will be briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Electronic properties of physisorbed helium

    Kossler, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with electronic excitations of helium physisorbed on metal substrates. It is studied to what extent the electronic properties change compared to the gas phase due to the increased helium density and the proximity of the metal. Furthermore, the influence of different substrate materials is investigated systematically. To this end, up to two helium layers were adsorbed onto Ru (001), Pt (111), Cu (111), and Ag (111) surfaces in a custom-made cryostat. These samples were studied spectroscopically using synchrotron radiation and a time-of-flight detector. The experimental results were then analyzed in comparison with extensive theoretical model calculations.

  6. Electronic properties of physisorbed helium

    Kossler, Sarah

    2011-09-22

    This thesis deals with electronic excitations of helium physisorbed on metal substrates. It is studied to what extent the electronic properties change compared to the gas phase due to the increased helium density and the proximity of the metal. Furthermore, the influence of different substrate materials is investigated systematically. To this end, up to two helium layers were adsorbed onto Ru (001), Pt (111), Cu (111), and Ag (111) surfaces in a custom-made cryostat. These samples were studied spectroscopically using synchrotron radiation and a time-of-flight detector. The experimental results were then analyzed in comparison with extensive theoretical model calculations.

  7. Next generation leadership: a profile of self-rated competencies among administrative resident and fellows.

    Helfand, Brad; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2005-01-01

    Healthcare executives and program faculty have voiced concerns that early careerists lack needed competencies for future leadership in the increasingly complex healthcare industry. However, empirical studies of early careerists' competency levels are limited. We sought to describe administrative fellows' and residents' (n = 78, response rate 73.6%) self-rated competency in several key areas and assess how these ratings differed by individuals' gender, age, prior work experience, year of graduate training, and type of degree program. Respondents rated their competence particularly high (41.7% of respondents rated themselves "A") in the domain of interpersonal and emotional intelligence, which included being an effective team leader and member, coaching and developing others, self-awareness, and self-regulation. Lower ratings were in the domains of facilities management and in development and fundraising. Compared to males, females rated their competency in the financial skills domain lower (P-value = 0.04). Age, prior work experience, year of graduate training, and type of degree program were not significantly associated with self-rated competency in any area. These results provide early evidence that may help program faculty and preceptors consider pedagogical approaches that reflect students' vocalized needs and may help to design strategies that effectively cultivate next generation leadership.

  8. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration

    Leon de los Santos, G.

    2009-10-01

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  9. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  10. Isotopic tailoring with 59Ni to study the effect of helium on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Greenwood, L.R.; Stubbins, J.F.; Oliver, B.M.

    1992-03-01

    Tensile testing on three model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys removed from four discharges of the 59 Ni isotopic doping experiment in FFTF-MOTA indicates that helium/dpa ratios typical of fusion reactors do not produce changes in the yield strength or elongation that are significantly different from those at much lower helium generation rates. It also appears that tensile properties approach a saturation level that is dependent only on the final irradiation temperature, but not prior temperature history or thermomechanical starting condition. The saturation in mechanical properties reflects a similar saturation in microstructure that is independent of starting condition. The successful conduct of an isotopic doping experiment was found to require post-irradiation measurement of the helium levels in order to compensate for uncertainties in the cross sections for burn-out and burn-in of 59 Ni and for uncertainties in neutron flux and spectra in the vicinity of the edge of the core

  11. Are US utility standby rates inhibiting diffusion of customer-owned generating systems?

    Jackson, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    New, small-scale electric generation technologies permit utility customers to generate some of their own electric power and to utilize waste heat for space heating and other applications at the building site. This combined heat and power (CHP) characteristic can provide significant energy-cost savings. However, most current US utility regulations leave CHP standby rate specification largely to utility discretion resulting in claims by CHP advocates that excessive standby rates are significantly reducing CHP-related savings and inhibiting CHP diffusion. The impacts of standby rates on the adoption of CHP are difficult to determine; however, because of the characteristically slow nature of new technology diffusion. This study develops an agent-based microsimulation model of CHP technology choice using cellular automata to represent new technology information dispersion and knowledge acquisition. Applying the model as an n-factorial experiment quantifies the impacts of standby rates on CHP technologies under alternative diffusion paths. Analysis of a sample utility indicates that, regardless of the likely diffusion process, reducing standby rates to reflect the cost of serving a large number of small, spatially clustered CHP systems significantly increases the adoption of these technologies

  12. Dose rate on the environment generated by a gamma irradiation plant

    Mangussi, J.

    2011-01-01

    A model for the absorbed dose rate calculation on the surroundings of a gamma irradiation plant is developed. In such plants, a part of the radiation emitted upwards reach the outdoors. The Compton scatterings on the wall of the exhausting pipes through de plant roof and on the outdoors air are modelled. The absorbed dose rate generated by the scattered radiation reaching the outdoors floor is calculated. The results of the models, to be used for the irradiation plant design and for the environmental studies, are showed on tables and graphics. (author) [es

  13. Experimental method for investigating helium effects in irradiated vanadium

    Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.; Greenwood, L.; Loomis, B.

    1987-10-01

    Analyses have been performed which indicate that an effective method for experimentally investigating helium effects in neutron irradiated vanadium base alloys can be developed. The experimental procedure involves only modest modifications to existing procedures currently used for irradiation testing of vanadium-base alloys in the FFTF reactor. Helium is generated in the vanadium alloy by decay of tritium which is either preinjected or generated within the test capsule. Calculations indicate that nearly constant He/dpa ratios of desired magnitude can be attained by proper selection of experimental parameters. The proposed method could have a major impact on the development of vanadium base alloys for fusion reactor applications. 8 refs., 4 figs

  14. Operating Manual of Helium Refrigerator (Rev. 2)

    Song, K.M.; Son, S.H.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, M.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    A helium refrigerator was installed as a supplier of 20K cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system of WTRF pilot plant. The operating procedures of the helium refrigerator, helium compressor and auxiliary apparatus are described for the safety and efficient operation in this manual. The function of the helium refrigerator is to remove the impurities from the compressed helium of about 250psig, to cool down the helium from ambient temperature to 20K through the heat exchanger and expansion engine and to transfer the cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system. For the smoothly operation of helium refrigerator, the preparation, the start-up, the cool-down and the shut-down of the helium refrigerator are described in this operating manual. (author). 3 refs., 14 tabs.

  15. Helium cooling of fusion reactors

    Wong, C.P.C.; Baxi, C.; Bourque, R.; Dahms, C.; Inamati, S.; Ryder, R.; Sager, G.; Schleicher, R.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of worldwide design experience and in coordination with the evolution of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, the application of helium as a coolant for fusion appears to be at the verge of a transition from conceptual design to engineering development. This paper presents a review of the use of helium as the coolant for fusion reactor blanket and divertor designs. The concept of a high-pressure helium cooling radial plate design was studied for both ITER and PULSAR. These designs can resolve many engineering issues, and can help with reaching the goals of low activation and high performance designs. The combination of helium cooling, advanced low-activation materials, and gas turbine technology may permit high thermal efficiency and reduced costs, resulting in the environmental advantages and competitive economics required to make fusion a 21st century power source. ((orig.))

  16. Laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium

    Hori, M

    2005-01-01

    When antiprotons (i.e. the antimatter counterpart of protons) are stopped in helium gas, 97% of them annihilate within picoseconds by reacting with the helium nuclei; a 3% fraction, however, survive with an anomalously long lifetime of several microseconds. This longevity is due to the formation of antiprotonic helium, which is a three-body Rydberg atom composed of an antiproton, electron, and helium nucleus. The ASACUSA experimental collaboration has recently synthesized large numbers of these atoms using CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility, and measured the atom's transition frequencies to 60 parts per billion by laser spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental results with recent three-body QED calculations and the known antiproton cyclotron frequency, we were able to show that the antiproton mass and charge are the same as the corresponding proton values to a precision of 10 parts per billion. Ongoing and future series of experiments will further improve the experimental precision by using chirp-compe...

  17. High Accuracy Vector Helium Magnetometer

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed HAVHM instrument is a laser-pumped helium magnetometer with both triaxial vector and omnidirectional scalar measurement capabilities in a single...

  18. A 7.8 kV nanosecond pulse generator with a 500 Hz repetition rate

    Lin, M.; Liao, H.; Liu, M.; Zhu, G.; Yang, Z.; Shi, P.; Lu, Q.; Sun, X.

    2018-04-01

    Pseudospark switches are widely used in pulsed power applications. In this paper, we present the design and performance of a 500 Hz repetition rate high-voltage pulse generator to drive TDI-series pseudospark switches. A high-voltage pulse is produced by discharging an 8 μF capacitor through a primary windings of a setup isolation transformer using a single metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as a control switch. In addition, a self-break spark gap is used to steepen the pulse front. The pulse generator can deliver a high-voltage pulse with a peak trigger voltage of 7.8 kV, a peak trigger current of 63 A, a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~30 ns, and a rise time of 5 ns to the trigger pin of the pseudospark switch. During burst mode operation, the generator achieved up to a 500 Hz repetition rate. Meanwhile, we also provide an AC heater power circuit for heating a H2 reservoir. This pulse generator can be used in circuits with TDI-series pseudospark switches with either a grounded cathode or with a cathode electrically floating operation. The details of the circuits and their implementation are described in the paper.

  19. Dissipation in the superfluid helium film

    Turkington, R.R.; Harris-Lowe, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    We have measured the rate of energy dissipation in superfluid helium film flow in an attempt to test a recent theory due to Harris-Lowe, which predicts that for superfluid stream velocities v/sub s/ that just exceed the critical velocity v/sub c0/, the rate of dissipation is given by an equation of the form Q=C(v/sub s/-v/sub c0/)/sup 3/2/. Our experiments at 1.33 K show that the exponent, predicted to be 3/2, is 1.491 +- 0.021

  20. The neutron production rate measurement of an indigenously developed compact D-D neutron generator

    Das Basanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One electrostatic accelerator based compact neutron generator was developed. The deuterium ions generated by the ion source were accelerated by one accelerating gap after the extraction from the ion source and bombarded to a target. Two different types of targets, the drive - in titanium target and the deuteriated titanium target were used. The neutron generator was operated at the ion source discharge potential at +Ve 1 kV that generates the deuterium ion current of 200 mA at the target while accelerated through a negative potential of 80 kV in the vacuum at 1.3×10-2 Pa filled with deuterium gas. A comparative study for the neutron yield with both the targets was carried out. The neutron flux measurement was done by the bubble detectors purchased from Bubble Technology Industries. The number of bubbles formed in the detector is the direct measurement of the total energy deposited in the detector. By counting the number of bubbles the total dose was estimated. With the help of the ICRP-74 neutron flux to dose equivalent rate conversion factors and the solid angle covered by the detector, the total neutron flux was calculated. In this presentation the operation of the generator, neutron detection by bubble detector and estimation of neutron flux has been discussed.

  1. Hydrogen and helium shell burning during white dwarf accretion

    Cui, Xiao; Meng, Xiang-Cun; Han, Zhan-Wen

    2018-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) with masses close to the Chandrasekhar mass limit. How a CO WD accretes matter and grows in mass to this limit is not well understood, hindering our understanding of SN Ia explosions and the reliability of using SNe Ia as a cosmological distance indicator. In this work, we employed the stellar evolution code MESA to simulate the accretion process of hydrogen-rich material onto a 1.0 M ⊙ CO WD at a high rate (over the Eddington limit) of 4.3 × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1. The simulation demonstrates the characteristics of the double shell burning on top of the WD, with a hydrogen shell burning on top of a helium burning shell. The results show that helium shell burning is not steady (i.e. it flashes). Flashes from the helium shell are weaker than those in the case of accretion of helium-rich material onto a CO WD. The carbon to oxygen mass ratio resulting from the helium shell burning is higher than what was previously thought. Interestingly, the CO WD growing due to accretion has an outer part containing a small fraction of helium in addition to carbon and oxygen. The flashes become weaker and weaker as the accretion continues.

  2. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    Jackson Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope, mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue. We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation.

  3. Oxidation characteristics of the electron beam surface-treated Alloy 617 in high temperature helium environments

    Lee, Ho Jung; Sah, Injin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Hyunmyung; Jang, Changheui

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of the electron beam surface-treated Alloy 617, which has an Al-rich surface layer, were evaluated in high temperature helium environments. Isothermal oxidation tests were performed in helium (99.999% purity) and VHTR-helium (helium of prototypical VHTR chemistry containing impurities like CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 ) environments at 900 °C for up to 1000 h. The surface-treated Alloy 617 showed an initial transient oxidation stage followed by the steady-state oxidation in all test environments. In addition, the steady-state oxidation kinetics of the surface-treated Alloy 617 was 2-order of magnitude lower than that of the as-received Alloy 617 in both helium environments as well as in air. The improvement in oxidation resistance was primarily due to the formation of the protective Al 2 O 3 layer on the surface. The weight gain was larger in the order of air, helium, and VHTR-helium, while the parabolic rate constants (k p ) at steady-state were similar for all test environments. In both helium environments, the oxide structure consisted of the outer transition Al 2 O 3 with a small amount of Cr 2 O 3 and inner columnar structured Al 2 O 3 without an internal oxide. In the VHTR-helium environment, where the impurities were added to helium, the initial transient oxidation increased but the steady state kinetics was not affected

  4. A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten

    Sharafat, Shahram; Takahashi, Akiyuki; Nagasawa, Koji; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2009-01-01

    Low energy (<100 keV) helium implantation of tungsten has been shown to result in the formation of unusual surface morphologies over a large temperature range (700-2100 deg. C). Simulation of these macroscopic phenomena requires a multiscale approach to modeling helium transport in both space and time. We present here a multiscale helium transport model by coupling spatially-resolved kinetic rate theory (KRT) with kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation to model helium bubble nucleation and growth. The KRT-based HEROS Code establishes defect concentrations as well as stable helium bubble nuclei as a function of implantation parameters and position from the implanted surface and the KMC-based Mc-HEROS Code models the growth of helium bubbles due to migration and coalescence. Temperature- and stress-gradients can act as driving forces, resulting in biased bubble migration. The Mc-HEROS Code was modified to simulate the impact of stress gradients on bubble migration and coalescence. In this work, we report on bubble growth and gas release of helium implanted tungsten W/O stress gradients. First, surface pore densities and size distributions are compared with available experimental results for stress-free helium implantation conditions. Next, the impact of stress gradients on helium bubble evolution is simulated. The influence of stress fields on bubble and surface pore evolution are compared with stress-free simulations. It is shown that near surface stress gradients accelerate helium bubbles towards the free surface, but do not increasing average bubble diameters significantly.

  5. The early history of high-temperature helium gas-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Simnad, M.T.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA

    1991-01-01

    The original concepts in the proposals for high-temperature helium gas-cooled power reactors by Farrington Daniels, during the decade 1944-1955, are summarized. The early research on the development of the helium gas-cooled power reactors is reviewed, and the operational experiences with the first generation of HTGRs are discussed. (author)

  6. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  7. Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization of m-hydroxybenzoic acid and o-aminobenzoic acid

    He, Guangwen; Wong, Annie B. H.; Chow, Pui Shan; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization have been investigated through evaporation and cooling crystallization experiments of m-hydroxybenzoic acid (m-HBA) in methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate, and o-aminobenzoic acid (o-ABA) in ethanol. The rate of supersaturation generation has been altered by systematically changing either the cooling rate or the evaporation rate of solvent using a jacketed crystallizer and a microfluidic evaporation device, respectively. The results have revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation and the tendency of the formation of the less stable polymorph are positively correlated. Kinetic effects are dominant when the rate of supersaturation generation is high, thereby producing the metastable polymorphs (orthorhombic m-HBA; Form II of o-ABA); on the contrary, more stable polymorphs (monoclinic m-HBA; Forms III and I of o-ABA) are formed when the rate of supersaturation generation is low and the thermodynamic effects are prevailing.

  8. Recombination of positive helium ions in gaseous helium

    Shyu, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Wigner-Keck Monte Carlo trajectory method and the resonance complex theory are employed to calculate the rate coefficient k for H e + ions recombining in gaseous helium in the temperature range 80 2 + is obtained from a Morse potential and a long range ion-induced dipole interaction term. The three body He 3 + interaction is represented by an approximate expression which, for practical purpose, depends on the same parameters that determine the two body interaction. Russell had employed the Wigner-Keck Monte Carlo trajectory method to the same reaction. Unlike his calculation, in which the final quasibound states are treated as continuous, we apply the JWKB approximation to quantize those quasibound states. Both the values of k, calculated from two different quasibound state treatments, are found to be very close and give good agreement with experimental results obtained by Biondi, although they are still 10% to 20% lower than the experimental results. The resonance complex theory, developed by Roberts et al, is then employed to investigated de-excitation from the highest quasibound state, which can be populated by inward tunneling through the rotational (centrifugal) barrier. It is found that this strongly supports a suggestion proposed by Russell. He had suggested that the remaining difference between the Wigner-Keck method and experiment might be largely due to the formation of highly excited quasibound states. The statistical errors of the rate constants, which is the sun of results obtained from both methods, are kept less then 5% by running 2500 trajectories in the first method and 500 in the second

  9. Cryogenic filter method produces super-pure helium and helium isotopes

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1964-01-01

    Helium is purified when cooled in a low pressure environment until it becomes superfluid. The liquid helium is then filtered through iron oxide particles. Heating, cooling and filtering processes continue until the purified liquid helium is heated to a gas.

  10. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus (HGRMA) described in this document utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants, and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification testing. These

  11. Zircaloy-oxidation and hydrogen-generation rates in degraded-core accident situations

    Chung, H.M.; Thomas, G.R.

    1983-02-01

    Oxidation of Zircaloy cladding is the primary source of hydrogen generated during a degraded-core accident. In this paper, reported Zircaloy oxidation rates, either measured at 1500 to 1850 0 C or extrapolated from the low-temperature data obtained at 0 C, are critically reviewed with respect to their applicability to a degraded-core accident situation in which the high-temperature fuel cladding is likely to be exposed to and oxidized in mixtures of hydrogen and depleted steam, rather than in an unlimited flux of pure steam. New results of Zircaloy oxidation measurements in various mixtures of hydrogen and steam are reported for >1500 0 C. The results show significantly smaller oxidation and, hence, hydrogen-generation rates in the mixture, compared with those obtained in pure steam. It is also shown that a significant fraction of hydrogen, generated as a result of Zircaloy oxidation, is dissolved in the cladding material itself, which prevents that portion of hydrogen from reaching the containment building space. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to a more realistic method of quantifying the hydrogen source term for a degraded-core accident analysis

  12. Investigation of thermolytic hydrogen generation rate of tank farm simulated and actual waste

    Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-15

    To support resolution of Potential Inadequacies in the Safety Analysis for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm, Savannah River National Laboratory conducted research to determine the thermolytic hydrogen generation rate (HGR) with simulated and actual waste. Gas chromatography methods were developed and used with air-purged flow systems to quantify hydrogen generation from heated simulated and actual waste at rates applicable to the Tank Farm Documented Safety Analysis (DSA). Initial simulant tests with a simple salt solution plus sodium glycolate demonstrated the behavior of the test apparatus by replicating known HGR kinetics. Additional simulant tests with the simple salt solution excluding organics apart from contaminants provided measurement of the detection and quantification limits for the apparatus with respect to hydrogen generation. Testing included a measurement of HGR on actual SRS tank waste from Tank 38. A final series of measurements examined HGR for a simulant with the most common SRS Tank Farm organics at temperatures up to 140 °C. The following conclusions result from this testing.

  13. Coupling a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle to a Helium-Cooled Reactor.

    Middleton, Bobby [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the thermodynamics of a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) recompression closed Brayton cycle (RCBC) coupled to a Helium-cooled nuclear reactor. The baseline reactor design for the study is the AREVA High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Using the AREVA HTGR nominal operating parameters, an initial thermodynamic study was performed using Sandia's deterministic RCBC analysis program. Utilizing the output of the RCBC thermodynamic analysis, preliminary values of reactor power and of Helium flow rate through the reactor were calculated in Sandia's HelCO2 code. Some research regarding materials requirements was then conducted to determine aspects of corrosion related to both Helium and to sCO2 , as well as some mechanical considerations for pressures and temperatures that will be seen by the piping and other components. This analysis resulted in a list of materials-related research items that need to be conducted in the future. A short assessment of dry heat rejection advantages of sCO2> Brayton cycles was also included. This assessment lists some items that should be investigated in the future to better understand how sCO2 Brayton cycles and nuclear can maximally contribute to optimizing the water efficiency of carbon free power generation

  14. Loss of Excitation Detection in Doubly Fed Induction Generator by Voltage and Reactive Power Rate

    M. J. Abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is one of the most popular technologies used in wind power systems. With the growing use of DFIGs and increasing power system dependence on them in recent years, protecting of these generators against internal faults is more considered. Loss of excitation (LOE event is among the most frequent failures in electric generators. However, LOE detection studies heretofore were usually confined to synchronous generators. Common LOE detection methods are based on impedance trajectory which makes the system slow and also prone to interpret a stable power swing (SPS as a LOE fault. This paper suggests a new method to detect the LOE based on the measured variables from the DFIG terminal. In this combined method for LOE detection, the rate of change of both the terminal voltage and the output reactive power are utilized and for SPS detection, the fast Fourier transform (FFT analysis of the output instantaneous active power has been used. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using Matlab/Simulink interface for various power capacities and operating conditions. The results proved the method's quickness, simplicity and security.

  15. Temperature modulates dengue virus epidemic growth rates through its effects on reproduction numbers and generation intervals.

    Siraj, A. S.; Oidtman, R. J.; Huber, J. H.; Kraemer, M. U.; Brady, O. J.; Johansson, M. A.; Perkins, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Epidemic growth rate, r, provides a more complete description of the potential for epidemics than the more commonly studied basic reproduction number, R0, yet the former has never been described as a function of temperature for dengue virus or other pathogens with temperature-sensitive transmission. The need to understand the drivers of epidemics of these pathogens is acute, with arthropod-borne virus epidemics becoming increasingly problematic. We addressed this need by developing temperature-dependent descriptions of the two components of r—R0 and the generation interval—to obtain a temperature-dependent description of r. Our results show that the generation interval is highly sensitive to temperature, decreasing twofold between 25 and 35 °C and suggesting that dengue virus epidemics may accelerate as temperatures increase, not only because of more infections per generation but also because of faster generations. Under the empirical temperature relationships that we considered, we found that r peaked at a temperature threshold that was robust to uncertainty in model parameters that do not depend on temperature. Although the precise value of this temperature threshold could be refined following future studies of empirical temperature relationships, the framework we present for identifying such temperature thresholds offers a new way to classify regions in which dengue virus epidemic intensity could either increase or decrease under future climate change.

  16. Building a better methane generation model: Validating models with methane recovery rates from 35 Canadian landfills.

    Thompson, Shirley; Sawyer, Jennifer; Bonam, Rathan; Valdivia, J E

    2009-07-01

    The German EPER, TNO, Belgium, LandGEM, and Scholl Canyon models for estimating methane production were compared to methane recovery rates for 35 Canadian landfills, assuming that 20% of emissions were not recovered. Two different fractions of degradable organic carbon (DOC(f)) were applied in all models. Most models performed better when the DOC(f) was 0.5 compared to 0.77. The Belgium, Scholl Canyon, and LandGEM version 2.01 models produced the best results of the existing models with respective mean absolute errors compared to methane generation rates (recovery rates + 20%) of 91%, 71%, and 89% at 0.50 DOC(f) and 171%, 115%, and 81% at 0.77 DOC(f). The Scholl Canyon model typically overestimated methane recovery rates and the LandGEM version 2.01 model, which modifies the Scholl Canyon model by dividing waste by 10, consistently underestimated methane recovery rates; this comparison suggested that modifying the divisor for waste in the Scholl Canyon model between one and ten could improve its accuracy. At 0.50 DOC(f) and 0.77 DOC(f) the modified model had the lowest absolute mean error when divided by 1.5 yielding 63 +/- 45% and 2.3 yielding 57 +/- 47%, respectively. These modified models reduced error and variability substantially and both have a strong correlation of r = 0.92.

  17. Generation time, life history and the substitution rate of neutral mutations.

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Lanfear, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of molecular evolution is hampered by a lack of quantitative predictions about how life-history (LH) traits should correlate with substitution rates. Comparative studies have shown that neutral substitution rates vary substantially between species, and evidence shows that much of this diversity is associated with variation in LH traits. However, while these studies often agree, some unexplained and contradictory results have emerged. Explaining these results is difficult without a clear theoretical understanding of the problem. In this study, we derive predictions for the relationships between LH traits and substitution rates in iteroparous species by using demographic theory to relate commonly measured life-history traits to genetic generation time, and by implication to neutral substitution rates. This provides some surprisingly simple explanations for otherwise confusing patterns, such as the association between fecundity and substitution rates. The same framework can be applied to more complex life histories if full life-tables are available. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. A Social Discount Rate for Climate Damage to Future Generations Based on Regulatory Law

    Davidson, M.D. [Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    This article examines the implications for the social discount rate for damage due to climate change if risk to future generations is handled in accordance with the laws regulating our handling of risk to contemporaries. The conclusions are the following. Under current law, neither geographic distance nor differences in wealth between risk creator and risk bearer play any part in establishing a standard of 'reasonable care'. The concept of intergenerational justice requires these same principles to be applied in the intergenerational context too, implying a zero consumption rate of interest for climate damage. Assuming that the extent to which mitigation is at the expense of alternative investments is equal to society's marginal propensity to save, the social discount rate becomes society's marginal propensity to save times the long-term market rate of return on private investment, implying a social discount rate of around one per cent or a fraction of one per cent. This formula is exact under the assumption of average saving behaviour and by attributing consumption losses due to investment in damage prevention before damage occurs to the risk creator and after damage occurs to the risk bearer.

  19. Helium 3 precipitation in AISI 316L stainless steel induced by radioactive decay of tritium: Microstructural study of helium bubble precipitation

    Brass, A.M.; Chene, J.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the thermonuclear technology has given rise to a renewed interest in the study of the behavior of helium in metals. A great amount of work is still required for the understanding of the role of helium on the mechanical properties of structural materials for fusion technology, especially austenitic stainless steels. This article deals with the study of the influence of thermomechanical heat treatments, aging conditions (temperature and time), and helium concentration of helium bubble precipitation in a 316L austenitic steel. Helium was generated by the radioactive decay of tritium (tritium trick). Helium bubbles impede the grain growth in 316L steel aged at 1,373 K and also the recrystallization reaction at this temperature if cold working is performed prior to aging. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicated a weak helium precipitation at 1,073 and 1,223 K, presumably due to the presence of trapping sites for tritium, and no bubble growth after aging up to 100 hours. Precipitation sites are mainly dislocations in the matrix at 1,073 K and grain boundaries and individual dislocations in the matrix at 1,223 K. The large bubble size (50 nm) observed at 1,373 K, even for short aging times (0.083), can partly be attributed to bubble dragging by dislocations toward the grain boundaries. Cold deformation prior to aging leads to a larger bubble size due to growth enhancement during recrystallization. Decreasing the helium content leads to a smaller helium bubble size and density. Tritium trapping at helium bubbles may favor helium 3 accumulation on defects such as grain boundaries, as observed by tritium autoradiography

  20. Generalized Rate Theory for Void and Bubble Swelling and its Application to Delta-Plutonium

    Allen, P. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wall, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolfer, W. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-04

    A rate theory for void and bubble swelling is derived that allows both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms to be generated by thermal activation at all sinks. In addition, they can also be produced by displacement damage from external and internal radiation. This generalized rate theory (GRT) is applied to swelling of gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium in which α-decay causes the displacement damage. Since the helium atoms produced also become trapped in vacancies, a distinction is made between empty and occupied vacancies. The growth of helium bubbles observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in weapons-grade and in material enriched with Pu238 is analyzed, using different values for the formation energy of self-interstitial atoms (SIA) and two different sets of relaxation volumes for the vacancy and for the SIA. One set allows preferential capture of SIA at dislocations, while the other set gives equal preference to both vacancy and SIA. It is found that the helium bubble diameters observed are in better agreement with GRT predictions if no preferential capture occurs at dislocations. Therefore, helium bubbles in δ-plutonium will not evolve into voids. The helium density within the bubbles remains sufficiently high to cause thermal emission of SIA. Based on a helium density between two to three helium atoms per vacant site, the sum of formation and migration energies must be around 2.0 eV for SIA in δ-plutonium.

