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Sample records for helicity active region

  1. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  2. EVOLUTION OF SPINNING AND BRAIDING HELICITY FLUXES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Yoshimura, Keiji [Department of Physics, Montana State University Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dasso, Sergio, E-mail: ravindra@iiap.res.in, E-mail: yosimura@solar.physics.montana.edu, E-mail: dasso@df.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-10

    The line-of-sight magnetograms from Solar Optical Telescope Narrowband Filter Imager observations of NOAA Active Region 10930 have been used to study the evolution of spinning and braiding helicities over a period of five days starting from 2006 December 9. The north (N) polarity sunspot was the follower and the south (S) polarity sunspot was the leader. The N-polarity sunspot in the active region was rotating in the counterclockwise direction. The rate of rotation was small during the first two days of observations and it increased up to 8 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} on the third day of the observations. On the fourth and fifth days it remained at 4 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} with small undulations in its magnitude. The sunspot rotated about 260 Degree-Sign in the last three days. The S-polarity sunspot did not complete more than 20 Degree-Sign in five days. However, it changed its direction of rotation five times over a period of five days and injected both the positive and negative type of spin helicity fluxes into the corona. Through the five days, both the positive and negative sunspot regions injected equal amounts of spin helicity. The total injected helicity is predominantly negative in sign. However, the sign of the spin and braiding helicity fluxes computed over all the regions were reversed from negative to positive five times during the five-day period of observations. The reversal in spinning helicity flux was found before the onset of the X3.4-class flare, too. Though, the rotating sunspot has been observed in this active region, the braiding helicity has contributed more to the total accumulated helicity than the spinning helicity. The accumulated helicity is in excess of -7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2} over a period of five days. Before the X3.4-class flare that occurred on 2006 December 13, the rotation speed and spin helicity flux increased in the S-polarity sunspot. Before the flare, the total injected helicity was larger than -6

  3. TIME EVOLUTION OF CORONAL MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE FLARING ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, Ju; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul; Tan, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 x 10 43 Mx 2 just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 x 10 43 Mx 2 , in the corona over ∼1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.

  4. PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-hong; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to better understand how magnetic helicity injection in an active region (AR) is related to the occurrence and intensity of solar flares. We therefore investigate the magnetic helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux, as a reference. In total, 378 ARs are analyzed using SOHO/MDI magnetograms. The 24 hr averaged helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux are compared with the flare index and the flare-productive probability in the next 24 hr following a measurement. In addition, we study the variation of helicity over a span of several days around the times of the 19 flares above M5.0 which occurred in selected strong flare-productive ARs. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) for a sub-sample of 91 large ARs with unsigned magnetic fluxes in the range from (3-5) x 10 22 Mx, there is a difference in the magnetic helicity injection rate between flaring ARs and non-flaring ARs by a factor of 2; (2) the GOES C-flare-productive probability as a function of helicity injection displays a sharp boundary between flare-productive ARs and flare-quiet ones; (3) the history of helicity injection before all the 19 major flares displayed a common characteristic: a significant helicity accumulation of (3-45) x 10 42 Mx 2 during a phase of monotonically increasing helicity over 0.5-2 days. Our results support the notion that helicity injection is important in flares, but it is not effective to use it alone for the purpose of flare forecast. It is necessary to find a way to better characterize the time history of helicity injection as well as its spatial distribution inside ARs.

  5. Using Magnetic Helicity Diagnostics to Determine the Nature of Solar Active-Region Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    Employing a novel nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method that self-consistently infers instantaneous free magnetic-energy and relative magnetic-helicity budgets from single photospheric vector magnetograms, we recently constructed the magnetic energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions. The EH diagram implies dominant relative helicities of left-handed or right-handed chiralities for the great majority of active regions. The amplitude (budget) of these helicities scales monotonically with the free magnetic energy. This constructive, strongly preferential accumulation of a certain sense of magnetic helicity seems to disqualify recently proposed mechanisms relying on a largely random near-surface convection for the formation of the great majority of active regions. The existing qualitative formation mechanism for these regions remains the conventional Omega-loop emergence following a buoyant ascension from the bottom of the convection zone. However, exceptions to this rule include even eruptive active regions: NOAA AR 11283 is an obvious outlier to the EH diagram, involving significant free magnetic energy with a small relative magnetic helicity. Relying on a timeseries of vector magnetograms of this region, our methodology shows nearly canceling amounts of both senses of helicity and an overall course from a weakly left-handed to a weakly right-handed structure, in the course of which a major eruption occurs. For this and similarly behaving active regions the latest near-surface formation scenario might conceivably be employed successfully. Research partially supported by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. PIRG07-GA-2010-268245 and by the European Union Social Fund (ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  6. Helicity of Solar Active Regions from a Dynamo Model Piyali ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - tions with positive and negative helicities are denoted by '+' and 'o' respectively. A flux eruption takes place in our model whenever the toroidal field at the bottom of the SCZ exceeds a critical value. Whenever an eruption takes place in our ...

  7. EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30–60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field

  8. EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongqi [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Brandenburg, Axel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Sokoloff, D. D., E-mail: hzhang@bao.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Moscow University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-10

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30–60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field.

  9. Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

  10. ON THE STRENGTH OF THE HEMISPHERIC RULE AND THE ORIGIN OF ACTIVE-REGION HELICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Vector magnetograph and morphological observations have shown that the solar magnetic field tends to have negative (positive) helicity in the northern (southern) hemisphere, although only ∼60%-70% of active regions appear to obey this 'hemispheric rule'. In contrast, at least ∼80% of quiescent filaments and filament channels that form during the decay of active regions follow the rule. We attribute this discrepancy to the difficulty in determining the helicity sign of newly emerged active regions, which are dominated by their current-free component; as the transverse field is canceled at the polarity inversion lines, however, the axial component becomes dominant there, allowing a more reliable determination of the original active-region chirality. We thus deduce that the hemispheric rule is far stronger than generally assumed, and cannot be explained by stochastic processes. Earlier studies have shown that the twist associated with the axial tilt of active regions is too small to account for the observed helicity; here, both tilt and twist are induced by the Coriolis force acting on the diverging flow in the emerging flux tube. However, in addition to this east-west expansion about the apex of the loop, each of its legs must expand continually in cross section during its rise through the convection zone, thereby acquiring a further twist through the Coriolis force. Since this transverse pressure effect is not limited by drag or tension forces, the final twist depends mainly on the rise time, and may be large enough to explain the observed active-region helicity

  11. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Gordon; McMaken, Tyler C.

    2017-08-01

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  12. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMaken, Tyler C. [National Solar Observatory REU Program, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Petrie, Gordon J. D., E-mail: tmcmaken@gmail.com, E-mail: gpetrie@noao.edu [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  13. Magnetic helicity and active filament configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Poedts, S.; Soenen, A.; Zuccarello, F. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic helicity in active filament formation and destabilization is still under debate. Aims: Although active filaments usually show a sigmoid shape and a twisted configuration before and during their eruption, it is unclear which mechanism leads to these topologies. In order to provide an observational contribution to clarify these issues, we describe a filament evolution whose characteristics seem to be directly linked to the magnetic helicity transport in corona. Methods: We applied different methods to determine the helicity sign and the chirality of the filament magnetic field. We also computed the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints. Results: All the observational signatures provided information on the positive helicity and sinistral chirality of the flux rope containing the filament material: its forward S shape, the orientation of its barbs, the bright and dark threads at 195 Å. Moreover, the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints showed a clear accumulation of positive helicity. Conclusions: The study of this event showed a correspondence between several signatures of the sinistral chirality of the filament and several evidences of the positive magnetic helicity of the filament magnetic field. We also found that the magnetic helicity transported along the filament footpoints showed an increase just before the change of the filament shape observed in Hα images. We argued that the photospheric regions where the filament was rooted might be the preferential ways where the magnetic helicity was injected along the filament itself and where the conditions to trigger the eruption were yielded.

  14. Study of magnetic helicity injection in the active region NOAA 9236 producing multiple flare-associated coronal mass ejection events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Bong, Su-Chan; Kumar, Pankaj; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Kusano, Kanya; Chae, Jongchul; Park, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    To better understand a preferred magnetic field configuration and its evolution during coronal mass ejection (CME) events, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of photospheric magnetic fields in the active region NOAA 9236 that produced eight flare-associated CMEs during the time period of 2000 November 23-26. The time variations of the total magnetic helicity injection rate and the total unsigned magnetic flux are determined and examined not only in the entire active region but also in some local regions such as the main sunspots and the CME-associated flaring regions using SOHO/MDI magnetogram data. As a result, we found that (1) in the sunspots, a large amount of positive (right-handed) magnetic helicity was injected during most of the examined time period, (2) in the flare region, there was a continuous injection of negative (left-handed) magnetic helicity during the entire period, accompanied by a large increase of the unsigned magnetic flux, and (3) the flaring regions were mainly composed of emerging bipoles of magnetic fragments in which magnetic field lines have substantially favorable conditions for making reconnection with large-scale, overlying, and oppositely directed magnetic field lines connecting the main sunspots. These observational findings can also be well explained by some MHD numerical simulations for CME initiation (e.g., reconnection-favored emerging flux models). We therefore conclude that reconnection-favored magnetic fields in the flaring emerging flux regions play a crucial role in producing the multiple flare-associated CMEs in NOAA 9236.

  15. Pyrolysis of Helical Coordination Polymers for Metal-Sulfide-Based Helices with Broadband Chiroptical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenji; Yeom, Bongjun; Sada, Kazuki

    2017-06-27

    Fabrication of chiroptical materials with broadband response in the visible light region is vital to fully realize their potential applications. One way to achieve broadband chiroptical activity is to fabricate chiral nanostructures from materials that exhibit broadband absorption in the visible light region. However, the compounds used for chiroptical materials have predominantly been limited to materials with narrowband spectral response. Here, we synthesize Ag 2 S-based nanohelices derived from helical coordination polymers. The right- and left-handed coordination helices used as precursors are prepared from l- and d-glutathione with Ag + and a small amount of Cu 2+ . The pyrolysis of the coordination helices yields right- and left-handed helices of Cu 0.12 Ag 1.94 S/C, which exhibit chiroptical activity spanning the entire visible light region. Finite element method simulations substantiate that the broadband chiroptical activity is attributed to synergistic broadband light absorption and light scattering. Furthermore, another series of Cu 0.10 Ag 1.90 S/C nanohelices are synthesized by choosing the l- or d-Glu-Cys as starting materials. The pitch length of nanohelicies is controlled by changing the peptides, which alters their chiroptical properties. The pyrolysis of coordination helices enables one to fabricate helical Ag 2 S-based materials that enable broadband chiroptical activity but have not been explored owing to the lack of synthetic routes.

  16. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign

  17. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities toward Peptomeric Triple-Helical Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawikowski, Maciej J; Stawikowska, Roma; Fields, Gregg B

    2015-05-19

    Although collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) possess common domain organizations, there are subtle differences in their processing of collagenous triple-helical substrates. In this study, we have incorporated peptoid residues into collagen model triple-helical peptides and examined MMP activities toward these peptomeric chimeras. Several different peptoid residues were incorporated into triple-helical substrates at subsites P3, P1, P1', and P10' individually or in combination, and the effects of the peptoid residues were evaluated on the activities of full-length MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-14/MT1-MMP. Most peptomers showed little discrimination between MMPs. However, a peptomer containing N-methyl Gly (sarcosine) in the P1' subsite and N-isobutyl Gly (NLeu) in the P10' subsite was hydrolyzed efficiently only by MMP-13 [nomenclature relative to the α1(I)772-786 sequence]. Cleavage site analysis showed hydrolysis at the Gly-Gln bond, indicating a shifted binding of the triple helix compared to the parent sequence. Favorable hydrolysis by MMP-13 was not due to sequence specificity or instability of the substrate triple helix but rather was based on the specific interactions of the P7' peptoid residue with the MMP-13 hemopexin-like domain. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer triple-helical peptomer was constructed and found to be readily processed by MMP-13, not cleaved by MMP-1 and MMP-8, and weakly hydrolyzed by MT1-MMP. The influence of the triple-helical structure containing peptoid residues on the interaction between MMP subsites and individual substrate residues may provide additional information about the mechanism of collagenolysis, the understanding of collagen specificity, and the design of selective MMP probes.

  18. INTERPRETING ERUPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN NOAA AR 11158 VIA THE REGION'S MAGNETIC ENERGY AND RELATIVE-HELICITY BUDGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Liu Yang

    2013-01-01

    In previous works, we introduced a nonlinear force-free method that self-consistently calculates the instantaneous budgets of free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in solar active regions (ARs). Calculation is expedient and practical, using only a single vector magnetogram per computation. We apply this method to a time series of 600 high-cadence vector magnetograms of the eruptive NOAA AR 11158 acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory over a five-day observing interval. Besides testing our method extensively, we use it to interpret the dynamical evolution in the AR, including eruptions. We find that the AR builds large budgets of both free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity, sufficient to power many more eruptions than the ones it gave within the interval of interest. For each of these major eruptions, we find eruption-related decreases and subsequent free-energy and helicity budgets that are consistent with the observed eruption (flare and coronal mass ejection (CME)) sizes. In addition, we find that (1) evolution in the AR is consistent with the recently proposed (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of solar ARs, (2) eruption-related decreases occur before the flare and the projected CME-launch times, suggesting that CME progenitors precede flares, and (3) self terms of free energy and relative helicity most likely originate from respective mutual terms, following a progressive mutual-to-self conversion pattern that most likely stems from magnetic reconnection. This results in the non-ideal formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and instigates further research on the triggering of solar eruptions with magnetic helicity firmly placed in the eruption cadre

  19. NMR studies of the fifth transmembrane segment of Na+,K+-ATPase reveals a non-helical ion-binding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhaug, Jarl; Jakobsen, Louise Odgaard; Esmann, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the fifth membrane-spanning segment (M5) in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was determined using liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The spectra reveal that this peptide is substantially less...... transmembrane element of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. Furthermore, this region spans the residues implicated in Na(+) and K(+) transport, where they are likely to offer the flexibility needed to coordinate Na(+) as well as K(+) during active transport....... alpha-helical than the corresponding M5 peptide of Ca(2+)-ATPase. A well-defined alpha-helix is shown in the C-terminal half of the peptide. Apart from a short helical stretch at the N-terminus, the N-terminal half contains a non-helical region with two proline residues and sequence similarity to a non-structured...

  20. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in active regions also shows the butterfly pattern through the solar cycle. And, less than 30% of the active regions do not follow the general trend (Zhang & Bao 1998). The longitudinal distribution of current helicity parameter h|| of active regions in both the hemispheres in the last decade was presented by Zhang & Bao ...