  1. Helium transport and exhaust studies in enhanced confinement regimes in DIII-D

    Wade, M.R.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; West, W.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    A better understanding of helium transport in the plasma core and edge in enhanced confinement regimes is now emerging from recent experimental studies on DIII-D. Overall, the results are encouraging. Significant helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E ∼ 11) has been obtained in a diverted, ELMing H-mode plasma simultaneous with a central source of helium. Detailed analysis of the helium profile evolution indicates that the exhaust rate is limited by the exhaust efficiency of the pump (∼5%) and not by the intrinsic helium transport properties of the plasma. Perturbative helium transport studies using gas puffing have shown that D He /X eff ∼1 in all confinement regimes studied to date (including H-mode and VH-mode). Furthermore, there is no evidence of preferential accumulation of helium in any of these regimes. However, measurements in the core and pumping plenum show a significant dilution of helium as it flows from the plasma core to the pumping plenum. Such dilution could be the limiting factor in the overall removal rate of helium in a reactor system

  2. The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance Evaluation and Man Rating

    1983-08-01

    OXYGEN GENERATING , YSTEM: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MAN RATING Thomas C. Horch , Captain, USAF Richard L. Miller, Ph.D. John B. Bomar, Jr...C. Horch , Capt, USAF; R. L. Miller, 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(i) Ph.D.; J. B. Bomar, Jr., Lt Col, IJSAF, BSC; J. B. Tedor, Maj, USAF, BSC; R. D...limitation (as of 1983); however, the information may no longer need protection since it is 14 years. At the time of its publication, Capt Thomas Horch

  3. VAMCIS, a new measuring channel for continuous monitoring of leak rates inside PWR steam generators

    Champion, G.; Dubail, A.; Lefevre, F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the primary to secondary leakage, radioactive isotopes, formed in the primary coolant as a result of fission or neutron capture, are usually monitored in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary coolant. Conventional methods mainly based on the detection of 133 Xe, tritium, and 41 Ar are widely used on French Electricite de France (EdF) PWRs. Some years ago, it appeared necessary to improve both leak rate assessments and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) detection. A volumetric activity measuring channel inside steam (VAMCIS) has been developed for this purpose. The SGTR that occurred at the North Anna PWR has focused the attention of safety authorities on this new measuring channel. It is planned to implement VAMCIS at North Anna in order to check the leak rate variations more accurately

  4. Operational and Strategic Implementation of Dynamic Line Rating for Optimized Wind Energy Generation Integration

    Gentle, Jake Paul

    2016-01-01

    One primary goal of rendering today's transmission grid 'smarter' is to optimize and better manage its power transfer capacity in real time. Power transfer capacity is affected by three main elements: stability, voltage limits, and thermal ratings. All three are critical, but thermal ratings represent the greatest opportunity to quickly, reliably and economically utilize the grid's true capacity. With the 'Smarter Grid', new solutions have been sought to give operators a better grasp on real time conditions, allowing them to manage and extend the usefulness of existing transmission infrastructure in a safe and reliable manner. The objective of the INL Wind Program is to provide industry a Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) solution that is state of the art as measured by cost, accuracy and dependability, to enable human operators to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions without human or system overloading and impacting the reliability of the grid. In addition to mitigating transmission line congestion to better integrate wind, DLR also offers the opportunity to improve the grid with optimized utilization of transmission lines to relieve congestion in general. As wind-generated energy has become a bigger part of the nation's energy portfolio, researchers have learned that wind not only turns turbine blades to generate electricity, but can cool transmission lines and increase transfer capabilities significantly, sometimes up to 60 percent. INL's DLR development supports EERE and The Wind Energy Technology Office's goals by informing system planners and grid operators of available transmission capacity, beyond typical Static Line Ratings (SLR). SLRs are based on a fixed set of conservative environmental conditions to establish a limit on the amount of current lines can safely carry without overheating. Using commercially available weather monitors mounted on industry informed custom brackets developed by INL in combination with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD

  5. Generation of plasma X-ray sources via high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    Baguckis, Artūras; Plukis, Artūras; Reklaitis, Jonas; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Giniūnas, Linas; Vengris, Mikas

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present the development and characterization of Cu plasma X-ray source driven by 20 W average power high repetition rate femtosecond laser in ambient atmosphere environment. The peak Cu- Kα photon flux of 2.3 × 109 photons/s into full solid angle is demonstrated (with a process conversion efficiency of 10-7), using pulses with peak intensity of 4.65 × 1014 W/cm2. Such Cu- Kα flux is significantly larger than others found in comparable experiments, performed in air environment. The effects of resonance plasma absorption process, when optimized, are shown to increase measured flux by the factor of 2-3. The relationship between X-ray photon flux and plasma-driving pulse repetition rate is quasi-linear, suggesting that fluxes could further be increased to 1010 photons/s using even higher average powers of driving radiation. These results suggest that to fully utilize the potential of high repetition rate laser sources, novel target material delivery systems (for example, jet-based ones) are required. On the other hand, this study demonstrates that high energy lasers currently used for plasma X-ray sources can be conveniently and efficiently replaced by high average power and repetition rate laser radiation, as a way to increase the brightness of the generated X-rays.

  6. ELECTRON ENERGY DECAY IN HELIUM AFTERGLOW PLASMAS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    Goldan, P. D.; Cahn, J. H.; Goldstein, L.

    1963-10-15

    Studies of decaying afterglow plasmas in helium were ined near 4 deg K by immersion in a liquid helium bath. By means of a Maser Radiometer System, the electron temperature was followed below 200 deg K. Guided microwave propagation and wave interaction techniques premit determination of election number density and collision frequencies for momentum transfer. Electron temperature decay rates of the order of 150 mu sec/p(mm Hg alpha 4.2 deg K) were found. Since thermal relaxation by elastic collisions should be some two orders of magnitude faster than this, the electrons appear to be in quasiequilibrium with a slowly decaying internal heating source. Correlation of the expected decay rates of singlet metastable helium atoms with the electron temperature decay gives good agreement with the present experiment. (auth)

  7. 78 FR 28835 - Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1271-000] Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Salton Sea Power Generation Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  8. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaskyla, Finland. An open Ra-223 alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium.

  9. Helium Leak Test for the PLS Storage Ring Chamber

    Choi, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    The storage ring vacuum system for the Pohang Light Source (PLS) has been designed to maintain the vacuum pressure of 10 1 0 Torr which requires UHV welding to have helium leak rate less than 1x10 1 0 Torr·L/sec. In order to develop new technique (PLS) welding technique), a prototype vacuum chamber has been welded by using Tungsten Inert Gas welding method and all the welded joints have been tested with a non-destructive method, so called helium leak detection, to investigate the vacuum tightness of the weld joints. The test was performed with a detection limit of 1x10 1 0 Torr·L/sec for helium and no detectable leaks were found for all the welded joints. Thus the performance of welding technique is proven to meet the criteria of helium leak rate required in the PLS Storage Ring. Both the principle and the procedure for the helium leak detection are also discussed

  10. Helium bubble formation and retention in Cu-Nb nanocomposites

    Dunn, A.Y.; McPhie, M.G.; Capolungo, L.; Martinez, E; Cherkaoui, M.

    2013-01-01

    A spatially dependent rate theory model for helium migration, clustering, and trapping on interfaces between Cu and Nb layers is introduced to predict the evolution of the concentrations of He clusters of various sizes during implantation and early annealing. Migration and binding energies of point defects and small clusters in bulk Cu and Nb are found using conjugate gradient minimization and the nudged elastic band method. The model is implemented in a three-dimensional framework and used to predict the relationship between helium bubble formation and the nano-composite microstructure, including interfacial free volume, grain size, and layer thickness. Interstitial and vacancy-like migration of helium is considered. The effects of changing layer thickness and interfacial misfit dislocation density on the threshold for helium bubble nucleation are found to match experiments. Accelerated helium release due to interfaces and grain boundaries is shown to occur only when diffusion rates on interfaces and grain boundaries are greatly increased relative to the bulk material.

  11. Kinetics of the excited muonic hydrogen in the mixtures of hydrogen isotopes in helium

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Kravtsov, A.V.; Popov, N.P.

    1989-01-01

    De-excitation of the excited muonic hydrogen in the mixture of hydrogen isotopes and helium is considered. The method is proposed which allows one to determine the rates of the muon transfer from the excited muonic hydrogen to helium nuclei, as well as the probability of the direct muon atomic capture by nuclei of hydrogen isotopes. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Inner conflict between nuclear power generation and electricity rates: A Japanese case study

    Ida, Takanori; Takemura, Kosuke; Sato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Since the March 11 earthquake, Japanese households have been facing a trade-off problem between decreasing dependency on nuclear power generation and avoiding an increase in electricity rates. We analyze this inner conflict quantitatively, adopting two economic–psychological approaches: First, we note that the trade-off causes cognitive dissonance after making a choice that results in a wider desirability gap between the chosen and rejected alternatives. Second, the consumer surplus improves by 11.2% with a no-choice option for suspending judgment in the presence of cognitive dissonance. Third, individual characteristics such as gender and annual household income are significantly correlated with both cognitive dissonance and a preference for the no-choice option. - Highlights: • The Fukushima crisis shocked Japanese citizens' attitudes on nuclear power plants. • Citizens' attitudes toward nuclear power generation and electricity rates surveyed • The trade-off caused cognitive dissonance resulting in a hardline stance. • The consumer surplus improves with a no-choice option for suspending judgment

  13. Hazardous medical waste generation rates of different categories of health-care facilities

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Fouki, Anastassia; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We calculated hazardous medical waste generation rates (HMWGR) from 132 hospitals. ► Based on a 22-month study period, HMWGR were highly skewed to the right. ► The HMWGR varied from 0.00124 to 0.718 kg bed −1 d −1 . ► A positive correlation existed between the HMWGR and the number of hospital beds. ► We used non-parametric statistics to compare rates among hospital categories. - Abstract: Goal of this work was to calculate the hazardous medical waste unit generation rates (HMWUGR), in kg bed −1 d −1 , using data from 132 health-care facilities in Greece. The calculations were based on the weights of the hazardous medical wastes that were regularly transferred to the sole medical waste incinerator in Athens over a 22-month period during years 2009 and 2010. The 132 health-care facilities were grouped into public and private ones, and, also, into seven sub-categories, namely: birth, cancer treatment, general, military, pediatric, psychiatric and university hospitals. Results showed that there is a large variability in the HMWUGR, even among hospitals of the same category. Average total HMWUGR varied from 0.012 kg bed −1 d −1 , for the public psychiatric hospitals, to up to 0.72 kg bed −1 d −1 , for the public university hospitals. Within the private hospitals, average HMWUGR ranged from 0.0012 kg bed −1 d −1 , for the psychiatric clinics, to up to 0.49 kg bed −1 d −1 , for the birth clinics. Based on non-parametric statistics, HMWUGR were statistically similar for the birth and general hospitals, in both the public and private sector. The private birth and general hospitals generated statistically more wastes compared to the corresponding public hospitals. The infectious/toxic and toxic medical wastes appear to be 10% and 50% of the total hazardous medical wastes generated by the public cancer treatment and university hospitals, respectively.

  14. Anti-islanding Protection of Distributed Generation Using Rate of Change of Impedance

    Shah, Pragnesh; Bhalja, Bhavesh

    2013-08-01

    Distributed Generation (DG), which is interlinked with distribution system, has inevitable effect on distribution system. Integrating DG with the utility network demands an anti-islanding scheme to protect the system. Failure to trip islanded generators can lead to problems such as threats to personnel safety, out-of-phase reclosing, and degradation of power quality. In this article, a new method for anti-islanding protection based on impedance monitoring of distribution network is carried out in presence of DG. The impedance measured between two phases is used to derive the rate of change of impedance (dz/dt), and its peak values are used for final trip decision. Test data are generated using PSCAD/EMTDC software package and the performance of the proposed method is evaluated in MatLab software. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme as it is capable to detect islanding condition accurately. Subsequently, it is also observed that the proposed scheme does not mal-operate during other disturbances such as short circuit and switching event.

  15. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    Lu Weisheng; Yuan Hongping; Li Jingru; Hao, Jane J.L.; Mi Xuming; Ding Zhikun

    2011-01-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m 2 and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  16. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bed system performance in helium circulation mode

    Kim, Yean Jin; Jung, Kwang Jin; Ahn, Do Hee; Chung, Hong Suk [UST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Suk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei Hun [NFRI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, We have conducted an experiment for storing hydrogen to depleted uranium and zirconium cobalt. The helium blanket effect has been observed in experiments using metal hydrides. The collapse of the hydrogen isotopes are accompanied by the decay heat and helium-3. Helium-3 dramatically reduces the hydrogen isotope storage capacity by surrounding the metal. This phenomenon is called a helium blanket effect. In addition the authors are working on the recovery and removal techniques of helium-3. In this paper, we discuss the equipment used to test the helium blanket effect and the results of a helium circulation experiment. The helium-3 produced surrounds the storage material surface and thus disturbs the reaction of the storage material and the hydrogen isotope. Even if the amount of helium-3 is small, the storage capacity of the SDS bed significantly drops. This phenomenon is the helium blanket effect. To resolve this phenomenon, a circulating loop was introduced. Using a circulating system, helium can be separated from the storage material. We made a helium loop that includes a ZrCo bed. Then using a metal bellows pump, we tested the helium circulation.

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigation of magnetic field related helium leak in helium vessel of a large superconducting magnet

    Bhattachryya, Pranab; Gupta, Anjan Dutta; Dhar, S.; Sarma, P. R.; Mukherjee, Paramita

    2017-06-01

    The helium vessel of the superconducting cyclotron (SCC) at the Variable Energy Cyclotron centre (VECC), Kolkata shows a gradual loss of insulation vacuum from 10-7 mbar to 10-4 mbar with increasing coil current in the magnet. The insulation vacuum restores back to its initial value with the withdrawal of current. The origin of such behavior has been thought to be related to the electromagnetic stress in the magnet. The electromagnetic stress distribution in the median plane of the helium vessel was studied to figure out the possible location of the helium leak. The stress field from the possible location was transferred to a simplified 2D model with different leak geometries to study the changes in conductance with coil current. The leak rate calculated from the changes in the leak geometry was compared with the leak rate calculated from the experimental insulation vacuum degradation behavior to estimate the initial leak shape and size.

  19. An empirical model for prediction of household solid waste generation rate - A case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the quantity of household solid waste generation is very much essential for effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW). In actual practice, modelling methods are often found useful for precise prediction of MSW generation rate. In this study, two models have been proposed that established the relationships between the household solid waste generation rate and the socioeconomic parameters, such as household size, total family income, education, occupation and fuel used in the kitchen. Multiple linear regression technique was applied to develop the two models, one for the prediction of biodegradable MSW generation rate and the other for non-biodegradable MSW generation rate for individual households of the city Dhanbad, India. The results of the two models showed that the coefficient of determinations (R 2 ) were 0.782 for biodegradable waste generation rate and 0.676 for non-biodegradable waste generation rate using the selected independent variables. The accuracy tests of the developed models showed convincing results, as the predicted values were very close to the observed values. Validation of the developed models with a new set of data indicated a good fit for actual prediction purpose with predicted R 2 values of 0.76 and 0.64 for biodegradable and non-biodegradable MSW generation rate respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen retention properties of polycrystalline tungsten and helium irradiated tungsten

    Hino, T.; Koyama, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hirohata, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogen retention properties of a polycrystalline tungsten and tungsten irradiated by helium ions with an energy of 5 keV were examined by using an ECR ion irradiation apparatus and a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy, TDS. The polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated at RT with energetic hydrogen ions, with a flux of 10 15 H cm -2 and an energy of 1.7 keV up to a fluence of 5 x 10 18 H cm -2 . Subsequently, the amount of retained hydrogen was measured by TDS. The heating temperature was increased from RT to 1000 C, and the heating rate was 50 C min -1 . Below 1000 C, two distinct hydrogen desorption peaks were observed at 200 C and 400 C. The retained amount of hydrogen was observed to be five times smaller than that of graphite, but the concentration in the implantation layer was comparable with that of graphite. Also, the polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated with 5 keV helium ions up to a fluence of 1.4 x 10 18 He cm -2 , and then re-irradiated with 1.7 keV hydrogen ions. The amount of retained hydrogen in this later experiment was close to the value in the case without prior helium ion irradiation. However, the amount of hydrogen which desorbed around the low temperature peak, 200 C, was largely enhanced. The desorption amount at 200 C saturated for the helium fluence of more than 5 x 10 17 He cm -2 . The present data shows that the trapping state of hydrogen is largely changed by the helium ion irradiation. Additionally, 5 keV helium ion irradiation was conducted on a sample pre-implanted with hydrogen ions to simulate a helium ion impact desorption of hydrogen retained in tungsten. The amount of the hydrogen was reduced as much as 50%. (orig.)

  1. Synchronous-digitization for video rate polarization modulated beam scanning second harmonic generation microscopy

    Sullivan, Shane Z.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Schmitt, Paul D.; Muir, Ryan D.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2015-03-01

    Fast beam-scanning non-linear optical microscopy, coupled with fast (8 MHz) polarization modulation and analytical modeling have enabled simultaneous nonlinear optical Stokes ellipsometry (NOSE) and linear Stokes ellipsometry imaging at video rate (15 Hz). NOSE enables recovery of the complex-valued Jones tensor that describes the polarization-dependent observables, in contrast to polarimetry, in which the polarization stated of the exciting beam is recorded. Each data acquisition consists of 30 images (10 for each detector, with three detectors operating in parallel), each of which corresponds to polarization-dependent results. Processing of this image set by linear fitting contracts down each set of 10 images to a set of 5 parameters for each detector in second harmonic generation (SHG) and three parameters for the transmittance of the fundamental laser beam. Using these parameters, it is possible to recover the Jones tensor elements of the sample at video rate. Video rate imaging is enabled by performing synchronous digitization (SD), in which a PCIe digital oscilloscope card is synchronized to the laser (the laser is the master clock.) Fast polarization modulation was achieved by modulating an electro-optic modulator synchronously with the laser and digitizer, with a simple sine-wave at 1/10th the period of the laser, producing a repeating pattern of 10 polarization states. This approach was validated using Z-cut quartz, and NOSE microscopy was performed for micro-crystals of naproxen.

  2. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    1975-01-01

    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  3. Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs

    Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.

    1979-01-01

    The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion

  4. Helium sequestration at nanoparticle-matrix interfaces in helium + heavy ion irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys

    Parish, C.M., E-mail: parishcm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Unocic, K.A.; Tan, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Kondo, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan); Snead, L.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hoelzer, D.T.; Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    We irradiated four ferritic alloys with energetic Fe and He ions: one castable nanostructured alloy (CNA) containing Ti-W-Ta-carbides, and three nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The NFAs were: 9Cr containing Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, and two Fe-12Cr-5Al NFAs containing Y-Zr-O or Y-Hf-O clusters. All four were subjected to simultaneous dual-beam Fe + He ion implantation (650 °C, ∼50 dpa, ∼15 appm He/dpa), simulating fusion-reactor conditions. Examination using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed high-number-density helium bubbles of ∼8 nm, ∼10{sup 21} m{sup −3} (CNA), and of ∼3 nm, 10{sup 23} m{sup −3} (NFAs). STEM combined with multivariate statistical analysis data mining suggests that the precipitate-matrix interfaces in all alloys survived ∼50 dpa at 650 °C and serve as effective helium trapping sites. All alloys appear viable structural material candidates for fusion or advanced fission energy systems. Among these developmental alloys the NFAs appear to sequester the helium into smaller bubbles and away from the grain boundaries more effectively than the early-generation CNA.

  5. Helium localization around the microscopic impurities embedded to liquid helium

    Gordon, E.B.; Shestakov, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and properties of the environment round the impurity atoms (Im) embedded in liquid helium are considered. It is shown that there are two qualitatively different types of structure of the He atom layer next to Im - attraction and repulsion structures. For the center attraction structure (strong Im-He interaction) the Im-He separation is longer than the equilibrium one for the pair Im-He potential, and the density and localization of He atoms are higher than in the bulk. It this case the He atom content in the layer, n, is almost independent of applied pressure. In the repulsion structure realized for alkaline metal atoms the Im-He separation is shorter than the equilibrium one and the density is lower than in the helium bulk. At T approx 1 K occupied are several states with different n and their energies differ only by approx 0.1 K, an increase in pressure resulting in a considerable reduction of n. The optical and EPR spectra of the atoms embedded to liquid and solid helium are interpreted on the basis of the analysis carried out. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the helium surroundings characteristics from the experimental pressure dependences of atomic line shifts in the absorption and emission spectra. The attraction structures in 3 He - 4 He mixtures are suggested to be highly enriched by 4 He atoms which the repulsion structures - by 3 He atoms. a possibility for existence of phase transitions in helium shells surrounding impurity atoms is considered

  6. Helium behaviour in aluminium under hydrostatic pressure

    Sokurskij, Yu.N.; Tebus, V.N.; Zudilin, V.A.; Tumanova, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic compression on equilibrium helium bubbles in low aluminium-lithium alloy irradiated in reactor at 570 K is investigated. Measurements of hydrostatic density and electron-microscopic investigations have shown, that application of up to 2 GPa pressure reduces equilibrium size of helium bubbles and reduces helium swelling. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the process are considered with application of 'rigid sphere' equation which describes helium state in bubbles

  7. Diffuse Helium Emission as a Precursory Sign of Volcanic Unrest

    Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Sumino, H.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Barrancos, J.; Nolasco, D.; Padilla, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Hernandez, I.; Calvo, D.; Peraza, M.; Nagao, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro island, the youngest and smallest of the Canary Islands, was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor was recorded since 05:15 of the October 10, by all of the seismic stations on the island, with highest amplitudes recorded in the southernmost station. During the afternoon of October 12 a large light-green coloured area was observed in the sea to the souht of La Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. As part of the volcanic surveillance of the island, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) geochemical monitoring program is carrying out diffuse helium surveys on the surface environment of El Hierro (soil atmosphere). This nobel gas has been investigated because it has been considered an almost ideal geochemical indicator because it is chemically inert, physically stable, nonbiogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions and almost non-adsorbable. At each survey, 600 sampling sites covering the whole island and following an homogeneous distribution are selected for helium measurements in the soil gases, The helium concentration gradients with respect to its value on air (5.24 ppm) allow us to estimate a pure diffusive emission rate of helium throughout the island. The first survey was carried out on the summer of 2003, when the island was on a quiescence period. At this survey, the amount of helium released by the volcanic system of El Hierro was estimated in 6 kg/d. Since the beginning of the seismic unrest, 13 helium emission surveys have been carried out. The helium emission rate has shown an excellent agreement with the evolution of the volcanic crisis of the island, reaching 30 kg

  8. Electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field

    Ishii, I.; Fuchino, S.; Okano, M.; Tamada, N.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical breakdown behavior of liquid helium was investigated under high speed rotating field. In the development of superconducting turbine generator it is essential to get the knowledge of electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field. When the current of the field magnet of a superconducting generator is changed, changing magnetic field generates heat in the conductor and it causes bubbles in the liquid helium around the conductor. The behavior of the bubbles is affected largely by the buoyancy which is generated by the centrifugal force. Electrical breakdown behavior of the liquid helium is strongly dependent on the gas bubbles in the liquid. Electrical breakdown voltage between electrodes was measured in a rotating cryostat with and without heater input for bubble formation. Decrease of the breakdown voltage by the heater power was smaller in the rotating field than that in the non rotating field

  9. Operational and Strategic Implementation of Dynamic Line Rating for Optimized Wind Energy Generation Integration

    Gentle, Jake Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    One primary goal of rendering today’s transmission grid “smarter” is to optimize and better manage its power transfer capacity in real time. Power transfer capacity is affected by three main elements: stability, voltage limits, and thermal ratings. All three are critical, but thermal ratings represent the greatest opportunity to quickly, reliably and economically utilize the grid’s true capacity. With the “Smarter Grid”, new solutions have been sought to give operators a better grasp on real time conditions, allowing them to manage and extend the usefulness of existing transmission infrastructure in a safe and reliable manner. The objective of the INL Wind Program is to provide industry a Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) solution that is state of the art as measured by cost, accuracy and dependability, to enable human operators to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions without human or system overloading and impacting the reliability of the grid. In addition to mitigating transmission line congestion to better integrate wind, DLR also offers the opportunity to improve the grid with optimized utilization of transmission lines to relieve congestion in general. As wind-generated energy has become a bigger part of the nation’s energy portfolio, researchers have learned that wind not only turns turbine blades to generate electricity, but can cool transmission lines and increase transfer capabilities significantly, sometimes up to 60 percent. INL’s DLR development supports EERE and The Wind Energy Technology Office’s goals by informing system planners and grid operators of available transmission capacity, beyond typical Static Line Ratings (SLR). SLRs are based on a fixed set of conservative environmental conditions to establish a limit on the amount of current lines can safely carry without overheating. Using commercially available weather monitors mounted on industry informed custom brackets developed by INL in combination with Computational

  10. Rate of generation of tritium during the operation of Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2

    Funamoto, Hisao; Yoshinari, Masaharu; Fukuda, Masayuki; Makino, Shinichi; Watari, Tuneo

    1994-01-01

    Total amount of 3 H activity in primary coolant due to the operation of Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2 was estimated. The 3 H inventory was measured for samples from the spent fuel pool, primary coolant and miscellaneous tanks. From the result of the measurement and the data of environmental release of 3 H, the rate of generation of 3 H in the reactor was found to be 25 TBq/GWa. Since Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2 is a PWR type reactor, we presume that most of the 3 H in primary coolant is formed by 10 B(n, 2α) 3 H reaction. It is necessary to release about 23 TBq/GWa of 3 H to maintain the station inventory at the present level. (author)

  11. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1984-04-01

    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  12. Clustering of Helium Atoms at a ½

    Berg, F. v.d.; Heugten, W. v.; Caspers, L.M.; Veen, A. v.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Atomistic calculations on a ½<111>{110} edge dislocation show a restricted tendency of clustering of helium atom along this dislocation. Clusters with up to 4 helium atoms have been studied. A cluster with 3 helium proved to be most stable.

  13. Experimental evidence for the suitability of ELMing H-mode operation in ITER with regard to core transport of helium

    Wade, M.R.; Hillis, D.L.; Burrell, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    Studies have been conducted in DIII-D to assess the viability of the ITER design with regard to helium ash removal, including both global helium exhaust studies and detailed helium transport studies. With respect to helium ash accumulation, the results are encouraging for successful operation of ITER in ELMing H-mode plasmas with conventional high-recycling divertor operation. Helium can be removed from the plasma core with a characteristic time constant of ∼ 8 energy confinement times, even with a central source of helium. Furthermore, the exhaust rate is limited by the pumping efficiency of the system and not by transport of helium within the plasma core. Helium transport studies have shown that D He /X eff ∼ 1 in all confinement regimes studied to date and there is little dependence of D He /X eff on normalized gyroradius in dimensionless scaling studies, suggesting that D He /X eff will be ∼ 1 in ITER. These observations suggest that helium transport within the plasma core should be sufficient to prevent unacceptable fuel dilution in ITER. However, helium exhaust is also strongly dependent on many factors (e.g., divertor plasma conditions, plasma and baffling geometry, flux amplification, pumping speed, etc.) that are difficult to extrapolate. Studies have revealed the helium diffusivity decreases as the plasma density increases, which is unfavorable to ITER's extremely high density operation

  14. Interfaces and helium thin films : static properties and collective modes

    Pricaupenko, L.

    1994-12-01

    In the first part of this thesis are described the collective modes in thin films and at the free surface of helium 4. The second part deals with the spreading out of a model to describe the inhomogeneous helium 3. The influence of the quantum statistics on damping properties has also been given. In the third part is tackled some static properties of mixtures at interfaces. The instability growth rates in mixed films has been studied. At last is described the de-mixture study of two isotopes in a confined medium. (O.L.). 86 refs., 86 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Operating experience using venturi flow meters at liquid helium temperature

    Wu, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    Experiences using commercial venturi to measure single phase helium flow near 4 K (degree Kelvin) for cooling superconducting magnets have been presented. The mass flow rate was calculated from the differential pressure and the helium density evaluated from measured pressure and temperature. The venturi flow meter, with a full range of 290 g/s (0.29 Kg/s) at design conditions, has been found to be reliable and accurate. The flow measurements have been used, with great success, for evaluating the performance of a cold centrifugal compressor, the thermal acoustic heat load of a cryogenic system and the cooling of a superconducting magnet after quench

  16. Superfluid helium on on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment

    DiPirro, M.J.; Kittel, P.

    1988-01-01

    The SHOOT flight demonstration is being undertaken to verify component and system level technology necessary to resupply large superfluid helium dewars in space. The baseline configuration uses two identical 210 liter dewars connected by a transfer line which contains a quick disconnect coupling. The helium is transferred back and forth between the dewars under various conditions of flow rate, parasitic heat load, and temperature. An astronaut Extra-Vehicular Activity is also planned to manually mate and demate the coupling. The components necessary for the flight and currently being developed are described

  17. Rate of bacterial eradication by ophthalmic solutions of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones.

    Callegan, Michelle C; Novosad, Billy D; Ramadan, Raniyah T; Wiskur, Brandt; Moyer, Andrea L

    2009-04-01

    Antibacterial activity of ophthalmic fourth-generation fluoroquinolones has traditionally been evaluated by comparing only their active ingredients, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin. However, ophthalmic formulations of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones differ in terms of the inclusion of preservatives. While gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.3% (Zymar; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) contains 0.005% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% (Vigamox; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA) is preservative-free. Recent studies have demonstrated that the presence of BAK dramatically affects the antibacterial activity of the ophthalmic formulation of gatifloxacin. This study was designed to compare the kill rates of ophthalmic solutions of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones against isolates of common ocular bacterial pathogens. Approximately 5.6 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of Haemophilus influenzae (n=1), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=1), Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n=4), methicillinresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) (n=4), and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. epidermidis (n=1) were incubated with ophthalmic solutions of either gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin. Viable bacteria were quantified at specific time points up to 60 minutes. Gatifloxacin 0.3% completely eradicated H. influenzae and Strep. pneumoniae in 5 minutes, one of two S. aureus isolates in 15 minutes, and the other S. aureus isolate in 60 minutes. Gatifloxacin 0.3% completely killed all MRSA, MRSE, and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. epidermidis isolates in 15 minutes. Moxifloxacin 0.5% completely eradicated Strep. pneumoniae and one of four MRSA isolates in 60 minutes. All other isolates incubated with moxifloxacin 0.5% retained viable bacteria ranging from 1.8 to 4.4 log(10) CFU/mL. The ophthalmic solution of gatifloxacin 0.3% eradicated bacteria that frequently cause postoperative ocular infections

  18. Muonium and neutral muonic helium

    Orth, H.