  1. Antiviral activity of α-helical stapled peptides designed from the HIV-1 capsid dimerization domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowburn David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C-terminal domain (CTD of HIV-1 capsid (CA, like full-length CA, forms dimers in solution and CTD dimerization is a major driving force in Gag assembly and maturation. Mutations of the residues at the CTD dimer interface impair virus assembly and render the virus non-infectious. Therefore, the CTD represents a potential target for designing anti-HIV-1 drugs. Results Due to the pivotal role of the dimer interface, we reasoned that peptides from the α-helical region of the dimer interface might be effective as decoys to prevent CTD dimer formation. However, these small peptides do not have any structure in solution and they do not penetrate cells. Therefore, we used the hydrocarbon stapling technique to stabilize the α-helical structure and confirmed by confocal microscopy that this modification also made these peptides cell-penetrating. We also confirmed by using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, sedimentation equilibrium and NMR that these peptides indeed disrupt dimer formation. In in vitro assembly assays, the peptides inhibited mature-like virus particle formation and specifically inhibited HIV-1 production in cell-based assays. These peptides also showed potent antiviral activity against a large panel of laboratory-adapted and primary isolates, including viral strains resistant to inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease. Conclusions These preliminary data serve as the foundation for designing small, stable, α-helical peptides and small-molecule inhibitors targeted against the CTD dimer interface. The observation that relatively weak CA binders, such as NYAD-201 and NYAD-202, showed specificity and are able to disrupt the CTD dimer is encouraging for further exploration of a much broader class of antiviral compounds targeting CA. We cannot exclude the possibility that the CA-based peptides described here could elicit additional effects on virus replication not directly linked to their ability to bind

  2. Three-dimensional helical (spiral) CT angiography. Visualization of vessels in the maxillofacial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Shigeo; Sakamoto, Hidetomo; Mori, Shin-ichiro; Kagawa, Toyohiro; Seze, Ryosuke; Ishioka, Hisakazu; Tashiro, Himiko; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Wada, Tadako

    1998-01-01

    Authors performed the contrast helical CT for tumors on the maxillofacial regions, and reconstituted these data into the three-dimensional helical (spiral) CT angiography (CTA). Furthermore the conditions of photographing and the clinical significance of CTA were discussed. The subjects were 24 cases (including 13 of malignant tumors, 4 of benign tumors, 4 of inflammation and 3 of malformations), to which the contrast helical CT was performed transvenously. The photographing condition was set in principal to 140 kV of the tube voltage, 160 (200) mA of the tube current, 3 mm of the X-ray beam width, 3 mm/sec (pitch=1) of the turn-table moving speed. The relationship between the beam width and the pitch was determined by the phantom experiments. The scanning was carried out maximally for continuous 60 sec as the scanning time of a turn/sec. Of all cases, CTA visualized three-dimensionally vessels, but it was hard in the total carotid arteries and the internal-external carotid arteries. Authors analyzed the axial and the multiplanar reconstitution (MPR) images as the two-dimensional display, and the surface rendering (SR), the volume rendering and the maximum intensity projections (MIP) as the three-dimensional display. The axial and MPR image of the facial arteries and the lingual arteries as the branched vessels from the external carotid arteries were recognized easily. By SR, it was easily to understand the anatomical relationship among vessels, gnathic bone and cervical vertebrae, and by MIP sufficiently observe the concentration dependent calcification of the vessel walls. Three-dimensional CTA is very useful to get the three-dimensional visual information about the anatomical structures of the maxillofacial regions which is necessary for oral surgeons to plan the pre-operational strategies. (K.H.)

  3. Markov analysis of alpha-helical, beta-sheet and random coil regions of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiato, M.; Tramontano, A.

    1983-01-01

    The rules up to now used to predict the spatial configuration of proteins from their primary structure are mostly based on the recurrence analysis of some doublets, triplets and so on of contiguous amino acids, but they do not take into account the correlation characteristics of the whole amino acid sequence. A statistical analysis of amino acid sequences for the alpha-helical, beta-sheet and random coil regions of about twenty proteins with known secondary structure by considering correlations effects has been carried out. The obtained results demonstrate that these sequences are at least a second-order Markov chain, i.e. they appear as if they were generated by a source that remembers at least the two aminoacids before the one being generated and that these two previous symbols influence the present choice

  4. Observation of an optical vortex beam from a helical undulator in the XUV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Fujimoto, Masaki; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Masahito; Shigemasa, Eiji; Katoh, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    The observation of an optical vortex beam at 60 nm wavelength, produced as the second-harmonic radiation from a helical undulator, is reported. The helical wavefront of the optical vortex beam was verified by measuring the interference pattern between the vortex beam from a helical undulator and a normal beam from another undulator. Although the interference patterns were slightly blurred owing to the relatively large electron beam emittance, it was possible to observe the interference features thanks to the helical wavefront of the vortex beam. The experimental results were well reproduced by simulation.

  5. Dissociation of 5' proximal helical regions in messenger RNAs by eukaryotic initiation factors 4F, 4A, and 4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thach, R.E.; Lawson, T.G.; Lee, K.A.; Abramson, R.D.; Merrick, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Ray, et al. demonstrated that the susceptibility of mRNAs to cleavage by ribonucleases is greatly increased by eIF-4A and eIF-4F in an ATP-dependent reaction, and that this reaction is enhanced by the presence of eIF-4B. They now report direct evidence for the dissociation of helical regions at the 5' ends of mRNAs by these factors. Helices were generated at the 5' ends of reovirus and rabbit globin mRNAs by hybridizing to them 32 P-labeled cDNA pentadecamers. The dissociation of the cDNAs from the mRNAs was monitored by Sephadex gel filtration. Addition of eIF-4F to hybrids caused the dissociation of small amounts of cDNAs, and this dissociation required ATP. Addition of eIF-4B stimulated this activity. Neither eIF-4B nor eIF-4A alone caused significant ATP-dependent dissociation, but they did so in combination. Interestingly, cDNAs that were hybridized to 5' distal regions were dissociated with efficiencies and rates similar to those of 5' proximal cDNAs. The presence of unlabelled cDNAs hybridized 5' proximally did not affect distal cDNA dissociation. These results confirm the earlier suggestion that eIF-4A, eIF-4B and eIF-4F play important roles in the disruption of mRNA secondary structure during initiation

  6. Helical 1:1 α/Sulfono-γ-AA Heterogeneous Peptides with Antibacterial Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Fengyu; Nimmagadda, Alekhya; Teng, Peng; Su, Ma; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-05-09

    As one of the greatest threats facing in 21st century, antibiotic resistance is now a major public health concern. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer an alternative approach to combat emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria. It is known that helical HDPs such as magainin 2 and its analogs adopt cationic amphipathic conformations upon interaction with bacterial membranes, leading to membrane disruption and subsequent bacterial cell death. We have previously shown that amphipathic sulfono-γ-AApeptides could mimic magainin 2 and exhibit bactericidal activity. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that amphipathic helical 1:1 α/sulfono-γ-AA heterogeneous peptides, in which regular amino acids and sulfono-γ-AApeptide building blocks are alternatively present in a 1:1 pattern, display potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) suggests that the lead sequences adopt defined helical structures. The subsequent studies including 2 fluorescence microscopy and time-kill experiments indicate that these hybrid peptides exert antimicrobial activity by mimicking the mechanism of HDPs. Our findings may lead to the development of HDP-mimicking antimicrobial peptidomimetics that combat drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In addition, our results also demonstrate the effective design of a new class of helical foldamer, which could be employed to interrogate other important biological targets such as protein-protein interactions in the future.

  7. A morphological study of the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Makoto; Noguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Keiko; Tachinami, Yasuharu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the morphological variance in the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic (CT) images. In addition, we discuss the necessity of CT scanning as part of the preoperative assessment process for dental implantation, by comparing the results with the findings of panoramic radiography. Sixty patients examined using CT as part of the preoperative assessment for dental implantation were analyzed. Reconstructed CT images were used to evaluate the bone quality and cross-sectional bone morphology of the mandibular molar region. The mandibular cortical index (MCI) and X-ray density ratio of this region were assessed using panoramic radiography in order to analyze the correlation between the findings of the CT images and panoramic radiography. CT images showed that there was a decrease in bone quality in cases with high MCI. Cross-sectional CT images revealed that the undercuts on the lingual side in the highly radiolucent areas in the basal portion were more frequent than those in the alveolar portion. This study showed that three-dimensional reconstructed CT images can help to detect variances in mandibular morphology that might be missed by panoramic radiography. In conclusion, it is suggested that CT should be included as an important examination tool before dental implantation. (author)

  8. Helical polyurethane-attapulgite nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqiang; Zhou Yuming; Sun Yanqing; Fan Kai; Guo Xingxing; Jiang Xiaolei

    2009-01-01

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) composite was prepared after the surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). BM-ATT was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. FT-IR and XRD analyses indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. BM-ATT exhibits the rod-like structure by SEM, TEM, and HTEM photographs. BM-ATT displays obvious Cotton effect for some absorbance in VCD spectrum, and its optical activity results from the singlehanded conformation of helical polyurethane. - Graphical Abstract: Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) nanocomposite was prepared after surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). This rod-like composite is coated by the optically active polyurethane shell on the surfaces.

  9. HEMISPHERIC HELICITY TREND FOR SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Juan; Zhang Mei

    2011-01-01

    Using vector magnetograms obtained with the Spectro-polarimeter (SP) on board Hinode satellite, we studied two helicity parameters (local twist and current helicity) of 64 active regions that occurred in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. Our analysis gives the following results. (1) The 34 active regions of the solar cycle 24 follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule, whereas the 30 active regions of the solar cycle 23 do not. (2) When combining all 64 active regions as one sample, they follow the hemispheric helicity sign rule as in most other observations. (3) Despite the so-far most accurate measurement of vector magnetic field given by SP/Hinode, the rule is still weak with large scatters. (4) The data show evidence of different helicity signs between strong and weak fields, confirming previous result from a large sample of ground-based observations. (5) With two example sunspots we show that the helicity parameters change sign from the inner umbra to the outer penumbra, where the sign of penumbra agrees with the sign of the active region as a whole. From these results, we speculate that both the Σ-effect (turbulent convection) and the dynamo have contributed in the generation of helicity, whereas in both cases turbulence in the convection zone has played a significant role.

  10. Helix-sense-selective co-precipitation for preparing optically active helical polymer nanoparticles/graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huajun; Li, Weifei; Shi, Yan; Deng, Jianping

    2017-05-25

    Constructing optically active helical polymer based nanomaterials without using expensive and limited chirally helical polymers has become an extremely attractive research topic in both chemical and materials science. In this study, we prepared a series of optically active helical polymer nanoparticles/graphene oxide (OAHPNs/GO) hybrid nanocomposites through an unprecedented strategy-the co-precipitation of optically inactive helical polymers and chirally modified GO. This approach is named helix-sense-selective co-precipitation (HSSCP), in which the chirally modified GO acted as a chiral source for inducing and further stabilizing the predominantly one-handed helicity in the optically inactive helical polymers. SEM and TEM images show quite similar morphologies of all the obtained OAHPNs/GO nanocomposites; specifically, the chirally modified GO sheets were uniformly decorated with spherical polymer nanoparticles. Circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the preferentially induced helicity in the helical polymers and the optical activity of the nanocomposites. The established HSSCP strategy is thus proven to be widely applicable and is expected to produce numerous functional OAHPNs/GO nanocomposites and even the analogues.

  11. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  12. Monitoring single protease activities on triple-helical collagen molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzar, Raj; Froberg, James; Srivastava, D. K.; Choi, Yongki

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a particular family of proteases, play a pivotal role in degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM). It has been known for more than 40 years that MMPs are closely involved in multiple human cancers during cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms of MMP activity are far from being understood. Here, we monitored enzymatic processing of MMPs with two complementary approaches, atomic force microscopy and nanocircuits measurements. AFM measurements demonstrated that incubation of collagen monomers with MMPs resulted in a single position cleavage, producing 3/4 and 1/4 collagen fragments. From electronic monitoring of single MMP nanocircuit measurements, we were able to capture a single cleavage event with a rate of 0.012 Hz, which were in good agreement with fluorescence assay measurements. This work was supported financially by the NIGMS/NIH (P30GM103332-02) and ND NASA EPSCoR RID Grant.

  13. Topology and transport in the edge region of RFX-mod helical regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarin, P.; Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Zuin, M.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Martines, E.; Moresco, M.; Munaretto, S.; Puiatti, M. E.; Valisa, M.

    2011-01-01

    New edge diagnostics and detailed analysis of magnetic topology have significantly improved the comprehension of the processes developing at the boundary of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma in RFX-mod (a = 0.46 m, R = 2 m). An upper critical density n C ∼ 0.4 n G (n G Greenwald density) is found to limit the operational space for the improved quasi-single helical (QSH) regime: magnetic topology reconstructions and diagnostic observations suggest that this limit is due to a helical plasma-wall interaction which determines toroidally and poloidally localized edge density accumulation and cooling. The experimental evidence is provided by a variety of diagnostics: the magnetic boundary as reconstructed from equilibrium codes reveals a helical deformation, which is well correlated with the modulation of edge pressure profile as reconstructed from the thermal helium beam diagnostic. Correlations with the helical deformation are also observed on the space- and time-resolved patterns of the floating potential measured at the wall, and with the edge plasma flow, obtained from different diagnostics. The relevance of these findings is that understanding the mechanisms that limit the operational space of QSH is decisive in achieving the goal of high-density stationary helical RFP equilibrium.

  14. Helicity content and tokamak applications of helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-05-01

    Magnetic helicity is approximately conserved by the turbulence associated with resistive instabilities of plasmas. To generalize the application of the concept of helicity, the helicity content of an arbitrary bounded region of space will be defined. The definition has the virtues that both the helicity content and its time derivative have simple expressions in terms of the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes, the average toroidal loop voltage and the electric potential on the bounding surface, and the volume integral of E-B. The application of the helicity concept to tokamak plasmas is illustrated by a discussion of so-called MHD current drive, an example of a stable tokamak q profile with q less than one in the center, and a discussion of the possibility of a natural steady-state tokamak due to the bootstrap current coupling to tearing instabilities

  15. Helicity dependence of the γ {sup 3}He → πX reactions in the Δ(1232) resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanza, S.; Rigamonti, F. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pavia (Italy); Mushkarenkov, A.; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Romaniuk, M.; Mandaglio, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Universita di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Messina (Italy); Aguar Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Kashevarov, V.L.; Ostrick, M.; Ortega, H.; Otte, P.B.; Oussena, B.; Schumann, S.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M.; Hamilton, D.; Howdle, D.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Mancell, J.; McGeorge, J.C.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Beck, R. [University of Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Bekrenev, V.; Kruglov, S.; Kulbardis, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Berghaeuser, H.; Drexler, P.; Metag, V.; Thiel, M. [University of Giessen, II Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Briscoe, W.J.; Downie, E.J. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Cherepnya, S.N.; Fil' kov, L.V.; Lisin, V.; Polonski, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Collicott, C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Glazier, D.I. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Heil, W.; Krimmer, J. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Hornidge, D.; Middleton, D.G. [Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB (Canada); Jaegle, I.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Oberle, M.; Pheron, F.; Rostomyan, T.; Werthmueller, D. [University of Basel, Institut fuer Physik, Basel (Switzerland); Huber, G.M. [University of Regina, Regina, SK (Canada); Jude, T.; Watts, D.P. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kondratiev, R. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korolija, M.; Supek, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Manley, D.M. [Kent State University, Kent, Ohio (United States); Nefkens, B.M.K.; Starostin, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Nikolaev, A. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pavia (Italy); Prakhov, S. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sarty, A.J. [Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Collaboration: A2 Collaboration

    2014-11-15

    The helicity dependences of the differential cross sections for the semi-inclusive γ {sup 3}He → π{sup 0} X and γ {sup 3}He → π{sup ±} X reactions have been measured for the first time in the energy region 200 < E{sub γ} 450 MeV. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz using a longitudinally polarised high-pressure {sup 3}He gas target. Hadronic products were measured with the large-acceptance Crystal Ball detector complemented with additional devices for charged-particle tracking and identification. Unpolarised differential cross sections and their helicity dependence are compared with theoretical calculations using the Fix-Arenhoevel model. The effect of the intermediate excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance can be clearly seen from this comparison, especially for the polarised case, where nuclear effects are relatively small. The model provides a better theoretical description of the unpolarised charged pion photoproduction data than the neutral pion channel. It does significantly better in describing the helicity-dependent data in both channels. These comparisons provide new information on the mechanisms involved in pion photoproduction on {sup 3}He and suggest that a polarised {sup 3}He target can provide valuable information on the corresponding polarised quasi-free neutron reactions. (orig.)

  16. Helicity dependence of the γ 3He → πX reactions in the Δ(1232) resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanza, S.; Rigamonti, F.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Romaniuk, M.; Mandaglio, G.; Aguar Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Kashevarov, V.L.; Ostrick, M.; Ortega, H.; Otte, P.B.; Oussena, B.; Schumann, S.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M.; Annand, J.R.M.; Hamilton, D.; Howdle, D.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Mancell, J.; McGeorge, J.C.; Rosner, G.; Beck, R.; Bekrenev, V.; Kruglov, S.; Kulbardis, A.; Berghaeuser, H.; Drexler, P.; Metag, V.; Thiel, M.; Briscoe, W.J.; Downie, E.J.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Fil'kov, L.V.; Lisin, V.; Polonski, A.; Collicott, C.; Fix, A.; Glazier, D.I.; Heil, W.; Krimmer, J.; Hornidge, D.; Middleton, D.G.; Jaegle, I.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Oberle, M.; Pheron, F.; Rostomyan, T.; Werthmueller, D.; Huber, G.M.; Jude, T.; Watts, D.P.; Kondratiev, R.; Korolija, M.; Supek, I.; Manley, D.M.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Starostin, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Prakhov, S.; Sarty, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The helicity dependences of the differential cross sections for the semi-inclusive γ 3 He → π 0 X and γ 3 He → π ± X reactions have been measured for the first time in the energy region 200 γ 450 MeV. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz using a longitudinally polarised high-pressure 3 He gas target. Hadronic products were measured with the large-acceptance Crystal Ball detector complemented with additional devices for charged-particle tracking and identification. Unpolarised differential cross sections and their helicity dependence are compared with theoretical calculations using the Fix-Arenhoevel model. The effect of the intermediate excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance can be clearly seen from this comparison, especially for the polarised case, where nuclear effects are relatively small. The model provides a better theoretical description of the unpolarised charged pion photoproduction data than the neutral pion channel. It does significantly better in describing the helicity-dependent data in both channels. These comparisons provide new information on the mechanisms involved in pion photoproduction on 3 He and suggest that a polarised 3 He target can provide valuable information on the corresponding polarised quasi-free neutron reactions. (orig.)

  17. Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hantao

    1998-01-01

    The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation

  18. Recurrent flares in active region NOAA 11283

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Berrilli, F.; Bruno, R.; Carbone, V.; Consolini, G.; de Lauretis, M.; Del Moro, D.; Elmhamdi, A.; Ermolli, I.; Fineschi, S.; Francia, P.; Kordi, A. S.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Laurenza, M.; Lepreti, F.; Marcucci, M. F.; Pallocchia, G.; Pietropaolo, E.; Romoli, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vellante, M.; Villante, U.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are solar phenomena that are not yet fully understood. Several investigations have been performed to single out their related physical parameters that can be used as indices of the magnetic complexity leading to their occurrence. Aims: In order to shed light on the occurrence of recurrent flares and subsequent associated CMEs, we studied the active region NOAA 11283 where recurrent M and X GOES-class flares and CMEs occurred. Methods: We use vector magnetograms taken by HMI/SDO to calculate the horizontal velocity fields of the photospheric magnetic structures, the shear and the dip angles of the magnetic field, the magnetic helicity flux distribution, and the Poynting fluxes across the photosphere due to the emergence and the shearing of the magnetic field. Results: Although we do not observe consistent emerging magnetic flux through the photosphere during the observation time interval, we detected a monotonic increase of the magnetic helicity accumulated in the corona. We found that both the shear and the dip angles have high values along the main polarity inversion line (PIL) before and after all the events. We also note that before the main flare of X2.1 GOES class, the shearing motions seem to inject a more significant energy than the energy injected by the emergence of the magnetic field. Conclusions: We conclude that the very long duration (about 4 days) of the horizontal displacement of the main photospheric magnetic structures along the PIL has a primary role in the energy release during the recurrent flares. This peculiar horizontal velocity field also contributes to the monotonic injection of magnetic helicity into the corona. This process, coupled with the high shear and dip angles along the main PIL, appears to be responsible for the consecutive events of loss of equilibrium leading to the recurrent flares and CMEs. A movie associated to Fig. 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  20. Coaxial helicity injection and n=1 relaxation activity in the HIST spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, M.; Oguro, T.; Kagei, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand comprehensively the role of the n=1 instability and relaxation on current generation processes in helicity-driven spherical systems, we have investigated dynamics of ST plasmas produced in the HIST device by decreasing the external toroidal field (TF) and reversing its sign in time. In result, we have discovered that the ST relaxes towards flipped ST configurations through formation of reversed-field pinches (RFPs)-like magnetic field profiles. Surprisingly, it has been observed that not only toroidal flux but also poloidal flux reverses sign spontaneously during the relaxation process. The dynamics associated to self-reversal of the magnetic fields is presently investigated by using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. Furthermore, we have first demonstrated that a flipped ST plasma can be successfully sustained by CHI. The n=1 relaxation activity is found to be essential in the current sustainment of the flipped ST as well as the spheromak and the unflipped ST. (author)

  1. Space potential fluctuations during MHD activities in the Compact Helical System (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Crowley, T.P.

    1998-02-01

    Local space potential fluctuations have been measured during MHD activities in a low-beta NBI heated plasma in the Compact Helical System (CHS) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). Two types of MHD modes with accompanying potential oscillations are observed. One appears in periodic bursts with relatively low frequency (< 40 kHz) and large amplitude (20-40 volts), and is localized around the q=2 surface (average minor radius ρ ∼ 0.7). The other appears in continuous and coherent oscillation with higher frequency (105-125 kHz) and smaller amplitude (∼5 volts). This oscillation also has spatial structure. Possible interpretation for the space potential oscillations is presented. (author)

  2. Evidence for Mixed Helicity in Erupting Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglach, K.; Wang, Y.-M.; Kliem, B.

    2009-09-01

    Erupting filaments are sometimes observed to undergo a rotation about the vertical direction as they rise. This rotation of the filament axis is generally interpreted as a conversion of twist into writhe in a kink-unstable magnetic flux rope. Consistent with this interpretation, the rotation is usually found to be clockwise (as viewed from above) if the post-eruption arcade has right-handed helicity, but counterclockwise if it has left-handed helicity. Here, we describe two non-active-region filament events recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in which the sense of rotation appears to be opposite to that expected from the helicity of the post-event arcade. Based on these observations, we suggest that the rotation of the filament axis is, in general, determined by the net helicity of the erupting system, and that the axially aligned core of the filament can have the opposite helicity sign to the surrounding field. In most cases, the surrounding field provides the main contribution to the net helicity. In the events reported here, however, the helicity associated with the filament "barbs" is opposite in sign to and dominates that of the overlying arcade.

  3. Effects of MHD-activity-induced low-n error magnetic fields on the neoclassical viscosities in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shin

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the perturbed magnetic field with low toroidal mode numbers (n) are considered. One cause of this type of perturbation, which has recently been studied in tokamaks, is MHD-activities. In helical/stellarator, this low-n perturbation is sometimes artificially added for island diverters. In viewpoint of the neoclassical viscosities, these perturbed magnetic fields affect on both of bounce center drifts of toroidally trapped and ripple-trapped particles. However, in usual neoclassical analyses in helical/stellarator devices assuming periodic magnetic field strength, these effects had not been studied. For future studies in helical/stellarator devices, a method to use bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation for the toroidally trapped particles is proposed. (author)

  4. Helicity dependence of the {gamma}d{yields} {pi}NN reactions in the {delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Schwamb, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Hose, N. d' [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V. [Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Insitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Rostomyan, T. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); INFN, Pavia (Italy); Ryckbosch, D. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    The helicity dependence of the differential cross-section for the {gamma}d{yields}{pi}NN reactions has been measured for the first time in the {delta} -resonance region. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. The data show that the main reaction mechanisms for the {pi}{sup {+-}} NN channels are the quasi-free N {pi} processes on one bound nucleon with nuclear dynamics playing a minor role. On the contrary, for the {pi}{sup 0}np channel nuclear mechanisms involving the reabsorption of the photoproduced {pi}{sup 0} by the np pair have to be taken into account to reproduce the experimental data. (orig.)

  5. Helicity dependence of the γd→ πNN reactions in the Δ-resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Schwamb, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A.; Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G.; Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R.; Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C.; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Hose, N. d'; Fix, A.; Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Ryckbosch, D.

    2010-01-01

    The helicity dependence of the differential cross-section for the γd→πNN reactions has been measured for the first time in the Δ -resonance region. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. The data show that the main reaction mechanisms for the π ± NN channels are the quasi-free N π processes on one bound nucleon with nuclear dynamics playing a minor role. On the contrary, for the π 0 np channel nuclear mechanisms involving the reabsorption of the photoproduced π 0 by the np pair have to be taken into account to reproduce the experimental data. (orig.)

  6. The creation of the artificial RING finger from the cross-brace zinc finger by α-helical region substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the artificial RING finger as ubiquitin-ligating enzyme (E3) has been demonstrated. In this study, by the α-helical region substitution between the EL5 RING finger and the Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) PHD finger, the artificial E3 (WSTF PHD R ING finger) was newly created. The experiments of the chemical modification of residues Cys and the circular dichroism spectra revealed that the WSTF PHD R ING finger binds two zinc atoms and adopts the zinc-dependent ordered-structure. In the substrate-independent ubiquitination assay, the WSTF PHD R ING finger functions as E3 and was poly- or mono-ubiquitinated. The present strategy is very simple and convenient, and consequently it might be widely applicable to the creation of various artificial E3 RING fingers with the specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability.

  7. Broadband Amplification of Low-Terahertz Signals Using Axis-Encircling Electrons in a Helically Corrugated Interaction Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Donaldson, C. R.; Zhang, L.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Cross, A. W.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental results are presented of a broadband, high power, gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) operating in the (75-110)-GHz frequency band and based on a helically corrugated interaction region. The second harmonic cyclotron mode of a 55-keV, 1.5-A, axis-encircling electron beam is used to resonantly interact with a traveling TE21 -like eigenwave achieving broadband amplification. The gyro-TWA demonstrates a 3-dB gain bandwidth of at least 5.5 GHz in the experimental measurement with 9 GHz predicted for a wideband drive source with a measured unsaturated output power of 3.4 kW and gain of 36-38 dB. The approach may allow a gyro-TWA to operate at 1 THz.

  8. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  9. The internal disruption as hard Magnetohydrodynamic limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity in large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, J. [Department of Physics, Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Large helical device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes 1/2 and 1/3 in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. The aim of the present research is to study the hard MHD limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity, not observed yet in LHD operation, and to predict its effects on the device performance. Previous investigations pointed out this system relaxation can be an internal disruption [J. Varela et al., 'Internal disruptions and sawtooth like activity in LHD,' 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (2011), P5.077]. In the present work, we simulate an internal disruption; we study the equilibria properties before and after the disruptive process, its effects on the plasma confinement efficiency during each disruptive phase, the relation between the n/m = 1/2 hard MHD events and the soft MHD events, and how to avoid or reduce their adverse effects. The simulation conclusions point out that the large stochastic region in the middle plasma strongly deforms and tears the flux surfaces when the pressure gradient increases above the hard MHD limit. If the instability reaches the inner plasma, the iota profiles will be perturbed near the plasma core and three magnetic islands can appear near the magnetic axis. If the instability is strong enough to link the stochastic regions in the middle plasma (around the half minor radius {rho}) and the plasma core ({rho}<0.25), an internal disruption is driven.

  10. Role of α-Helical Structure in Organic Solvent-Activated Homodimer of Elastase Strain K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Fah Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3 was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of different immobilization systems in different body regions using daily megavoltage CT in helical tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K-F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Effective immobilization is crucial for the accurate delivery of radiotherapy. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the commonly used immobilization systems for different body regions using megavoltage CT (MVCT). Methods: Daily treatment set-up data from 212 patients treated by helical tomotherapy (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) in 6 body regions (52 head and neck, 41 chest, 38 abdomen, 36 pelvis, 18 breast and 27 cranium) were obtained. Based on a verification tool using the pre-treatment MVCT, set-up corrections for each patient were recorded. Mean systematic and random errors of lateral, longitudinal, vertical and roll directions and three-dimensional vectors were compared between immobilization systems of each region. Results: Smaller set-up deviations were observed in the Orfit system (Orfit Industries NV, Wijnegem, Belgium) of the head and neck region, while the performance of immobilization systems for the chest, abdomen and pelvis regions was similar. Larger differences were noted in the breast group, where the prone BodyFIX® system (Medical Intelligence, Medizintechnik GmbH, Schwabmünchen, Germany) was less stable than the supine VacLok® system (CIVCO Medical Solutions, Orange City, IA). Conclusion: Differences were found between the immobilization systems in the head and neck region, in which the Orfit system was relatively more effective, whereas the VacLok and BodyFIX systems performed similarly in the chest, abdomen and pelvis regions. For the breast case, the supine position with VacLok was much more stable than the prone breast technique. The results provided references for the estimation of clinical target volume–planning target volume margins. Advances in knowledge: This is the first article on comprehensive comparisons performed in immobilization systems for main body regions that provides some practical recommendations. PMID:24398111

  12. Active trajectory control for a heavy ion beam probe on the compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Lee, S.; Crowley, T.P.; Hamada, Y.; Hidekuma, S.; Kojima, M.

    1996-05-01

    A 200 keV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) on the Compact Helical System torsatron/heliotron uses a newly proposed method in order to control complicated beam trajectories in non-axisymmetrical devices. As a result, the HIBP has successfully measured potential profiles of the toroidal helical plasma. The article will describe the results of the potential profile measurements, together with the HIBP hardware system and procedures to realize the method. (author)

  13. Conversion from mutual helicity to self-helicity observed with IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. P.; Peter, H.; Chen, F.; Zhang, J.

    2014-10-01

    Context. In the upper atmosphere of the Sun observations show convincing evidence for crossing and twisted structures, which are interpreted as mutual helicity and self-helicity. Aims: We use observations with the new Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to show the conversion of mutual helicity into self-helicity in coronal structures on the Sun. Methods: Using far UV spectra and slit-jaw images from IRIS and coronal images and magnetograms from SDO, we investigated the evolution of two crossing loops in an active region, in particular, the properties of the Si IV line profile in cool loops. Results: In the early stage two cool loops cross each other and accordingly have mutual helicity. The Doppler shifts in the loops indicate that they wind around each other. As a consequence, near the crossing point of the loops (interchange) reconnection sets in, which heats the plasma. This is consistent with the observed increase of the line width and of the appearance of the loops at higher temperatures. After this interaction, the two new loops run in parallel, and in one of them shows a clear spectral tilt of the Si IV line profile. This is indicative of a helical (twisting) motion, which is the same as to say that the loop has self-helicity. Conclusions: The high spatial and spectral resolution of IRIS allowed us to see the conversion of mutual helicity to self-helicity in the (interchange) reconnection of two loops. This is observational evidence for earlier theoretical speculations. Movie associated with Fig. 1 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Flexible helical yarn swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A P; Leshansky, A M; Pismen, L M

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the motion of a flexible Stokesian flagellar swimmer realised as a yarn made of two intertwined elastomer fibres, one active, that can reversibly change its length in response to a local excitation causing transition to the nematic state or swelling, and the other one, a passive isotropic elastomer with identical mechanical properties. A propagating chemical wave may provide an excitation mechanism ensuring a constant length of the excited region. Generally, the swimmer moves along a helical trajectory, and the propagation and rotation velocity are very sensitive to the ratio of the excited region to the pitch of the yarn, as well as to the size of a carried load. External excitation by a moving actuating beam is less effective, unless the direction of the beam is adjusted to rotation of the swimmer.