    1981-01-01

    In this brief article the current status on muonium spectroscopy with emphasis on recent developments will be summarized. The experimental and theoretical progress of the muonic helium atom will be reviewed. Future directions in this field of research will be discussed. (orig./HSI)

  19. Electric response in superfluid helium

    Chagovets, Tymofiy

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 488, May (2016), s. 62-66 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-03806P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : superfluid helium * electric response * second sound * ions in He II Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2016

  20. Production of negative helium ions

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  1. Piping hydrodynamic loads for a PWR power up-rate with steam generator replacement

    Julie M Jarvis; Allen T Vieira; James M Gilmer

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Pipe break hydrodynamic loads are calculated for various systems in a PWR for a Power Up-rate (PUR) with a Steam Generator Replacement (SGR). PUR with SGR can change the system pressures, mass flowrates and pipe routing/configuration. These changes can alter the steam generator piping steam/water hammer loads. This paper discusses the need to benchmark against the original design basis, the use of different modeling techniques, and lessons learned. Benchmarking for licensing in the United States is vital in consideration of 10CFR50.59 and other licensing and safety issues. RELAP5 and its force post-processor R5FORCE are used to model the transient loads for various piping systems such as main feedwater and blowdown systems. Other modeling applications, including the Bechtel GAFT program, are used to evaluate loadings in the main steam piping. Forces are calculated for main steam turbine stop valve closure, feedwater pipe breaks and subsequent check valve slam, and blowdown isolation valve closure. These PUR/SGR forces are compared with the original design basis forces. Modeling techniques discussed include proper valve closure modeling, sonic velocity changes due to pipe material changes, and two phase flow effects. Lessons learned based on analyses done for several PWR PUR with SGR are presented. Lessons learned from these analyses include choosing the optimal replacement piping size and routing to improve system performance without resulting in excessive piping loads. (authors)

  2. Excitation of helium resonance lines in solar flares

    Porter, J.G.; Gebbie, K.B.; November, L.J.; Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO; National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM)

    1985-01-01

    Helium resonance line intensities are calculated for a set of six flare models corresponding to two rates of heating and three widely varying incident fluxes of soft X-rays. The differing ionization and excitation equilibria produced by these models, the processes which dominate the various cases, and the predicted helium line spectra are examined. The line intensities and their ratios are compared with values derived from Skylab NRL spectroheliograms for a class M flare, thus determining which of these models most nearly represents the density vs temperature structure and soft X-ray flux in the flaring solar transition region, and the temperature and dominant mechanaism of formation of the helium line spectrum during a flare. 26 references

  3. Helium refrigeration system for BNL colliding beam accelerator

    Brown, D.P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R.J.; Schlafke, A.P.; Schneider, W.J.; Sondericker, J.H.; Wu, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    A Helium Refrigeration System which will supply the cooling required for the Colliding Beam Accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory is under construction. Testing of the compressor system is scheduled for late 1983 and will be followed by refrigerator acceptance tests in 1984. The refrigerator has a design capacity of 24.8 kW at a temperature level near 4K while simultaneously producing 55 kW for heat shield loads at 55K. When completed, the helium refrigerator will be the world's largest. Twenty-five oil-injected screw compressors with an installed total of 23,250 horsepower will supply the gas required. One of the unique features of the cycle is the application of three centrifugal compressors used at liquid helium temperature to produce the low temperatures (2.5K) and high flow rates (4154 g/s) required for this service

  4. Radiolytic reactions in the coolant of helium cooled reactors

    Tingey, G.L.; Morgan, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    The success of helium cooled reactors is dependent upon the ability to prevent significant reaction between the coolant and the other components in the reactor primary circuit. Since the thermal reaction of graphite with oxidizing gases is rapid at temperatures of interest, the thermal reactions are limited primarily by the concentration of impurity gases in the helium coolant. On the other hand, the rates of radiolytic reactions in helium are shown to be independent of reactive gas concentration until that concentration reaches a very low level. Calculated steady-state concentrations of reactive species in the reactor coolant and core burnoff rates are presented for current U. S. designed, helium cooled reactors. Since precise base data are not currently available for radiolytic rates of some reactions and thermal reaction rate data are often variable, the accuracy of the predicted gas composition is being compared with the actual gas compositions measured during startup tests of the Fort Saint Vrain high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The current status of these confirmatory tests is discussed. 12 references

  5. Non-Stoichiometric SixN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor for Compact Random Number Generator with 0.3 Mbit/s Generation Rate

    Matsumoto, Mari; Ohba, Ryuji; Yasuda, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Ken; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Fujita, Shinobu

    2008-08-01

    The demand for random numbers for security applications is increasing. A conventional random number generator using thermal noise can generate unpredictable high-quality random numbers, but the circuit is extremely large because of large amplifier circuit for a small thermal signal. On the other hand, a pseudo-random number generator is small but the quality of randomness is bad. For a small circuit and a high quality of randomness, we purpose a non-stoichiometric SixN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) noise source device. This device generates a very large noise signal without an amplifier circuit. As a result, it is shown that, utilizing a SiN MOSFET, we can attain a compact random number generator with a high generation rate near 1 Mbit/s, which is suitable for almost all security applications.

  6. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    Bowley, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  7. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    Bowley, Roger [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  8. Developments in steam generator leak detection at Ontario Hydro

    Maynard, K.J.; Singh, V.P. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    A method for locating small tube leaks in steam generators has been developed and implemented at Ontario Hydro. The technique utilizes both helium leak detection and moisture leak detection. The combination of these two methods allows tube leaks to be detected in any part of the tube bundle, including those submerged below water near the tubesheet. The estimated detection limits for the helium and moisture leak detection systems are 0.001 kg/hr and 0.05 kg/hr respectively, expressed as leak rates measured at typical boiler operating conditions. This technology is best utilized in situations where the leak rate under operating conditions is smaller than the practical limit for fluorescein dye techniques ({approx}2 kg/hour). Other novel techniques have been utilized to increase the reliability and speed of the boiler leak search process. These include the use of argon carrier gas to stabilize the buoyant helium gas in the boiler secondary. (author)

  9. Developments in steam generator leak detection at Ontario Hydro

    Maynard, K.J.; Singh, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    A method for locating small tube leaks in steam generators has been developed and implemented at Ontario Hydro. The technique utilizes both helium leak detection and moisture leak detection. The combination of these two methods allows tube leaks to be detected in any part of the tube bundle, including those submerged below water near the tubesheet. The estimated detection limits for the helium and moisture leak detection systems are 0.001 kg/hr and 0.05 kg/hr respectively, expressed as leak rates measured at typical boiler operating conditions. This technology is best utilized in situations where the leak rate under operating conditions is smaller than the practical limit for fluorescein dye techniques (∼2 kg/hour). Other novel techniques have been utilized to increase the reliability and speed of the boiler leak search process. These include the use of argon carrier gas to stabilize the buoyant helium gas in the boiler secondary. (author)

  10. Imprints from the solar cycle on the helium atom and helium pickup ion distributions

    D. Rucinski

    Full Text Available Neutral interstellar helium atoms penetrate into the solar system almost unaffected by gas–plasma interactions in the heliospheric interface region, and thus can be considered as carriers of original information on the basic parameters (like density, temperature, bulk velocity of the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM. Such information can nowadays be derived from analysis of data obtained from different experimental methods: in situ measurements of He atoms (Ulysses, observations of the solar backscattered He 584 A radiation (EUVE, in situ measurements of He + pickup ions (AMPTE, Ulysses, Wind, SOHO, ACE. In view of the current coordinated international ISSI campaign devoted to the study of the helium focusing cone structure and its evolution, we analyze expected variations of neutral He density, of He + pickup fluxes and of their phase space distributions at various phases of the solar activity cycle based on a realistic time-dependent modelling of the neutral helium and He + pickup ion distributions, which reflect solar cycle-induced variations of the photoionization rate. We show that the neutral helium density values are generally anticorrelated with the solar activity phase and in extreme cases (near the downwind axis the maximum-to-minimum density ratio may even exceed factors of ~ 3 at 1 AU. We also demonstrate that in the upwind hemisphere (at 1 AU and beyond the He + fluxes are correlated with the solar cycle activity, whereas on the downwind side the maximum of the expected flux up to distances of ~ 3 AU occurs around solar minimum epoch, and only further away does the correlation with solar activity become positive. Finally, we present the response of the phase space distribution spectra of He + pickup ions (in the solar wind frame for different epochs of the solar cycle and heliocentric distances from 1 to 5 AU covering the range of Ulysses, Wind and ACE observations.

    Key words. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy

  11. Imprints from the solar cycle on the helium atom and helium pickup ion distributions

    D. Rucinski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutral interstellar helium atoms penetrate into the solar system almost unaffected by gas–plasma interactions in the heliospheric interface region, and thus can be considered as carriers of original information on the basic parameters (like density, temperature, bulk velocity of the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM. Such information can nowadays be derived from analysis of data obtained from different experimental methods: in situ measurements of He atoms (Ulysses, observations of the solar backscattered He 584 A radiation (EUVE, in situ measurements of He + pickup ions (AMPTE, Ulysses, Wind, SOHO, ACE. In view of the current coordinated international ISSI campaign devoted to the study of the helium focusing cone structure and its evolution, we analyze expected variations of neutral He density, of He + pickup fluxes and of their phase space distributions at various phases of the solar activity cycle based on a realistic time-dependent modelling of the neutral helium and He + pickup ion distributions, which reflect solar cycle-induced variations of the photoionization rate. We show that the neutral helium density values are generally anticorrelated with the solar activity phase and in extreme cases (near the downwind axis the maximum-to-minimum density ratio may even exceed factors of ~ 3 at 1 AU. We also demonstrate that in the upwind hemisphere (at 1 AU and beyond the He + fluxes are correlated with the solar cycle activity, whereas on the downwind side the maximum of the expected flux up to distances of ~ 3 AU occurs around solar minimum epoch, and only further away does the correlation with solar activity become positive. Finally, we present the response of the phase space distribution spectra of He + pickup ions (in the solar wind frame for different epochs of the solar cycle and heliocentric distances from 1 to 5 AU covering the range of Ulysses, Wind and ACE observations.Key words. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy

  12. Yonsei Evolutionary Population Synthesis (YEPS). II. Spectro-photometric Evolution of Helium-enhanced Stellar Populations

    Chung, Chul; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: chulchung@yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-20

    The discovery of multiple stellar populations in Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) has stimulated various follow-up studies on helium-enhanced stellar populations. Here we present the evolutionary population synthesis models for the spectro-photometric evolution of simple stellar populations (SSPs) with varying initial helium abundance ( Y {sub ini}). We show that Y {sub ini} brings about dramatic changes in spectro-photometric properties of SSPs. Like the normal-helium SSPs, the integrated spectro-photometric evolution of helium-enhanced SSPs is also dependent on metallicity and age for a given Y {sub ini}. We discuss the implications and prospects for the helium-enhanced populations in relation to the second-generation populations found in the Milky Way GCs. All of the models are available at http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/cosmic/data/YEPS.htm.

  13. Impact of helium implantation and ion-induced damage on reflectivity of molybdenum mirrors

    Garcia-Carrasco, A., E-mail: alvarogc@kth.se [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 31, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, P.; Hallén, A. [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 31, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Grzonka, J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Str., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Gilbert, M.R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fortuna-Zalesna, E. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Rubel, M. [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 31, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum mirrors were irradiated with Mo and He ions to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on diagnostic first mirrors in next-generation fusion devices. Up to 30 dpa were produced under molybdenum irradiation leading to a slight decrease of reflectivity in the near infrared range. After 3 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} of helium irradiation, reflectivity decreased by up to 20%. Combined irradiation by helium and molybdenum led to similar effects on reflectivity as irradiation with helium alone. Ion beam analysis showed that only 7% of the implanted helium was retained in the first 40 nm layer of the mirror. The structure of the near-surface layer after irradiation was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy and the extent and size distribution of helium bubbles was documented. The consequences of ion-induced damage on the performance of diagnostic components are discussed.

  14. Yonsei Evolutionary Population Synthesis (YEPS). II. Spectro-photometric Evolution of Helium-enhanced Stellar Populations

    Chung, Chul; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of multiple stellar populations in Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) has stimulated various follow-up studies on helium-enhanced stellar populations. Here we present the evolutionary population synthesis models for the spectro-photometric evolution of simple stellar populations (SSPs) with varying initial helium abundance ( Y ini ). We show that Y ini brings about dramatic changes in spectro-photometric properties of SSPs. Like the normal-helium SSPs, the integrated spectro-photometric evolution of helium-enhanced SSPs is also dependent on metallicity and age for a given Y ini . We discuss the implications and prospects for the helium-enhanced populations in relation to the second-generation populations found in the Milky Way GCs. All of the models are available at http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/cosmic/data/YEPS.htm.

  15. The influence of He/dpa ratio and displacement rate on microstructural evolution: a comparison of theory and experiment

    Katoh, Yutai; Stoller, Roger E.; Kohno, Yutaka; Kohyama, Akira

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic model was developed to investigate the influence of the displacement rate and helium generation rate on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels. The model integrates the rate equations describing the evolution of point defects, small point defect clusters, helium-vacancy clusters, and the larger cavity size distribution that is responsible for observable swelling. Cavity (bubble) nucleation is accounted for by the helium-vacancy cluster evolution, while void formation occurs when bubbles grow beyond a critical size in the larger cavity distribution. A series of ion irradiation experiments were used to both calibrate the model and to provide a comparison between model predictions and experimental observations. The experiments involved single and dual-beam irradiations of solution annealed AISI-316 stainless steel at 873 K. The displacement rates were in the range of 2x10 -3 to 1x10 -2 dpa/s and the helium-to-dpa ratios were in the range of 0 to 50 appm He/dpa. The maximum displacement dose was 25 dpa. The experiments revealed a significant effect of helium on both the dislocation structure and the cavity distribution. The model predictions of helium effects over a broad range of He/dpa ratios and displacement rates were consistent with experimental observations. ((orig.))

  16. Status of helium-cooled nuclear power systems. [Development potential

    Melese-d' Hospital, G.; Simnad, M

    1977-09-01

    Helium-cooled nuclear power systems offer a great potential for electricity generation when their long-term economic, environmental, conservation and energy self-sufficiency features are examined. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has the unique capability of providing high-temperature steam for electric power and process heat uses and/or high-temperature heat for endothermic chemical reactions. A variation of the standard steam cycle HTGR is one in which the helium coolant flows directly from the core to one or more closed cycle gas turbines. The effective use of nuclear fuel resources for electric power and nuclear process heat will be greatly enhanced by the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) currently being developed. A GCFR using thorium in the radial blanket could generate sufficient U-233 to supply the fuel for three HTGRs, or enough plutonium from a depleted uranium blanket to fuel a breeder economy expanding at about 10% per year. The feasibility of utilizing helium to cool a fusion reactor is also discussed. The status of helium-cooled nuclear energy systems is summarized as a basis for assessing their prospects. 50 references.

  17. HeREF-2003: Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 Cost per participant: 500.- CHF Language: Bilingual English...

  18. HeREF-2003 : Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. • Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 • Cost per participant: 500.- CHF ...

  19. The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers

    Green, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report

  20. Design concept of cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator

    Kinoshita, M.; Yamanishi, T.; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    A design concept is developed for a cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator by clarifying the differences between this process and a cryogenic distillation column. The process characteristics are greatly improved by the idea of adding an H 2 gas flow to a point near the upper end of the packed section. The flow rate of tritium lost from the top is kept extremely low with an adequately short packed section, and the column pressure is reduced to 1 atm. The addition causes no appreciable increase in the protium percentage (approx. =1%) in the bottom liquid flow. A design procedure applying the Colburn-Hougen method is proposed for determining specifications of the refrigerated section. It is shown that the presence of noncondensible helium requires a significantly larger heat transfer area mainly because the mass transfer resistance increases enormously as the condensation of hydrogen isotopes proceeds. Control schemes are also proposed: The tritium concentration in the top gas is controlled by the H 2 gas flow rate. The pressure rise caused by an increase of the helium percentage within the refrigerated section, which cannot readily be eliminated by changing input specifications of the refrigerant gas, is avoided by increasing the top gas flow rate to release more helium from the top

  1. DETERMINING THE INITIAL HELIUM ABUNDANCE OF THE SUN

    Serenelli, Aldo M.; Basu, Sarbani

    2010-01-01

    We determine the dependence of the initial helium abundance and the present-day helium abundance in the convective envelope of solar models (Y ini and Y surf , respectively) on the parameters that are used to construct the models. We do so by using reference standard solar models (SSMs) to compute the power-law coefficients of the dependence of Y ini and Y surf on the input parameters. We use these dependencies to determine the correlation between Y ini and Y surf and use this correlation to eliminate uncertainties in Y ini from all solar model input parameters except the microscopic diffusion rate. We find an expression for Y ini that depends only on Y surf and the diffusion rate. By adopting the helioseismic determination of solar surface helium abundance, Y surf sun = 0.2485 ± 0.0035, and an uncertainty of 20% for the diffusion rate, we find that the initial solar helium abundance, Y ini sun , is 0.278 ± 0.006 independently of the reference SSMs (and particularly on the adopted solar abundances) used in the derivation of the correlation between Y ini and Y surf . When non-SSMs with extra mixing are used, then we derive Y ini sun = 0.273 ± 0.006. In both cases, the derived Y ini sun value is higher than that directly derived from solar model calibrations when the low-metallicity solar abundances (e.g., by Asplund et al.) are adopted in the models.

  2. Development of a water boil-off spent-fuel calorimeter system. [To measure decay heat generation rate

    Creer, J.M.; Shupe, J.W. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    A calorimeter system was developed to measure decay heat generation rates of unmodified spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear reactors. The system was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested using the following specifications: capacity of one BWR or PWR spent fuel assembly; decay heat generation range 0.1 to 2.5 kW; measurement time of < 12 h; and an accuracy of +-10% or better. The system was acceptance tested using a dc reference heater to simulate spent fuel assembly heat generation rates. Results of these tests indicated that the system could be used to measure heat generation rates between 0.5 and 2.5 kW within +- 5%. Measurements of heat generation rates of approx. 0.1 kW were obtained within +- 15%. The calorimeter system has the potential to permit measurements of heat generation rates of spent fuel assemblies and other devices in the 12- to 14-kW range. Results of calorimetry of a Turkey Point spent fuel assembly indicated that the assembly was generating approx. 1.55 kW.

  3. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Zimmer, O.; Grigoriev, A. D.; Ziman, T.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyze the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons, and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed 1 h, and rapidly increases with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the sequence of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved tests of short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron β -decay experiments. We also sketch new experimental propositions for level population and trapping of ultracold neutrons above a flat horizontal mirror.

  4. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

    Sebastien Breurec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. Methods Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized. In addition, the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance and the genetic background of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae were studied. Results A bacteriological infection was confirmed in 36.4 % (88/242 of neonates: 22.7 % (30/132 during the early-onset and 52.7 % (58/110 during the late-onset periods (p > 0.20. Group B streptococci accounted for 6.8 % of the 88 collected bacterial isolates, while most of them were Enterobacteriaceae (n = 69, 78.4 %. Of these, 55/69 (79.7 % were 3GC-R. The blaCTX-M-15 allele, the blaSHV and the blaTEM were highly prevalent (63.5, 65.4 and 53.8 %, respectively, usually associated with qnr genes (65.4 %. Clonally related strains of 3GC-R Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3GC-R Enterobacter cloacae, the two most commonly recovered 3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae (48/55, were detected at the three hospitals, underlining the role of cross-transmission in their spread. The overall case fatality rate was 18.6 %. Conclusions Measures should be taken to prevent nosocomial infections and the selection of resistant bacteria.

  5. Preservation and release dose of helium implanted in nanocrystal titanium film

    Long Xinggui; Luo Shunzhong; Peng Shuming; Zheng Sixiao; Liu Zhongyang; Wang Peilu; Liao Xiaodong; Liu Ning

    2003-01-01

    Helium concentration profile, preservation dose and release rate from a nanocrystal titanium film implanted with helium at an energy of 100 keV and dose of 2.2 x 10 18 cm -2 are measured by proton Rutherford backscattering technique in a range from room temperature to 400 degree C. The implanted helium may be stably preserved up to the 68 percent after keeping a long time of 210 d in the nanocrystal titanium film at the room temperature environment, and the He-Ti atomic ratio reaches to 52.6%. When the temperature of specimen increases to 100 degree C, the helium concentration can be preserved to 89.6% of the keeping helium dose at room temperature and He-Ti atomic ratio reaches 44%. Even if the specimen temperature up to 400 degree C, the helium concentration still can be preserved to 32.6% of the keeping helium dose at room temperature and the He-Ti atomic ratio is 17.1%. Possible mechanism of helium effectively preserved in the nanocrystal titanium film is discussed based on the energy stability viewpoint

  6. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    Dufay-Chanat, L; Casas-Cubillos, J; Chorowski, M; Grabowski, M; Jedrusyna, A; Lindell, G; Nonis, M; Koettig, T; Vauthier, N; van Weelderen, R; Winkler, T

    2015-01-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium wer...

  7. Impact of problem-based, active learning on graduation rates for 10 generations of Dutch medical students

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Arends, Lidia R.

    We aimed to study the effects of active-learning curricula on graduation rates of students and on the length of time needed to graduate. Graduation rates for 10 generations of students enrolling in the eight Dutch medical schools between 1989 and 1998 were analysed. In addition, time needed to

  8. Contribution to the experimental study of the polarized liquid helium-3; Contributions a l'etude experimentale de l'helium-3 liquide polarise

    Villard, B

    1999-07-15

    Spin-polarized liquid helium-3 is prepared by laser optical pumping in low magnetic field and at room temperature, prior to fast liquefaction of the polarized sample. The use of a new helium-3 cryostat enabled us to obtain liquid helium-3 with polarization rates up to 25 % at well-stabilized temperatures (around 0.5 K). We could thereby study the effect of nuclear polarization on liquid-vapour equilibrium, and particularly on the saturated vapour pressure. Very sensitive capacitive gauges were developed. We estimated (to first order in M{sup 2}) the expected effects when the polarization M is suddenly destroyed. These effects were experimentally observed in helium-3/helium-4 mixtures, in pure helium-3, only a transient increase in pressure has been recorded. We then describe in a third part a preliminary experiment which aimed at determining the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in mixtures. Relaxation on the walls is efficiently reduced by a cesium coating and T1s of order 20 minutes were observed. A careful determination of the helium-3 concentration in the liquid phase was made. Finally we studied the effects of dipolar field on transverse polarisation decay in our strongly polarized samples. We observed the free precession of polarization after a NMR pulse, and analysed in detail its decay time constant as a function of different parameters. This time constant drastically varied with the tipping angle, an effect which could be linked to NMR dynamical instabilities. (author)

  9. Impulse approximation in solid helium

    Glyde, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The incoherent dynamic form factor S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated in solid helium for comparison with the impulse approximation (IA). The purpose is to determine the Q values for which the IA is valid for systems such a helium where the atoms interact via a potential having a steeply repulsive but not infinite hard core. For 3 He, S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated from first principles, beginning with the pair potential. The density of states g(ω) is evaluated using the self-consistent phonon theory and S/sub i/(Q,ω) is expressed in terms of g(ω). For solid 4 He resonable models of g(ω) using observed input parameters are used to evaluate S/sub i/(Q,ω). In both cases S/sub i/(Q, ω) is found to approach the impulse approximation S/sub IA/(Q, ω) closely for wave vector transfers Q> or approx. =20 A -1 . The difference between S/sub i/ and S/sub IA/, which is due to final state interactions of the scattering atom with the remainder of the atoms in the solid, is also predominantly antisymmetric in (ω-ω/sub R/), where ω/sub R/ is the recoil frequency. This suggests that the symmetrization procedure proposed by Sears to eliminate final state contributions should work well in solid helium

  10. Liquid helium plant in Dubna

    Agapov, N.N.; Baldin, A.M.; Kovalenko, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The liquid-helium cooling capacity installed at the Laboratory of High Energies is about 5 kw at a 4.5 K temperature level. It is provided with four industrial helium liquefiers of 1.6 kw/4.5 K each. They have been made by the Russian enterprise NPO GELYMASH and upgraded by the specialists of the Laboratory. The first one was put into operation in 1980, the two others in 1991, and the last one is under commissioning. The development of the LHE cryoplant was concerned with the construction of the new superconducting accelerator Nuclotron aimed to accelerate nuclei and heavy ions up to energies of 6 GeV/u. The first test run at the Nuclotron was carried out in March 1993, and the total running time has been about 2000 hours up to now. Since 1992 the cryoplant has been intensively used by the users outside the Laboratory. More than a million liters of liquid helium was provided in 1993 for such users. The reliability of the cryoplant system was as high as 98 percent for 4500 hours of operation in 1993-1994. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Helium in inert matrix dispersion fuels

    Veen, A. van; Konings, R.J.M.; Fedorov, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of helium, an important decay product in the transmutation chains of actinides, in dispersion-type inert matrix fuels is discussed. A phenomenological description of its accumulation and release in CERCER and CERMET fuel is given. A summary of recent He-implantation studies with inert matrix metal oxides (ZrO 2 , MgAl 2 O 4 , MgO and Al 2 O 3 ) is presented. A general picture is that for high helium concentrations helium and vacancy defects form helium clusters which convert into over-pressurized bubbles. At elevated temperature helium is released from the bubbles. On some occasions thermal stable nano-cavities or nano-pores remain. On the basis of these results the consequences for helium induced swelling and helium storage in oxide matrices kept at 800-1000 deg. C will be discussed. In addition, results of He-implantation studies for metal matrices (W, Mo, Nb and V alloys) will be presented. Introduction of helium in metals at elevated temperatures leads to clustering of helium to bubbles. When operational temperatures are higher than 0.5 melting temperature, swelling and helium embrittlement might occur

  12. Generation of Domestic Solid Waste in Tikrit City and The Effects of Family Size and Incomes Level on the Rate of Generation

    Waleed M. Al Abed Raba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     This research included collection and analysis of (2800 samples from four different neighborhoods in Tikrit over the seasons of the year to cover seasonal changes in the generation rate of domestic solid waste. The generation rate of domestic solid waste is (0.460 kg / person / day. The results also showed that summer season is the most season that produced solid waste (0.487 kg / person / day. While winter is the lowest season (0.422 kg / person / day. The results indicated that Friday and Saturday are the most producing days (0.629 , 0.557 kg / person / days, respectively. The results showed the impact of rural character of Aalam region in reducing the rate of generation of domestic solid waste as the rate of generation of the neighborhoods of the four studied areas was (0.460 kg / person / day. SPSS program using has been adopted as a method of statistical analysis to study the effect of family size and income level have on the generation rate in the city, where the results showed that family size adversely affects the generation rate of solid waste, also the lowest generation rate was recorded for families with high income level.                                                                                                                                  

  13. Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs

  15. Summary report on technical experiences from high-temperature helium turbomachinery testing in Germany

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany a comprehensive research and development program was initiated in 1968 for a Brayton (closed) cycle power conversion system. The program was for ultimate use with a high temperature, helium cooled nuclear reactor heat source (the HHT project) for electricity generation using helium as the working fluid. The program continued until 1982 in international cooperation with the United States and Switzerland. This document describes the designs and reports the results of testing activities that addressed the development of turbines, compressors, hot gas ducts, materials, heat exchangers and other equipment items for use with a helium working fluid at high temperatures. 67 refs, 34 figs, tabs

  16. Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions.

    Roberts, William L; Boulet, John; Sandella, Jeanne

    2017-12-01

    When the safety of the public is at stake, it is particularly relevant for licensing and credentialing exam agencies to use defensible standard setting methods to categorize candidates into competence categories (e.g., pass/fail). The aim of this study was to gather evidence to support change to the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation standard setting design and administrative process. Twenty-two video recordings of candidates assessed for clinical competence were randomly selected from the 2014-2015 Humanistic domain test score distribution ranging from the highest to lowest quintile of performance. Nineteen panelists convened at the same site to receive training and practice prior to generating judgments of qualified or not qualified performance to each of the twenty videos. At the end of training, one panel remained onsite to complete their judgments and the second panel was released and given 1 week to observe the same twenty videos and complete their judgments offsite. The two one-sided test procedure established equivalence between panel group means at the 0.05 confidence level, controlling for rater errors within each panel group. From a practical cost-effective and administrative resource perspective, results from this study suggest it is possible to diverge from typical panel groups, who are sequestered the entire time onsite, to larger numbers of panelists who can make their judgments offsite with little impact on judged samples of qualified performance. Standard setting designs having panelists train together and then allowing those to provide judgments yields equivalent ratings and, ultimately, similar cut scores.

  17. Thermal-hydraulic optimization of flexible transfer lines for liquid helium; Thermohydraulische Optimierung flexibler Transferleitungen fuer Fluessighelium

    Dittmar, Nico; Haberstroh, Christoph; Hesse, U. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Bitzer-Stiftungsprofessur fuer Kaelte-, Kryo- und Kompressorentechnik; Wolfram, M.; Krzyzowski, M.; Raccanelli, A. [CryoVac Gesellschaft fuer Tieftemperaturtechnik mbH und Co. KG, Troisdorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Cooling systems and applications at very low temperatures are based on the use of liquid helium as cryogenic agent; the normal boiling temperature of helium-4 is 4.2 K. Due to the restricted economic production possibilities and the high energetic expenditure for helium liquefaction an efficient and sustainable handling with the resources is recommended. In university facilities the liquid helium is usually stored in containers and filled into smaller containers for transport using cryogenic transfer lines. This procedure can cause 20% loss by evaporation due to heat input and friction pressure losses. The gaseous helium has to be collected for re-liquefaction. The contribution shows that using systematic measurements an increase of the transfer rate and the efficiency of the helium filling system can be reached by a modified transfer line design.

  18. Backscattered Helium Spectroscopy in the Helium Ion Microscope: Principles, Resolution and Applications

    van Gastel, Raoul; Hlawacek, G.; Dutta, S.; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibilities and limitations for microstructure characterization using backscattered particles from a sharply focused helium ion beam. The interaction of helium ions with matter enables the imaging, spectroscopic characterization, as well as the nanometer scale modification of

  19. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  20. Characterization of high flux magnetized helium plasma in SCU-PSI linear device

    Xiaochun, MA; Xiaogang, CAO; Lei, HAN; Zhiyan, ZHANG; Jianjun, WEI; Fujun, GOU

    2018-02-01

    A high-flux linear plasma device in Sichuan University plasma-surface interaction (SCU-PSI) based on a cascaded arc source has been established to simulate the interactions between helium and hydrogen plasma with the plasma-facing components in fusion reactors. In this paper, the helium plasma has been characterized by a double-pin Langmuir probe. The results show that the stable helium plasma beam with a diameter of 26 mm was constrained very well at a magnetic field strength of 0.3 T. The core density and ion flux of helium plasma have a strong dependence on the applied current, magnetic field strength and gas flow rate. It could reach an electron density of 1.2 × 1019 m-3 and helium ion flux of 3.2 × 1022 m-2 s-1, with a gas flow rate of 4 standard liter per minute, magnetic field strength of 0.2 T and input power of 11 kW. With the addition of -80 V applied to the target to increase the helium ion energy and the exposure time of 2 h, the flat top temperature reached about 530 °C. The different sizes of nanostructured fuzz on irradiated tungsten and molybdenum samples surfaces under the bombardment of helium ions were observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results measured in the SCU-PSI linear device provide a reference for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor related PSI research.

  1. Whisker growth: a new mechanism for helium blistering of surfaces in complex radiation environments

    McDonell, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Implantation of helium concurrent with the generation of large numbers of displaced atoms in surface layers of materials exposed to 252 Cf α-particles and fission fragments produces a unique form of low temperature surface blistering. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a basis for the whisker-growth mechanism for helium blistering as an aid to the specification of conditions under which the mechanism might apply

  2. Size Distribution and Rate of Dust Generated During Grain Elevator Handling

    Dust generated during grain handling is an air pollutant that produces safety and health hazards. This study was conducted to characterize the particle size distribution (PSD) of dust generated during handling of wheat and shelled corn in the research elevator of the USDA Grain Marketing and Product...

  3. A preliminary investigation of the diffusion of helium in zirconium

    Reed, D.J.; Faulkner, D.