  15. Identification and in silico analysis of helical lipid binding regions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In supplementary table 1, all the results of the lipid binding region analysis for SecA from a number of ..... For those interested, a more detailed description will now be given for this particular analysis. First of ... MCPep Job Status Page Finished.

  16. Consortium for Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mutations in the Helical Domain of Type I Collagen: Regions Rich in Lethal Mutations Align With Collagen Binding Sites for Integrins and Proteoglycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Joan C.; Forlino, Antonella; Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; San Antonio, James D.; Milgrom, Sarah; Hyland, James C.; Körkkö, Jarmo; Prockop, Darwin J.; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Symoens, Sofie; Glorieux, Francis H.; Roughley, Peter J.; Lund, Alan M.; Kuurila-Svahn, Kaija; Hartikka, Heini; Cohn, Daniel H.; Krakow, Deborah; Mottes, Monica; Schwarze, Ulrike; Chen, Diana; Yang, Kathleen; Kuslich, Christine; Troendle, James; Dalgleish, Raymond; Byers, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by fragile bones and easy susceptibility to fracture. Most cases of OI are caused by mutations in type I collagen. We have identified and assembled structural mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2, encoding the proα1(I) and proα2(I) chains, respectively) that result in OI. Quantitative defects causing type I OI were not included. Of these 832 independent mutations, 682 result in substitution for glycine residues in the triple helical domain of the encoded protein and 150 alter splice sites. Distinct genotype–phenotype relationships emerge for each chain. One-third of the mutations that result in glycine substitutions in α1(I) are lethal, especially when the substituting residues are charged or have a branched side chain. Substitutions in the first 200 residues are nonlethal and have variable outcome thereafter, unrelated to folding or helix stability domains. Two exclusively lethal regions (helix positions 691–823 and 910–964) align with major ligand binding regions (MLBRs), suggesting crucial interactions of collagen monomers or fibrils with integrins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), fibronectin, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Mutations in COL1A2 are predominantly nonlethal (80%). Lethal substitutions are located in eight regularly spaced clusters along the chain, supporting a regional model. The lethal regions align with proteoglycan binding sites along the fibril, suggesting a role in fibril–matrix interactions. Recurrences at the same site in α2(I) are generally concordant for outcome, unlike α1(I). Splice site mutations comprise 20% of helical mutations identified in OI patients, and may lead to exon skipping, intron inclusion, or the activation of cryptic splice sites. Splice site mutations in COL1A1 are rarely lethal; they often lead to frameshifts and the mild type I phenotype. In α2(I), lethal exon skipping events are

  17. Chiral monolithic absorbent constructed by optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide: preparation and chiral absorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Wantai; Deng, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    Chiral monolithic absorbent is successfully constructed for the first time by using optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide (GO). The preparative strategy is facile and straightforward, in which chiral-substituted acetylene monomer (Ma), cross-linker (Mb), and alkynylated GO (Mc) undergo copolymerization to form the desired monolithic absorbent in quantitative yield. The resulting monoliths are characterized by circular dichroism, UV-vis absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, Raman, energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), XPS, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The polymer chains derived from Ma form chiral helical structures and thus provide optical activity to the monoliths, while GO sheets contribute to the formation of porous structures. The porous structure enables the monolithic absorbents to demonstrate a large swelling ratio in organic solvents, and more remarkably, the helical polymer chains provide optical activity and further enantio-differentiating absorption ability. The present study establishes an efficient and versatile methodology for preparing novel functional materials, in particular monolithic chiral materials based on substituted polyacetylene and GO. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Role for a region of helically unstable DNA within the Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in origin function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonskaya, Zhanna; Benham, Craig J.; Hearing, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The minimal replicator of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP is composed of two binding sites for the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and flanking inverted repeats that bind the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2. Although not required for minimal replicator activity, additional binding sites for EBNA-1 and TRF2 and one or more auxiliary elements located to the right of the EBNA-1/TRF2 sites are required for the efficient replication of oriP plasmids. Another region of oriP that is predicted to be destabilized by DNA supercoiling is shown here to be an important functional component of oriP. The ability of DNA fragments of unrelated sequence and possessing supercoiled-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) structures, but not fragments characterized by helically stable DNA, to substitute for this component of oriP demonstrates a role for the SIDD region in the initiation of oriP-plasmid DNA replication

  19. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  20. N-terminal segments modulate the α-helical propensities of the intrinsically disordered basic regions of bZIP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul K; Crick, Scott L; Pappu, Rohit V

    2012-02-17

    Basic region leucine zippers (bZIPs) are modular transcription factors that play key roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. The basic regions of bZIPs (bZIP-bRs) are necessary and sufficient for DNA binding and specificity. Bioinformatic predictions and spectroscopic studies suggest that unbound monomeric bZIP-bRs are uniformly disordered as isolated domains. Here, we test this assumption through a comparative characterization of conformational ensembles for 15 different bZIP-bRs using a combination of atomistic simulations and circular dichroism measurements. We find that bZIP-bRs have quantifiable preferences for α-helical conformations in their unbound monomeric forms. This helicity varies from one bZIP-bR to another despite a significant sequence similarity of the DNA binding motifs (DBMs). Our analysis reveals that intramolecular interactions between DBMs and eight-residue segments directly N-terminal to DBMs are the primary modulators of bZIP-bR helicities. We test the accuracy of this inference by designing chimeras of bZIP-bRs to have either increased or decreased overall helicities. Our results yield quantitative insights regarding the relationship between sequence and the degree of intrinsic disorder within bZIP-bRs, and might have general implications for other intrinsically disordered proteins. Understanding how natural sequence variations lead to modulation of disorder is likely to be important for understanding the evolution of specificity in molecular recognition through intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coaxial helicity injection and n=1 relaxation activity in the HIST spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, M.

    2002-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has demonstrated non-inductive current generation of spherical tokamak (ST) and spheromak plasmas on several devices. In order to understand comprehensively the role of the n=1 instability and relaxation on current generation processes in helicity-driven spherical systems, we have investigated dynamics of ST plasmas produced in the HIST device (major radius R=0.30 m, minor radius a=0.24 m, aspect ratio A=1.25, toroidal field B t t <150 kA and discharge time t<5 ms in the ST configuration) by decreasing the external toroidal field (TF) and reversing its sign in time. In results, we have discovered that the ST relaxes towards flipped ST configurations through formation of reversed-field pinches (RFPs)-like magnetic field profiles. Surprisingly, it has been observed that not only toroidal flux but also poloidal flux reverses sign spontaneously during the relaxation process. This self-reversal of the poloidal field is thought to be evidence for 'global helicity conservation'. Furthermore, we have first demonstrated that a flipped ST plasma can be successfully sustained by CHI. (author)

  2. Blocking the RecA activity and SOS-response in bacteria with a short α-helical peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, Alexander; Pobegalov, Georgii; Bakhlanova, Irina; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Petukhov, Michael; Baitin, Dmitry

    2017-09-19

    The RecX protein, a very active natural RecA protein inhibitor, can completely disassemble RecA filaments at nanomolar concentrations that are two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of RecA protein. Based on the structure of RecX protein complex with the presynaptic RecA filament, we designed a short first in class α-helical peptide that both inhibits RecA protein activities in vitro and blocks the bacterial SOS-response in vivo. The peptide was designed using SEQOPT, a novel method for global sequence optimization of protein α-helices. SEQOPT produces artificial peptide sequences containing only 20 natural amino acids with the maximum possible conformational stability at a given pH, ionic strength, temperature, peptide solubility. It also accounts for restrictions due to known amino acid residues involved in stabilization of protein complexes under consideration. The results indicate that a few key intermolecular interactions inside the RecA protein presynaptic complex are enough to reproduce the main features of the RecX protein mechanism of action. Since the SOS-response provides a major mechanism of bacterial adaptation to antibiotics, these results open new ways for the development of antibiotic co-therapy that would not cause bacterial resistance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Establishment of a low recycling state with full density control by active pumping of the closed helical divertor at LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motojima, G.; Masuzaki, S.; Tanaka, H.; Morisaki, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Murase, T.; Tsuchibushi, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Schmitz, O.; Shoji, M.; Tokitani, M.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; The LHD Experiment Group

    2018-01-01

    Superior control of particle recycling and hence full governance of plasma density has been established in the Large Helical Device (LHD) using largely enhanced active pumping of the closed helical divertor (CHD). In-vessel cryo-sorption pumping systems inside the CHD in five out of ten inner toroidal divertor sections have been developed and installed step by step in the LHD. The total effective pumping speed obtained was 67  ±  5 m3 s-1 in hydrogen, which is approximately seven times larger than previously obtained. As a result, a low recycling state was observed with CHD pumping for the first time in LHD featuring excellent density control even under intense pellet fueling conditions. A global particle confinement time (τ p* ) is used for comparison of operation with and without the CHD pumping. The τ p* was evaluated from the density decay after the fueling of hydrogen pellet injection or gas puffing in NBI plasmas. A reliably low base density before the fueling and short τ p* after the fueling were obtained during the CHD pumping, demonstrating for the first time full control of the particle balance with active pumping in the CHD.

  4. SIGNATURES OF RELATIVISTIC HELICAL MOTION IN THE ROTATION MEASURES OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Loeb, Abraham [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard University, Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Polarization has proven to be an invaluable tool for probing magnetic fields in relativistic jets. Maps of the intrinsic polarization vectors have provided the best evidence to date for uniform, toroidally dominated magnetic fields within jets. More recently, maps of the rotation measure (RM) in jets have for the first time probed the field geometry of the cool, moderately relativistic surrounding material. In most cases, clear signatures of the toroidal magnetic field are detected, corresponding to gradients in RM profiles transverse to the jet. However, in many objects, these profiles also display marked asymmetries that are difficult to explain in simple helical jet models. Furthermore, in some cases, the RM profiles are strongly frequency and/or time dependent. Here we show that these features may be naturally accounted for by including relativistic helical motion in the jet model. In particular, we are able to reproduce bent RM profiles observed in a variety of jets, frequency-dependent RM profile morphologies, and even the time dependence of the RM profiles of knots in 3C 273. Finally, we predict that some sources may show reversals in their RM profiles at sufficiently high frequencies, depending upon the ratio of the components of jet sheath velocity transverse and parallel to the jet. Thus, multi-frequency RM maps promise a novel way in which to probe the velocity structure of relativistic outflows.

  5. Helical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Nicholas; Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL—The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Johnson, Eric [Micro-Photonics Laboratory – Center for Optical Material Science, Clemson, Anderson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The shaping of laser-induced filamenting plasma channels into helical structures by guiding the process with a non-diffracting beam is demonstrated. This was achieved using a Bessel beam superposition to control the phase of an ultrafast laser beam possessing intensities sufficient to induce Kerr effect driven non-linear self-focusing. Several experimental methods were used to characterize the resulting beams and confirm the observed structures are laser air filaments.

  6. Beam-helicity associated electroproduction of real photons ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N in the {Delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N, in the {Delta}(1232)-resonance region is measured using the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target. Azimuthal Fourier amplitudes of this asymmetry are extracted separately for two channels, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup 0}p and ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup +}n, from a data set collected with a recoil detector. All asymmetry amplitudes are found to be consistent with zero.

  7. Voltage dependence of a stochastic model of activation of an alpha helical S4 sensor in a K channel membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, S. R.

    2011-09-01

    The voltage dependence of the ionic and gating currents of a K channel is dependent on the activation barriers of a voltage sensor with a potential function which may be derived from the principal electrostatic forces on an S4 segment in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium. By variation of the parameters of a voltage-sensing domain model, consistent with x-ray structures and biophysical data, the lowest frequency of the survival probability of each stationary state derived from a solution of the Smoluchowski equation provides a good fit to the voltage dependence of the slowest time constant of the ionic current in a depolarized membrane, and the gating current exhibits a rising phase that precedes an exponential relaxation. For each depolarizing potential, the calculated time dependence of the survival probabilities of the closed states of an alpha helical S4 sensor are in accord with an empirical model of the ionic and gating currents recorded during the activation process.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF SPATIAL SMOOTHING ON SOLAR MAGNETIC HELICITY PARAMETERS AND THE HEMISPHERIC HELICITY SIGN RULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, Stella Koch [Department of Physics, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074 (United States); Petrie, Gordon, E-mail: socker@oberlin.edu, E-mail: gpetrie@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The hemispheric preference for negative/positive helicity to occur in the northern/southern solar hemisphere provides clues to the causes of twisted, flaring magnetic fields. Previous studies on the hemisphere rule may have been affected by seeing from atmospheric turbulence. Using Hinode /SOT-SP data spanning 2006–2013, we studied the effects of two spatial smoothing tests that imitate atmospheric seeing: noise reduction by ignoring pixel values weaker than the estimated noise threshold, and Gaussian spatial smoothing. We studied in detail the effects of atmospheric seeing on the helicity distributions across various field strengths for active regions (ARs) NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11243, in addition to studying the average helicities of 179 ARs with and without smoothing. We found that, rather than changing trends in the helicity distributions, spatial smoothing modified existing trends by reducing random noise and by regressing outliers toward the mean, or removing them altogether. Furthermore, the average helicity parameter values of the 179 ARs did not conform to the hemisphere rule: independent of smoothing, the weak-vertical-field values tended to be negative in both hemispheres, and the strong-vertical-field values tended to be positive, especially in the south. We conclude that spatial smoothing does not significantly affect the overall statistics for space-based data, and thus seeing from atmospheric turbulence seems not to have significantly affected previous studies’ ground-based results on the hemisphere rule.

  9. A new experiment to investigate the origin of optical activity using a low energy positron beam of controlled helicity. [molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Previous experiments undertaken in search of a correlation between the origin of optical activity in biological molecules and the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay have not provided any useful results. A description is presented of an experiment in which a low energy polarized positron beam of controlled helicity interacts with an optically active material to form positronium in vacuum. Advantages of the current study compared to the previous experiments are mainly related to a much greater sensitivity. Initially, it will be possible to detect a helicity-dependent asymmetry in triplet positronium formation of 1 part in 10,000. Improvements to better than 1 part in 100,000 should be attainable.

  10. A simple derivation and analysis of a helical cone beam tomographic algorithm for long object imaging via a novel definition of region of interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jicun; Tam, Kwok; Johnson, Roger H

    2004-01-01

    We derive and analyse a simple algorithm first proposed by Kudo et al (2001 Proc. 2001 Meeting on Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Pacific Grove, CA) pp 7-10) for long object imaging from truncated helical cone beam data via a novel definition of region of interest (ROI). Our approach is based on the theory of short object imaging by Kudo et al (1998 Phys. Med. Biol. 43 2885-909). One of the key findings in their work is that filtering of the truncated projection can be divided into two parts: one, finite in the axial direction, results from ramp filtering the data within the Tam window. The other, infinite in the z direction, results from unbounded filtering of ray sums over PI lines only. We show that for an ROI defined by PI lines emanating from the initial and final source positions on a helical segment, the boundary data which would otherwise contaminate the reconstruction of the ROI can be completely excluded. This novel definition of the ROI leads to a simple algorithm for long object imaging. The overscan of the algorithm is analytically calculated and it is the same as that of the zero boundary method. The reconstructed ROI can be divided into two regions: one is minimally contaminated by the portion outside the ROI, while the other is reconstructed free of contamination. We validate the algorithm with a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a disc phantom

  11. Structure-activity relationship study of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide-cyclic RGD conjugates as carriers for siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shun-Ichi; Takesada, Anna; Nagamura, Yurie; Sogabe, Eri; Ohki, Rieko; Hayashi, Junsuke; Urata, Hidehito

    2017-12-15

    The conjugation of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide with cyclo(-Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Cys-) (cRGDfC) at the C-terminus of the helix peptide (PI) has been reported to be useful for constructing a carrier for targeted siRNA delivery into cells. In order to explore structure-activity relationships for the development of potential carriers for siRNA delivery, we synthesized conjugates of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide with cRGDfC at the N-terminus (PII) and both the N- and C-termini (PIII) of the helical peptide. Furthermore, to examine the influence of PI helical chain length on siRNA delivery, truncated peptides containing 16 (PIV), 12 (PV), and 8 (PVI) amino acid residues at the N-terminus of the helical chain were synthesized. PII and PIII, as well as PI, could deliver anti-luciferase siRNA into cells to induce the knockdown of luciferase stably expressed in cells. In contrast, all of the truncated peptides were unlikely to transport siRNA into cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Helical Confinement Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Dinklage, A; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Geiger, J; Hartmann, D; Hirsch, M; Jaenicke, R; Koenig, R; Laqua, H P; Maassberg, H; Wagner, F; Weller, A; Wobig, H [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Stellarators, conceived 1951 by Lyman Spitzer in Princeton, are toroidal devices that confine a plasma in a magnetic field which originates from currents in coils outside the plasma. A plasma current driven by external means, for example by an ohmic transformer, is not required for confinement. Supplying the desired poloidal field component by external coils leads to a helically structured plasma topology. Thus stellarators - or helical confinement devices - are fully three-dimensional in contrast to the toroidal (rotational) symmetry of tokamaks. As stellarators can be free of an inductive current, whose radial distribution depends on the plasma parameters, their equilibrium must not be established via the evolving plasma itself, but to a first order already given by the vacuum magnetic field. They do not need an active control (like positional feedback) and therefore cannot suffer from its failure. The outstanding conceptual advantage of stellarators is the potential of steady state plasma operation without current drive. As there is no need for current drive, the recirculating power is expected to be smaller than in equivalent tokamaks. The lack of a net current avoids current driven instabilities; specifically, no disruptions, no resistive wall modes and no conventional or neoclassical tearing modes appear. Second order pressure-driven currents (Pfirsch-Schlueter, bootstrap) exist but they can be modified and even minimized by the magnetic design. The magnetic configuration of helical devices naturally possesses a separatrix, which allows the implementation of a helically structured divertor for exhaust and impurity control. (author)

  13. Active region structures in the transition region and corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Observational aspects of the transition region and coronal structures of the solar active region are reviewed with an emphasis on imaging of the plasma loops which act as tracers of the magnetic flux loops. The study of the basic structure of an active region is discussed in terms of the morphological and thermal classifications of active region loops, including umbral structures, and observational knowledge of the thermal structure of loops is considered in relation to scaling laws, emission measures and the structures of individual loops. The temporal evolution of active region loop structures is reviewed with emphasis on ephemeral regions and the emergence of active regions. Planned future spaceborne observations of active region loop structures in the EUV and soft X-ray regions are also indicated

  14. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  15. SIGN SINGULARITY AND FLARES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorriso-Valvo, L.; De Vita, G. [IMIP-CNR, U.O.S. LICRYL di Cosenza, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Kazachenko, M. D.; Krucker, S.; Welsch, B. T.; Fisher, G. H. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley 94720, California (United States); Primavera, L.; Servidio, S.; Lepreti, F.; Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Vecchio, A., E-mail: sorriso@fis.unical.it [INGV, Sede di Cosenza, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 30C, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Solar Active Region NOAA 11158 has hosted a number of strong flares, including one X2.2 event. The complexity of current density and current helicity are studied through cancellation analysis of their sign-singular measure, which features power-law scaling. Spectral analysis is also performed, revealing the presence of two separate scaling ranges with different spectral index. The time evolution of parameters is discussed. Sudden changes of the cancellation exponents at the time of large flares and the presence of correlation with Extreme-Ultra-Violet and X-ray flux suggest that eruption of large flares can be linked to the small-scale properties of the current structures.

  16. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  17. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-10-15

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  18. Characteristic features of edge transport barrier formed in helical divertor configuration of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Watanabe, F.

    2006-10-01

    In a helical divertor configuration of the Large Helical Device (LHD), transport barrier was formed through low to high confinement (L-H) transition in the plasma edge region including ergodic field layer of which region is in the magnetic hill. The plasma stored energy or the averaged bulk plasma beta dia > (derived from diamagnetic measurement) starts to increase just after the transition. In the case that both dia > and line-averaged electron density e > at the transition are relatively high as dia >≥1.5% and e >≥2x10 19 m -3 , the increase is hampered by rapid growth of edge MHD modes and/or small ELM like activities just after the transition. On the other hand, the transition at lower e > (≤1.5x10 19 m -3 ) and dia > (<2%) leads to a continuous increase in the stored energy with a time scale longer than the global energy confinement time, without suffering from these MHD activities near the edge. The ETB typically formed in electron density profile extends into ergodic field layer defined in the vacuum field. The width of ETB is almost independent of the toroidal field strength from 0.5T to 1.5T and is much larger than the poloidal ion gyro-radius. When resonant helical field perturbations are applied to expand a magnetic island size at the rational surface of the rotational transform ι/2π=1 near the edge, the L-H transition is triggered at lower electron density compared with the case without the field perturbations. The application of large helical field perturbations also suppresses edge MHD modes and ELM like activities. (author)

  19. An evaluation of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement by xenon-enhanced dynamic CT with helical scanning technique and the functional imaging by multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). Fundamental study and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenichi

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the quantitative rCBF by xenon-enhanced dynamic CT with helical scanning technique on all brain regions, and also examined clinical usefulness of coronal and sagittal section images which are similar to SPECT images obtained by the functional multiplanar reconstitution (MPR) imaging of many successive flow maps. We used 14 clinical cases. The conventional xenon-enhanced CT was simple and ideal method to measure rCBF, however, it had disadvantages; it gives a few laminagraphical images or only the axial directional images, compared to SPECT or PET. There is a risk to overlook lesions out of the image or not to obtain the whole images of the lesion. Although the helical scanning technique has a methodological characteristics to use adjacent data for the image reconstitution, it is by no means inferior to the conventional method in the contrast resolution or the image resolution when the co-helical function and an appropriate reconstituted function were used. It has an advantage to scan all brain regions by only one cycle of scanning. Furthermore on making good use of the property that the helical scanning technique can give the successive data, we can observe rCBF by coronal and sagittal images when many flow maps were made up by reconstituted images of the narrow steps. This shows the clinical usefulness of this technique. One of the future problem to be solved is to decrease the exposure dose. (K.H.)

  20. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C. V.; Howard, R.; Levine, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray images and magnetograms of several active regions and coronal holes are examined which support the interpretation that some of the dark X-ray gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions are foot points of open field lines inside the active regions. Characteristics of the investigated dark gaps are summarized. All the active regions with dark X-ray gaps at the proper place and with the correct polarity predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields are shown to be old active regions, indicating that field opening is accomplished only in a late phase of active-region development. It is noted that some of the observed dark gaps probably have nothing in common with open fields, but are either due to the decreased temperature in low-lying portions of interconnecting loops or are the roots of higher and less dense or cooler loops.

  1. Successive Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Shearing and Converging Motions in Solar Active Region NOAA 12371

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemareddy, P.

    2017-01-01

    We study the magnetic field evolution in AR 12371, related to its successive eruptive nature. During the disk transit of seven days, the active region (AR) launched four sequential fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are associated with long duration M-class flares. Morphological study delineates a pre-eruptive coronal sigmoid structure above the polarity inversion line (PIL) similar to Moore et al.’s study. The velocity field derived from tracked magnetograms indicates persistent shear and converging motions of polarity regions about the PIL. While these shear motions continue, the crossed arms of two sigmoid elbows are being brought to interaction by converging motions at the middle of the PIL, initiating the tether-cutting reconnection of field lines and the onset of the CME explosion. The successive CMEs are explained by a cyclic process of magnetic energy storage and release referred to as “sigmoid-to-arcade-to-sigmoid” transformation driven by photospheric flux motions. Furthermore, the continued shear motions inject helicity flux with a dominant negative sign, which contributes to core field twist and its energy by building a twisted flux rope (FR). After a limiting value, the excess coronal helicity is expelled by bodily ejection of the FR, which is initiated by some instability as realized by intermittent CMEs. This AR is in contrast with the confined AR 12192 with a predominant negative sign and larger helicity flux, but much weaker (−0.02 turns) normalized coronal helicity content. While predominant signed helicity flux is a requirement for CME eruption, our study suggests that the magnetic flux normalized helicity flux is a necessary condition accommodating the role of background flux and appeals to a further study of a large sample of ARs.

  2. Successive Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Shearing and Converging Motions in Solar Active Region NOAA 12371

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P., E-mail: vemareddy@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bengalure-560034 (India)

    2017-08-10

    We study the magnetic field evolution in AR 12371, related to its successive eruptive nature. During the disk transit of seven days, the active region (AR) launched four sequential fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are associated with long duration M-class flares. Morphological study delineates a pre-eruptive coronal sigmoid structure above the polarity inversion line (PIL) similar to Moore et al.’s study. The velocity field derived from tracked magnetograms indicates persistent shear and converging motions of polarity regions about the PIL. While these shear motions continue, the crossed arms of two sigmoid elbows are being brought to interaction by converging motions at the middle of the PIL, initiating the tether-cutting reconnection of field lines and the onset of the CME explosion. The successive CMEs are explained by a cyclic process of magnetic energy storage and release referred to as “sigmoid-to-arcade-to-sigmoid” transformation driven by photospheric flux motions. Furthermore, the continued shear motions inject helicity flux with a dominant negative sign, which contributes to core field twist and its energy by building a twisted flux rope (FR). After a limiting value, the excess coronal helicity is expelled by bodily ejection of the FR, which is initiated by some instability as realized by intermittent CMEs. This AR is in contrast with the confined AR 12192 with a predominant negative sign and larger helicity flux, but much weaker (−0.02 turns) normalized coronal helicity content. While predominant signed helicity flux is a requirement for CME eruption, our study suggests that the magnetic flux normalized helicity flux is a necessary condition accommodating the role of background flux and appeals to a further study of a large sample of ARs.

  3. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  4. Divertors for Helical Devices: Concepts, Plans, Results, and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.; Grigull, P.; McCormick, K.

    2004-01-01

    With Large Helical Device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), the development of helical devices is now taking a large step forward on the path to a steady-state fusion reactor. Important issues that need to be settled in these machines are particle flux and heat control and the impact of divertors on plasma performance in future continuously burning fusion plasmas. The divertor concepts that will initially be explored in these large machines were prepared in smaller-scale devices like Heliotron E, Compact Helical System (CHS), and Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS). While advanced divertor scenarios relevant for W7-X were already studied in W7-AS, other smaller-scale experiments like Heliotron-J, CHS, and National Compact Stellarator Experiment will be used for the further development of divertor concepts. The two divertor configurations that are being investigated are the helical and the island divertor, as well as the local island divertor, which was successfully demonstrated on CHS and just went into operation on LHD. At present, on its route to a fully closed helical divertor, LHD operates in an open helical divertor configuration. W7-X will be equipped right from the start with an actively cooled discrete island divertor that will allow quasi-continuous operation. The divertor design is very similar to the one explored on W7-AS. For sufficiently large island sizes and not too long field line connection lengths, this divertor gives access to a partially detached quasi-steady-state operating scenario in a newly found high-density H-mode operating regime, which benefits from high energy and low impurity confinement times, with edge radiation levels of up to 90% and sufficient neutral compression in the subdivertor region (>10) for active pumping. The basic physics of the different divertor concepts and associated implementation problems, like asymmetries due to drifts, accessibility of essential operating scenarios, toroidal asymmetries due to symmetry breaking error fields

  5. Swimming Characteristics of Bioinspired Helical Microswimmers Based on Soft Lotus-Root Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of helical swimmers inspired by E. coli bacteria have been developed continually in many types of researches, but most of them are proposed by the rigid bodies. For the targeted drug delivery, the rigid body may hurt soft tissues of the working region with organs. Due to this problem, the biomedical applications of helical swimmers may be restricted. However, the helical microswimmers with the soft and deformable body are appropriate and highly adaptive in a confined environment. Thus, this paper presents a lotus-root-based helical microswimmer, which is fabricated by the fibers of lotus-root coated with magnetic nanoparticles to active under the magnetic fields. The helical microstructures are derived from the intrinsic biological structures of the fibers of the lotus-root. This paper aims to study the swimming characteristic of lotus-root-based microswimmers with deformable helical bodies. In the initial step under the uniform magnetic actuation, the helical microswimmers are bent lightly due to the heterogeneous distribution of the internal stress, and then they undergo a swimming motion which is a spindle-like rotation locomotion. Our experiments report that the microswimmers with soft bodies can locomote faster than those with rigid bodies. Moreover, we also find that the curvature of the shape decreases as a function of actuating field frequency which is related to the deformability of lotus-root fibers.

  6. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C.V.; Levine, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations confirm that some of the dark gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions may be loci of open fields, as it has been predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields. It seems that the field lines may open only in a later state of the active region development. (Auth.)

  7. Dynamics and deformability of α-, 310- and π-helices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narwani Tarun Jairaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein structures are often represented as seen in crystals as (i rigid macromolecules (ii with helices, sheets and coils. However, both definitions are partial because (i proteins are highly dynamic macromolecules and (ii the description of protein structures could be more precise. With regard to these two points, we analyzed and quantified the stability of helices by considering α-helices as well as 310- and π-helices. Molecular dynamic (MD simulations were performed on a large set of 169 representative protein domains. The local protein conformations were followed during each simulation and analyzed. The classical flexibility index (B-factor was confronted with the MD root mean square flexibility (RMSF index. Helical regions were classified according to their level of helicity from high to none. For the first time, a precise quantification showed the percentage of rigid and flexible helices that underlie unexpected behaviors. Only 76.4% of the residues associated with α-helices retain the conformation, while this tendency drops to 40.5% for 310-helices and is never observed for π-helices. α-helix residues that do not remain as an α-helix have a higher tendency to assume β-turn conformations than 310- or π-helices. The 310-helices that switch to the α-helix conformation have a higher B-factor and RMSF values than the average 310-helix but are associated with a lower accessibility. Rare π-helices assume a β-turn, bend and coil conformations, but not α- or 310-helices. The view on π-helices drastically changes with the new DSSP (Dictionary of Secondary Structure of Proteins assignment approach, leading to behavior similar to 310-helices, thus underlining the importance of secondary structure assignment methods.

  8. Activation of different cerebral functional regions following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To explore the brain function regions characteristics of the acupoint combination, this study observed activity changes in the brain regions of healthy volunteers after acupuncture at both Taixi (KI3) and Taichong (LR3) (KI3 + LR3) and KI3 alone using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI).

  9. Formation and Eruption Process of a Filament in Active Region NOAA 12241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, ZhongQuan; Xue, Zhike; Yang, Liheng [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2017-04-20

    In order to better understand active-region filaments, we present an intensive study on the formation and eruption of a filament in active region NOAA 12241 during the period from 2014 December 18 to 19. Using observations from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms, we investigate the helicity injection rate, Lorentz force, and vertical electric current in the entire region associated with the filament. The helicity injection rate before eruption is found to be larger than that after eruption, while the vertical electric current undergoes an increase at first and then a gradual decrease, similar to what the magnetic flux undergoes. Meanwhile, we find that the right part of the filament is formed by magnetic reconnection between two bundles of magnetic field lines while the left part originated from shearing motion. The interaction of the two parts causes the eruption of this filament. The mean horizontal magnetic fields in the vicinity of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) enhance rapidly during the eruption. Another striking phenomenon, where the vertical electric currents close to the magnetic PIL suddenly expand toward two sides during the eruption, is found. We propose that this fascinating feature is associated with the release of energy during the eruption.