    1976-10-01

    The out-diffusion of helium, introduced into polycrystalline zirconium at room temperature by ion-implantation at 100 keV to a peak concentration of 1ppm, was found to occur in two principal regions. Two evolution rate maxima, obtained during post-implantation target annealing at 2.6 0 K s -1 , were observed in close proximity at 330 0 C (0.28 Tsub(m)) and 450 0 C (0.34 Tsub(m)) comprising the principal stage, with a subordinate stage occurring at 600 0 C (0.4 Tsub(m)). These data were compared with similar maxima observed in nickel at 600 0 C (0.5 Tsub(m)) and 850 0 C (0.65 Tsub(m)). The results imply a high helium diffusivity over the 0.5 mm experimental range in comparison with nickel, and an exceptionally high diffusivity taking into account the melting temperature of zirconium. On the basis of a diffusion model proposed earlier for nickel, activation energies of 1.37 and 1.66 eV have been assigned to the principal maxima at 330 0 C and 450 0 C, and a value of 2.41 eV to the maximum at 600 0 C. The long range diffusivity of helium manifested by its thermal evolution from uniformly filled 120 mm thick foils was found to be much lower than that measured for short range migration. An empirical activation energy of approximately 3 eV was estimated for this process, thought to be a result of bubble migration. The release of helium from zirconium has been explained by comparison with nickel data. The proposed substitutional de-trapping mechanism has been invoked to account for the principal evolution rate maxima at 330 0 C. Helium release observed at 600 0 C has been explained by the annealing of radiation damage, so allowing gas trapped therein to be evolved. (author)

  4. Behaviour of helium after implantation in molybdenum

    Viaud, C.; Maillard, S.; Carlot, G.; Valot, C.; Gilabert, E.; Sauvage, T.; Peaucelle, C.; Moncoffre, N.

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the behaviour of helium in a molybdenum liner dedicated to the retention of fission products. More precisely this work contributes to evaluate the release of implanted helium when the gas has precipitated into nanometric bubbles close to the free surface. A simple model dedicated to calculate the helium release in such a condition is presented. The specificity of this model lays on the assumption that the gas is in equilibrium with a simple distribution of growing bubbles. This effort is encouraging since the calculated helium release fits an experimental dataset with a set of parameters in good agreement with the literature

  5. Helium Extraction from LNG End Flash

    Kim, Donghoi

    2014-01-01

    Helium is an invaluable element as it is widely used in industry such as cryo-genics and welding due to its unique properties. However, helium shortage is expected in near future because of increasing demand and the anxiety of sup-ply. Consequently, helium production has attracted the attention of industry. The main source of He is natural gas and extracting it from LNG end-flash is considered as the most promising way of producing crude helium. Thus, many process suppliers have proposed proc...

  6. Professor Gender, Age, and "Hotness" in Influencing College Students' Generation and Interpretation of Professor Ratings

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Boswell, Stefanie S.; McCaleb, Kayla; Robertson, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 230 undergraduate psychology students rated their expectations of a bogus professor (who was randomly designated a man or woman and "hot" versus "not hot") based on ratings and comments found on RateMyProfessors.com. Five professor qualities were derived using principal components analysis: dedication,…

  7. r-process nucleosynthesis in dynamic helium-burning environments

    Cowan, J. J.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Truran, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an extended examination of r-process nucleosynthesis in helium-burning enviroments are presented. Using newly calculated nuclear rates, dynamical r-process calculations have been made of thermal runaways in helium cores typical of low-mass stars and in the helium zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions. These calculations show that, for a sufficient flux of neutrons produced by the C-13 neutron source, r-process nuclei in solar proportions can be produced. The conditions required for r-process production are found to be 10 to the 20th-10 to the 21st neutrons per cubic centimeter for times of 0.01-0.1 s and neutron number densities in excess of 10 to the 19th per cubic centimeter for times of about 1 s. The amount of C-13 required is found to be exceedingly high - larger than is found to occur in any current stellar evolutionary model. It is thus unlikely that these helium-burning environments are responsible for producing the bulk of the r-process elements seen in the solar system.

  8. Numerical simulation of losses along a natural circulation helium loop

    Knížat, Branislav, E-mail: branislav.knizat@stuba.sk; Urban, František, E-mail: frantisek.urban@stuba.sk; Mlkvik, Marek, E-mail: marek.mlkvik@stuba.sk; Ridzoň, František, E-mail: frantisek.ridzon@stuba.sk; Olšiak, Róbert, E-mail: robert.olsiak@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Nám. slobody 17, 812 31 Bratislava, Slovak Republik (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    A natural circulation helium loop appears to be a perspective passive method of a nuclear reactor cooling. When designing this device, it is important to analyze the mechanism of an internal flow. The flow of helium in the loop is set in motion due to a difference of hydrostatic pressures between cold and hot branch. Steady flow at a requested flow rate occurs when the buoyancy force is adjusted to resistances against the flow. Considering the fact that the buoyancy force is proportional to a difference of temperatures in both branches, it is important to estimate the losses correctly in the process of design. The paper deals with the calculation of losses in branches of the natural circulation helium loop by methods of CFD. The results of calculations are an important basis for the hydraulic design of both exchangers (heater and cooler). The analysis was carried out for the existing model of a helium loop of the height 10 m and nominal heat power 250 kW.

  9. r-process nucleosynthesis in dynamic helium-burning environments

    Cowan, J.J.; Cameron, A.G.W.; Truran, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an extended examination of r-process nucleosynthesis in helium-burning environments are presented. Using newly calculated nuclear rates, dynamical r-process calculations have been made of thermal runaways in helium cores typical of low-mass stars and in the helium zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions. These calculations show that, for a sufficient flux of neutrons produced by the 13 C neutron source, r-process nuclei in solar proportions can be produced. The conditions required for r-process production are found to be: 10 20 --10 21 neutrons cm -3 for times of 0.01--0.1 s and neutron number densities in excess of 10 19 cm -3 for times of approx.1 s. The amount of 13 C required is found to be exceedingly high: larger than is found to occur in any current stellar evolutionary model. It is thus unlikely that these helium-burning environments are responsible for producing the bulk of the r-process elements seen in the solar system

  10. Determination of the emission rate for the 14 MeV neutron generator with the use of radio-yttrium

    Laszynska Ewa; Jednorog Slawomir; Ziolkowski Adam; Gierlik Michal; Rzadkiewicz Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The neutron emission rate is a crucial parameter for most of the radiation sources that emit neutrons. In the case of large fusion devices the determination of this parameter is necessary for a proper assessment of the power release and the prediction for the neutron budget. The 14 MeV neutron generator will be used for calibration of neutron diagnostics at JET and ITER facilities. The stability of the neutron generator working parameters like emission and angular homogeneity affects the accu...

  11. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  12. New helium spectrum variable and a new helium-rich star

    Walborn, N.R.

    1974-01-01

    HD 184927, known previously as a helium-rich star, has been found to have a variable helium spectrum; the equivalent widths of five He I lines are larger by an average of 46 percent on a 1974 spectrogram than on one obtained with the same equipment in 1970. HD 186205 has been found to be a new, pronounced helium-rich star. (auth)

  13. Pacemaker implantation rate after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with early and new-generation devices: a systematic review.

    van Rosendael, Philippe J; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2018-02-06

    The incidence of new-onset conduction abnormalities requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with new-generation prostheses remains debated. This systematic review analyses the incidence of PPI after TAVI with new-generation devices and evaluates the electrical, anatomical, and procedural factors associated with PPI. In addition, the incidence of PPI after TAVI with early generation prostheses was reviewed for comparison. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist, this systematic review screened original articles published between October 2010 and October 2017, reporting on the incidence of PPI after implantation of early and new-generation TAVI prostheses. Of the 1406 original articles identified in the first search for new-generation TAVI devices, 348 articles were examined for full text, and finally, 40 studies (n = 17 139) were included. The incidence of a PPI after the use of a new-generation TAVI prosthesis ranged between 2.3% and 36.1%. For balloon-expandable prostheses, the PPI rate remained low when using an early generation SAPIEN device (ranging between 2.3% and 28.2%), and with the new-generation SAPIEN 3 device, the PPI rate was between 4.0% and 24.0%. For self-expandable prostheses, the PPI rates were higher with the early generation CoreValve device (16.3-37.7%), and despite a reduction in PPI rates with the new Evolut R, the rates remained relatively higher (14.7-26.7%). When dividing the studies according to the highest (>26.0%) and the lowest (left ventricular outflow tract (anatomical factor), and balloon valvuloplasty and depth of implantation (procedural factors) were associated with increased risk of PPI. The rate of PPI after TAVI with new-generation devices is highly variable. Specific recommendations for implantation of each prosthesis, taking into consideration the presence of pre-existent conduction abnormalities and

  14. Determination of the emission rate for the 14 MeV neutron generator with the use of radio-yttrium

    Laszynska Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neutron emission rate is a crucial parameter for most of the radiation sources that emit neutrons. In the case of large fusion devices the determination of this parameter is necessary for a proper assessment of the power release and the prediction for the neutron budget. The 14 MeV neutron generator will be used for calibration of neutron diagnostics at JET and ITER facilities. The stability of the neutron generator working parameters like emission and angular homogeneity affects the accuracy of calibration other neutron diagnostics. The aim of our experiment was to confirm the usefulness of yttrium activation method for monitoring of the neutron generator SODERN Model: GENIE 16. The reaction rate induced by neutrons inside the yttrium sample was indirectly measured by activation of the yttrium sample, and then by means of the γ-spectrometry method. The pre-calibrated HPGe detector was used to determine the yttrium radioactivity. The emissivity of neutron generator calculated on the basis of the measured radioactivity was compared with the value resulting from its electrical settings, and both of these values were found to be consistent. This allowed for a positive verification of the reaction cross section that was used to determine the reaction rate (6.45 × 10−21 reactions per second and the neutron emission rate (1.04 × 108 n·s−1. Our study confirms usefulness of the yttrium activation method for monitoring of the neutron generator.

  15. Transgenerational plasticity of reproduction depends on rate of warming across generations.

    Donelson, Jennifer M; Wong, Marian; Booth, David J; Munday, Philip L

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the impacts of climate change to biological systems requires an understanding of the ability for species to acclimate to the projected environmental change through phenotypic plasticity. Determining the effects of higher temperatures on individual performance is made more complex by the potential for environmental conditions experienced in previous and current generations to independently affect phenotypic responses to high temperatures. We used a model coral reef fish ( Acanthochromis polyacanthus ) to investigate the influence of thermal conditions experienced by two generations on reproductive output and the quality of offspring produced by adults. We found that more gradual warming over two generations, +1.5°C in the first generation and then +3.0°C in the second generation, resulted in greater plasticity of reproductive attributes, compared to fish that experienced the same increase in one generation. Reproduction ceased at the projected future summer temperature (31.5°C) when fish experienced +3.0°C for two generations. Additionally, we found that transgenerational plasticity to +1.5°C induced full restoration of thermally affected reproductive and offspring attributes, which was not possible with developmental plasticity alone. Our results suggest that transgenerational effects differ depending on the absolute thermal change and in which life stage the thermal change is experienced.

  16. Effects of keV electron irradiation on the avalanche-electron generation rates of three donors on oxidized silicon

    Sah, C.; Sun, J.Y.; Tzou, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    After keV electron beam irradiation of oxidized silicon, the avalanche-electron-injection generation rates and densities of the bulk compensating donor, the interface states, and the turnaround trap all increase. Heating at 200 0 C can anneal out these three donor-like traps, however, it cannot restore the generation rates back to their original and lower pre-keV electron irradiation values. The experimental results also indicate that all three traps may be related to the same mobile impurity species whose bonds are loosened by the keV electrons and then broken or released by the avalanche injected electrons

  17. Helium transfer line installation details.

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  18. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  19. Electron temperature measurement by a helium line intensity ratio method in helicon plasmas

    Boivin, R.F.; Kline, J.L.; Scime, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Electron temperature measurements in helicon plasmas are difficult. The presence of intense rf fields in the plasma complicates the interpretation of Langmuir probe measurements. Furthermore, the non-negligible ion temperature in the plasma considerably shortens the lifetime of conventional Langmuir probes. A spectroscopic technique based on the relative intensities of neutral helium lines is used to measure the electron temperature in the HELIX (Hot hELicon eXperiment) plasma [P. A. Keiter et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2741 (1997)]. This nonintrusive diagnostic is based on the fact that electron impact excitation rate coefficients for helium singlet and triplet states differ as a function of the electron temperature. The different aspects related to the validity of this technique to measure the electron temperature in rf generated plasmas are discussed in this paper. At low plasma density (n e ≤10 11 cm -3 ), this diagnostic is believed to be very reliable since the population of the emitting level can be easily estimated with reasonable accuracy by assuming that all excitation originates from the ground state (steady-state corona model). At higher density, secondary processes (excitation transfer, excitation from metastable, cascading) become more important and a more complex collisional radiative model must be used to predict the electron temperature. In this work, different helium transitions are examined and a suitable transition pair is identified. For an electron temperature of 10 eV, the line ratio is measured as a function of plasma density and compared to values predicted by models. The measured line ratio function is in good agreement with theory and the data suggest that the excitation transfer is the dominant secondary process in high-density plasmas

  20. Rating Requirements of the UPQC to Integrate the FSIG Type Wind Generation to the Grid

    Jayanti, N.; Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The ability of wind generation to remain connected to the grid in the event of system faults and dynamic reactive power compensation are two aspects of grid integration, which have received particular attention. The wind driven, fixed-speed induction generator (FSIG) on its own fails to fulfil these requirements of grid integration. The application of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to overcome the grid integration problems of the FSIG is investigated. The role of the UPQC in enhan...

  1. Scenario analysis for estimating the learning rate of photovoltaic power generation based on learning curve theory in South Korea

    Hong, Sungjun; Chung, Yanghon; Woo, Chungwon

    2015-01-01

    South Korea, as the 9th largest energy consuming in 2013 and the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, established ‘Low Carbon Green Growth’ as the national vision in 2008, and is announcing various active energy policies that are set to gain the attention of the world. In this paper, we estimated the decrease of photovoltaic power generation cost in Korea based on the learning curve theory. Photovoltaic energy is one of the leading renewable energy sources, and countries all over the world are currently expanding R and D, demonstration and deployment of photovoltaic technology. In order to estimate the learning rate of photovoltaic energy in Korea, both conventional 1FLC (one-factor learning curve), which considers only the cumulative power generation, and 2FLC, which also considers R and D investment were applied. The 1FLC analysis showed that the cost of power generation decreased by 3.1% as the cumulative power generation doubled. The 2FCL analysis presented that the cost decreases by 2.33% every time the cumulative photovoltaic power generation is doubled and by 5.13% every time R and D investment is doubled. Moreover, the effect of R and D investment on photovoltaic technology took after around 3 years, and the depreciation rate of R and D investment was around 20%. - Highlights: • We analyze the learning effects of photovoltaic energy technology in Korea. • In order to calculate the learning rate, we use 1FLC (one-factor learning curve) and 2FLC methods, respectively. • 1FLC method considers only the cumulative power generation. • 2FLC method considers both cumulative power generation and knowledge stock. • We analyze a variety of scenarios by time lag and depreciation rate of R and D investment

  2. Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Materials Program. Reducing helium impurity depletion in HTGR materials testing

    Baldwin, D.H.

    1984-08-01

    Moisture depletion in HTGR materials testing rigs has been empirically studied in the GE High Temperature Reactor Materials Testing Laboratory (HTRMTL). Tests have shown that increased helium flow rates and reduction in reactive (oxidizable) surface area are effective means of reducing depletion. Further, a portion of the depletion has been shown to be due to the presence of free C released by the dissociation of CH 4 . This depletion component can be reduced by reducing the helium residence time (increasing the helium flow rate) or by reducing the CH 4 concentration in the test gas. Equipment modifications to reduce depletion have been developed, tested, and in most cases implemented in the HTRMTL to date. These include increasing the Helium Loop No. 1 pumping capacity, conversion of metallic retorts and radiation shields to alumina, isolation of thermocouple probes from the test gas by alumina thermowells, and substitution of non-reactive Mo-TZM for reactive metallic structural components

  3. Spectroscopy of antiproton helium atoms

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2005-01-01

    Antiproton helium atom is three-body system consisting of an antiproton, electrons and a helium nucleus (denoted by the chemical symbol, p-bar H + ). The authors produced abundant atoms of p-bar 4 He + , and p-bar 3 He + in a cooled He gas target chamber stopping the p-bar beam decelerated to approximately 100 keV in the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN. A precision laser spectroscopy on the atomic transitions in the p-bar 4 He + , and in p-bar 3 He + was performed. Principle of laser spectroscopy and various modifications of the system to eliminate factors affecting the accuracy of the experiment were described. Deduced mass ratio of antiproton and proton, (|m p -bar - m p |)/m p reached to the accuracy of 10 ppb (10 -8 ) as of 2002, as adopted in the recent article of the Particle Data Group by P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor. This value is the highest precise data for the CPT invariance in baryon. In future, antihydrogen atoms will be produced in the same facility, and will provide far accurate value of antiproton mass thus enabling a better confirmation of CPT theorem in baryon. (T. Tamura)

  4. Pressurization rate effect on ligament rupture and burst pressures of cracked steam generator tubes

    Majumdar, S.; Kasza, K.

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether ligament rupture pressure or unstable burst pressure may vary significantly with pressurization rate at room temperature arose from the results of pressure tests by industry on tubes with machined part-throughwall notches. Slow (quasi-static) and fast 14 MPa/s (2000 psi/s) pressurization rate tests on specimens with nominally the same notch geometry appeared to show a significant effect of the rate of pressurization on the unstable burst pressure. Unfortunately, the slow and fast loading rate tests were conducted following two different test procedures, which could confound the results. The current series of tests were conducted on a variety of specimen geometries using a consistent test procedure to better establish the effect of pressurization rate on ligament rupture and burst pressures. (author)

  5. Pressurization rate effect on ligament rupture and burst pressures of cracked steam generator tubes

    Majumdar, S.; Kasza, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Energy Division, Lemont, Illinois (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The question of whether ligament rupture pressure or unstable burst pressure may vary significantly with pressurization rate at room temperature arose from the results of pressure tests by industry on tubes with machined part-throughwall notches. Slow (quasi-static) and fast 14 MPa/s (2000 psi/s) pressurization rate tests on specimens with nominally the same notch geometry appeared to show a significant effect of the rate of pressurization on the unstable burst pressure. Unfortunately, the slow and fast loading rate tests were conducted following two different test procedures, which could confound the results. The current series of tests were conducted on a variety of specimen geometries using a consistent test procedure to better establish the effect of pressurization rate on ligament rupture and burst pressures. (author)

  6. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  7. Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC Tunnel at CERN

    Koettig, T.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Chorowski, M.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Grabowski, M.; Jedrusyna, A.; Lindell, G.; Nonis, M.; Vauthier, N.; van Weelderen, R.; Winkler, T.; Bremer, J.

    The helium cooled magnets of the LHC particle accelerator are installed in a confined space, formed by a 27 km circumference 3.8 m diameter underground tunnel. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting LHC magnets are protected by a lift plate against excessive overpressure created by eventual leaks from the magnet helium bath, or from the helium supply headers. A three-meter long no stay zone has been defined centered to these plates, based on earlier scale model studies, to protect the personnel against the consequences of an eventual opening of such a lift plate. More recently several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the resulting helium/air mixture along the tunnel in case of such a cold helium release at a rate in the range of 1 kg/s. To validate the different scale models and simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed in the LHC, releasing about 1000 liter of liquid helium under standard operational tunnel conditions. Data recorded during these tests include oxygen level, temperature and flow speed as well as video recordings, taken up- and downstream of the spill point (-100 m to +200 m) with respect to the ventilation direction in the LHC tunnel. The experimental set-up and measurement results are presented. Generic effects found during the tests will be discussed to allow the transposal to possible cold helium release cases in similar facilities.

  8. Strange matter and Big Bang helium synthesis

    Madsen, J.; Riisager, K.

    1985-01-01

    Stable strange quark matter produced in the QCD phase transition in the early universe will trap neutrons and repel protons, thus reducing primordial helium production, Ysub(p). For reasonable values of Ysub(p), the radius of strange droplets must exceed 10 -6 cm if strange matter shall solve the dark-matter problem without spoiling Big Bang helium synthesis. (orig.)

  9. Organ protection by the noble gas helium

    Smit, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate whether helium induces preconditioning in humans, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind this possible protection. First, we collected data regarding organ protective effects of noble gases in general, and of helium in particular (chapters 1-3). In chapter

  10. Radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium

    Dendooven, P.G.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; Aysto, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve

  11. An artificial intelligence (AI) NOx/heat rate optimization system for Ontario Hydro`s fossil generating stations

    Luk, J.; Frank, A.; Bodach, P. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Warriner, G. [Radian International, Tucker, GA (United States); Noblett, J. [Radian International, Austin, TX (United States); Slatsky, M. [Southern Company, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI)-based software packages which can optimize power plant operations that improves heat rate and also reduces nitrogen oxide emissions are now commonly available for commercial use. This paper discusses the implementation of the AI-based NOx and Heat Rate Optimization System at Ontario Hydro`s generation stations, emphasizing the current AI Optimization Project at Units 5 and 6 of the Lakeview Generating Station. These demonstration programs are showing promising results in NOx reduction and plant performance improvement. The availability of the plant Digital Control System (DCS) in implementing AI optimization in a closed-loop system was shown to be an important criterion for success. Implementation of AI technology at other Ontario Hydro fossil generating units as part of the overall NOx emission reduction system is envisaged to coincide with the retrofit of the original plant control system with the latest DCS systems. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Performance characterization of the FLEX low pressure helium facility for fusion technology experiments

    Schlindwein, Georg, E-mail: schlindwein@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A gas loop for fusion R and D has been built and tested. • Facility requirements and their implementation are given. • The loop's functions and instrumentation are explained. • The loops performance has been characterized. - Abstract: FLEX (Fluid Dynamics Experimental Facility) is a multi-purpose small scale gas loop for research on fluid and thermodynamic investigations, especially heat transfer, flow field measurements and gas purification. Initially it was built for investigation on mini-channel gas-flow to design the HFTM module of IFMIF. Because of its versatility it offers a wide range of further applications, e.g. the research of pressure drops in mockups of breeder units of the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) test blanket module for ITER. The main parameters of the loop, which can be operated with inert gases and air are: (i) operation gas pressure 0.02–0.38 MPa abs., (ii) test section pressure head up to 0.12 MPa, (iii) tolerable gas temperature RT – 200 °C and (iv) mass flow rate 0.2–12 × 10{sup −3} kg/s for Helium. This paper gives a detailed view of the loop assembly with the components that generate and regulate the mass flow and loop pressure. The measurement instrumentation will be presented as well as a representative mass flow-pressure drop characteristic. Furthermore, the achievable gas purity will be discussed.

  13. Modulation of GDP-fucose level for generating proteins with reduced rate of fucosylation (WO2010141855).

    Taupin, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The application (WO2010141855) is in the field of glycobiology, and involves the control of the rate of fucosylation of proteins by exogenous factors. It aims at controlling the rate of protein fucosylation with inhibitors (drugs or nucleic acid antagonists) of enzymes involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mammalian cell lines were cultured in the presence of inhibitors, for example, siRNA. The rates of GDP-fucose in cells and during protein fucosylation were characterized. The level of protein fucosylation decreases rapidly in response to a decrease in GDP-fucose level. The relationship between the rate of fucosylation of proteins and the level of GDP-fucose in a cell is non-linear. Reduction in the rate of protein fucosylation can be achieved with a minimal reduction of the level of GDP-fucose in cells. The paradigm may be used to synthesize proteins and antibodies, with a reduced rate of fucosylation. The application claims that the use of drugs or nucleic acid antagonists that inhibit the enzymes involved in GDP-fucose biosynthesis optimizes the level of GDP-fucose present in cells, and reduces the rate of fucosylation of glycoproteins.

  14. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    Debere Mesfin Kote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public, were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private. Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1. Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22% in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%. The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001. The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.

  15. Modeling Secondary Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere

    Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Möbius, Eberhard; Wood, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate, analytic heliospheric neutral test-particle code for helium atoms from the interstellar medium (ISM) is coupled to global heliospheric models dominated by hydrogen and protons from the solar wind and the ISM. This coupling enables the forward-calculation of secondary helium neutrals from first principles. Secondaries are produced predominantly in the outer heliosheath, upwind of the heliopause, by charge exchange of helium ions with neutral atoms. The forward model integrates the secondary production terms along neutral trajectories and calculates the combined neutral helium phase space density in the innermost heliosphere where it can be related to in-situ observations. The phase space density of the secondary component is lower than that of primary neutral helium, but its presence can change the analysis of primaries and the ISM, and can yield valuable insight into the characteristics of the plasma in the outer heliosheath. (paper)

  16. HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation

    Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Sato, Minoru

    1992-11-01

    HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)

  17. Hybrid simulation research on formation mechanism of tungsten nanostructure induced by helium plasma irradiation

    Ito, Atsushi M., E-mail: ito.atsushi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takayama, Arimichi; Oda, Yasuhiro [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Hattori, Tatsunori; Ogata, Shuji [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yajima, Miyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Noiri, Yasuyuki [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Yoshihide [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Saito, Seiki [Kushiro National College of Technology, Kushiro, Hokkaido 084-0916 (Japan); Takamura, Shuichi [Aichi Institute of Technology, 1247 Yachigusa, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Murashima, Takahiro [Tohoku University, 6-3, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-Ward, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Miyamoto, Mitsutaka [Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The generation of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure by exposure to helium plasma is one of the important problems for the use of tungsten material as divertor plates in nuclear fusion reactors. In the present paper, the formation mechanisms of the helium bubble and the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure were investigated by using several simulation methods. We proposed the four-step process which is composed of penetration step, diffusion and agglomeration step, helium bubble growth step, and fuzzy nanostructure formation step. As the fourth step, the formation of the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure was successfully reproduced by newly developed hybrid simulation combining between molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo method. The formation mechanism of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure observed by the hybrid simulation is that concavity and convexity of the surface are enhanced by the bursting of helium bubbles in the region around the concavity.

  18. Research and development of a helium-4 based solar neutrino detector

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1990-12-01

    We report on work accomplished in the first 30 months of a research and development program to investigate the feasibility of a new technique to detect solar neutrinos in superfluid helium. Accomplishments include the successful completion of design, construction and operation of the entire cryogenic, mechanical and electronic apparatus. During the last several months we have begun a series of experiments in superfluid helium to test the method. Experimental results include the first observation of the combined physical processes essential to the detection technique: ballistic roton generation by energetic charged particles, quantum evaporation of helium at a free surface and bolometric detection of the evaporated helium by physisorption on a cold silicon wafer. Additional results are also presented

  19. Helium induced degradation in the weldability of an austenitic stainless steel

    Lin, H.T.; Goods, S.H.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Chinl, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Autogenous gas tungsten arc welding was performed on He-doped type 316 stainless steel. Helium was uniformly implanted in the material using the ''tritium trick'' to levels of 27 and 105 appm. Severe intergranular cracking occurred in both fusion and heat-affected zones. Microstructural observations of fusion zone indicated that the pore size, degree of porosity, and tendency to form cracks increased with increasing helium concentration. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cracking in He-doped materials was due to the precipitation of helium bubbles on grain boundaries and dentrite interfaces. Results of the present study demonstrate that the use of conventional welding techniques to repair materials degraded by exposure to radiation may be difficult if the irradiation results in the generation of even rather small amounts of helium. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen for bubble swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel under sequential helium and hydrogen irradiation at different temperatures

    Hu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Jihong; Luo, Fengfeng; Li, Tiecheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ren, Yaoyao [Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping; Yang, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Helium/hydrogen synergistic effect can increase irradiation swelling of RAFM steel. • Hydrogen can be trapped to the outer surface of helium bubbles. • Too large a helium bubble can become movable. • Point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations at high temperature. • The peak swelling temperature for RAFM steel is 450 °C. - Abstract: In order to investigate the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen on swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, specimens were separately irradiated by single He{sup +} beam and sequential He{sup +} and H{sup +} beams at different temperatures from 250 to 650 °C. Transmission electron microscope observation showed that implantation of hydrogen into the specimens pre-irradiated by helium can result in obvious enhancement of bubble size and swelling rate which can be regarded as a consequence of hydrogen being trapped by helium bubbles. But when temperature increased, Ostwald ripening mechanism would become dominant, besides, too large a bubble could become mobile and swallow many tiny bubbles on their way moving, reducing bubble number density. And these effects were most remarkable at 450 °C which was the peak bubble swelling temperature for RAMF steel. When temperature was high enough, say above 450, point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations or surface. As a consequence, helium could no longer effectively diffuse and clustering in materials and bubble formation was suppressed. When temperature was above 500, helium bubbles would become unstable and decompose or migrate out of surface. Finally no bubble was observed at 650 °C.

  1. Synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen for bubble swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel under sequential helium and hydrogen irradiation at different temperatures

    Hu, Wenhui; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Luo, Fengfeng; Li, Tiecheng; Ren, Yaoyao; Suo, Jinping; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Helium/hydrogen synergistic effect can increase irradiation swelling of RAFM steel. • Hydrogen can be trapped to the outer surface of helium bubbles. • Too large a helium bubble can become movable. • Point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations at high temperature. • The peak swelling temperature for RAFM steel is 450 °C. - Abstract: In order to investigate the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen on swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, specimens were separately irradiated by single He + beam and sequential He + and H + beams at different temperatures from 250 to 650 °C. Transmission electron microscope observation showed that implantation of hydrogen into the specimens pre-irradiated by helium can result in obvious enhancement of bubble size and swelling rate which can be regarded as a consequence of hydrogen being trapped by helium bubbles. But when temperature increased, Ostwald ripening mechanism would become dominant, besides, too large a bubble could become mobile and swallow many tiny bubbles on their way moving, reducing bubble number density. And these effects were most remarkable at 450 °C which was the peak bubble swelling temperature for RAMF steel. When temperature was high enough, say above 450, point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations or surface. As a consequence, helium could no longer effectively diffuse and clustering in materials and bubble formation was suppressed. When temperature was above 500, helium bubbles would become unstable and decompose or migrate out of surface. Finally no bubble was observed at 650 °C

  2. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  3. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  4. Tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles neutron-irradiated up to 230appm tritium and 3000appm helium

    Vladimir Chakin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1mm after high-dose neutron irradiation at temperatures of 686–968K was performed. The release rate always has a single peak, and the peak temperatures at heating rates of 0.017K/s and 0.117K/s lie in the range of 1100–1350K for both tritium and helium release. The total tritium release from 1mm pebbles decreases considerably by increasing the irradiation temperature. The total tritium release from 0.5mm pebbles is less than that from 1mm pebbles and remains constant regardless of the irradiation temperature. At high irradiation temperatures, open channels are formed which contribute to the enhanced tritium release.

  5. Non-random mating for selection with restricted rates of inbreeding and overlapping generations

    Sonesson, A.K.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Minimum coancestry mating with a maximum of one offspring per mating pair (MC1) is compared with random mating schemes for populations with overlapping generations. Optimum contribution selection is used, whereby $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ is restricted. For schemes with $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ restricted to 0.25% per

  6. Healthcare waste management in Uganda: management and generation rates in public and private hospitals in Kampala

    Mugambe, R.K.; Ssempebwa, J.C.; Tumwesigye, N.M.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Adedimeji, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the management, characteristics and generation of healthcare waste (HCW) in public and private hospitals in Kampala City, Uganda. Methods We employed mainly qualitative methods through the use of a waste inventory, observations, document review and key

  7. Study on the PWSCC Crack Growth Rate for Steam Generator Tubing

    Kang, Shin Hoo; Hwang, Il Soon; Lim, Jun; Lee, Seung Gi; Ryu, Kyung Ha

    2008-03-01

    Using in-situ Raman spectroscopy and crack growth rate lest system in simulated PWR primary water environment, the relationship between the oxide film chemistry and the PWSCC growth rate has been studied. We used I/2T compact tension specimen and disk specimen made of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 for crack growth rate test and in-situ Raman spectroscopy measurement. Test was made in a refreshed autoclave with 30 cc STP / kg of dissolved hydrogen concentration. Conductivity, pH, dissolved hydrogen and oxygen concentration were continuously monitored at the outlet. The crack growth rate was measured by using switching DCPD technique under cyclinc triangular loading and at the same time oxide phase was determined by using in-situ Raman spectra at the elevation of the temperature. Additionally Raman spectroscopy was achieved for oxide phase transition of Alloy 600 according to the temperature and dissolved hydrogen concentration, 2 and 30cc STP / kg

  8. Defects induced by helium implantation in SiC

    Oliviero, E.; Barbot, J.F.; Declemy, A.; Beaufort, M.F.; Oliviero, E.

    2008-01-01

    SiC is one of the considered materials for nuclear fuel conditioning and for the fabrication of some core structures in future nuclear generation reactors. For the development of this advance technology, a fundamental research on this material is of prime importance. In particular, the implantation/irradiation effects have to be understood and controlled. It is with this aim that the structural alterations induced by implantation/irradiation in SiC are studied by different experimental techniques as transmission electron microscopy, helium desorption, X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. In this work, the different types of defects induced by helium implantation in SiC, point or primary defects (obtained at low energy (∼100 eV) until spread defects (obtained at higher energy (until ∼2 MeV)) are exposed. The amorphization/recrystallization and swelling phenomena are presented too. (O.M.)

  9. Influence of chemistry on steam generator primary-to-secondary stabilized low leak flow rate

    Hervouet, C.; Pages, D.; Fauchon, C.; Bretelle, J.L.; Bus, F.

    2002-01-01

    The comparison of the leak flow rate behavior between the previous and the new boron/lithium coordination, the second one corresponding to an higher pH during the cycle than the first one, leads to the following conclusions, confirmed by the experimental and theoretical studies: Low leak flow rate is extremely sensitive to pH in the zone of pH of primary water because the behavior of metallic oxide is changing drastically in that range of pH (from precipitation to dissolution); Leak flow rate is often maintained lower with low pH. Let's recall however that pH can not reach a too low value which could enhance corrosion product deposition, increase dose rates along the primary circuit, and lead to reactor outages due to problems on fuel assemblies. The understanding of the governing phenomena led to adapt in 2000 the reactor cooling system chemical conditioning for the French Pressurized Water reactors facing problems with the management of the stabilized leak flow rate fluctuations, once no degradation of tube bundle integrity is proved. Each part of the cycle and operating conditions lead to an advised operating action. In general, the new recommendations for the reactors facing problems with the management of low leak flow rate are based on the principle of helping the precipitation of metallic oxide within the crack and preventing their dissolution. (authors)

  10. Four-body conversion of atomic helium ions

    de Vries, C.P.; Oskam, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion of atomic helium ions into molecular ions was studied in pure helium and in helium-neon mixtures containing between 0.1 at. % and 50 at. % neon. The experiments showed that the termolecular conversion reaction, He + +2He → He 2 + +He, is augmented by the four-body conversion reaction He + +3He → products, where the products could include either He 2 + or He 3 + ions. Conversion rate coefficients of (5.7 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 and (2.6 +- 0.4) x 10 -49 cm 9 sec -1 were found for the termolecular and four-body conversion reactions, respectively. In addition, rate coefficients for the following Ne + conversion reactions were measured: Ne + +He+He → (HeNe) + +He, (2.3 +- 0.1) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; Ne + +He+Ne → (HeNe) + +Ne or Ne 2 + +He, (8.0 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; and Ne + +Ne+Ne → Ne 2 + +Ne, (5.1 +- 0.3) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 . All rate coefficients are at a gas temperature of 295 K

  11. Creep properties of superalloys for the HTGR in impure helium environments

    Kawakami, H.; Nakanishi, T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes creep behaviors of two heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy X and Incoloy 800, in helium environments of the HTGR. In impure helium environments, these alloys are susceptible to carburization and oxidization. We have investigated these effects separately, and related them to the creep behaviors of the alloys. Experiments were carried out at 900 0 C both in helium and in air. Carburization results in decrease of secondary creep strain rate and delay of tertiary creep initiation. Oxidization caused decrease in tertiary creep strain rate of Hastelloy X, but did not that of Incoloy 800. Enhancement in tertiary creep strain rate of Hastelloy X in a very weakly oxidizing environment was confirmed in creep crack growth experiment using notched plate specimens. The rupture time of Hastelloy X in helium was short when compared with in air. Stress versus rupture time curves for both environments were parallel up to 5000 hours test, and a ratio of rupture stress in helium to that in air was about 0.9. In case of Incoloy 800, rupture time in helium was markedly prolonged as compared with that in air. (orig.)

  12. Tests of cold helium compressors at Fermilab

    Peterson, T.J.; Fuerst, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    Fermilab has tested two cold helium compressors for possible installation in the satellite refrigerator buildings of the Tevatron cryogenic system. Operating conditions required to obtain an overall Tevatron energy upgrade from 900 to 1000 GeV are (for each of 24 machines): 52 g/s mass flow rate, 0.7 atm inlet pressure, 1.4 atm exhaust pressure. Acceptable efficiency is in the 60% range. Both Creare, Inc., and Cryogenic Consultants, Inc. (CCI), have supplied units for evaluation. The Creare machine is a high speed centrifugal pump/compressor which yielded 60% adiabatic efficiency (including an approximately 20 watt heat leak) with a 1.0 atm inlet pressure and 55 g/s flow rate. Certain mechanical difficulties were present, chiefly the device's inability to withstand two-phase flow. CCI supplied a reciprocating unit which, after initial testing and modification, achieved 59% efficiency with an approximate 35 watt heat leak at a 0.7 atm inlet pressure and 48 g/s flow rate. Although the device lacks the smooth, quiet operating characteristics of a turbomachine, it has endured mechanically throughout testing and is entirely insensitive to two-phase flow

  13. The Mechanism of Helium-Induced Preconditioning: A Direct Role for Nitric Oxide in Rabbits

    Pagel, Paul S.; Krolikowski, John G.; Pratt, Phillip F.; Shim, Yon Hee; Amour, Julien; Warltier, David C.; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Helium produces preconditioning against myocardial infarction by activating prosurvival signaling, but whether nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase plays a role in this phenomenon is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NO mediates helium-induced cardioprotection in vivo. METHODS Rabbits (n = 62) instrumented for hemodynamic measurement were subjected to a 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 3 h reperfusion, and received 0.9% saline (control) or three cycles of 70% helium–30% oxygen administered for 5 min interspersed with 5 min of an air–oxygen mixture before left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion in the absence or presence of pretreatment with the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg), the selective inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG; 300 mg/kg), or selective neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 50 mg/kg). In additional rabbits, the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluroscein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and confocal laser microscopy were used to detect NO production in the absence or presence of helium with or without L-NAME pretreatment. RESULTS Helium reduced (P < 0.05) infarct size (24% ± 4% of the left ventricular area at risk; mean ± sd) compared with control (46% ± 3%). L-NAME, AG, and 7-NI did not alter myocardial infarct size when administered alone. L-NAME, but not 7-NI or AG, abolished helium-induced cardioprotection. Helium enhanced DAF-2DA fluorescence compared with control (26 ± 8 vs 15 ± 5 U, respectively). Pretreatment with L-NAME abolished these helium-induced increases in DAF-2DA fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that cardioprotection by helium is mediated by NO that is probably generated by endothelial NOS in vivo. PMID:18713880

  14. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  15. Municipal solid waste generation rates and its management at Yusmarg forest ecosystem, a tourist resort in Kashmir.

    Bhat, Rouf Ahmad; Nazir, Rumisa; Ashraf, Samia; Ali, Mudasir; Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N

    2014-02-01

    The present study was carried out at Yusmarg, a forest ecosystem and tourist resort, in the Kashmir valley during 2012 with the objectives of determining the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates per capita and on a daily basis, and assessing the existing MSW system. It was estimated that daily generation of MSW at Yusmarg by tourists, as well as residents, was 107.74 kg; on average, the MSW generated at each site was about 36.48 kg/day. The per capita generation of MSW was highest (0.97 kg/person/day) at site 1 followed by 0.288 kg/person/day at site 2 and 0.201 kg/person/day at site 3, with an average per capita MSW generation rate of 0.484 kg/person/day. Manual segregation of the collected wastes showed that it comprised some recyclable, combustible, compostable and inert materials. Among the different waste categories, 56% of waste was recyclable materials, 29% was compostable wastes, 9% was combustible wastes and 6% was inert materials. The present study infers that MSW management in Yusmarg was inappropriate, and infrastructure, skilled manpower and a proper scientific disposal mechanism is lacking in the area. In order to conserve the forest wealth of the area there is a great need to focus on the solid waste problem of the tourist resort.

  16. A high-repetition rate LWFA for studies of laser propagation and electron generation

    He, Zhaohan; Easter, James; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Nees, John; Thomas, Alec

    2010-11-01

    Advances in ultrafast optics today have enabled laser systems to deliver ever shorter and more intense pulses. When focused, such laser pulses can easily exceed relativistic intensities where the wakefield created by the strong laser electric field can be used to accelerate electrons. Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds promise for future compact electron accelerators or drivers of other radiation sources in many scientific, medical and engineering applications. We present experimental studies of laser wakefield acceleration using the λ-cubed laser at the University of Michigan -- a table-top high-power laser system operating at 500 Hz repetition rate. The high repetition rate allows statistical studies of laser propagation and electron acceleration which are not accessible with typical sub-0.1 Hz repetition rate systems. In addition, we compare the experiments with particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS.

  17. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    examples to show how reproductive timing Tc and level R0 are shaped by stage dynamics (individual trait changes), selection on the trait, and parent-offspring phenotypic correlation. We also show how population structure can affect dispersion in reproduction among ages and stages. These macroscopic...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  18. Analysis of the financial factors governing the profitability of lunar helium-3

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Thompson, H.; Ott, S.

    1989-01-01

    Financial factors influencing the profitability of the mining and utilization of lunar helium-3 are examined. The analysis addressed the following questions: (1) which financial factors have the greatest leverage on the profitability of He-3; (2) over what range can these factors be varied to keep the He-3 option profitable; and (3) what ultimate effect could this energy source have on the price of electricity for U.S. consumers. Two complementary methods of analysis were used in the assessment: rate of return on incremental investment required and reduction revenue requirements (total cost to customers) achieved. Some of the factors addressed include energy demand, power generation costs with and without fusion, profitability for D-He(3) fusion, annual capital and operating costs, launch mass and costs, He-3 price, and government funding. Specific conclusions are made with respect to each of the companies considered: utilities, lunar mining company, and integrated energy company.

  19. Precipitation of iron species on the cold side of PWR steam generator and its possible correlation to dose rate elevation

    Bengtsson, Bernt; Chen, Jiaxin; Andersson, Petter

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years of service of Ringhals PWR unit 4, operating with Alloy-600MA steam generator tubing materials and a coolant pH of 7.2 (a)300°C, the cold water channel heads experienced continuous dose rate elevation. In the hot parts, however, it remained stable. Similar observations were made in Ringhals unit 2 and 3 after SGR to Alloy 690 and sometimes in other PWRs operated at similarly 'low' pH-regime. Following the introduction of elevated pH regime at Ringhals PWRs the cold side dose rates dropped to the similar levels as on the hot side. The phenomena are analysed in this paper from three different aspects: (1) the general plant observations in dose rate development under different coolant pH regimes; (2) the concentrations of dissolved and soluble iron species at the low and high coolant pH values and (3) the microstructures of the oxide films formed on the cold and hot sides of a steam generator tube pulled from a retired steam generator. Based on the analyses a hypothesis is elaborated that the formation of a thin but highly radioactive layer of iron-rich oxide deposit on the cold side may be responsible for the dose rate elevation and that its formation may be harder at the elevated pH regime. (author)

  20. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student-Generated Teacher Ratings

    Agnew, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…

  1. Information rates of next-generation long-haul optical fiber systems using coded modulation

    Liga, G.; Alvarado, A.; Agrell, E.; Bayvel, P.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the coded performance of long-haul spectrally-efficient WDM optical fiber transmission systems with different coded modulation decoding structures is presented. Achievable information rates are derived for three different square QAM formats and the optimal format is

  2. The impact of building recirculation rates on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry

    Zuraimi, M.S.; Weschler, Charles J.; Tham, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous investigators have documented increases in the concentrations of airborne particles as a consequence of ozone/terpene reactions in indoor environments. This study examines the effect of building recirculation rates on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) resulting from r...

  3. Ion temperature anisotropy in high power helium neutral beam fuelling experiments in JET

    Maas, A C; Core, W G.F.; Gerstel, U C; Von Hellermann, M G; Koenig, R W.T.; Marcus, F B [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    During helium beam fuelling experiments in JET, distinctive anisotropic features have been observed in the velocity distribution function describing both fast and thermal alpha particle populations. During the initial fuelling phase the central helium ion temperature observed perpendicular to the magnetic field is higher than the central electron temperature, while the central helium ion temperature observed parallel to the magnetic field is lower than or equal to the central electron temperature. In order to verify temperature measurements of both perpendicular and parallel lines of sight, other independent methods of deducing the ion temperature are investigated: deuterium ion temperature, deuterium density, comparison with neutron rates and profiles (influence of a possible metastable population of helium). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Effect of helium preinjection and prior thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure of Type 316 SS

    Kohyama, A.; Ayrault, G.; Turner, A.P.L.; Igata, N.

    1982-10-01

    Samples of 316 SS were preinjected with 15 appM helium either hot (650 0 C) or cold (room temperature) and irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + ions to a dose level of 25 dpa at 625 0 C in order to test the validity of helium preinjection as a means of simulation of transmutant helium production. Results for preinjected and single-ion irradiated samples were compared to samples irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + and simultaneously injected with helium at a rate of 15 appM He/dpa (dual-ion irradiated samples). Preinjected samples exhibited bimodal cavity size distributions. Preinjected samples of solution annealed or solution annealed and aged material showed lower swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples. However, He preinjection in 20% cold worked samples showed greater swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples 9 figures, 1 table

  5. Friendly fermions of helium-three

    Leggatt, T.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of helium in showing up the effects of atomic indistinguishability and as a material by which to test some of the most fundamental principles of quantum mechanics is discussed. Helium not only remains liquid down to zero temperature but of the two isotopes helium-three has intrinsic spin 1/2 and should therefore obey the Pauli principle, while helium-four has spin zero and is expected to undergo Bose condensation. Helium-three becomes superfluid at temperatures of a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero by the bulk liquid collecting its atoms into spinning pairs. There are three different superfluid phases, now conveniently called A, B and A 1 and each is characterised by a different behaviour of the spin and/or relative angular motion of the atoms composing the Cooper pairs. Problems surrounding the complicated physical system of helium-three are discussed. It is suggested that the combined coherence and directionality of superfluid helium-three should create some fascinating physics. (U.K.)

  6. Seismological measurement of solar helium abundance

    Vorontsov, S.V.; Pamyatnykh, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The internal structure and evolution of the Sun depends on its chemical composition, particularly the helium abundance. In addition, the helium abundance in the solar envelope is thought to represent the protosolar value, making it a datum of cosmological significance. Spectroscopic measurements of the helium abundance are uncertain, and the most reliable estimates until now have come from the calibration of solar evolutionary models. The frequencies of solar acoustic oscillations are sensitive, however, to the behaviour of the speed of sound in the Sun's helium ionization zone, which allows a helioseismological determination of the helium abundance. Sound-speed inversion of helioseismological data can be used for this purpose, but precise frequency measurements of high-degree oscillation modes are needed. Here we describe a new approach based on an analysis of the phase shift of acoustic waves of intermediate-degree modes. From the accurate intermediate-mode data now available, we obtain a helium mass fraction Y=0.25±0.01 in the solar convection zone, significantly smaller than the value Y=0.27-0.29 predicted by recent solar evolutionary models. The discrepancy indicates either that initial helium abundance was reduced in the envelope by downward diffusion or that the protosolar value was lower than currently accepted. (author)

  7. Determining appropriate feed-in tariff rates to promote biomass-to-electricity generation in Eastern Ontario, Canada

    Moore, Steven; Durant, Vincent; Mabee, Warren E.

    2013-01-01

    On-site data collection, interviews, and financial models were used to determine the feed-in tariff (FIT) rate required to encourage investment in the generation of electricity from currently unused biomass from the Eastern Ontario forest industry. A financial model was adapted and run to determine the net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period associated with a 15 MW biomass-to-electricity facility. The analysis suggests that Ontario should consider a stronger incentive than the recently-offered CDN$ 0.13 kW −1 h −1 for biomass-to-electricity. If no customer for heat generated from the plant can be found, FIT rates between CDN$ 0.17–0.22 kW −1 h −1 are necessary to achieve a 15% internal rate of return and a simple payback of approximately 5 yr; achieving a price of CDN$ 0.013 kW −1 of thermal output still requires elevated FIT rates between CDN$ 0.15–0.21 kW −1 h −1 to meet economic performance criteria. Other barriers, particularly regulations regarding the use of operating engineers in steam plants, should also be addressed to facilitate development of biomass-to-electricity. Without these changes, it is likely that biomass will be significantly under-used and will not contribute to the renewable energy goals of Ontario. - Highlights: • Economic performance of biomass-to-electricity generation in Ontario is assessed. • Feed-in tariffs needed to meet industrial payback and IRR targets are determined. • Existing feed-in tariff rates for biomass must be raised to meet industrial targets. • Incentives that adjust feedstock price might be explored to increase biomass use

  8. Neovascular glaucoma after helium ion irradiation for uveal melanoma

    Kim, M.K.; Char, D.H.; Castro, J.L.; Saunders, W.M.; Chen, G.T.; Stone, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma developed in 22 of 169 uveal melanoma patients treated with helium ion irradiation. Most patients had large melanomas; no eyes containing small melanomas developed anterior segment neovascularization. The mean onset of glaucoma was 14.1 months (range, 7-31 months). The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization increased with radiation dosage; there was an approximately three-fold increase at 80 GyE versus 60 GyE of helium ion radiation (23% vs. 8.5%) (P less than 0.05). Neovascular glaucoma occurred more commonly in larger tumors; the incidence was not affected by tumor location, presence of subretinal fluid, nor rate of tumor regression. Fifty-three percent of patients had some response with intraocular pressures of 21 mmHg or less to a combination of antiglaucoma treatments

  9. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

    Breurec, Sebastien; Bouchiat, Coralie; Sire, Jean-Marie; Moquet, Olivier; Bercion, Raymond; Cisse, Moussa Fafa; Glaser, Philippe; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Ka, Sidy; Salord, Helene; Seck, Abdoulaye; Sy, Haby Signate; Michel, Remy; Garin, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Background: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with amortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births.Methods: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at threeneonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections wereconfirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiologi...

  10. Pulse Generator Exchange Does Not Accelerate the Rate of Electrical Failure in a Recalled Small Caliber ICD Lead.

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Premkumar, Ajay; Levy, Mathew R; Mengistu, Andenet; Hoskins, Michael H; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel R; Langberg, Jonathan J; Delurgio, David B

    2015-12-01

    St. Jude Riata/Riata ST defibrillator leads (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA) were recalled by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 for an increased rate of failure. More than 227,000 leads were implanted and at least 79,000 patients still have active Riata leads. Studies have examined clinical predictors of lead failure in Riata leads, but none have addressed the effect of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generator exchange on lead failure. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of ICD generator exchange on the rate of electrical failure in the Riata lead at 1 year. A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients who underwent implantation of a Riata/Riata ST lead at one center. Patients with a functioning Riata lead (with/without externalized conductor) at the time of ICD exchange were compared to controls with Riata leads implanted for a comparable amount of time who did not undergo generator replacement. Riata leads were implanted in 1,042 patients prior to the recall and 153 of these patients underwent generator exchange without lead replacement. Conductor externalization was noted in 21.5% of Riata leads in the ICD exchange cohort, which was not different from the control group (19.2%; P = 0.32). Two leads failed in the first year after generator replacement (1.5%) which did not significantly differ from the control group (2.0%; P = 0.57). At change-out, 54% received a commanded shock (18.6 ± 0.9 J) that did not result in any change in the high-voltage lead impedance (46.1 ± 1.1 ohms). Conductor externalization was seen frequently in our cohort of patients. ICD generator exchange did not accelerate the rate of Riata lead failure at 1 year. Although both the control and the change-out cohorts failed at a rate much greater than nonrecalled leads, generator exchange did not appear to add to the problem. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Superfluid helium-4: An introductory review

    Vinen, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Helium was first liquefied by Kamerlingh Onnes in Leiden in July 1908, an achievement that followed much careful and painstaking work. On the same day Onnes reduced the temperature of his helium to a value approaching lK, and he must therefore have produced and observed the superfluid phase. These experimental discoveries led very quickly to a series of remarkable theoretical contributions that laid the foundations for all subsequent work. The period since the second world war has of course seen an enormous amount of work on superfluid helium-4. In reviewing it the author tries to see it in terms of two threads: one originating from Landau; the other from London

  12. Superfluid helium at subcritical active core

    Vasil'ev, V.V.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Muratov, V.G.; Rakhno, I.L.

    2002-01-01

    Power range and neutron flux wherein super thermal source was realized at high volume of superfluid helium were investigated. MCU, BRAND, MCNP codes were used for the calculation of reactors. It is shown that the availability of full-size diameter for cryogenic source of ultracold neutrons, as the source with superfluid helium is considered, is possible in the reflector of subcritical assembly. Results obtained from the MCNP-4B code application demonstrated that the density of thermal neutron flux in helium must be not higher than 2.3 x 10 11 s -1 cm -2 [ru

  13. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    Dufay-Chanat, L; Bremer, J; Casas-Cubillos, J; Koettig, T; Vauthier, N; Van Weelderen, R; Winkler, T; Chorowski, M; Grabowski, M; Jedrusyna, A; Lindell, G; Nonis, M

    2015-01-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium were released under standard operational tunnel conditions. The data recorded include oxygen concentration, temperature and flow speed measurements, and video footage used to assess qualitatively the visibility. These measurements have been made in the up- and downstream directions, with respect to the air ventilation flow, of the spill point.This paper presents the experimental set-up under which these release tests were made, the effects of these releases on the atmospheric tunnel condition as a function of the release flow rate. We discuss the modification to the personnel access conditions to the LHC tunnel that are presently implemented as a result of these tests. (paper)

  14. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    Dufay-Chanat, L.; Bremer, J.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jedrusyna, A.; Lindell, G.; Nonis, M.; Koettig, T.; Vauthier, N.; van Weelderen, R.; Winkler, T.

    2015-12-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium were released under standard operational tunnel conditions. The data recorded include oxygen concentration, temperature and flow speed measurements, and video footage used to assess qualitatively the visibility. These measurements have been made in the up- and downstream directions, with respect to the air ventilation flow, of the spill point. This paper presents the experimental set-up under which these release tests were made, the effects of these releases on the atmospheric tunnel condition as a function of the release flow rate. We discuss the modification to the personnel access conditions to the LHC tunnel that are presently implemented as a result of these tests.

  15. Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with a High Generation Rate KTP Waveguide Photon-Pair Source

    Wilson, J.; Chaffee, D.; Wilson, N.; Lekki, J.; Tokars, R.; Pouch, J.; Lind, A.; Cavin, J.; Helmick, S.; Roberts, T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA awarded Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts to AdvR, Inc to develop a high generation rate source of entangled photons that could be used to explore quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. The final product, a photon pair source using a dual-element periodically- poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide, was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in June of 2015. This paper describes the source, its characterization, and its performance in a B92 (Bennett, 1992) protocol QKD experiment.

  16. Helium accumulation and bubble formation in FeCoNiCr alloy under high fluence He+ implantation

    Chen, Da; Tong, Y.; Li, H.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. L.; Hu, Alice; Kai, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    Face-centered cubic (FCC) high-entropy alloys (HEA), as emerging alloys with equal-molar or near equal-molar constituents, show a promising radiation damage resistance under heavy ion bombardment, making them potential for structural material application in next-generation nuclear reactors, but the accumulation of light helium ions, a product of nuclear fission reaction, has not been studied. The present work experimentally studied the helium accumulation and bubble formation at implantation temperatures of 523 K, 573 K and 673 K in a homogenized FCC FeCoNiCr HEA, a HEA showing excellent radiation damage resistance under heavy ion irradiation. The size and population density of helium bubbles in FeCoNiCr samples were quantitatively analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the helium content existing in bubbles were estimated from a high-pressure Equation of State (EOS). We found that the helium diffusion in such condition was dominated by the self-interstitial/He replacement mechanism, and the corresponding activation energy in FeCoNiCr is comparable with the vacancy migration energy in Ni and austenitic stainless steel but only 14.3%, 31.4% and 51.4% of the accumulated helium precipitated into helium bubbles at 523 K, 573 K and 673 K, respectively, smaller than the pure Ni case. Importantly, the small bubble size suggested that FeCoNiCr HEA has a high resistance of helium bubble formation compared with Ni and steels.

  17. Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Wall Suction on Entropy Generation Rate in Laminar Condensate Layer on Horizontal Tube

    Tong-Bou Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wall suction on the entropy generation rate in a two-dimensional steady film condensation flow on a horizontal tube are investigated theoretically. In analyzing the liquid flow, the effects of both the gravitational force and the viscous force are taken into account. In addition, a film thickness reduction ratio, Sf, is introduced to evaluate the effect of wall suction on the thickness of the condensate layer. The analytical results show that, the entropy generation rate depends on the Jakob number Ja, the Rayleigh number Ra, the Brinkman number Br, the dimensionless temperature difference ψ, and the wall suction parameter Sw. In addition, it is shown that in the absence of wall suction, a closed-form correlation for the Nusselt number can be derived. Finally, it is shown that the dimensionless entropy generation due to heat transfer, NT, increases with an increasing suction parameter Sw, whereas the dimensionless entropy generation due to liquid film flow friction, NF, decreases.

  18. Spectroscopic Study of Recombination in the Early Afterglow of a Helium Plasma

    Stevefelt, J

    1968-02-15

    Some properties of a decaying helium plasma have been studied using time resolved spectroscopy and probe diagnostics. The plasma was produced in a pulsed, repetitive, hot cathode discharge in helium at a pressure 11 torr , and the light emitted in the afterglow of the discharge was measured by means of a spectrometer-photomultiplier combination. Single photoelectrons were counted on a scaler during a preset gate time of each discharge cycle, and after a preset number of cycles recorded on punched tape. The spectrometer was calibrated for absolute intensity measurements of the spectral lines of atomic helium. The overall conductance of the positive column was determined by measuring the voltage difference between two probes inserted into the plasma, passing a very small current pulse between the anode and cathode in the afterglow. Heavier current pulses were used to heat the free electrons selectively, thus providing so-called 'afterglow quenching'. From the measured absolute intensities of the helium lines, the number densities of the excited states of helium were calculated. All levels with principal quantum number n {>=} 8 were found to be in near Saha equilibrium with the free electrons at a temperature 1,275 deg K in the early afterglow (15-35 {mu}s after end of the discharge). By measuring the absolute intensities of some of the molecular helium bands, an estimate of the rate of conversion of atomic helium ions into molecular helium ions was obtained. The atomic line radiation, as well as the molecular band radiation, was assumed to result from collisional-radiative recombination of atomic and molecular helium ions, respectively. The rate of recombination down to the metastable level n = 2 was obtained from the measured line intensities. By adding the rate of ambipolar diffusion, calculated from known literature data, quite good agreement with the measured decay rate for the electron density was found. The measured line intensities were also used to calculate

  19. Optimization and phase matching of fiber-laser-driven high-order harmonic generation at high repetition rate.

    Cabasse, Amélie; Machinet, Guillaume; Dubrouil, Antoine; Cormier, Eric; Constant, Eric

    2012-11-15

    High-repetition-rate sources are very attractive for high-order harmonic generation (HHG). However, due to their pulse characteristics (low energy, long duration), those systems require a tight focusing geometry to achieve the necessary intensity to generate harmonics. In this Letter, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the optimization of HHG in this geometry, to maximize the extreme UV (XUV) photon flux and improve the conversion efficiency. We analyze the influence of atomic gas media (Ar, Kr, or Xe), gas pressure, and interaction geometries (a gas jet and a finite and a semi-infinite gas cell). Numerical simulations allow us to define optimal conditions for HHG in this tight focusing regime and to observe the signature of on-axis phase matching. These conditions are implemented experimentally using a high-repetition-rate Yb-doped fiber laser system. We achieve optimization of emission with a recorded XUV photon flux of 4.5×10(12) photons/s generated in Xe at 100 kHz repetition rate.

  20. Use of a high repetition rate neutron generator for in vivo body composition measurements via neutron inelastic scattering

    Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Weinlein, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A small D-T neutron generator with a high pulse rate is used for the in vivo measurement of body carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The core of the neutron generator is a 13 cm-long Zetatron tube pulsed at a rate of 10 kHz delivering 10 3 to 10 4 neutrons per pulse. A target-current feedback system regulates the source of the accelerator to assure constant neutron output. Carbon is measured by detecting the 4.44 MeV γ-rays from inelastic scattering. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the γ-rays during the 10 μs neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurements because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during the pulse). In vivo measurements were performed with normal volunteers using a scanning bed facility for a dose less than 25 mrem. This technique offers medical as well as general bulk analysis applications. 8 refs., 5 figs

  1. Cluster dynamics modeling of the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels

    Brimbal, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.brimbal@areva.com [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Fournier, Lionel [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Barbu, Alain [Alain Barbu Consultant, 6 Avenue Pasteur Martin Luther King, 78230 Le Pecq (France)

    2016-01-15

    A mean field cluster dynamics model has been developed in order to study the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructural evolution of metals. In this model, self-interstitial clusters, stacking-fault tetrahedra and helium-vacancy clusters are taken into account, in a configuration well adapted to austenitic stainless steels. For small helium-vacancy cluster sizes, the densities of each small cluster are calculated. However, for large sizes, only the mean number of helium atoms per cluster size is calculated. This aspect allows us to calculate the evolution of the microstructural features up to high irradiation doses in a few minutes. It is shown that the presence of stacking-fault tetrahedra notably reduces cavity sizes below 400 °C, but they have little influence on the microstructure above this temperature. The binding energies of vacancies to cavities are calculated using a new method essentially based on ab initio data. It is shown that helium has little effect on the cavity microstructure at 300 °C. However, at higher temperatures, even small helium production rates such as those typical of sodium-fast-reactors induce a notable increase in cavity density compared to an irradiation without helium. - Highlights: • Irradiation of steels with helium is studied through a new cluster dynamics model. • There is only a small effect of helium on cavity distributions in PWR conditions. • An increase in helium production causes an increase in cavity density over 500 °C. • The role of helium is to stabilize cavities via reduced emission of vacancies.