  10. The 17 GHz active region number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  11. Helicity and Filament Channels? The Straight Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at special locations, photospheric polarity inversions lines where the non-potentiality is observed as a filament channel. This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that photospheric motions continuously tangle its magnetic field. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. We propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries, polarity inversion lines, creating filament channels. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. We argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field.

  12. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  13. REGIONALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT PROCESS BY INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In current market conditions, the economy and Russia's accession to international trade scholars and experts from various fields of knowledge paying special attention to a huge set of regional problems. The growing role of regional research determines the level of establishing effective mechanisms for the implementation of the economic interests of actors as well as economic development and improving the quality of human life is the priority objectives of federal, regional and local authorities. Today, the Russian economic science faces a global goal - to develop ways and means of transformation of the Russian economy and bring it to a path of sustainable, innovative development, providing new quality of life. Achieving this goal must surely be a central task of the Russian economics and politics, as in the near future and the long term In article authors opened the maintenance of determinants of innovative development of the territory, mediated by strengthening of regionalization of management by innovative activity: condition of resource and innovative potential; the developed forms and nature of interaction between public authorities of regional level, local community and business; applied forms of integration of subjects of managing for realization of their innovative potential due to expansion of opportunities of participation in the perspective directions of scientific and technical, economic and social development; system of the incentives developing favorable conditions for introduction and development of innovative technologies, and also increases in the enterprise activity, formed by the external institutional environment; regional economic policy as instrument of increase of efficiency of innovative activity.

  14. Detailed analysis of dynamic evolution of three Active Regions at the photospheric level before flare and CME occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yudong; Korsós, M. B.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of the applications of the weighted horizontal magnetic gradient (denoted as WGM in Korsós et al. (2015)) method and the magnetic helicity tool (Berger and Field, 1984) employed for three active regions (ARs), namely NOAA AR 11261, AR 11283 and AR 11429. We analysed the time series of photospheric data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory taken between August 2011 and March 2012. During this period the three ARs produced a series of flares (eight M- and six X-class) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). AR 11261 had four M-class flares and one of them was accompanied by a fast CME. AR 11283 had similar activities with two M- and two X-class flares, but only with a slow CME. Finally, AR 11429 was the most powerful of the three ARs as it hosted five compact and large solar flare and CME eruptions. For applying the WGM method we employed the Debrecen sunspot data catalogue, and, for estimating the magnetic helicity at photospheric level we used the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARP's) vector magnetograms from SDO/HMI (Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager). We followed the evolution of the components of the WGM and the magnetic helicity before the flare and CME occurrences. We found a unique and mutually shared behaviour, called the U-shaped pattern, of the weighted distance component of WGM and of the shearing component of the helicity flux before the flare and CME eruptions. This common pattern is associated with the decreasing-receding phases yet reported only known to be a necessary feature prior to solar flare eruption(s) but found now at the same time in the evolution of the shearing helicity flux. This result leads to the conclusions that (i) the shearing motion of photospheric magnetic field may be a key driver for solar eruption in addition to the flux emerging process, and that (ii) the found decreasing-approaching pattern in the evolution of shearing helicity flux may be another precursor

  15. A note on helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Newmann, E.T.; Porter, J.; Winicour, J.; Lukacs, B.; Perjes, Z.; Sebestyen, A.

    1981-03-01

    The authors give a formal definition of the helicity operator for integral spin fields, which does not involve their momentum-space decomposition. The discussion is based upon a representation of the Pauli-Lubanski operator in terms of the action on tensor fields by the Killing vectors associated with the generators of the Poincare group. This leads to an identification of the helicity operator with the duality operator defined by the space-time alternating tensor. Helicity eigenstates then correspond to self-dual or anti-self-dual fields, in agreement with usage implicit in the literature. In addiition, the relationship between helicity eigenstates which are intrinsically non-classical, and states of right or left circular polarization in classical electrodynamics are discussed. (author)

  16. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low…

  17. Disulfide-stabilized Helical Hairpin Structure and Activity of a Novel Antifungal Peptide EcAMP1 from Seeds of Barnyard Grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Svetlana B.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Rogozhin, Eugene A.; Barinov, Nikolay A.; Balashova, Tamara A.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Baranov, Yuri V.; Feofanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Tsezi A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents purification, activity characterization, and 1H NMR study of the novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from kernels of barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli. The peptide adopts a disulfide-stabilized α-helical hairpin structure in aqueous solution and thus represents a novel fold among naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Micromolar concentrations of EcAMP1 were shown to inhibit growth of several fungal phytopathogens. Confocal microscopy revealed intensive EcAMP1 binding to the surface of fungal conidia followed by internalization and accumulation in the cytoplasm without disturbance of membrane integrity. Close spatial structure similarity between EcAMP1, the trypsin inhibitor VhTI from seeds of Veronica hederifolia, and some scorpion and cone snail toxins suggests natural elaboration of different functions on a common fold. PMID:21561864

  18. Disulfide-stabilized helical hairpin structure and activity of a novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from seeds of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Svetlana B; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Barinov, Nikolay A; Balashova, Tamara A; Samsonova, Olga V; Baranov, Yuri V; Feofanov, Alexey V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V

    2011-07-15

    This study presents purification, activity characterization, and (1)H NMR study of the novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from kernels of barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli. The peptide adopts a disulfide-stabilized α-helical hairpin structure in aqueous solution and thus represents a novel fold among naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Micromolar concentrations of EcAMP1 were shown to inhibit growth of several fungal phytopathogens. Confocal microscopy revealed intensive EcAMP1 binding to the surface of fungal conidia followed by internalization and accumulation in the cytoplasm without disturbance of membrane integrity. Close spatial structure similarity between EcAMP1, the trypsin inhibitor VhTI from seeds of Veronica hederifolia, and some scorpion and cone snail toxins suggests natural elaboration of different functions on a common fold.

  19. Helical CT defecography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, R.; Fiorini, G.; Beghello, A.; Cicio, G.R.; Derchi, L.E.; Consigliere, M.; Resasco, M.; Tornago, S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the possible role of Helical CT defecography in pelvic floor disorders by comparing the results of the investigations with those of conventional defecography. The series analyzed consisted of 90 patients, namely 62 women and 28 men, ranging in age 24-82 years. They were all submitted to conventional defecography, and 18 questionable cases were also studied with Helical CT defecography. The conventional examination was performed during the 4 standard phases of resting, squeezing, Valsalva and straining; it is used a remote-control unit. The parameters for Helical CT defecography were: 5 mm beam collimation, pitch 2, 120 KV, 250 m As and 18-20 degrees gantry inclination to acquire coronal images of the pelvic floor. The rectal ampulla was distended with a bolus of 300 mL nonionic iodinated contrast agent (dilution: 3g/cc). The patient wore a napkin and was seated on the table, except for those who could not hold the position and were thus examined supine. Twenty-second helical scans were performed at rest and during evacuation; multiplanar reconstructions were obtained especially on the sagittal plane for comparison with conventional defecographic images. Coronal Helical CT defecography images permitted to map the perineal floor muscles, while sagittal reconstructions provided information on the ampulla and the levator ani. To conclude, Helical CT defecography performed well in study of pelvic floor disorders and can follow conventional defecography especially in questionable cases [it

  20. Helicity dependence of the {gamma}{yields}p{yields}{yields}n{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} reaction in the second resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Altieri, S.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anton, G.; Arends, H.-J.; Aulenbacher, K.; Beck, R.; Bradtke, C.; Braghieri, A.; Degrande, N.; D' Hose, N.; Dutz, H.; Goertz, S.; Grabmayr, P.; Hansen, K.; Harmsen, J.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heid, E.; Helbing, K.; Holvoet, H.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Horikawa, N.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Kageya, T.; Kiel, B.; Klein, F.; Kondratiev, R.; Kossert, K.; Krimmer, J.; Lang, M.; Lannoy, B.; Leukel, R.; Lisin, V.; Matsuda, T.; McGeorge, J.C.; Meier, A.; Menze, D.; Meyer, W.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Preobrajenski, I.; Radtke, E.; Reichert, E.; Reicherz, G.; Rohlof, Ch.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Rovelli, C.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sauer, M.; Schoch, B.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Speckner, T.; Takabayashi, N.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A.; Vyver, R. van de; Wakai, A.; Weihofen, W.; Wissmann, F.; Zapadtka, F.; Zeitler, G

    2003-01-02

    The helicity dependence of the total cross section for the {gamma}{yields}p{yields}{yields}n{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} reaction has been measured for the first time at incident photon energies from 400 to 800 MeV. The measurement was performed with the large acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. This channel is found to be excited predominantly when the photon and proton have a parallel spin orientation, due to the intermediate production of the D{sub 13} resonance.

  1. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  2. Internal transport barrier physics in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Minami, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Herranz, J.; Ida, K.; Yamagishi, O.; Yamada, H.; Maaberg, H.; Beidler, C.D.; Dinklage, A.; Estrada, T.; Castejon, F.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    The electron internal transport barrier (eITB) has been observed in wide range of helical systems, such as CHS [eg.,1], LHD [eg., 2], TJ-II [eg., 3] and W7-AS [eg., 4]. The eITB isA defined as highly peaked electron temperature (Te) profile with strongly positive radial electric field (Er) in the central region. These observations are reviewed in this paper to understand the device-independent common findings and also to draw the main differences. This is the first report from the International Stellarator Profile Database Activity. The formation of the strong central positive Er has been understood mainly as a result of the ambipolarity of neoclassical electron and ion fluxes, although some additional convective electron flux such as driven by ECRH is required in some situations. This 'neoclassical' physics peculiar to low collisional regime of helical plasmas provides the commonly observed existence of the ECRH power threshold (which is also depending on the density). This is contrastive characteristics to the ITB observed in tokamaks. The dependence of the ECRH power threshold on the magnetic configuration and on the heating scenario among these devices are currently being examined by taking the effective ripple and the trapped particle fraction as parameters to achieve the comprehensive understanding. The roles of low order rational surfaces on the onset of eITB formation and also on its radial size (location of the footpoint of the eITB) have been indicated in inward shifted configurations in LHD (depending on the relative locations of heating position and 2/1 island) and TJ-II (eITB becomes possible at higher density when 3/2 rational is introduced in the plasma core region). It is speculated that, for the latter case, the resonance causes an extra electron flux to trigger the positive Er. The interplay between low order rational surfaces and the formation of eITB still waits for the systematic experiment and theoretical analysis. The external controllability

  3. Helical-D pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    A stabilized pinch configuration is described, consisting of a D-shaped plasma cross section wrapped tightly around a guiding axis. The open-quotes helical-Dclose quotes geometry produces a very large axial (toroidal) transform of magnetic line direction that reverses the pitch of the magnetic lines without the need of azimuthal (poloidal) plasma current. Thus, there is no need of a open-quotes dynamoclose quotes process and its associated fluctuations. The resulting configuration has the high magnetic shear and pitch reversal of the reversed field pinch (RFP). (Pitch = P = qR, where R = major radius). A helical-D pinch might demonstrate good confinement at q << 1

  4. Exoplanet Transits of Stellar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark S.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Covino, Elvira; Reiners, Ansgar; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a program to obtain high spectral- and temporal-resolution observations of the neutral helium triplet line at 1083.0 nm in transiting exoplanet systems. The principal objective of our program is to gain insight on the properties of active regions, analogous to solar plages, on late-type dwarfs by essentially using exoplanet transits as high spatial resolution probes of the stellar surface within the transit chord. The 1083 nm helium line is a particularly appropriate diagnostic of magnetized areas since it is weak in the quiet photosphere of solar-type stars but appears strongly in absorption in active regions. Therefore, during an exoplanet transit over the stellar surface, variations in its absorption equivalent width can arise that are functions of the intrinsic strength of the feature in the active region and the known relative size of the exoplanet. We utilized the Galileo Telescope and the GIANO-B near-IR echelle spectrograph to obtain 1083 nm spectra during transits in bright, well-known systems that include HD 189733, HD 209458, and HD 147506 (HAT-P-2). We also obtained simultaneous auxiliary data on the same telescope with the HARPS-N UV-Visible echelle spectrograph. We will present preliminary results from our analysis of the observed variability of the strength of the He I 1083 nm line during transits.Acknowledgements: Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The NSO is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  5. Abundance variations in solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Lemen, J. R.; Linford, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    The diversity in the published values of coronal abundances is unsettling, especially as the range of results seems to be beyond the quoted uncertainties. Measurements of the relative abundance of iron and neon derived from soft X-ray spectra of active regions are presented. From a data base of over 200 spectra taken by the Solar Maximum Mission Flat Crystal Spectrometer, it is found that the relative abundance can vary by as much as a factor of about 7 and can change on timescales of less than 1 h.

  6. Evolution of active region loop plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, K.R.; Antiochos, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate numerically the adjustment of coronal active-region loops to changes in their heating rate. The one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations are solved subject to boundary conditions in which heat flux-induced mass exchange between coronal and chromospheric components is allowed. The calculated evolution of physical parameters suggests that (1) mass supplied during chromospheric evaporation is much more effective in moderating coronal temperature excursions than when downward heat flux if dissipated by a static chromosphere, and (2) the method by which rhe chromosphere responds to changing coronal conditions can significantly influence coronal readjustment time scales. Observations are cited which illustrate the range of possible fluctuations in the heating rates

  7. Review of the helicity formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, F.; Cerrada, M.; Fernandez, E.

    1972-01-01

    Our purpose in these notes has been to present a brief and general review of the helicity formalism. We begin by discussing Lorentz invariance, spin and helicity ideas, in section 1 . In section 2 we deal with the construction of relativistic states and scattering amplitudes in the helicity basis and we study their transformation properties under discrete symmetries. Finally we present some more sophisticated topics like kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes, kinematical constraints and crossing relations 3, 4, 5 respectively. (Author) 8 refs

  8. Helical Polyacetylenes Induced via Noncovalent Chiral Interactions and Their Applications as Chiral Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Katsuhiro; Yashima, Eiji

    2017-08-01

    Construction of predominantly one-handed helical polyacetylenes with a desired helix sense utilizing noncovalent chiral interactions with nonracemic chiral guest compounds based on a supramolecular approach is described. As with the conventional dynamic helical polymers possessing optically active pendant groups covalently bonded to the polymer chains, this noncovalent helicity induction system can show significant chiral amplification phenomena, in which the chiral information of the nonracemic guests can transfer with high cooperativity through noncovalent bonding interactions to induce an almost single-handed helical conformation in the polymer backbone. An intriguing "memory effect" of the induced macromolecular helicity is observed for some polyacetylenes, which means that the helical conformations induced in dynamic helical polyacetylene can be transformed into metastable static ones by tuning their helix-inversion barriers. Potential applications of helical polyacetylenes with controlled helix sense constructed by the "noncovalent helicity induction and/or memory effect" as chiral materials are also described.