  2. Determination of correction and conversion factor of exposure rate generated Gamma spectrometer GR-320 to Victoreen data

    Supardjo-AS; Mappa, Djody-Rachim; Nasrun-Syamsul; Syamsul-Hadi

    2000-01-01

    Exposure rate data of Muria Peninsula were generated from Victoreen-491 measurement and calculation of radioelement content in soil which were measured by Exploranium GR-320, using IAEA formula. However those data are not be comparable so the exposure rate calculated from Gamma Spectrometer data necessarily to be corrected. The correction factor was determinate by measuring the exposure rate of at the NMDC's back yard selected location using Victoreen-491 and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 . Correction factor was created by comparing mean exposure rate data that calculated from 30 data measured by Gamma Spectrometer instrument and to those Victoreen's exposure rate. Conversion factor was gained from comparing of total count data of Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 to Victoreen's exposure rate data. The correction factor of Exploranium GR-320's exposure rate is 0.34 μR/hours, and the conversion factor of total count is 0.0092 μR/hours per c/m. Deviation Victoreen 491 = 4.7 % and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 8.6 %

  3. LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels

    Clinton, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report

  4. Ab initio Investigation of Helium in Vanadium Oxide Nanoclusters

    Danielson, Thomas; Tea, Eric; Hin, Celine

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are strong candidate materials for the next generation of fission reactors and future fusion reactors. They are characterized by a large number density of oxide nanoclusters dispersed throughout a BCC iron matrix, where current oxide nanoclusters are primarily comprised of Y-Ti-O compounds. The oxide nanoclusters provide the alloy with high resistance to neutron irradiation, high yield strength and high creep strength at the elevated temperatures of a reactor environment. In addition, the oxide nanoclusters serve as trapping sites for transmutation product helium providing substantially increased resistance to catastrophic cracking and embrittlement. Although the mechanical properties and radiation resistance of the existing NFAs is promising, the problem of forming large scale reactor components continues to present a formidable challenge due to the high hardness and unpredictable fracture behavior of the alloys. An alternative alloy has been previously proposed and fabricated where vanadium is added in order to form vanadium oxide nanoclusters that serve as deflection sites for crack propagation. Although experiments have shown evidence that the fracture behavior of the alloys is improved, it is unknown whether or not the vanadium oxide nanoclusters are effective trapping sites for helium. We present results obtained using density functional theory investigating the thermodynamic stability of helium with the vanadium oxide matrix to make a comparison of trapping effectiveness to traditional Y-Ti-O compounds.

  5. Modular helium reactor for non-electric applications

    Shenoy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The high temperature gas-cooled Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) is an advanced, high efficiency reactor system which can play a vital role in meeting the future energy needs of the world by contributing not only to the generation of electric power, but also the non-electric energy traditionally served by fossil fuels. This paper summarizes work done over 20 years, by several people at General Atomics, how the Modular Helium Reactor can be integrated to provide different non-electric applications during Process Steam/Cogeneration for industrial application, Process Heat for transportation fuel development and Hydrogen Production for various energy applications. The MHR integrates favorably into present petrochemical and primary metal process industries, heavy oil recovery, and future shale oil recovery and synfuel processes. The technical fit of the Process Steam/Cogeneration Modular Helium Reactor (PS/C-MHR) into these processes is excellent, since it can supply the required quantity and high quality of steam without fossil superheating. 12 refs, 25 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Helium release from neutron-irradiated Li{sub 2}O single crystals

    Yamaki, Daiju; Tanifuji, Takaaki; Noda, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Helium release behavior in post-irradiation heating tests was investigated for Li{sub 2}O single crystals which had been irradiated with thermal neutrons in JRR-4 and JRR-2, and fast neutrons in FFTF. It is clarified that the helium release curves from JRR-4 and JRR-2 specimens consists of only one broad peak. From the dependence of the peak temperatures on the neutron fluence and the crystal diameter, and the comparison with the results obtained for sintered pellets, it is considered that the helium generated in the specimen is released through the process of bulk diffusion with trapping by irradiation defects such as some defect clusters. For the helium release from FFTF specimens, two broad peaks were observed in the release curves. It is considered to suggest that two different diffusion paths exist for helium migration in the specimen, that is, bulk diffusion and diffusion through the micro-crack due to the heavy irradiation. In addition, helium bubble formation after irradiation due to the high temperature over 800K is suggested. (J.P.N.)

  7. Hydrogen Process Coupling to Modular Helium Reactors

    Shenoy, Arkal; Richards, Matt; Buckingham, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the concept to be used for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), because it is the most advanced Generation IV concept with the capability to provide process heat at sufficiently high temperatures for production of hydrogen with high thermal efficiency. Concurrently with the NGNP program, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) was established to develop hydrogen production technologies that are compatible with advanced nuclear systems and do not produce greenhouse gases. The current DOE schedule for the NGNP Project calls for startup of the NGNP plant by 2021. The General Atomics (GA) NGNP pre-conceptual design is based on the GA Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), which utilizes a direct Brayton cycle Power Conversion System (PCS) to produce electricity with a thermal efficiency of 48%. The nuclear heat source for the NGNP consists of a single 600-MW(t) MHR module with two primary coolant loops for transport of the high-temperature helium exiting the reactor core to a direct cycle PCS for electricity generation and to an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for hydrogen production. The GA NGNP concept is designed to demonstrate hydrogen production using both the thermochemical sulfur-iodine (SI) process and high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). The two primary coolant loops can be operated independently or in parallel. The reactor design is essentially the same as that for the GT-MHR, but includes the additional primary coolant loop to transport heat to the IHX and other modifications to allow operation with a reactor outlet helium temperature of 950 .deg. C (vs. 850 .deg. C for the GT-MHR). The IHX transfers a nominal 65 MW(t) to the secondary heat transport loop that provides the high-temperature heat required by the SI-based and HTE-based hydrogen production facilities. Two commercial nuclear hydrogen plant variations were evaluated with

  8. Use of separating nozzles or ultra-centrifuges for obtaining helium from gas mixtures containing helium

    Reimann, T.

    1987-01-01

    To obtain helium from gas mixtures containing helium, particularly from natural gas, it is proposed to match the dimensions of the separation devices for a ratio of the molecular weights to be separated of 4:1 of more, which ensures a higher separation factor and therefore a smaller number of separation stages to be connected in series. The process should make reasonably priced separation of helium possible. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Radial Velocity Generation for Extending Bandwidth of Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor at Low Frequency

    Yue Ji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model of the modified MHD ARS. A method that can generate radial velocity by an MHD pump in MHD ARS is proposed. A device is designed to study the radial flow velocity generated by the MHD pump. The influence of structure and physical parameters are studied by numerical simulation and experiment of the device. The analytic expression of the velocity generated by the energized current drawn from simulation and experiment are consistent, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method generating radial velocity. The study can be applied to generate and control radial velocity in modified MHD ARS, which is essential for the two effects combination throughout the whole bandwidth.

  10. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Parental generation rats were fed until they reached reproductive age; first filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After 3 months of feeding, first filial generation rats gave birth to second filial generation rats; second filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After feeding for 90, 180, and 270 days, rats were sacrificed. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze body weight, food intake, and food utilization rate data collected during the time of feeding and blood iodine hormone level, which was determined after sacrifice. Results: The LI and LII groups generally demonstrated decreased activity, slow reaction, and growth retardation compared with the NI group. After 270 days, the urine iodine levels of the LI and LII groups were 1.7 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the NI group (255.2 μg/L) ( Pfood intake of female and male rats after 270 days were (465.0±27.7), (658.4±28.6) and (423.0±13.2), (548.0±18.8) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((499.5±21.8), (760.8±33.0) g) ( Pfood utilization rate of female rats in the LI and LII groups was (8.7±0.4)% and (6.0±0.58)%, which was lower than that of the NI group ((11.7±3.5)%) ( Pfood intake, and food utilization rate among second filial

  11. Automated recognition of helium speech. Phase I: Investigation of microprocessor based analysis/synthesis system

    Jelinek, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    This is the Final Report of Electronic Design Associates on its Phase I SBIR project. The purpose of this project is to develop a method for correcting helium speech, as experienced in diver-surface communication. The goal of the Phase I study was to design, prototype, and evaluate a real time helium speech corrector system based upon digital signal processing techniques. The general approach was to develop hardware (an IBM PC board) to digitize helium speech and software (a LAMBDA computer based simulation) to translate the speech. As planned in the study proposal, this initial prototype may now be used to assess expected performance from a self contained real time system which uses an identical algorithm. The Final Report details the work carried out to produce the prototype system. Four major project tasks were: a signal processing scheme for converting helium speech to normal sounding speech was generated. The signal processing scheme was simulated on a general purpose (LAMDA) computer. Actual helium speech was supplied to the simulation and the converted speech was generated. An IBM-PC based 14 bit data Input/Output board was designed and built. A bibliography of references on speech processing was generated.

  12. Conceptual design of a fixed-pitch wind turbine generator system rated at 400 kilowatts

    Pintz, A.; Kasuba, R.; Spring, J.

    1984-01-01

    The design and cost aspects of a fixed pitch, 400 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) concept are presented. Improvements in reliability and cost reductions were achieved with fixed pitch operation and by incorporating recent advances in WTG technology. The specifications for this WTG concept were as follows: (1) A fixed pitch, continuous wooden rotor was to be provided by the Gougeon Bros. Co. (2) An 8 leg hyperboloid tower that showed promise as a low cost structure was to be used. (3) Only commercially available components and parts that could be easily fabricated were to be considered. (4) Design features deemed desirable based on recent NASA research efforts were to be incorporated. Detailed costs and weight estimates were prepared for the second machine and a wind farm of 12 WTG's. The calculated cost of energy for the fixed pitch, twelve unit windfarm is 11.5 cents/kW hr not including the cost of land and access roads. The study shows feasibility of fixed pitch, intermediate power WTG operation.

  13. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  14. Relation between the conditions of helium ion implantation and helium void equilibrium parameters

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Rybalko, V.F.; Ruzhitskij, V.V.; Tolstolutskaya, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The conditions of helium thermodynamic equilibrium in a system of voids produced by helium ion bombardment of a metal sample are studied. As an initial equation for description of the equilibrium the Clapeyron equation was used. The equation is obtained relating basic parameters of helium voids (average diameter and density) to irradiation parameters (dose, ion energy (straggling)) and properties of the metal (surface tension coefficient, yield strength). Comparison of the calculations with experimental data on helium in nickel found in literature shows that the equation yields satisfactory resutls for the dose range 1.10 16 -1x10 17 cm -2 and temperatures T [ru

  15. CALCULATED REGENERATOR PERFORMANCE AT 4 K WITH HELIUM-4 AND HELIUM-3

    Radebaugh, Ray; Huang Yonghua; O'Gallagher, Agnes; Gary, John

    2008-01-01

    The helium-4 working fluid in regenerative cryocoolers operating with the cold end near 4 K deviates considerably from an ideal gas. As a result, losses in the regenerator, given by the time-averaged enthalpy flux, are increased and are strong functions of the operating pressure and temperature. Helium-3, with its lower boiling point, behaves somewhat closer to an ideal gas in this low temperature range and can reduce the losses in 4 K regenerators. An analytical model is used to find the fluid properties that strongly influence the regenerator losses as well as the gross refrigeration power. The thermodynamic and transport properties of helium-3 were incorporated into the latest NIST regenerator numerical model, known as REGEN3.3, which was used to model regenerator performance with either helium-4 or helium-3. With this model we show how the use of helium-3 in place of helium-4 can improve the performance of 4 K regenerative cryocoolers. The effects of operating pressure, warm-end temperature, and frequency on regenerators with helium-4 and helium-3 are investigated and compared. The results are used to find optimum operating conditions. The frequency range investigated varies from 1 Hz to 30 Hz, with particular emphasis on higher frequencies

  16. Diffusion of helium and nucleation-growth of helium-bubbles in metallic materials

    Zhang Chonghong; Chen Keqin; Wang Yinshu

    2001-01-01

    Studies of diffusion and aggregation behaviour of helium in metallic materials are very important to solve the problem of helium embrittlement in structural materials used in the environment of nuclear power. Experimental studies on helium diffusion and aggregation in austenitic stainless steels in a wide temperature range have been performed in authors' research group and the main results obtained are briefly summarized. The mechanism of nucleation-growth of helium-bubbles has been discussed and some problems to be solved are also given

  17. Charged condensate and helium dwarf stars

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A, E-mail: gg32@nyu.edu, E-mail: rar339@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen and heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat-the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  18. Helium-Hydrogen Recovery System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Immense quantities of expensive liquefied helium are required at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers for pre-cooling rocket engine propellant systems prior to filling...

  19. KSTAR Helium Refrigeration System Design and Manufacturing

    Dauguet, P.; Briend, P.; Abe, I.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J.-M.; Andrieu, F.; Beauvisage, J.

    2006-01-01

    The tokamak developed in the KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) project makes intensive use of superconducting magnets operated at 4.5 K. The cold components of the KSTAR tokamak require forced flow of supercritical helium for magnets/structure, boiling liquid helium for current leads, and gaseous helium for thermal shields. The cryogenic system will provide stable operation and full automatic control. A three-pressure helium cycle composed of six turbines has been customised design for this project. The '' design '' operating mode results with a system composed of a 9 kW refrigerator (including safety margin) and using gas and liquid storages for mass balancing. During Shot/Standby mode, the heat loads are highly time-dependent. A thermal damper is used to smooth these variations and will allow stable operation. (author)

  20. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  1. Near field characteristics of buoyant helium plumes

    pressure tubing. Helium gas enters the bottom of the settling chamber, passing through two ... A 40 mesh, flat stainless steel screen is placed across the orifice exit. ... PIV and PLIF measurements are carried out in phase resolved manner.

  2. Hybrid Circuit QED with Electrons on Helium

    Yang, Ge

    Electrons on helium (eHe) is a 2-dimensional system that forms naturally at the interface between superfluid helium and vacuum. It has the highest measured electron mobility, and long predicted spin coherence time. In this talk, we will first review various quantum computer architecture proposals that take advantage of these exceptional properties. In particular, we describe how electrons on helium can be combined with superconducting microwave circuits to take advantage of the recent progress in the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED). We will then demonstrate how to reliably trap electrons on these devices hours at a time, at millikelvin temperatures inside a dilution refrigerator. The coupling between the electrons and the microwave resonator exceeds 1 MHz, and can be reproduced from the design geometry using our numerical simulation. Finally, we will present our progress on isolating individual electrons in such circuits, to build single-electron quantum dots with electrons on helium.

  3. Helium cosmic ray flux measurements at Mars

    Lee, Kerry; Pinsky, Lawrence; Andersen, Vic; Zeitlin, Cary; Cleghorn, Tim; Cucinotta, Frank; Saganti, Premkumar; Atwell, William; Turner, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The helium energy spectrum in Martian orbit has been observed by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The orbital data were taken from March 13, 2002 to October 28, 2003, at which time a very intense Solar Particle Event caused a loss of communication between the instrument and the spacecraft. The silicon detector stack in MARIE is optimized for the detection of protons and helium in the energy range below 100MeV/n, which typically includes almost all of the flux during SPEs. This also makes MARIE an efficient detector for GCR helium in the energy range of 50-150MeV/n. We will present the first fully normalized flux results from MARIE, using helium ions in this energy range

  4. Helium cosmic ray flux measurements at Mars

    Lee, Kerry [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd. Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: ktlee@ems.jsc.nasa.gov; Pinsky, Lawrence [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd. Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Andersen, Vic [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd. Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Zeitlin, Cary [National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Cleghorn, Tim [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Road 1, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Cucinotta, Frank [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Road 1, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Saganti, Premkumar [Prairie View A and M University, P.O. Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446-0519 (United States); Atwell, William [The Boeing Company, Houston, TX (United States); Turner, Ron [Advancing National Strategies and Enabling Results (ANSER), Arlington, Virginia (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The helium energy spectrum in Martian orbit has been observed by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The orbital data were taken from March 13, 2002 to October 28, 2003, at which time a very intense Solar Particle Event caused a loss of communication between the instrument and the spacecraft. The silicon detector stack in MARIE is optimized for the detection of protons and helium in the energy range below 100MeV/n, which typically includes almost all of the flux during SPEs. This also makes MARIE an efficient detector for GCR helium in the energy range of 50-150MeV/n. We will present the first fully normalized flux results from MARIE, using helium ions in this energy range.

  5. Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators

    Nagarjun, K. P.; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN - waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.

  6. Individual-level social capital and self-rated health in Japan: an application of the Resource Generator.

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Kawachi, Ichiro; Iwase, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi

    2013-05-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of associations between social capital and health in public health research, a criticism of the field has been that researchers have exclusively focused on concepts of social cohesion to the exclusion of individual-level approaches. In the present study, we evaluated the association between social capital measured by the Resource Generator (an individual-level assessment of access to social capital) and self-rated health among Japanese population in a cross-sectional study. A postal survey of 4000 randomly selected residents in Okayama City (western Japan) was conducted in February 2009. We divided the overall scores from the Resource Generator Japan scale into quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self-rated health were calculated separately by sex. Individuals with the highest quartile of scores had significantly lower odds of poor health compared to the lowest group after covariate adjustment among both men and women (men; OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.86, women; OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.79, respectively) and there were also significant dose-response relationships. In the sub-domains of Resource Generator Japan scale, a differential pattern was observed by sex. Women showed a clear dose-response relationship with health across all four sub-scales (domestic resources, expert advice, personal skills, and problem solving resources). In contrast, only the domain of expert advice exhibited a strong association with men's health. Among both men and women individual-level social capital measured by the Resource Generator was related to reduced odds of poor health even after taking into account individual confounders. Although we cannot exclude reverse causation due to the cross-sectional design, our study adds to the accumulating evidence of the potential utility of the Resource Generator for evaluating the relationship between individual-level access to social capital and health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Mechanical property changes induced in structural alloys by neutron irradiations with different helium to displacement ratios*1

    Mansur, L. K.; Grossbeck, M. L.

    1988-07-01

    Effects of helium on mechanical properties of irradiated structural materials are reviewed. In particular, variations in response to the ratio of helium to displacement damage serve as the focus. Ductility in creep and tensile tests is emphasized. A variety of early work has led to the current concentration on helium effects for fusion reactor materials applications. A battery of techniques has been developed by which the helium to displacement ratio can be varied. Our main discussion is devoted to the techniques of spectral tailoring and isotopic alloying currently of interest for mixed-spectrum reactors. Theoretical models of physical mechanisms by which helium interacts with displacement damage have been developed in terms of hardening to dislocation motion and grain boundary cavitation. Austenitic stainless steels, ferritic/martensitic steels and vanadium alloys are considered. In each case, work at low strain rates, where the main problems may lie, at the helium to displacement ratios appropriate to fusion reactor materials is lacking. Recent experimental evidence suggests that both in-reactor and high helium results may differ substantially from post-irradiation or low helium results. It is suggested that work in these areas is especially needed.

  8. Diffusion and agglomeration of helium in stainless steel in the temperature range from RT to 600 deg. C

    Zhang, C.H.; Chen, K.Q.; Zhu, Z.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of helium and formation of helium bubbles in stainless steel in conditions of atomic displacement in the temperature range from RT to 600 deg. C are studied theoretically using standard rate equations. The dissociative mechanism via self-interstitial/He replacement is assumed to control helium diffusion and bubble formation. The numerical analysis shows that the temperature dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient of helium, the number density and the mean radius of bubbles has two distinctly different regimes with the transition occurring around 300 deg. C. The effective diffusion coefficient of helium, the number density and the mean radius of bubbles show weak temperature dependence in the low temperature regime, while they change abruptly with temperature in the high temperature regime. The results are qualitatively in agreement with the results of our experimental study on helium diffusion and bubble formation in helium-implanted 316L stainless steel. However, the discrepancy in the absolute values of number density and mean radius of bubbles between theoretical and experimental studies indicates that helium diffusion and bubble formation may be controlled by some athermal mechanisms in the low temperature regime

  9. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Motte Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  10. Effects of helium impurities on superalloys

    Selle, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    A review of the literature on the effects of helium impurities on superalloys at elevated temperatures was undertaken. The actual effects of these impurities vary depending on the alloy, composition of the gas atmosphere, and temperature. In general, exposure in helium produces significant but not catastrophic changes in the structure and properties of the alloys. The effects of these treatments on the structure, creep, fatigue, and mechanical properties of the various alloys are reviewed and discussed. Suggestions for future work are presented

  11. Electrons on the surface of liquid helium

    Lambert, D.K.

    1979-05-01

    Spectroscopic techniques were used to study transitions of electrons between bound states in the potential well near a helium surface. The charge density distribution of electrons on the surface was independently obtained from electrical measurements. From the measurements, information was obtained both about the interaction of the bound state electrons with the surface of liquid helium and about local disorder in the positions of electrons on the surface

  12. Influence of helium injection schedule and prior thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure of ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel

    Kohyama, A.; Ayrault, G.; Loomis, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the evolution of the microstructure in first wall materials during irradiation with special emphasis on the effects of helium production, displacement damage rates and temperature

  13. DESAIN AWAL TURBIN UAP TIPE AKSIAL UNTUK KONSEP RGTT30 BERPENDINGIN HELIUM

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2016-06-01

    FOR HELIUM-COOLED RGTT30 CONCEPT. The concept of a nuclear power reactor, which evolves, is high temperature gas-cooled reactor type (HTGR. Gas that is used to cool the HTGR core, is helium. The HTGR concept used in this study can yield thermal power of 30 MWth so that named RGTT30. Helium temperature can reach 700 °C when come out from the RGTT30 core and it is used for heating the water within steam generator to achieve the temperature of 435 °C. The steam generator is connected to a steam turbine, which is coupled with an electricity generator, for generating electric power of 7.27 MWe. The steam that comes out from the turbine is flowed through condenser for changing the steam into water. The component train of steam generator, turbine, and condenser was given the name of steam turbine system. The turbine consists of blades that are intended to transform the steam power into mechanical power in the form of rotational speed. Turbine efficiency is a parameter that must be considered in this steam turbine system. The aims of this paper are to propose blade of axial type and to analyze the efficiency improvement of the turbine. The method used is the application of the thermodynamic principles associated with conservations of energy and mass. Cycle-Tempo software is used to obtain thermodynamic parameters and to simulate the steam turbine system based on RGTT30. Firstly, a scenario is created to model and simulate the steam turbine system for determining the efficiency and the mass flow rate of steam. The optimal values for the efficiency and the mass flow rates at the speed of 3000 rpm are 87.52 % and 8.759 kg/s, respectively. Then, the steam turbine was given the blade of axial type with a tip diameter of 1580 mm and a length of 150 mm. The results obtained are turbine efficiency increasing to 88.3% on constant speed (3000 rpm. Enhancement in the turbine efficiency value of 0.78% showed raising the overall performance of RGTT30. Keywords: Axial type, steam turbine

  14. The problem of helium in structural materials for fusion reactor

    Nikiforov, A.S.; Zakharov, A.P.; Chuev, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The processes of helium buildup in some metals and alloys at different energy neutron flux irradiation under thermonuclear reactor conditions are considered. The data on high temperature helium embrittlement of a number of stainless steels, titanium and aluminium alloys etc. are given A review of experiments concerning the implanted helium behaviour is presented. Possible reactions between helium atoms and point defects or their clusters are discussed. Analysed are material structure variations upon buildup in them up to 1 at % of helium

  15. A stochastic differential equations approach for the description of helium bubble size distributions in irradiated metals

    Seif, Dariush; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2014-12-01

    A rate theory model based on the theory of nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is developed to estimate the time-dependent size distribution of helium bubbles in metals under irradiation. Using approaches derived from Itô's calculus, rate equations for the first five moments of the size distribution in helium-vacancy space are derived, accounting for the stochastic nature of the atomic processes involved. In the first iteration of the model, the distribution is represented as a bivariate Gaussian distribution. The spread of the distribution about the mean is obtained by white-noise terms in the second-order moments, driven by fluctuations in the general absorption and emission of point defects by bubbles, and fluctuations stemming from collision cascades. This statistical model for the reconstruction of the distribution by its moments is coupled to a previously developed reduced-set, mean-field, rate theory model. As an illustrative case study, the model is applied to a tungsten plasma facing component under irradiation. Our findings highlight the important role of stochastic atomic fluctuations on the evolution of helium-vacancy cluster size distributions. It is found that when the average bubble size is small (at low dpa levels), the relative spread of the distribution is large and average bubble pressures may be very large. As bubbles begin to grow in size, average bubble pressures decrease, and stochastic fluctuations have a lessened effect. The distribution becomes tighter as it evolves in time, corresponding to a more uniform bubble population. The model is formulated in a general way, capable of including point defect drift due to internal temperature and/or stress gradients. These arise during pulsed irradiation, and also during steady irradiation as a result of externally applied or internally generated non-homogeneous stress fields. Discussion is given into how the model can be extended to include full spatial resolution and how the

  16. Online helium inventory monitoring of JLab cryogenic systems

    Hasan, N.; Knudsen, P.; Wright, M.

    2017-12-01

    There are five cryogenic plants at Jefferson Lab which support the LINAC, experiment hall end-stations and test facility. The majority of JLab’s helium inventory, which is around 15 tons, is allocated in the LINAC cryo-modules, with the majority of the balance of helium distributed at the cryogenic-plant level mainly as stored gas and liquid for stable operation. Due to the organic evolution of the five plants and independent actions within the experiment halls, the traditional inventory management strategy suffers from rapid identification of potential leaks. This can easily result in losses many times higher than the normally accepted (average) loss rate. A real-time program to quickly identify potential excessive leakage was developed and tested. This program was written in MATLAB© for portability, easy diagnostics and modification. It interfaces directly with EPICS to access the cryogenic system state, and with and NIST REFPROP© for real fluid properties. This program was validated against the actual helium offloaded into the system. The present paper outlines the details of the inventory monitoring program, its validation and a sample of the achieved results.

  17. Sonic Helium Detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    Bossert, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years.

  18. Sonic helium detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    Bossert, R.J.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years

  19. Separation of compressor oil from helium

    Strauss, R.; Perrotta, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Compression of helium by an oil-sealed rorary screw compressor entrains as much as 4000 parts per million by weight of liquid and vapor oil impurities in the gas. The reduction below about 0.1 ppm for cryogenic applications is discussed. Oil seperation equipment designed for compressed air must be modified significantly to produce the desired results with helium. The main differences between air and helium filtration are described. A description of the coalescers is given with the continuous coalescing of liquid mist from air or other gas illustrated. Oil vapor in helium is discussed in terms of typical compressor oils, experimental procedure for measuring oil vapor concentration, measured volatile hydrocarbons in the lubricants, and calculated concentration of oil vapor in Helium. Liquid oil contamination in helium gas can be reduced well below 0.1 ppm by a properly designed multiple state coalescing filter system containing graded efficiency filter elements. The oil vapor problem is best attached by efficiently treating the oil to remove most of the colatiles before charging the compressor

  20. Helium-cooled nuclear reactor

    Longton, P.B.; Cowen, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    In helium cooled HTR's there is a by-pass circuit for cleaning purposes in addition to the main cooling circuit. This is to remove such impurities as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and water from the coolant. In this system, part of the coolant successively flows first through an oxidation bed of copper oxide and an absorption bed of silica gel, then through activated charcoal or a molecular sieve. The hydrogen and carbon monoxide impurities are absorbed and the dry gas is returned to the main cooling circuit. To lower the hydrogen/water ratio without increasing the hydrogen fraction in the main cooling circuit, some of the hydrogen fraction converted into water is added to the cooling circuit. This is done, inter alia, by bypassing the water produced in the oxidation bed before it enters the absorption bed. The rest of the by-pass circuit, however, also includes an absorption bed with a molecular sieve. This absorbs the oxidized carbon monoxide fraction. In this way, such side effects as the formation of additional methane, carburization of the materials of the by-pass circuit or loss of graphite are avoided. (DG/RF) [de

  1. High-efficiency pump for space helium transfer. Final Technical Report

    Hasenbein, R.; Izenson, M.G.; Swift, W.L.; Sixsmith, H.

    1991-12-01

    A centrifugal pump was developed for the efficient and reliable transfer of liquid helium in space. The pump can be used to refill cryostats on orbiting satellites which use liquid helium for refrigeration at extremely low temperatures. The pump meets the head and flow requirements of on-orbit helium transfer: a flow rate of 800 L/hr at a head of 128 J/kg. The overall pump efficiency at the design point is 0.45. The design head and flow requirements are met with zero net positive suction head, which is the condition in an orbiting helium supply Dewar. The mass transfer efficiency calculated for a space transfer operation is 0.99. Steel ball bearings are used with gas fiber-reinforced teflon retainers to provide solid lubrication. These bearings have demonstrated the longest life in liquid helium endurance tests under simulated pumping conditions. Technology developed in the project also has application for liquid helium circulation in terrestrial facilities and for transfer of cryogenic rocket propellants in space

  2. Modeling the pressure increase in liquid helium cryostats after failure of the insulating vacuum

    Heidt, C.; Grohmann, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Engler-Bunte (Germany); Süßer, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    The pressure relief system of liquid helium cryostats requires a careful design, due to helium's low enthalpy of vaporization and due to the low operating temperature. Hazard analyses often involve the failure of the insulating vacuum in the worst-case scenario. The venting of the insulating vacuum and the implications for the pressure increase in the helium vessel, however, have not yet been fully analyzed. Therefore, the dimensioning of safety devices often requires experience and reference to very few experimental data. In order to provide a better foundation for the design of cryogenic pressure relief systems, this paper presents an analytic approach for the strongly dynamic process induced by the loss of insulating vacuum. The model is based on theoretical considerations and on differential equation modeling. It contains only few simplifying assumptions, which will be further investigated in future experiments. The numerical solutions of example calculations are presented with regard to the heat flux into the helium vessel, the helium pressure increase and the helium flow rate through the pressure relief device. Implications concerning two-phase flow and the influence of kinetic energy are discussed.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of the diffusion and coalescence of helium in tungsten

    Zhou, Y.L. [Key Lab for Radiation Physics and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wang, J. [Key Lab for Radiation Physics and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Hou, Q., E-mail: qhou@scu.edu.cn [Key Lab for Radiation Physics and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Deng, A.H. [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed on the diffusion and coalescence of helium in tungsten. A new method for determining the effective capture radii (ECRs) and the dissociation energies of helium-related defects is proposed in this work. It is observed that the ECR of an interstitial helium atom trapping helium interstitials (denoted as He–He{sub n}, n = 1–3) decreases with increasing temperature, except for He–He{sub 2} at T < 400 K. The traditional view that the ECR is approximately equal to the lattice constant, which has been widely used in kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) and rate theory (RT) models, is only valid in some cases. However, the ECR between an interstitial helium atom and a substitutional helium atom (denoted as He–HeV) always approximates the third nearest-neighbor tetrahedral positions of the HeV. The diffusion coefficients D{sub n} for helium clusters are also investigated. He{sub 2} migrates more quickly than a single He atom does at T < 400 K, whereas the diffusion path of He{sub 2} changes at higher temperatures. Another counterintuitive observation is that D{sub 5} > D{sub 3} > D{sub 4} at T < 500 K, which can be attributed to the disordered structure of He{sub 5}. The Arrhenius relation describes the diffusion of He{sub n} well in the temperature range from 300 K to 550 K, whereas the diffusion is not a standard thermally activated process at higher temperatures. Taken together, these results help elucidate the initial stage of helium bubble formation in tungsten as well as the requirements of long-term evolution methods such as KMC or RT models.

  4. Mining consumer reviews to generate ratings of different product attributes while producing feature-based review-summary

    Kangale, Akshay; Krishna Kumar, S.; Arshad Naeem, Mohd; Williams, Mark; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    With the massive growth of the internet, product reviews increasingly serve as an important source of information for customers to make choices online. Customers depend on these reviews to understand users' experience, and manufacturers rely on this user-generated content to capture user sentiments about their product. Therefore, it is in the best interest of both customers and manufacturers to have a portal where they can read a complete comprehensive summary of these reviews in minimum time. With this in mind, we arrived at our first objective which is to generate a feature-based review-summary. Our second objective is to develop a predictive model to know the next week's product sales based on numerical review ratings and textual features embedded in the reviews. When it comes to product features, every user has different priorities for different features. To capture this aspect of decision-making, we have designed a new mechanism to generate a numerical rating for every feature of the product individually. The data have been collected from a well-known commercial website for two different products. The validation of the model is carried out using a crowd-sourcing technique.

  5. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  6. Tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium

    Billone, M.C.; Lin, C.C.; Baldwin, D.L.

    1990-11-01

    Large quantities of Be (> 100 metric tons) are planned for use in the ITER blanket design to enhance tritium breeding and to act as a thermal barrier between coolant and breeder. Tritium retention/release and He-induced swelling are important issues in blanket design. The data base on tritium and helium behavior in Be is reviewed. New data on tritium retention/release and He bubble growth are presented for Be irradiated to 5 x 10 22 n(E > 1 MeV)/cm 2 at ∼75 degree C and postirradiation-annealed for 700 hours at 500 degree C. A model (diffusion/desorption) is proposed and tested against the data base to determine tritium diffusivity and the desorption rate constant. Similarly a model for He-induced swelling is developed and tested against the data base. The dependence of tritium retention and release on He content and impurities (e.g. BeO) is also explored. 11 refs., 6 figs

  7. Adaptive high learning rate probabilistic disruption predictors from scratch for the next generation of tokamaks

    Vega, J.; Moreno, R.; Pereira, A.; Acero, A.; Murari, A.; Dormido-Canto, S.

    2014-01-01

    The development of accurate real-time disruption predictors is a pre-requisite to any mitigation action. Present theoretical models of disruptions do not reliably cope with the disruption issues. This article deals with data-driven predictors and a review of existing machine learning techniques, from both physics and engineering points of view, is provided. All these methods need large training datasets to develop successful predictors. However, ITER or DEMO cannot wait for hundreds of disruptions to have a reliable predictor. So far, the attempts to extrapolate predictors between different tokamaks have not shown satisfactory results. In addition, it is not clear how valid this approach can be between present devices and ITER/DEMO, due to the differences in their respective scales and possibly underlying physics. Therefore, this article analyses the requirements to create adaptive predictors from scratch to learn from the data of an individual machine from the beginning of operation. A particular algorithm based on probabilistic classifiers has been developed and it has been applied to the database of the three first ITER-like wall campaigns of JET (1036 non-disruptive and 201 disruptive discharges). The predictions start from the first disruption and only 12 re-trainings have been necessary as a consequence of missing 12 disruptions only. Almost 10 000 different predictors have been developed (they differ in their features) and after the chronological analysis of the 1237 discharges, the predictors recognize 94% of all disruptions with an average warning time (AWT) of 654 ms. This percentage corresponds to the sum of tardy detections (11%), valid alarms (76%) and premature alarms (7%). The false alarm rate is 4%. If only valid alarms are considered, the AWT is 244 ms and the standard deviation is 205 ms. The average probability interval about the reliability and accuracy of all the individual predictions is 0.811 ± 0.189. (paper)

  8. Adaptive high learning rate probabilistic disruption predictors from scratch for the next generation of tokamaks

    Vega, J.; Murari, A.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Moreno, R.; Pereira, A.; Acero, A.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-12-01

    The development of accurate real-time disruption predictors is a pre-requisite to any mitigation action. Present theoretical models of disruptions do not reliably cope with the disruption issues. This article deals with data-driven predictors and a review of existing machine learning techniques, from both physics and engineering points of view, is provided. All these methods need large training datasets to develop successful predictors. However, ITER or DEMO cannot wait for hundreds of disruptions to have a reliable predictor. So far, the attempts to extrapolate predictors between different tokamaks have not shown satisfactory results. In addition, it is not clear how valid this approach can be between present devices and ITER/DEMO, due to the differences in their respective scales and possibly underlying physics. Therefore, this article analyses the requirements to create adaptive predictors from scratch to learn from the data of an individual machine from the beginning of operation. A particular algorithm based on probabilistic classifiers has been developed and it has been applied to the database of the three first ITER-like wall campaigns of JET (1036 non-disruptive and 201 disruptive discharges). The predictions start from the first disruption and only 12 re-trainings have been necessary as a consequence of missing 12 disruptions only. Almost 10 000 different predictors have been developed (they differ in their features) and after the chronological analysis of the 1237 discharges, the predictors recognize 94% of all disruptions with an average warning time (AWT) of 654 ms. This percentage corresponds to the sum of tardy detections (11%), valid alarms (76%) and premature alarms (7%). The false alarm rate is 4%. If only valid alarms are considered, the AWT is 244 ms and the standard deviation is 205 ms. The average probability interval about the reliability and accuracy of all the individual predictions is 0.811 ± 0.189.

  9. Helium mobility in advanced nuclear ceramics

    Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms able to drive the helium behaviour in transition metal carbides and nitrides submitted to thermal annealing or ion irradiation. TiC, TiN and ZrC polycrystals were implanted with 3 MeV 3 He ions at room temperature in the fluence range 2 * 10 15 et 6 * 10 16 cm -2 . Some of them have been pre-irradiated with self-ions (14 MeV Ti or Zr). Fully controlled thermal annealing tests were subsequently carried out in the temperature range 1000 - 1600 C for two hours. The evolution of the helium depth distribution in function of implantation dose, temperature and pre-irradiation dose was measured thanks to the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction 3 He(d, p 0 ) 4 He between 900 keV and 1.8 MeV. The microstructure of implanted and annealed samples was investigated by transmission electron microscopy on thin foils prepared using the FIB technique. Additional characterization tools, as X-ray diffraction and Raman microspectrometry, have been also applied in order to obtain complementary information. Among the most relevant results obtained, the following have to be outlined: - double-peak helium depth profile was measured on as implanted sample for the three compounds. The first peak is located near the end of range and includes the major part of helium, a second peak located close to the surface corresponds to the helium atoms trapped by the native vacancies; - the helium retention capacity in transition metal carbides and nitrides submitted to fully controlled thermal treatments varies according to ZrC 0.92 ≤ TiC 0.96 ≤ TiN 0.96 ; - whatever the investigated material, a self-ion-induced pre-damaging does not modify the initial helium profile extent. The influence of the post-implantation thermal treatment remains preponderant in any case; - the apparent diffusion coefficient of helium is in the range 4 * 10 -18 - 2 * 10 -17 m 2 s -1 in TiC0.96 and 3.5 * 10 -19 - 5.3 * 10 -18 m 2 s -1 in TiN 0.96 between

  10. Studies on MHD pressure drop and heat transfer of helium-lithium annular-mist flow in a transverse magnetic field

    Inoue, Akira; Aritomi, Masanori; Takahashi, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Narita, Yoshihito; Yano, Toshikazu.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of helium-lithium annular-mist flow in a rectangular duct were investigated experimentally under a transverse magnetic field at system pressure of 0.2 MPa. A ratio of MHD pressure drop to that of non-magnetic field increases with magnetic flux density and a mass flow rate ratio of lithium to helium in low helium velocity region. However, as increasing the helium velocity, the increment of MHD pressure drop with the magnetic flux density is much reduced and then becomes almost zero. At this condition, the MHD pressure drop of the annular-mist flow becomes much smaller than that of lithium single phase flow with the same lithium mass flow at the high magnetic flux density. Heat transfer coefficient ratio of the helium-lithium annular-mist flow to helium single phase in the non-magnetic field is well correlated by a ratio of the mass flow rate of lithium to helium. The heat transfer coefficient in the magnetic field increases with the magnetic flux density and then terminates at a certain value depending on the mass flow rate ratio and the helium velocity. These characteristics of the MHD pressure drop and the heat transfer in the magnetic field suggest that the helium-lithium annular-mist flow is effectively applicable to cooling of the high heat flux wall in a strong magnetic field like a first wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactors. (author)

  11. The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor: A Promising Option for Near Term Deployment

    LaBar, Malcolm P.

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is an advanced nuclear power system that offers unparalleled safety, high thermal efficiency, environmental advantages, and competitive electricity generation costs. The GT-MHR module couples a gas-cooled modular helium reactor (MHR) with a high efficiency modular Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) energy conversion system. The reactor and power conversion systems are located in a below grade concrete silo that provides protection against sabotage. The GT-MHR safety is achieved through a combination of inherent safety characteristics and design selections that take maximum advantage of the gas-cooled reactor coated particle fuel, helium coolant and graphite moderator. The GT-MHR is projected to be economically competitive with alternative electricity generation technologies due to the high operating temperature of the gas-cooled reactor, high thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle power conversion system, high fuel burnup (>100,000 MWd/MT), and low operation and maintenance requirements. (author)

  12. A pilot study to determine medical laser generated air contaminant emission rates for a simulated surgical procedure.

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John; Conroy, Lorraine; Breskey, John; Esmen, Nurtan; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to estimate the emission rates of gases and particles associated with LGACs during a simulated surgical procedure. Two medical lasers (Holmium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Ho:YAG] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) were set to a range of plausible medical laser operational parameters in a simulated surgery to pyrolyze porcine skin generating plume in the emission chamber. Power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and beam diameter were evaluated to determine the effect of each operational parameter on emission rate using a fractional factorial design. The plume was sampled for particulate matter and seven gas phase combustion byproduct contaminants (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide): the gas phase emission results are presented here. Most of the measured concentrations of gas phase contaminants were below their limit of detection (LOD), but detectable measurements enabled us to determine laser operation parameter influence on CO2 emissions. Confined to the experimental conditions of this screening study, results indicated that beam diameter was statistically significantly influential and power was marginally statistically significant to emission rates of CO2 when using the Ho:YAG laser but not with the carbon dioxide laser; PRF was not influential vis-a-vis emission rates of these gas phase contaminants.

  13. Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with a High Generation Rate Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Waveguide Photon-Pair Source

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Lekki, John D.; Tokars, Roger P.; Pouch, John J.; Roberts, Tony D.; Battle, Philip; Floyd, Bertram M.; Lind, Alexander J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The fully integrated photon-pair source consists of a 1064-nanometer pump diode laser, fiber-coupled to a dual element waveguide within which a pair of 1064-nanometer photons are up-converted to a single 532-nanometer photon in the first stage. In the second stage, the 532-nanometer photon is down-converted to an entangled photon-pair at 800 nanometer and 1600 nanometer which are fiber-coupled at the waveguide output. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. This is a significant step towards the long term goal of developing sources for high-rate Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to enable Earth-space secure communications. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.

  14. Reduction in 14 MeV neutron generation rate by ICRF injection in D-3He burning plasmas

    Matsuura, Hideaki; Nakao, Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    The triton distribution function during ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves injection in D- 3 He plasmas is examined by solving the 2-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. Triton distribution function originally has a non-Maxwellian (tail) component around 1.01 MeV birth energy range due to D(d,p)T fusion reaction. Owing to the extension of the original tail by ICRF injection, the high-energy resonance tritons further increase, and the velocity-averaged T(d,n) 4 He fusion reaction rate coefficient, i.e. 14 MeV neutron generation rate, decreases from the values when triton is assumed to be Maxwellian. It is shown that when tritons absorb ∼1/200 of the fusion power from the waves in typical D- 3 He plasma, i.e. T=80 keV, n D =2x10 20 m -3 , τ E0 =3 sec and B=6T, the 14 MeV neutron generation rate is reduced by about ∼20% from the values for Maxwellian plasmas. (author)

  15. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Commissioning Test Results for D-Zero's Helium Refrigerator

    Rucinski, Russ

    1997-01-01

    The test objectives are: (1) Make liquid helium and measure refrigerator capacity; (2) Measure liquid helium dewar heat leak, transfer line heat leak, and liquid nitrogen consumption rates; (3) Operate all cryogenic transfer lines; (4) Get some running time on all components; (5) Debug mechanical components, instrumentation, DMACs user interface, tune loops, and otherwise shake out any problems; (6) Get some operating time in to get familiar with system behavior; (7) Revise and/or improve operating procedures to actual practice; and (8) Identify areas for future improvement. D-Zero's stand alone helium refrigerator (STAR) liquified helium at a rate of 114 L/hr. This is consistent with other STAR installations. Refrigeration capacity was not measured due to lack of a calibrated heat load. Measured heat leaks were within design values. The helium dewar loss was measured at 2 to 4 watts or 9% per day, the solenoid and VLPC helium transfer lines had a heat leak of about 20 watts each. The liquid nitrogen consumption rates of the mobile purifier, STAR, and LN2 subcooler were measured at 20 gph, 20 to 64 gph, and 3 gph respectively. All cryogenic transfer lines including the solenoid and visible light photon counter (VLPC) transfer lines were cooled to their cryogenic operating temperatures. This included independent cooling of nitrogen shields and liquid helium components. No major problems were observed. The system ran quite well. Many problems were identified and corrected as they came up. Areas for improvement were noted and will be implemented in the future. The instrumentation and control system operated commendably during the test. The commissioning test run was a worthwhile and successful venture.

  16. An artificial intelligence heat rate/NOx optimization system for Ontario Hydro`s Lambton Generating Station

    Luk, J.; Bachalo, K.; Henrikson, J. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Roland, W.; Booth, R.C.; Parikh, N.; Radl, B. [Pegasus Technologies Ltd., Painesville, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The utilization of artificial Intelligence (AI)-based software programs to optimize power plant operations by simultaneously improving heat rate performance and reducing NOx emissions was discussed. While many AI programs were initially used for demonstration purposes, they are now available for commercial use due to their promising results. In 1996, the Fossil Business Unit of Ontario Hydro initiated a study to evaluate AI technology as a tool for optimizing heat rate and NOx reduction in coal fired stations. Tests were conducted at Units 3 and 4 of the Lambton Generation Station, located just south of Sarnia, Ontario. The tests were conducted to examine three desirable options: (1) achieve at least 0.5 per cent improvement in heat rate concurrently with a NOx reduction of at least 5 per cent, (2) optimize on `heat rate` only with minimum improvement of 2 per cent, and optimize `minimal NOx` only with reduction target of 20 per cent or more, and (3) reach a collaborative agreement with a supplier to further explore and develop AI optimization applications for other advanced and more complex plant processes. Results indicated that NOx reduction and heat rate improvement are not contradictory goals. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Experiments on second-sound shock waves in superfluid helium

    Cummings, J.C.; Schmidt, D.W.; Wagner, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The waveform and velocity of second-sound waves in superfluid helium have been studied experimentally using superconducting, thin-film probes. The second-sound waves were generated with electrical pulses through a resistive film. Variations in pulse power, pulse duration, and bath temperature were examined. As predicted theoretically, the formation of a shock was observed at the leading or trailing edge of the waves depending on bath temperature. Breakdown of the theoretical model was observed for large pulse powers. Accurate data for the acoustic second-sound speed were derived from the measurements of shock-wave velocities and are compared with previous results

  18. Household solid waste generation rate and physical composition analysis: case of Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis in the western region, Ghana

    Eugene Atta Nyankson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, one of the rapidly expanding cities of Ghana has been facing serious problems with solid waste management. This is mainly due to the lack of available information about the types and quantity of solid waste generation in the area. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of household solid waste generation and its composition in the aforesaid city. The methodology and procedures for this study were derived from the Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed MSW (ASTM D 5231-92. All samples were hand sorted into 6 waste categories (paper, plastic, organics, metals, glass, and other waste. The study revealed that by weight, organic wastes constitutes the largest proportion of household solid waste (38% followed by 19% plastics, 7% papers, 4% metals, 4% glass and 28% other wastes (comprising of sand, stones, ash, inert substances. The rate of daily waste generation per capita in the low, middle and high income households were 0.27±0.19, 0.4±0.19 and 0.58±0.24 kg/cap/day, respectively. The study revealed that there is no waste treatment or recovery facility established within the metropolis hence no significant waste recovery and reuse activities exist. The study showed that more than 38 % of the waste generated in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis is decomposable organic matter that can be re-used through composting as well as 34% of the waste having recycling potential thereby considerably mitigating the solid waste problem. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12644 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 221-235

  19. Kinetic coupling of phosphate release, force generation and rate-limiting steps in the cross-bridge cycle.

    Stehle, Robert; Tesi, Chiara

    2017-08-01

    A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between P i release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [P i ]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-P i discovered that rapid increases in [P i ] induce fast force decays dependent on final [P i ] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to P i release. However, this hypothesis was called into question by studies on skeletal and cardiac myofibrils subjected to P i jumps in both directions (increases and decreases in [P i ]) which revealed that rapid decreases in [P i ] trigger force rises with slow kinetics, similar to those of calcium-induced force development and mechanically-induced force redevelopment at the same [P i ]. A possible explanation for this discrepancy came from imaging of individual sarcomeres in cardiac myofibrils, showing that the fast force decay upon increase in [P i ] results from so-called sarcomere 'give'. The slow force rise upon decrease in [P i ] was found to better reflect overall sarcomeres cross-bridge kinetics and its [P i ] dependence, suggesting that the force generation coupled to P i release cannot be separated from the rate-limiting transition. The reasons for the different conclusions achieved in fibre and myofibril studies are re-examined as the recent findings on cardiac myofibrils have fundamental consequences for the coupling between P i release, rate-limiting steps and force generation. The implications from P i -induced force kinetics of myofibrils are discussed in combination with historical and recent models of the cross-bridge cycle.

  20. Line intensity ratios of helium atom in an ionizing plasma

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Goto, Motoshi; Kato, Takako; Takamura, Shuichi

    1998-10-01

    Effective emission rate coefficients C em eff (λ), line intensity ratios, C em eff (λ 1 )/C em eff (λ 2 ), and S eff /C em eff (λ), with S eff the ionization rate coefficient, are obtained by the collisional radiative model for an ionizing plasma using new excitation and ionization rate coefficients. In the plasma with electron density n e > 10 4 cm -3 , C em eff (λ) for various lines are enlarged, since the normalized population densities for the metastable states, n(2 1,3 S)/n He , becomes large, and the excitation rate coefficients from 2 1,3 S, C 21,3S→i , are large compared to that from the ground state C 11S→i . In high n e plasma (n e > 10 12 cm -3 ), with frequent electron impacts on the excited heliums, n(i)/n He become constant to n e , which results in the decrease of C em eff (λ). Hot electrons and resonance scattering, which are often important for the experimental applications, are included in this model. A small amount of hot electrons (several percents) can enhance the line emission and ionization rates for low electron temperature plasma with T e (T e 1 S - n 1 P) and enlarges n 1 P and 2 1 S populations when the column density of helium gas n He x L exceeds 2x10 13 [cm -2 ]. (author)

  1. Thermal transport properties of helium, helium--air mixtures, water, and tubing steel used in the CACHE program to compute HTGR auxiliary heat exchanger performance

    Tallackson, J.R.

    1976-02-01

    A description is presented of the thermal transport properties of the materials involved in digital computer calculations of heat transfer rates by the core auxiliary heat exchangers in large HTGR nuclear steam supply systems. These materials are pure helium, mixtures of helium with common gases having molecular weights in the range of 28 to 32, alloy steel tubing, and water. For use in programmed computations the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat are represented primarily by equations augmented by curves and tabulations. Materials supporting the development and selection of the property equations are included

  2. Solubility of helium in mercury for bubbling technology of the spallation neutron mercury target

    Hasegawa, S.; Naoe, T.; Futakawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The pitting damage of mercury target container that originates in the pressure wave excited by the proton beam incidence becomes a large problem to reach the high-power neutron source in JSNS and SNS. The lifetime of mercury container is decreased remarkably by the pitting damage. As one of solutions, the pressure wave is mitigated by injecting the helium micro bubbles in mercury. In order to inject the helium micro bubbles into mercury, it is important to understand the characteristic of micro bubbles in mercury. The solubility of mercury-helium system is a key factor to decide bubbling conditions, because the disappearance behavior, i.e. the lifetime of micro bubbles, depends on the solubility. In addition, the bubble generation method is affected by it. Moreover, the experimental data related to the solubility of helium in mercury hardly exist. In this work, the solubility was obtained experimentally by measuring precisely the pressure drop of the gas that is facing to mercury surface. The pressure drop was attributed to the helium dissolution into mercury. Based on the measured solubility, the lifetime of micro bubbles and the method of the bubble generation is estimated using the solubility data.

  3. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  4. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Sadeghi, N.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 μm thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 μm thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*( 3 S 1 ) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 μs long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*( 3 S 1 ) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few μs relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities

  5. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 μm thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 μm thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 μs long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few μs relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  6. Towards helium-3 neutron polarizers

    Tasset, F.

    1995-01-01

    With a large absorption cross-section entirely due to antiparallel spin capture, polarized helium-3 is presently the most promising broad-band polarizer for thermal and epithermal neutrons. Immediate interest was raised amongst the neutron community when a dense gaseous 3 He polarizer was used for the first time in 1988, on a pulsed neutron beam at Los Alamos. With 20 W of laser power on a 30 cm long, 8.6 atm target, 40% 3 He polarization was achieved in a recent polarized electron scattering experiment at SLAC. In this technique the 3 He nuclei are polarized directly at an appropriate high pressure through spin-exchange collisions with a thick, optically pumped rubidium vapor. A different and competitive approach is being presently developed at Mainz University in collaboration with ENS Paris and now the ILL. A discharge is established in pure 3 He at low pressure producing excited metastable atoms which can be optically pumped with infra-red light. Highly effective exchange collision with the atoms remaining in the ground state quickly produces 75% polarization at 1.5 mbar. A truly non-magnetic system then compresses the polarized gas up to several bars as required. The most recent machine comprises a two-stage glass-titanium compressor. In less than 1 h it can inflate a 100 cm 3 target cell with three bars of polarized gas. The very long relaxation times (several days) now being obtained at high pressure with a special metallic coating on the glass walls, the polarized cell can be detached and inserted in the neutron beam as polarizer. We expect 50% 3 He-polarization to be reached soon, allowing such filters to compete favorably with existing Heusler-crystal polarizers at thermal and short neutron wavelengths. It must be stressed that such a system based on a 3 He polarization factory able to feed several passive, transportable, polarizers is well matched to neutron scattering needs. (orig.)

  7. Rotons, Superfluidity, and Helium Crystals

    Balibar, Sébastien

    2006-09-01

    Fritz London understood that quantum mechanics could show up at the macroscopic level, and, in 1938, he proposed that superfluidity was a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation. However, Lev Landau never believed in London's ideas; instead, he introduced quasiparticles to explain the thermodynamics of superfluid 4He and a possible mechanism for its critical velocity. One of these quasiparticles, a crucial one, was his famous "roton" which he considered as an elementary vortex. At the LT0 conference (Cambridge, 1946), London criticized Landau and his "theory based on the shaky grounds of imaginary rotons". Despite their rather strong disagreement, Landau was awarded the London prize in 1960, six years after London's death. Today, we know that London and Landau had both found part of the truth: BEC takes place in 4He, and rotons exist. In my early experiments on quantum evaporation, I found direct evidence for the existence of rotons and for evaporation processes in which they play the role of photons in the photoelectric effect. But rotons are now considered as particular phonons which are nearly soft, due to some local order in superfluid 4He. Later we studied helium crystals which are model systems for the general study of crystal surfaces, but also exceptional systems with unique quantum properties. In our recent studies of nucleation, rotons show their importance again: by using acoustic techniques, we have extended the study of liquid 4He up to very high pressures where the liquid state is metastable, and we wish to demonstrate that the vanishing of the roton gap may destroy superfluidity and trigger an instability towards the crystalline state.

  8. Helium Exhaust Studies in H-Mode Discharges in the DIII-D Tokamak Using an Argon-Frosted Divertor Cryopump

    Wade, M.R.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; West, W.P.; Brooks, N.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; Klepper, C.C.; Laughon, G.; Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The first experiments demonstrating exhaust of thermal helium in a diverted, H-mode deuterium plasma have been performed on the DIII-D tokamak. The helium, introduced via gas puffing, is observed to reach the plasma core, and then is readily removed from the plasma with a time constant of ∼10--20 energy-confinement times by an in-vessel cryopump conditioned with argon frosting. Detailed analysis of the helium profile evolution suggests that the exhaust rate is limited by the exhaust efficiency of the pump (∼5%) and not by the intrinsic helium-transport properties of the plasma

  9. A three-lead, programmable, and microcontroller-based electrocardiogram generator with frequency domain characteristics of heart rate variability.

    Wei, Ying-Chieh; Wei, Ying-Yu; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Young, Ming-Shing

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to design and develop a programmable electrocardiogram (ECG) generator with frequency domain characteristics of heart rate variability (HRV) which can be used to test the efficiency of ECG algorithms and to calibrate and maintain ECG equipment. We simplified and modified the three coupled ordinary differential equations in McSharry's model to a single differential equation to obtain the ECG signal. This system not only allows the signal amplitude, heart rate, QRS-complex slopes, and P- and T-wave position parameters to be adjusted, but can also be used to adjust the very low frequency, low frequency, and high frequency components of HRV frequency domain characteristics. The system can be tuned to function with HRV or not. When the HRV function is on, the average heart rate can be set to a value ranging from 20 to 122 beats per minute (BPM) with an adjustable variation of 1 BPM. When the HRV function is off, the heart rate can be set to a value ranging from 20 to 139 BPM with an adjustable variation of 1 BPM. The amplitude of the ECG signal can be set from 0.0 to 330 mV at a resolution of 0.005 mV. These parameters can be adjusted either via input through a keyboard or through a graphical user interface (GUI) control panel that was developed using LABVIEW. The GUI control panel depicts a preview of the ECG signal such that the user can adjust the parameters to establish a desired ECG morphology. A complete set of parameters can be stored in the flash memory of the system via a USB 2.0 interface. Our system can generate three different types of synthetic ECG signals for testing the efficiency of an ECG algorithm or calibrating and maintaining ECG equipment. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  10. Microstructural observation on helium injected and creep ruptured JPCA

    Yamamoto, N.; Shiraishi, H.; Hishinuma, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed and quantitative TEM observation was performed on high temperature helium injected and creep ruptured JPCA to seek the prominent TiC distribution developed for suppression of helium embrittlement. Three different preinjection treatments were adopted for changing the TiC distribution. Considerable degradation in creep rupture strength by helium occurred in solution-annealed specimens, although there was much less effect of other treatments which included aging prior to injection. The concentration of helium at grain boundaries and the promotion of precipitation by helium during injection were responsible for the degradation. Therefore, the presence of TiC precipitates before helium introduction will help prevent degradation. On the other hand, the rupture elongation was reduced by helium after all treatments, although helium trapping by TiC precipitates in the matrix was successfully achieved. Consequently, the combined use of several methods may be necessary for further suppression of helium embrittlement. (orig.)

  11. Resistivity studies of interstitial helium mobility in niobium

    Chen, C.G.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The mobility of interstitial helium in Nb and Nb-O alloys was studied in the temperature range of 10-383 K using resistivity measurements. The helium was introduced by radioactive decay of solute tritium (approximately 1 at%). At T < 100 K the resistivity increased due to conversion of tritium trapped at oxygen interstititals to helium. The formation of helium caused a very significant resistance increase at room temperature and above. The results suggest that helium is mobile at temperatures above 295 K and that the precipitation of large helium bubbles occurs along grain boundaries. The mobile helium species may either be single interstitials or small helium clusters. The activation enthalpy for the diffusion of the mobile helium species was estimated to be about 55 kJ/mol (0.66 eV). (Auth.)

  12. Study of helium diffusion, implanted at a cyclotron, in face-centered cubic metals: Au, Ag and Al

    Sciani, V.