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FLUID VORTICITY, KINETIC HELICITY, AND MAGNETIC FIELD ON SMALL-SCALES (QUIET-NETWORK) ON THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, C. R.; Rajaguru, S. P., E-mail: crsangeetha@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore-34 (India)

    2016-06-20

    We derive horizontal fluid motions on the solar surface over large areas covering the quiet-Sun magnetic network from local correlation tracking of convective granules imaged in continuum intensity and Doppler velocity by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory . From these we calculate the horizontal divergence, the vertical component of vorticity, and the kinetic helicity of fluid motions. We study the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity, and between vorticity (kinetic helicity) and the magnetic field. We find that the vorticity (kinetic helicity) around small-scale fields exhibits a hemispherical pattern (in sign) similar to that followed by the magnetic helicity of large-scale active regions (containing sunspots). We identify this pattern to be a result of the Coriolis force acting on supergranular-scale flows (both the outflows and inflows), consistent with earlier studies using local helioseismology. Furthermore, we show that the magnetic fields cause transfer of vorticity from supergranular inflow regions to outflow regions, and that they tend to suppress the vortical motions around them when magnetic flux densities exceed about 300 G (from HMI). We also show that such an action of the magnetic fields leads to marked changes in the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity. These results are speculated to be of importance to local dynamo action (if present) and to the dynamical evolution of magnetic helicity at the small-scale.

  10. Head and neck region consolidation radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation with hippocampal avoidance delivered with helical tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy for non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma of the upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; La Porta, Maria Rosa; Girelli, Giuseppe; Borca, Valeria Casanova; Pasquino, Massimo; Tofani, Santi; Ozzello, Franca; Ricardi, Umberto; Numico, Gianmauro; Migliaccio, Fernanda; Catuzzo, Paola; Cante, Domenico; Ceroni, Paola; Sciacero, Piera; Carassai, Pierpaolo; Canzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas (NSNECs) of the head and neck are considered an unfrequent clinico-pathological entity. Combined modality treatment represents an established therapeutic option for undifferentiated forms where distant metastasis is a common pattern of failure. We report on a case of NSNEC treated with sequential chemo-radiation consisting of 6 cycles of cisplatin and etoposide followed by loco-regional radiation to the head and neck and simultaneous prophylactic cranial irradiation to prevent from intracranial spread, delivered with helical tomotherapy with the 'hippocampal avoidance' technique in order to reduce neuro-cognitive late effects. One year after the end of the whole combined modality approach, the patient achieved complete remission, with no treatment-related sub-acute and late effects. The present report highlights the importance of multidisciplinary management for NSNECs of the head and neck, as the possibility to achieve substantial cure rates with mild side effects with modern radiotherapy techniques

  11. Antimicrobial properties and membrane-active mechanism of a potential α-helical antimicrobial derived from cathelicidin PMAP-36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Lv

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, which present in the non-specific immune system of organism, are amongst the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. The modification of naturally occurring AMPs based on their residue composition and distribution is a simple and effective strategy for optimization of known AMPs. In this study, a series of truncated and residue-substituted derivatives of antimicrobial peptide PMAP-36 were designed and synthesized. The 24-residue truncated peptide, GI24, displayed antimicrobial activity comparable to the mother peptide PMAP-36 with MICs ranging from 1 to 4 µM, which is lower than the MICs of bee venom melittin. Although GI24 displayed high antimicrobial activity, its hemolytic activity was much lower than melittin, suggesting that GI24 have optimal cell selectivity. In addition, the crucial site of GI24 was identified through single site-mutation. An amino acid with high hydrophobicity at position 23 played an important role in guaranteeing the high antimicrobial activity of GI24. Then, lipid vesicles and whole bacteria were employed to investigate the membrane-active mechanisms. Membrane-simulating experiments showed that GI24 interacted strongly with negatively charged phospholipids and weakly with zwitterionic phospholipids, which corresponded well with the data of its biological activities. Membrane permeabilization and flow cytometry provide the evidence that GI24 killed microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. GI24 resulted in greater cell morphological changes and visible pores on cell membrane as determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Taken together, the peptide GI24 may provide a promising antimicrobial agent for therapeutic applications against the frequently-encountered bacteria.

  12. Resonant helical fields in the TBR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of external resonant helical fields (RHF) in the tokamak TBR plasma discharges was investigated. These fields were created by helical windings wounded on the TBR vessel with the same helicity of rational magnetic surfaces, producing resonant efects on these surfaces. The characteristics of the MHZ activity (amplitude, frequency and poloidal and toroidal wave numbers, m=2,3,4 and n=1, respectively) during the plasma discharges were modified by eletrical winding currents of the order of 2% of the plasma current. These characterisitics were measured for diferent discharges safety factors at the limiter (q) between 3 and 4, with and without the RHF, with the atenuation of the oscillation amplitudes and the increasing of their frequencies. The existente of expontaneous and induced magnetic islands were investigated. The data were compared with results obtained in other tokamaks. (author) [pt

  13. Turbulent Helicity in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhetiani, Otto G.; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Vazaeva, Natalia V.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the assumption postulated by Deusebio and Lindborg (J Fluid Mech 755:654-671, 2014) that the helicity injected into the Ekman boundary layer undergoes a cascade, with preservation of its sign (right- or alternatively left-handedness), which is a signature of the system rotation, from large to small scales, down to the Kolmogorov microscale of turbulence. At the same time, recent direct field measurements of turbulent helicity in the steppe region of southern Russia near Tsimlyansk Reservoir show the opposite sign of helicity from that expected. A possible explanation for this phenomenon may be the joint action of different scales of atmospheric flows within the boundary layer, including the sea-breeze circulation over the test site. In this regard, we consider a superposition of the classic Ekman spiral solution and Prandtl's jet-like slope-wind profile to describe the planetary boundary-layer wind structure. The latter solution mimics a hydrostatic shallow breeze circulation over a non-uniformly heated surface. A 180°-wide sector on the hodograph plane exists, within which the relative orientation of the Ekman and Prandtl velocity profiles favours the left rotation with height of the resulting wind velocity vector in the lowermost part of the boundary layer. This explains the negative (left-handed) helicity cascade toward small-scale turbulent motions, which agrees with the direct field measurements of turbulent helicity in Tsimlyansk. A simple turbulent relaxation model is proposed that explains the measured positive values of the relatively minor contribution to turbulent helicity from the vertical components of velocity and vorticity.

  14. Coulomb double helical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Structures of Coulomb clusters formed by dust particles in a plasma are studied by numerical simulation. Our study reveals the presence of various types of self-organized structures of a cluster confined in a prolate spheroidal electrostatic potential. The stable configurations depend on a prolateness parameter for the confining potential as well as on the number of dust particles in a cluster. One-dimensional string, two-dimensional zigzag structure and three-dimensional double helical structure are found as a result of the transition controlled by the prolateness parameter. The formation of stable double helical structures resulted from the transition associated with the instability of angular perturbations on double strings. Analytical perturbation study supports the findings of numerical simulations.

  15. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average β and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned

  16. Helical modes generate antimagnetic rotational spectra in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2018-03-01

    A systematic analysis of the antimagnetic rotation band using r -helicity formalism is carried out for the first time. The observed octupole correlation in a nucleus is likely to play a role in establishing the antimagnetic spectrum. Such octupole correlations are explained within the helical orbits. In a rotating field, two identical fermions (generally protons) with paired spins generate these helical orbits in such a way that its positive (i.e., up) spin along the axis of quantization refers to one helicity (right-handedness) while negative (down) spin along the same quantization-axis decides another helicity (left-handedness). Since the helicity remains invariant under rotation, therefore, the quantum state of a fermion is represented by definite angular momentum and helicity. These helicity represented states support a pear-shaped structure of a rotating system having z axis as the symmetry axis. A combined operation of parity, time-reversal, and signature symmetries ensures an absence of one of the signature partner band from the observed antimagnetic spectrum. This formalism has also been tested for the recently observed negative parity Δ I =2 antimagnetic spectrum in odd-A 101Pd nucleus and explains nicely its energy spectrum as well as the B (E 2 ) values. Further, this formalism is found to be fully consistent with twin-shears mechanism popularly known for such type of rotational bands. It also provides significant clue for extending these experiments in various mass regions spread over the nuclear chart.

  17. [Establishment of regional active neonatal transport network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-yong; Gao, Xin; Yin, Xiao-juan; Hong, Xiao-yang; Fang, Huan-sheng; Wang, Zi-zhen; Li, Ai-hua; Luo, Fen-ping; Feng, Zhi-chun

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical function and significance of establishing a regional active neonatal transport network (ANTN) in Beijing. The authors retrospectively studied intensive care and the role of ANTN system in management of critically ill neonates and compared the outcome of newborn infants transported to our NICU before and after we established standardized NICU and ANTN system (phase 1: July 2004 to June 2006 vs phase 2: July 2006 to May 2008). The number of neonatal transport significantly increased from 587 during phase 1 to 2797 during phase 2. Success rate of transport and the total cure rate in phase 2 were 97.85% and 91.99% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in phase 1 (94.36% and 88.69%, respectively, P capacity of our NICU was enlarged following the development of ANTN. There are 200 beds for level 3 infants in phase 2, but there were only 20 beds in phase 1. Significantly less patients in the phase 2 had hypothermia, acidosis and the blood glucose instability than those in phase 1 (P transported to our NICU were higher in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1, especially infants whose gestational age was below 32 weeks. The proportions of asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were lower in phase 2 than that in phase 1, but the total cure rates of these two diseases had no significant changes between the two phases. The most important finding was that the improvement of outcome of premature infants and those with asphyxia and aspiration syndrome was noted following the development of ANTN. Establishing regional ANTN for a tertiary hospital is very important to elevate the total level in management of critically ill newborn infants. It plays a very important role in reducing mortality and improving total outcomes of newborn infants. There are still some problems remained to solve after four years practice in order to optimize the ANTN to meet needs of the development of neonatology.

  18. Phosalone-Induced Changes in Regional Cholinesterase Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Regional Cholinesterase Activities in Rat Brain during Behavioral Tolerance. ... lead to the gradual disappearance of the initial signs of toxicity over time, termed ... regions, striatum recorded a greater decrease in cholinesterase activity.

  19. Particle orbit analysis for LHD helical axis configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Motojima, O.

    1993-04-01

    Fast ion orbits for helical magnetic axis configurations in LHD (Large Helical Device) are analyzed and compared with the standard circular axis case. Boundaries between passing and helically trapped particle regions show clear differences: in the non-planar axis case the helically trapped region spreads, near the magnetic axis, over a much wider band across the 90deg pitch angle value and shows a very marked asymmetry. The locally trapped particle region is also wider than in the standard case. The differences in the loss cone boundaries of the two cases are rather small, however, the effects of re-entering criteria are very important in both cases. On the contrary, effects of finite coil size are not significant. (author)

  20. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  1. 6,6″-Dimethyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine revisited: new fluorescent silver(I) helicates with in vitro antiproliferative activity via selective nucleoli targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fik, Marta A; Gorczyński, Adam; Kubicki, Maciej; Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Giel-Pietraszuk, Małgorzata; Patroniak, Violetta

    2014-10-30

    6,6″-Dimethyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine ligand (L) reacts in equimolar ratio with Ag(I) ions what results in formation of dinuclear double helicates, which differ in terms of framework and complexity in accordance to counterions and solvent applied. Obtained complexes were thoroughly studied in terms of their biological activity, with the positive antiproliferative outcome on three human cancer cell lines: human breast cancer (T47D), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and human lung cancer (A-549). Performed DNA binding experiments showed that given Ag(I) species specifically interact with DNA double helix via intercalation and were visualized by confocal microscopy to specifically bind to the nuclei. All newly synthesized helical systems exhibit promising antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains. Spectrophotometric properties were described as fulfilment of structural studies of newly presented complexes confirming their helical structure in solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Intensity attenuation for active crustal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.; Worden, C. Bruce

    2012-07-01

    We develop globally applicable macroseismic intensity prediction equations (IPEs) for earthquakes of moment magnitude M W 5.0-7.9 and intensities of degree II and greater for distances less than 300 km for active crustal regions. The IPEs are developed for two distance metrics: closest distance to rupture ( R rup) and hypocentral distance ( R hyp). The key objective for developing the model based on hypocentral distance—in addition to more rigorous and standard measure R rup—is to provide an IPE which can be used in near real-time earthquake response systems for earthquakes anywhere in the world, where information regarding the rupture dimensions of a fault may not be known in the immediate aftermath of the event. We observe that our models, particularly the model for the R rup distance metric, generally have low median residuals with magnitude and distance. In particular, we address whether the direct use of IPEs leads to a reduction in overall uncertainties when compared with methods which use a combination of ground-motion prediction equations and ground motion to intensity conversion equations. Finally, using topographic gradient as a proxy and median model predictions, we derive intensity-based site amplification factors. These factors lead to a small reduction of residuals at shallow gradients at strong shaking levels. However, the overall effect on total median residuals is relatively small. This is in part due to the observation that the median site condition for intensity observations used to develop these IPEs is approximately near the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program CD site-class boundary.

  3. Regional characteristics, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Brixy, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to better understand the link between regional characteristics and individual entrepreneurship. We combine individual-level Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for Western Germany with regional-level data, using multilevel analysis to test our hypotheses. We find no direct link...

  4. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  5. Interaction of 18-residue peptides derived from amphipathic helical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    interaction of proteins and peptides with membranes (Segrest ... favour surface activity have been described by Eisenberg et ... amphipathicity and propensity for α-helical conformation ..... Membrane destabilisation occurs due to electrostatic.

  6. The Photospheric Flow near the Flare Locations of Active Regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in the active regions along with few locations of upflows. The localised upflows are observed in the light bridges and emerging flux regions with different speeds (Beckers & Schroter 1969). The flow patterns of flare locations in the active regions are observed by using the tower vector magnetograph (TVM) of Marshall.

  7. Divertors for helical devices: Concepts, plans, results and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.; Grigull, P.; McCormick, K.