    1985-01-01

    Helium in metals is produced by nuclear reactions of energetic particles. In nuclear technology the interest on helium in metals is import, due to its production by (n, α) reaction. Because helium has extremely low solubility in metals, the precipitation in the form of filled bubbles at elevated temperatures occurs, which have detrimental effects on mechanical properties and may limit the lifetime of structural components. One typical example is the high temperature embrittlement. The nucleation and growth of the bubbles strongly depends on the mobility of the helium. This work presents the study of helium diffusion in Au, Ag and Al at temperatures above room temperature. The helium created by (n, α) reactions has been simulated by homogeneous alpha particles implantation in cyclotron, at room temperature, in specimens of thicknesses between 5 and 50 μm and helium concentration between 10 -3 to 10 ppm. After implantation, the specimens were dropped in a furnace in a UHV-chamber and the diffusion was measured by observing the He-release during linear and isothermal annealings. The occurence of free diffusion was comparing the dependence of release kinetics on helium concentration, sample thickness, time and heating rate to diffusion theory and is clearly separeted from agglomeration process. The diffusion constants of helium in Au, Ag and Al follow an Arrhenius behavior, with: Au:D o =10 -1.0 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.70eV Ag:D 0 =10 -1.2 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.51eV Al:D o =10 +0.5 cm 2 /s ΔH=1.40eV. The results are compared to self-diffusion and to the diffusion of other gases in these metals. Comparison with theoretical estimates favours the vacancy mechanism for helium diffusion in Au, Ag and Al. (author) [pt

  13. Quantum statistics and liquid helium 3 - helum 4 mixtures

    Cohen, E.G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of liquid helium 3-helium 4 mixtures is considered from the point of view of manifestation of quantum statistics effects in macrophysics. The Boze=Einstein statistics is shown to be of great importance for understanding superfluid helium-4 properties whereas the Fermi-Dirac statistics is of importance for understanding helium-3 properties. Without taking into consideration the interaction between the helium atoms it is impossible to understand the basic properties of liquid helium 33 - helium 4 mixtures at constant pressure. Proposed is a simple model of the liquid helium 3-helium 4 mixture, namely the binary mixture consisting of solid spheres of two types subjecting to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics relatively. This model predicts correctly the most surprising peculiarities of phase diagrams of concentration dependence on temperature for helium solutions. In particular, the helium 4 Bose-Einstein statistics is responsible for the phase lamination of helium solutions at low temperatures. It starts in the peculiar critical point. The helium 4 Fermi-Dirac statistics results in incomplete phase lamination close to the absolute zero temperatures, that permits operation of a powerful cooling facility, namely refrigerating machine on helium solution

  14. HELIUM ATMOSPHERES ON WARM NEPTUNE- AND SUB-NEPTUNE-SIZED EXOPLANETS AND APPLICATIONS TO GJ 436b

    Hu, Renyu; Yung, Yuk L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: renyu.hu@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Warm Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets in orbits smaller than Mercury’s are thought to have experienced extensive atmospheric evolution. Here we propose that a potential outcome of this atmospheric evolution is the formation of helium-dominated atmospheres. The hydrodynamic escape rates of Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets are comparable to the diffusion-limited escape rate of hydrogen, and therefore the escape is heavily affected by diffusive separation between hydrogen and helium. A helium atmosphere can thus be formed—from a primordial hydrogen–helium atmosphere—via atmospheric hydrodynamic escape from the planet. The helium atmosphere has very different abundances of major carbon and oxygen species from those of a hydrogen atmosphere, leading to distinctive transmission and thermal emission spectral features. In particular, the hypothesis of a helium-dominated atmosphere can explain the thermal emission spectrum of GJ 436b, a warm Neptune-sized exoplanet, while also being consistent with the transmission spectrum. This model atmosphere contains trace amounts of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, with the predominance of CO over CH{sub 4} as the main form of carbon. With our atmospheric evolution model, we find that if the mass of the initial atmosphere envelope is 10{sup −3} planetary mass, hydrodynamic escape can reduce the hydrogen abundance in the atmosphere by several orders of magnitude in ∼10 billion years. Observations of exoplanet transits may thus detect signatures of helium atmospheres and probe the evolutionary history of small exoplanets.

  15. HELIUM ATMOSPHERES ON WARM NEPTUNE- AND SUB-NEPTUNE-SIZED EXOPLANETS AND APPLICATIONS TO GJ 436b

    Hu, Renyu; Yung, Yuk L.; Seager, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Warm Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets in orbits smaller than Mercury’s are thought to have experienced extensive atmospheric evolution. Here we propose that a potential outcome of this atmospheric evolution is the formation of helium-dominated atmospheres. The hydrodynamic escape rates of Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets are comparable to the diffusion-limited escape rate of hydrogen, and therefore the escape is heavily affected by diffusive separation between hydrogen and helium. A helium atmosphere can thus be formed—from a primordial hydrogen–helium atmosphere—via atmospheric hydrodynamic escape from the planet. The helium atmosphere has very different abundances of major carbon and oxygen species from those of a hydrogen atmosphere, leading to distinctive transmission and thermal emission spectral features. In particular, the hypothesis of a helium-dominated atmosphere can explain the thermal emission spectrum of GJ 436b, a warm Neptune-sized exoplanet, while also being consistent with the transmission spectrum. This model atmosphere contains trace amounts of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, with the predominance of CO over CH 4 as the main form of carbon. With our atmospheric evolution model, we find that if the mass of the initial atmosphere envelope is 10 −3 planetary mass, hydrodynamic escape can reduce the hydrogen abundance in the atmosphere by several orders of magnitude in ∼10 billion years. Observations of exoplanet transits may thus detect signatures of helium atmospheres and probe the evolutionary history of small exoplanets

  16. Impact of problem-based, active learning on graduation rates for 10 generations of Dutch medical students.

    Schmidt, Henk G; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Arends, Lidia R

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to study the effects of active-learning curricula on graduation rates of students and on the length of time needed to graduate. Graduation rates for 10 generations of students enrolling in the eight Dutch medical schools between 1989 and 1998 were analysed. In addition, time needed to graduate was recorded. Three of the eight schools had curricula emphasising active learning, small-group instruction and limited numbers of lectures; the other five had conventional curricula to varying degrees. Overall, the active-learning curricula graduated on average 8% more students per year, and these students graduated on average 5 months earlier than their colleagues from conventional curricula. Four hypotheses potentially explaining the effect of active learning on graduation rate and study duration were considered: (i) active-learning curricula promote the social and academic integration of students; (ii) active-learning curricula attract brighter students; (iii) active-learning curricula retain more poor students, and (iv) the active engagement of students with their study required by active-learning curricula induces better academic performance and, hence, lower dropout rates. The first three hypotheses had to be rejected. It was concluded that the better-learning hypothesis provides the most parsimonious account for the data.

  17. Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of lipid bilayers at repetition rates up to 100 kHz

    Yesudas, Freeda; Mero, Mark; Kneipp, Janina; Heiner, Zsuzsanna

    2018-03-01

    Broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation (BB-VSFG) spectroscopy has become a well-established surface analytical tool capable of identifying the orientation and structure of molecular layers. A straightforward way to boost the sensitivity of the technique could be to increase the laser repetition rate beyond that of standard BB-VSFG spectrometers, which rely on Ti:sapphire lasers operating at repetition rates of 1-5 kHz. Nevertheless, possible thermally induced artifacts in the vibrational spectra due to higher laser average powers are unexplored. Here, we discuss laser power induced temperature accumulation effects that distort the BB-VSFG spectra of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at an interface between two transparent phases at repetition rates of 5, 10, 50, and 100 kHz at constant pulse energy. No heat-induced distortions were found in the spectra, suggesting that the increase in the laser repetition rate provides a feasible route to an improved signal-to-noise ratio or shorter data acquisition times in BB-VSFG spectroscopy for thin films on transparent substrates. The results have implications for future BB-VSFG spectrometers pushing the detection limit for molecular layers with low surface coverage.

  18. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II. A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in the Sun

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Before a solar model becomes viable in astrophysics, one mus t consider how the ele- mental constitution of the Sun was ascertained, especially relative to its principle com- ponents: hydrogen and helium. Liquid metallic hydrogen has been proposed as a solar structural material for models based on condensed matter (e .g. Robitaille P.-M. Liq- uid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys. , 2011, v. 3, 60–74. There can be little doubt that hydrogen plays a d ominant role in the uni- verse and in the stars; the massive abundance of hydrogen in t he Sun was established long ago. Today, it can be demonstrated that the near isointe nse nature of the Sun’s Balmer lines provides strong confirmatory evidence for a dis tinct solar surface. The situation relative to helium remains less conclusive. Stil l, helium occupies a prominent role in astronomy, both as an element associated with cosmol ogy and as a byproduct of nuclear energy generation, though its abundances within the Sun cannot be reliably estimated using theoretical approaches. With respect to th e determination of helium lev- els, the element remains spectroscopically silent at the le vel of the photosphere. While helium can be monitored with ease in the chromosphere and the prominences of the corona using spectroscopic methods, these measures are hig hly variable and responsive to elevated solar activity and nuclear fragmentation. Dire ct assays of the solar winds are currently viewed as incapable of providing definitive in formation regarding solar helium abundances. As a result, insight relative to helium r emains strictly based on the- oretical estimates which couple helioseismological appro aches to metrics derived from solar models. Despite their “state of the art” nature, heliu m estimates based on solar models and helioseismology are suspect on several fronts, i ncluding their reliance on solar opacities. The best knowledge can only come from the so

  19. The use of artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression to predict rate of medical waste generation

    Jahandideh, Sepideh; Jahandideh, Samad; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Askarian, Mehrdad; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Somayyeh; Jahandideh, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Prediction of the amount of hospital waste production will be helpful in the storage, transportation and disposal of hospital waste management. Based on this fact, two predictor models including artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were applied to predict the rate of medical waste generation totally and in different types of sharp, infectious and general. In this study, a 5-fold cross-validation procedure on a database containing total of 50 hospitals of Fars province (Iran) were used to verify the performance of the models. Three performance measures including MAR, RMSE and R 2 were used to evaluate performance of models. The MLR as a conventional model obtained poor prediction performance measure values. However, MLR distinguished hospital capacity and bed occupancy as more significant parameters. On the other hand, ANNs as a more powerful model, which has not been introduced in predicting rate of medical waste generation, showed high performance measure values, especially 0.99 value of R 2 confirming the good fit of the data. Such satisfactory results could be attributed to the non-linear nature of ANNs in problem solving which provides the opportunity for relating independent variables to dependent ones non-linearly. In conclusion, the obtained results showed that our ANN-based model approach is very promising and may play a useful role in developing a better cost-effective strategy for waste management in future.

  20. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  1. Progress in generating fracture data base as a function of loading rate and temperature using small-scale tests

    Couque, H.; Hudak, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Structural integrity assessment of nuclear pressure vessels requires small specimen fracture testing to generate data over a wide range of material loading, and temperature conditions. Small scale testing is employed since extensive testing is required including small radiation embrittled samples from nuclear surveillance capsules. However, current small scale technology does not provide the needed dynamic fracture toughness relevant to the crack arrest/reinitiation events that may occur during pressurized thermal shock transients following emergency shutdown. This paper addresses the generation of this much needed dynamic toughness data using a novel experimental-computational approach involving a coupled pressure bars (CPB) technique and a viscoplastic dynamic fracture code. CPB data have been generated to testing temperatures never before reached: 37 to 100 degrees C -- 60 to 123 degrees C above the nil ductility transition temperature. Fracture behavior of pressure vessel steel from lower shelf to upper shelf temperatures and previous toughness estimates for the 10 6 MPa√m s -1 loading rate regime are assessed in light of the new CPB data. 26 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Wind Turbine Driving a PM Synchronous Generator Using Novel Recurrent Chebyshev Neural Network Control with the Ideal Learning Rate

    Chih-Hong Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A permanent magnet (PM synchronous generator system driven by wind turbine (WT, connected with smart grid via AC-DC converter and DC-AC converter, are controlled by the novel recurrent Chebyshev neural network (NN and amended particle swarm optimization (PSO to regulate output power and output voltage in two power converters in this study. Because a PM synchronous generator system driven by WT is an unknown non-linear and time-varying dynamic system, the on-line training novel recurrent Chebyshev NN control system is developed to regulate DC voltage of the AC-DC converter and AC voltage of the DC-AC converter connected with smart grid. Furthermore, the variable learning rate of the novel recurrent Chebyshev NN is regulated according to discrete-type Lyapunov function for improving the control performance and enhancing convergent speed. Finally, some experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method for a WT driving a PM synchronous generator system in smart grid.

  3. Recent developments in liquid helium 3

    Ramarao, I.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of the theories for the ground state of liquid helium 3, are reviewed. To begin with, a brief summary of the experimental results on the thermodynamic properties of liquid helium 3 including its recently discovered superfulid phases is given. The basic ideas of the Landau theory of a normal Fermi liquid are then introduced. A qualitative discussion of the current understanding of the anisotropic phases of superfluid helium 3 is given, the microscopic calculaations for the binding energy of liquid helium 3 are reviewed and the results obtained for the two-body contributions to the binding energy using the Brueckner-Goldstone formulation and that of Mohling and his collaborators are summarized and discussed. The importance of a proper estimate of the three-body contributions to the binding energy is stressed. The results obtained in the literature using variational methods and constrained variational methods are discussed. A critical analysis of the results by various methods is given. Despite much effort the basic problem of the ground state of liquid helium 3, remains unresolved. (author)

  4. Film boiling heat transfer in liquid helium

    Inai, Nobuhiko

    1979-01-01

    The experimental data on the film boiling heat transfer in liquid helium are required for investigating the stability of superconducting wires. On the other hand, liquid helium has the extremely different physical properties as compared with the liquids at normal temperature such as water. In this study, the experiments on pool boiling were carried out, using the horizontal top surface of a 20 mm diameter copper cylinder in liquid helium. For observing individual bubbles, the experiments on film boiling from a horizontal platinum wire were performed separately in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, and photographs of floating-away bubbles were taken. The author pointed out the considerable upward shift of the boiling curve near the least heat flux point in film boiling from the one given by the Berenson's equation which has been said to agree comparatively well with the data on the film boiling of the liquids at normal temperature, and the reason was investigated. Consequently, a model for film boiling heat transfer was presented. Also one equation expressing the film boiling at low heat flux for low temperature liquids was proposed. It represents well the tendency to shift from Berenson's equation of the experimental data on film boiling at the least heat flux point for liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and water having extremely different physical properties. Some discussions are added at the end of the paper. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. The role of plumes in mantle helium fluxes

    Kellogg, L.H.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a simple model of 3 He and 4 He transport in the mantle using the appropriate rates of mass and species transfer and 4 He production. Previous workers have shown the presence of excess 3 He in hotspots such as Hawaii and Iceland and inferred that these hotspots tap a source with a higher 3 He/ 4 He ratio than the source region of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Hotspot ocean islands probably originate over upwelling plumes which carry material from the lower mantle to the upper mantle. Melting at hotspots and at mid-ocean ridges degasses the mantle of volatiles such as helium. The upper mantle is outgassed largely of helium due to melting at mid-ocean ridges and hotspots. We postulate that the excess 3 He seen in MORB originates in material that was carried from the lower mantle in plumes but not completely outgassed at hotspots. This helium is incoporated into the depleted upper mantle. Assuming that the upper mantle is in a quasi-steady-state with respect to helium, a simple model balancing 3 He and 4 He fluxes in the upper mantle indicates that the hotspots significantly outgas the lower mantle of 3 He. The concentration of 4 He in the plume source reservoir is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in carbonaceous chondrites. The residence time of helium in the upper mantle depends on the outgassing efficiency at hotspots, since the hotspots may outgas some upper mantle material which has been entrained in the plumes. The residence time of He in the upper mantle is about 1.4x10 9 yr. We conclude that the efficiency of outgassing of He from plumes is high and that the plumes dominate the present 3 He loss to the atmosphere. The 4 He in the less depleted layer of the mantle is not trapped ''primordial'' but is predominantly from in situ decay of U and Th in the depleted layer over ≅ 1.4x10 9 yr. The 4 He in the lower mantle is dominantly from in situ decay of U and Th over 4.4x10 9 yr. (orig./WL)

  6. Presenting a multi-objective generation scheduling model for pricing demand response rate in micro-grid energy management

    Aghajani, G.R.; Shayanfar, H.A.; Shayeghi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Using DRPs to cover the uncertainties resulted from power generation by WT and PV. • Proposing the use of price-offer packages and amount of DR for implement DRPs. • Considering a multi-objective scheduling model and use of MOPSO algorithm. - Abstract: In this paper, a multi-objective energy management system is proposed in order to optimize micro-grid (MG) performance in a short-term in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) for wind and solar energy generation with a randomized natural behavior. Considering the existence of different types of customers including residential, commercial, and industrial consumers can participate in demand response programs. As with declare their interruptible/curtailable demand rate or select from among different proposed prices so as to assist the central micro-grid control in terms of optimizing micro-grid operation and covering energy generation uncertainty from the renewable sources. In this paper, to implement Demand Response (DR) schedules, incentive-based payment in the form of offered packages of price and DR quantity collected by Demand Response Providers (DRPs) is used. In the typical micro-grid, different technologies including Wind Turbine (WT), PhotoVoltaic (PV) cell, Micro-Turbine (MT), Full Cell (FC), battery hybrid power source and responsive loads are used. The simulation results are considered in six different cases in order to optimize operation cost and emission with/without DR. Considering the complexity and non-linearity of the proposed problem, Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) is utilized. Also, fuzzy-based mechanism and non-linear sorting system are applied to determine the best compromise considering the set of solutions from Pareto-front space. The numerical results represented the effect of the proposed Demand Side Management (DSM) scheduling model on reducing the effect of uncertainty obtained from generation power and predicted by WT and PV in a MG.

  7. Time value of emission and technology discounting rate for off-grid electricity generation in India using intermediate pyrolysis

    Patel, Amit; Sarkar, Prabir; Tyagi, Himanshu; Singh, Harpreet

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment of a process over its entire operational lifespan is an important issue. Estimation of life cycle emission helps in predicting the contribution of a given process to abate (or to pollute) the environmental emission scenario. Considering diminishing and time-dependent effect of emission, assessment of the overall effect of emissions is very complex. The paper presents a generalized methodology for arriving at a single emission discounting number for a process option, using the concept of time value of carbon emission flow. This number incorporates the effect of the emission resulting from the process over the entire operational lifespan. The advantage of this method is its quantitative aspect as well as its flexible nature. It can be applied to any process. The method is demonstrated with the help of an Intermediate Pyrolysis process when used to generate off-grid electricity and opting biochar route for disposing straw residue. The scenarios of very high net emission to very high net carbon sequestration is generated using process by careful selection of process parameters for different scenarios. For these different scenarios, the process discounting rate was determined and its outcome is discussed. The paper also proposes a process specific eco-label that mentions the discounting rates. - Highlight: • Methodology to obtain emission discounting rate for a process is proposed. • The method includes all components of life cycle emission converts into a time dependent discounting number. • A case study of Intermediate Pyrolysis is used to obtain such number for a range of processes. • The method is useful to determine if the effect from the operation of a process will lead to a net absorption of emission or net accumulation of emission in the environment.

  8. Time value of emission and technology discounting rate for off-grid electricity generation in India using intermediate pyrolysis

    Patel, Amit, E-mail: amitrp@iitrpr.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India); Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Sarkar, Prabir; Tyagi, Himanshu; Singh, Harpreet [Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India)

    2016-07-15

    The environmental impact assessment of a process over its entire operational lifespan is an important issue. Estimation of life cycle emission helps in predicting the contribution of a given process to abate (or to pollute) the environmental emission scenario. Considering diminishing and time-dependent effect of emission, assessment of the overall effect of emissions is very complex. The paper presents a generalized methodology for arriving at a single emission discounting number for a process option, using the concept of time value of carbon emission flow. This number incorporates the effect of the emission resulting from the process over the entire operational lifespan. The advantage of this method is its quantitative aspect as well as its flexible nature. It can be applied to any process. The method is demonstrated with the help of an Intermediate Pyrolysis process when used to generate off-grid electricity and opting biochar route for disposing straw residue. The scenarios of very high net emission to very high net carbon sequestration is generated using process by careful selection of process parameters for different scenarios. For these different scenarios, the process discounting rate was determined and its outcome is discussed. The paper also proposes a process specific eco-label that mentions the discounting rates. - Highlight: • Methodology to obtain emission discounting rate for a process is proposed. • The method includes all components of life cycle emission converts into a time dependent discounting number. • A case study of Intermediate Pyrolysis is used to obtain such number for a range of processes. • The method is useful to determine if the effect from the operation of a process will lead to a net absorption of emission or net accumulation of emission in the environment.

  9. Adsorption purification of helium coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors of carbon dioxide

    Varezhkin, A.V.; Zel'venskij, Ya.D.; Metlik, I.V.; Khrulev, A.A.; Fedoseenkin, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    A series experiments on adsorption purification of helium of CO 2 using national adsorbent under the conditions characteristic of HTGR type reactors cleanup system is performed. The experimnts have been conducted under the dynamic mode with immobile adsorbent layer (CaA zeolite) at gas flow rates from 0,02 to 0,055 m/s in the pressure range from 0,8 to 5 MPa at the temperature of 273 and 293 K. It is shown that the adsorption grows with the decrease of gas rate, i.e. with increase of contact time with adsorbent. The helium pressure, growth noticeably whereas the temperature decrease from 293 to 273 K results in adsorption 2,6 times increase. The conclusion is drawn that it is advisable drying and purification of helium of CO 2 to perform separately using different zeolites: NaA - for water. CaA - for CO 2 . Estimations of purification unit parameters are realized

  10. Testing of degradation of alloy 800 H in impure helium at 760 °C

    Berka, J.; Vilémová, Monika; Sajdl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 464, September (2015), s. 221-229 ISSN 0022-3115 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : High temperature corrosion * impure helium * 800 H * Generation IV nuclear reactors Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311515002019#

  11. High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389 nm

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2005-01-01

    A high-power, frequency-stabilized laser for cooling of metastable helium atoms using the 2 S13 →3 P23 transition at 389 nm has been developed. The 389 nm light is generated by frequency doubling of a titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity containing a lithium-triborate nonlinear

  12. Final results of the 'Benchmark on computer simulation of radioactive nuclides production rate and heat generation rate in a spallation target'

    Janczyszyn, J.; Pohorecki, W.; Domanska, G.; Maiorino, R.J.; David, J.C.; Velarde, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark has been organized to assess the computer simulation of nuclide production and heat generation in a spallation lead target. The physical models applied for the calculation of thick lead target activation do not produce satisfactory results for the majority of analysed nuclides, however one can observe better or worse quantitative compliance with the experimental results. Analysis of the quality of calculated results show the best performance for heavy nuclides (A: 170 - 190). For intermediate nuclides (A: 60 - 130) almost all are underestimated while for A: 130 - 170 mainly overestimated. The shape of the activity distribution in the target is well reproduced in calculations by all models but the numerical comparison shows similar performance as for the whole target. The Isabel model yields best results. As for the whole target heating rate, the results from all participants are consistent. Only small differences are observed between results from physical models. As for the heating distribution in the target it looks not quite similar. The quantitative comparison of the distributions yielded by different spallation reaction models shows for the major part of the target no serious differences - generally below 10%. However, in the most outside parts of the target front layers and the part of the target at its end behind the primary protons range, a spread higher than 40 % is obtained

  13. The potential for reusing grey water and its generation rates for sustainable potable water security in Kuwait

    RAWA AL-JARALLAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to achieve the following objectives: (1 to investigate the water consumption patterns of Kuwaiti households, (2 to determine the per use water consumption rate for plumbing fixtures and their frequency of daily use and (3 to estimate the amount of grey water generated per person per day to explore the potential for reusing grey water in Kuwait. To achieve these objectives, a preliminary study was conducted to determine the per use water consumption rate for each plumbing fixture. An intensive study was then conducted using data from 53 households in different districts in Kuwait. The average daily freshwater consumption rate per person was found to be 283 L, half of which was converted to grey water. Reuse of grey water could reduce the freshwater consumption and hence wastewater treatment by 72.73 million imperial gallons per day (MIGD, which could lead to a savings of KD 87.6 (US $318.55 million from the annual freshwater production budget and between KD 15.93 (US $57.92 and KD 27.08 (US $98.46 million from the annual wastewater treatment budget.

  14. The role of helium ion microscopy in the characterisation of complex three-dimensional nanostructures

    Rodenburg, C.; Liu, X.; Jepson, M.A.E.; Zhou, Z.; Rainforth, W.M.; Rodenburg, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses two major issues relating to Helium Ion Microscopy (HeIM). First we show that HeIM is capable of solving the interpretation difficulties that arise when complex three-dimensional structures are imaged using traditional high lateral resolution techniques which are transmission based, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Secondly we use a nano-composite coating consisting of amorphous carbon embedded in chromium rich matrix to estimate the mean escape depth for amorphous carbon for secondary electrons generated by helium ion impact as a measure of HeIM depth resolution.

  15. Investigation of helium-induced embrittlement

    Sabelova, V.; Slugen, V.; Krsjak, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the hardness of Fe-9%(wt.) Cr binary alloy implanted by helium ions up to 1000 nm was investigated. The implantations were performed using linear accelerator at temperatures below 80 grad C. Isochronal annealing up to 700 grad C with the step of 100 grad C was applied on the helium implanted samples in order to investigate helium induced embrittlement of material. Obtained results were compared with theoretical calculations of dpa profiles. Due to the results, the nano-hardness technique results to be an appropriate approach to the hardness determination of thin layers of implanted alloys. Both, experimental and theoretical calculation techniques (SRIM) show significant correlation of measured results of induced defects. (authors)

  16. Prestressed concrete vessels suitable for helium high temperature reactors

    Lockett, G.E.; Kinkead, A.N.

    1967-02-01

    In considering prestressed concrete vessels for use with helium cooled high temperature reactors, a number of new problems arise and projected designs involve new approaches and new solutions. These reactors, having high coolant outlet temperature from the core and relatively high power densities, can be built into compact designs which permit usefully high working pressures. Consequently, steam generators and circulating units tend to be small. Although circuit activity can be kept quite low with coated particle fuels, designs which involve entry for subsequent repair are not favoured, and coupled with the preferred aim of using fully shop fabricated units within the designs with removable steam generators which involve no tube welding inside the vessel. A particular solution uses a number of slim cylindrical assemblies housed in the wall of the pressure vessel and this vessel design concept is presented. The use of helium requires very high sealing standards and one of the important requirements is a vessel design which permits leak testing during construction, so that a repair seal can be made to any faulty part in a liner seam. Very good demountable joint seals can be made without particular difficulty and Dragon experience is used to provide solutions which are suitable for prestressed concrete vessel penetrations. The concept layout is given of a vessel meeting these requirements; the basis of design is outlined and special features of importance discussed. (author)

  17. Recent progress in the modelling of helium and tritium behaviour in irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Rabaglino, E.; Ronchi, C.; Cardella, A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues of the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed blanket is the behaviour under irradiation of beryllium pebbles, which have the function of neutron multiplier. An intense production of helium occurs in-pile, as well as a non negligible generation of tritium. Helium bubbles induce swelling and a high tritium inventory is a safety issue. Extensive studies for a better understanding, characterisation and modelling of the behaviour of helium and tritium in irradiated beryllium pebbles are being carried out, with the final aim to enable a reliable prediction of gas release and swelling in the full range of operating and accidental conditions of a Fusion Power Reactor. The general strategy consists in integrating studies on macroscopic phenomena (gas release) with the characterisation of corresponding microscopic diffusion phenomena (bubble kinetics) and the assessment of some fundamental diffusion parameter for the models (gas atomic diffusion coefficients). The present work gives a summary of the latest achievements in this context. By an inverse analysis of experimental out-of-pile gas release from weakly irradiated pebbles, coupled to the study of the characteristics of bubble population, it has been possible to assess the thermal diffusion coefficients of helium and tritium in and to improve and validate the classical model of gas precipitation into bubbles inside the grain. The improvement of the description of gas atomic diffusion and precipitation is the first step to enable a more reliable prediction of gas release

  18. Free-piston driver performance characterisation using experimental shock speeds through helium

    Gildfind, D. E.; James, C. M.; Morgan, R. G.

    2015-03-01

    Tuned free-piston driver operation involves configuring the driver to produce a relatively steady blast of driver gas over the critical time scales of the experiment. For the purposes of flow condition development and parametric studies, it is useful to establish some average working values of the driver pressure and temperature for a given driver operating condition. However, in practise, these averaged values need to produce sufficiently accurate estimates of performance. In this study, two tuned driver conditions in the X2 expansion tube have been used to generate shock waves through a helium test gas. The measured shock speeds have then been used to calculate the effective driver gas pressure and temperature after diaphragm rupture. Since the driver gas is typically helium, or a mixture of helium and argon, and the test gas is also helium, ideal gas assumptions can be made without significant loss of accuracy. The technique is applicable to tuned free-piston drivers with a simple area change, as well as those using orifice plates. It is shown that this technique can be quickly used to establish average working driver gas properties which produce very good estimates of actual driven shock speed, across a wide range of operating conditions. The use of orifice plates to control piston dynamics at high driver gas sound speeds is also discussed in the paper, and a simple technique for calculating the restriction required to modify an established safe condition for use with lighter gases, such as pure helium, is presented.

  19. Creep and fatigue of alloy 800 in helium

    Cook, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Proposals for use of Alloy 800 as a H.T.R. boiler material have prompted studies of its creep and high temperature fatigue properties in impure helium with comparative tests in air. In impure helium, as expected in a H.T.R., reactions of potential importance are selective oxidation (of chromium, aluminium and titanium) and possibly carburisation from carbon monoxide or methane. In air, general oxidation will occur, possibly accompanied by nitridation. The effects of these reactions will depend on specimen geometry and the nature of the deformation. Two important possibilities are: (i) that environment affects the structure and properties of a surface zone of material undegoing uniform deformation (this may modify creep rate and crack nucleation); and (ii) that environment affects behaviour of a small region (e.g. at the root of a notch or ahead of a crack) in a specimen undergoing non-uniform deformation (this will modify crack growth and hence rupture life or fatigue endurance). This paper summarises experimental work demonstrating an influence of the above reactions on mechanical properties of austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys, drawing examples where possible from the limited data available on Alloy 800. Whilst nitridation and carburisation may simply increase creep resistance at the expense of ductility (and possibly of fatigue resistance), the effects of oxidation are complex. A high oxygen pressures (as in air) oxygen may reduce creep and fatigue resistance by promoting cavitation but formation of oxide in cracks can reduce their propagation rate. At low oxygen pressures, as expected in H.T.R. helium, oxygen enhanced cavitation is less likely, but selective oxidation along grain boundaries can sometimes assist crack nucleation. (author)

  20. Preliminary study on helium turbomachine for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Chen Yihua; Wang Jie; Zhang Zuoyi

    2003-01-01

    In the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), gas turbine cycle is a new concept in the field of nuclear power. It combines two technologies of HTGR and gas turbine cycle, which represent the state-of-the-art technologies of nuclear power and fossil fuel generation respectively. This approach is expected to improve safety and economy of nuclear power plant significantly. So it is a potential scheme with competitiveness. The heat-recuperated cycle is the main stream of gas turbine cycle. In this cycle, the work medium is helium, which is very different from the air, so that the design features of the helium turbomachine and combustion gas turbomachine are different. The paper shows the basic design consideration for the heat-recuperated cycle as well as helium turbomachine and highlights its main design features compared with combustion gas turbomachine