    2003-01-01

    With LHD and W7-X stellarator development is now taking a large leap forward on the path to a steady-state fusion reactor. Important issues that need to be settled in these machines are particle flux and heat control, and the impact of divertors on plasma performance in future continuously burning fusion plasmas. The divertor concepts that will initially be explored in these large stellarators were carefully prepared in smaller scale devices like Heliotron E, CHS and W7-AS. While advanced divertor scenarios relevant for W7-X were already studied in W7-AS, other smaller scale experiments like Heliotron-J, CHS and NCSX will be used for the further development of divertor concepts. The two divertor configurations that are presently being investigated, are the helical and the island divertor, as well as the local island divertor (LID), which was successfully demonstrated on CHS and just went into operation on LHD. Presently, on its route to a fully closed helical divertor, LHD operates in an open helical divertor configuration. W7-X will be equipped right from the start with an actively cooled discrete island divertor which will allow quasi continuous operation. The divertor design is very similar to the one explored on W7-AS. For sufficiently large island sizes and not too long field line connection lengths, this divertor gives access to a partially detached quasi steady-state operating scenario in a newly found high density H-mode operating regime, which benefits from high energy and extremely low impurity confinement times, with edge radiation levels of up to 90 % and sufficient neutral compression in the subdivertor region (> 10) for active pumping. The basic physics of the different divertor concepts and associated implementation problems, like asymmetries due to drifts, accessibility of essential operating scenarios and toroidal asymmetries due to symmetry breaking error fields, etc. will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC WAVE PARAMETERS NEAR SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  9. Helical Tomotherapy Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, John; Soisson, Emilie

    2008-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy uses a dynamic delivery in which the gantry, treatment couch, and multileaf collimator leaves are all in motion during treatment. This results in highly conformal radiotherapy, but the complexity of the delivery is partially hidden from the end-user because of the extensive integration and automation of the tomotherapy control systems. This presents a challenge to the medical physicist who is expected to be both a system user and an expert, capable of verifying relevant aspects of treatment delivery. A related issue is that a clinical tomotherapy planning system arrives at a customer's site already commissioned by the manufacturer, not by the clinical physicist. The clinical physicist and the manufacturer's representative verify the commissioning at the customer site before acceptance. Theoretically, treatment could begin immediately after acceptance. However, the clinical physicist is responsible for the safe and proper use of the machine. In addition, the therapists and radiation oncologists need to understand the important machine characteristics before treatment can proceed. Typically, treatment begins about 2 weeks after acceptance. This report presents an overview of the tomotherapy system. Helical tomotherapy has unique dosimetry characteristics, and some of those features are emphasized. The integrated treatment planning, delivery, and patient-plan quality assurance process is described. A quality assurance protocol is proposed, with an emphasis on what a clinical medical physicist could and should check. Additionally, aspects of a tomotherapy quality assurance program that could be checked automatically and remotely because of its inherent imaging system and integrated database are discussed

  10. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  11. Influence of 63Ser phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on the structure of the stathmin helical nucleation sequence: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missimer, John H; Steinmetz, Michel O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Dolenc, Jožica

    2012-10-23

    Phosphorylation is an important mechanism regulating protein-protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered protein regions. Stathmin, an archetypical example of an intrinsically disordered protein, is a key regulator of microtubule dynamics in which phosphorylation of 63Ser within the helical nucleation sequence strongly down-regulates the tubulin binding and microtubule destabilizing activities of the protein. Experimental studies on a peptide encompassing the 19-residue helical nucleation sequence of stathmin (residues 55-73) indicate that phosphorylation of 63Ser destabilizes the peptide's secondary structure by disrupting the salt bridges supporting its helical conformation. In order to investigate this hypothesis at atomic resolution, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated stathmin-[55-73] at room temperature and pressure, neutral pH, and explicit solvation using the recently released GROMOS force field 54A7. In the simulations of nonphosphorylated stathmin-[55-73] emerged salt bridges associated with helical configurations. In the simulations of 63Ser phosphorylated stathmin-[55-73] these configurations dispersed and were replaced by a proliferation of salt bridges yielding disordered configurations. The transformation of the salt bridges was accompanied by emergence of numerous interactions between main and side chains, involving notably the oxygen atoms of the phosphorylated 63Ser. The loss of helical structure induced by phosphorylation is reversible, however, as a final simulation showed. The results extend the hypothesis of salt bridge derangement suggested by experimental observations of the stathmin nucleation sequence, providing new insights into regulation of intrinsically disordered protein systems mediated by phosphorylation.

  12. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Separating active regions that are quiet from potentially eruptive ones is a key issue in Space Weather applications. Traditional classification schemes such as Mount Wilson and McIntosh have been effective in relating an active region large scale magnetic configuration to its ability to produce eruptive events. However, their qualitative nature prevents systematic studies of an active region’s evolution for example. Aims. We introduce a new clustering of active regions that is based on the local geometry observed in Line of Sight magnetogram and continuum images. Methods. We use a reduced-dimension representation of an active region that is obtained by factoring the corresponding data matrix comprised of local image patches. Two factorizations can be compared via the definition of appropriate metrics on the resulting factors. The distances obtained from these metrics are then used to cluster the active regions. Results. We find that these metrics result in natural clusterings of active regions. The clusterings are related to large scale descriptors of an active region such as its size, its local magnetic field distribution, and its complexity as measured by the Mount Wilson classification scheme. We also find that including data focused on the neutral line of an active region can result in an increased correspondence between our clustering results and other active region descriptors such as the Mount Wilson classifications and the R-value. Conclusions. Matrix factorization of image patches is a promising new way of characterizing active regions. We provide some recommendations for which metrics, matrix factorization techniques, and regions of interest to use to study active regions.

  13. LHD helical divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Watanabe, T.; Ji Hantao

    1993-07-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) now under construction is a heliotron/torsatron device with a closed divertor system. The edge LHD magnetic structure has been studied in detail. A peculiar feature of the configuration is existence of edge surface layers, a complicated three dimensional magnetic structure which does not, however, seem to hamper the expected divertor functions. Two divertor operational modes are being considered for the LHD experiment, high density, cold radiative divertor operation as a safe heat removal scheme and high temperature divertor plasma operation. In the latter operation, a divertor plasma with temperature of a few kev, generated by efficient pumping, expects to lead to significant improvement in core plasma confinement. Conceptual designs of the LHD divertor components are under way. (author)

  14. SUPERCONDUCTING HELICAL SNAKE MAGNETS: CONSTRUCTION AND MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, W.W.; Anerella, M.; Courant, E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to collide polarized protons, the RHIC project will have two snakes in each ring and four rotators around each of two interaction regions. Two snakes on opposite sides of each ring can minimize depolarization during acceleration by keeping the spin tune at a half. Since the spin direction is normally along the vertical direction in a flat ring, spin rotators must be used around an interaction point to have longitudinal polarization in a collider experiment. Each snake or rotator will be composed of four helical dipoles to provide the required rotation of spin with minimal transverse orbit excursions in a compact length of 10m. The basic helical dipole is a superconducting magnet producing a transverse dipole field which is twisted about the magnet axis through 360 o in a length of 2.4 m. The design and construction of the magnets is described in this paper

  15. Theoretical aspects of magnetic helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic helicity, usually defined as K=integralA.Bdv, where A is the vector potential and B the magnetic field, measures the topological linkage of magnetic fluxes. Helicity manifests itself in the twistedness and knottedness of flux tubes. Its significance is that it is an ideal MHD invariant. While the helicity formalism has proven very useful in understanding reversed field pinch and spheromak behavior, some problems exist in applying the method consistently for complex (e.g., toroidal) conductor geometries or in situations where magnetic flux penetrates conducting walls. Recent work has attempted to generalize K to allow for all possible geometries

  16. Godbillon Vey Helicity and Magnetic Helicity in Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Hu, Q.; Anco, S.; Zank, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Godbillon-Vey invariant arises in homology theory, and algebraic topology, where conditions for a layered family of 2D surfaces forms a 3D manifold were elucidated. The magnetic Godbillon-Vey helicity invariant in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a helicity invariant that occurs for flows, in which the magnetic helicity density hm= A\\cdotB=0 where A is the magnetic vector potential and B is the magnetic induction. Our purpose is to elucidate the evolution of the magnetic Godbillon-Vey field η =A×B/|A|2 and the Godbillon-Vey helicity hgv}= η \\cdot∇ × η in general MHD flows in which the magnetic helicity hm≠q 0. It is shown that hm acts as a source term in the Godbillon-Vey helicity transport equation, in which hm is coupled to hgv via the shear tensor of the background flow. The transport equation for hgv depends on the electric field potential ψ , which is related to the gauge for A, which takes its simplest form for the advected A gauge in which ψ =A\\cdot u where u is the fluid velocity.

  17. Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong

    2015-09-10

    Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  19. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  20. Sports participation, physical activity, and health in the European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera-López, Fernando; Marco, Rocio

    2018-08-01

    In a context of stagnation of the level of health-enhancing physical activity in Europe, this study examines the geographical stratification of sports participation and physical activity (PA) at the regional level in 28 European countries. While previous research has focused on the national approach, this study considers the regional level across 208 European regions. Individual survey data from the Eurobarometer 80.2 is combined with a regional-level approach to the 208 regions to quantify sports participation and PA at the regional level. The results show important differences and a geographical stratification of sports participation and PA among the European regions, albeit following different patterns. In particular, a north-south gap is identified in terms of PA rates and an east-west gap is detected in terms of sports participation levels. Applying the cluster technique, a taxonomy of four different European regions is developed considering both types of indicators. Finally, the existence of sports spatial spillovers among regions is verified, obtaining a positive autocorrelation among neighbouring regions for being involved in PA and sporting activities. The results may have significant implications in terms of policy measures to improve health through PA and sports participation at the regional level in Europe.

  1. Recurrent forbush decreases and the relationship between active regions and M regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.N.; Kaul, C.L.; Razdan, H.; Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recurrent Forbush decreases and recurrent geomagnetic disturbances have been attributed to the solar M regions, which are sources of high-velocity solar plasma streams. A study of recurrent Forbush decreases for the period 1966--1975 has been made to examine any possible relationship of M regions with solar active regions. It is shown that at the onset of the recurrent Forbush decrease at the earth there is a high probability of encountering a class of active regions at the central meridian of the sun which give rise to flares of importance > or =2B/3N. These active regions are found to be long lasting and to have large areas as well as high Hα intensities. Other active regions, producing flares of lower importance, are distributed randomly on the sun with respect to the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease. By using the quasi-radial hypervelocity approximation the base of the leading edge of the high-velocity stream at the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease at the earth is traced to the solar longitude about 40 0 west of the central meridan. From these results it is deduced that M regions are located preferentially to the west of long-lasting magnetically complex active regions. Earlier studies of the identification of the M regions on the sun have been reexamined and shown to conform to this positional relationship. A possible mechanism of the development of an M region to the west of the long-lasting magnetically complex active region is also discussed

  2. Recurrent Forbush decreases and relationship between active regions and M-regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.N.; Kaul, C.L.; Razdan, H.; Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recurrent Forbush decreases and recurrent geomagnetic disturbances have been attributed to the solar M-regions, which are sources of high velocity solar plasma streams. A study of recurrent Forbush decreases for the period 1966-75 has been made to examine any possible relationship of M-regions with solar active regions. It is shown that at the onset of the recurrent Forbush decrease at earth, there is a high probability of encountering a class of active regions at central meridian of the sun which give rise to flares of importance >= 28/3N. These active regions are found to be long-lasting and to have large areas as well as high Hsub(α)-intensities. Other active regions, producing flares of only lower importance, are distributed randomly on the sun with respect to the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease. Using the quasiradial hypervelocity approximation, the base of the leading edge of the high velocity stream, at the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease at earth, is traced to the solar longitude about 40 deg West of the central meridian. From these results, it is deduced that M-regions are located preferentially to the West of long-lasting, magnetically complex active regions. Earlier studies of the identification of the M-regions on the sun have been re-examined and shown to conform to this positional relationship. A possible mechanism of the development of an M-region to the West of the long-lasting magnetically complex active region is also discussed. (author)

  3. Analyses of the Photospheric Magnetic Dynamics in Solar Active Region 11117 Using an Advanced CESE-MHD Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chaowei [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Wu, Shi T. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL (United States); Feng, Xueshang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-10

    In this study, the photospheric vector magnetograms obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used as boundary conditions for a CESE-MHD model to investigate some photosphere characteristics around the time of a confined flare in solar active region NOAA AR 11117. We report our attempt of characterizing a more realistic solar atmosphere by including a plasma with temperature stratified from the photosphere to the corona in the CESE-MHD model. The resulted photospheric transverse flow is comparable to the apparent movements of the magnetic flux features that demonstrates shearing and rotations. We calculated the relevant parameters such as the magnetic energy flux and helicity flux, and with analysis of these parameters, we find that magnetic non-potentiality is transported across the photosphere into the corona in the simulated time interval, which might provide a favorable condition for producing the flare.

  4. Clinical application of the helical CT in patients who are unable to hold their breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Naruhide; Ohkawa, Motoomi; Tanabe, Masatada.

    1997-01-01

    We performed helical CT in eighteen patients who were unable to hold their breath for 10 chest and 8 abdominal regions. Although there were respiratory artifacts in three cases, we could obtain the useful clinical information in all cases. In our experimental examinations, CT value of the phantom by helical scan was lower than that by conventional scan without movement of the phantom. With movement of it, the CT value was further lowered by either scan method, but the lowered rate was smaller by helical scan as the movement becomes faster. We consider that helical CT can be applied to patients who were unable to hold their breath. (author)

  5. Active Pesticide Production Points, Region 9, 2013, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Active Pesticide Producing Establishments in USEPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI and NV) that reported production for the year 2013. Pesticide...

  6. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  7. Extreme Trust Region Policy Optimization for Active Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei; Sun, Fuchun; Huaping Liu; Yupei Wu; Fuchun Sun; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei

    2018-06-01

    In this brief, we develop a deep reinforcement learning method to actively recognize objects by choosing a sequence of actions for an active camera that helps to discriminate between the objects. The method is realized using trust region policy optimization, in which the policy is realized by an extreme learning machine and, therefore, leads to efficient optimization algorithm. The experimental results on the publicly available data set show the advantages of the developed extreme trust region optimization method.

  8. Local Helioseismology of Emerging Active Regions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Zhao, Junwei; Ilonidis, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    Local helioseismology provides a unique opportunity to investigate the subsurface structure and dynamics of active regions and their effect on the large-scale flows and global circulation of the Sun. We use measurements of plasma flows in the upper convection zone, provided by the Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline developed for analysis of solar oscillation data obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to investigate the subsurface dynamics of emerging active region NOAA 11726. The active region emergence was detected in deep layers of the convection zone about 12 hours before the first bipolar magnetic structure appeared on the surface, and 2 days before the emergence of most of the magnetic flux. The speed of emergence determined by tracking the flow divergence with depth is about 1.4 km/s, very close to the emergence speed in the deep layers. As the emerging magnetic flux becomes concentrated in sunspots local converging flows are observed beneath the forming sunspots. These flows are most prominent in the depth range 1-3 Mm, and remain converging after the formation process is completed. On the larger scale converging flows around active region appear as a diversion of the zonal shearing flows towards the active region, accompanied by formation of a large-scale vortex structure. This process occurs when a substantial amount of the magnetic flux emerged on the surface, and the converging flow pattern remains stable during the following evolution of the active region. The Carrington synoptic flow maps show that the large-scale subsurface inflows are typical for active regions. In the deeper layers (10-13 Mm) the flows become diverging, and surprisingly strong beneath some active regions. In addition, the synoptic maps reveal a complex evolving pattern of large-scale flows on the scale much larger than supergranulation

  9. Gynecological applications of helical CT using SmartPrep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, Akira; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    SmartPrep is software program for scanning a given region of interest (ROI) at optimal contrast density. An operator can arbitrarily define ROI and preset the CT value at which scanning should be started. After the injection of a contrast medium, system conducts continuous monitoring of the ROI and the operator starts helical scanning of the planned region when the present CT value has been reached. In comparison with conventional helical CT that requires a period of time from the beginning of contrast medium injection to the beginning of scanning, SmartPrep minimizes personal error and better depicts the artery-predominant phase under optimal conditions. In this study we examine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced helical CT using SmartPrep in the evaluation of gynecological disease. When the contrast medium was injected into the dorsal vein of the hand at a rate of 3 ml/sec, strong staining of pelvic arteries was observed in the CT images started at 17 to 23 sec after injection. The early-phase helical CT obtained under these conditions provided good depiction of lesions in cases of placenta accreta and invasive mole, as well as clear demonstration of tumor angiogenesis and evaluation of laterality in cases of cervical cancer. Comparison of the early and delayed phase also facilitated easier evaluation of lymph nodes than conventional comparison of simple and contrast-enhanced CT. The results thus suggest the usefulness of contrast-enhanced helical CT using SmartPrep in gynecology. (author)

  10. Pulling Helices inside Bacteria: Imperfect Helices and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Jun F.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2009-04-01

    We study steady-state configurations of intrinsically-straight elastic filaments constrained within rod-shaped bacteria that have applied forces distributed along their length. Perfect steady-state helices result from axial or azimuthal forces applied at filament ends, however azimuthal forces are required for the small pitches observed for MreB filaments within bacteria. Helix-like configurations can result from distributed forces, including coexistence between rings and imperfect helices. Levels of expression and/or bundling of the polymeric protein could mediate this coexistence.

  11. RCA activities in the Asian and Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1984-01-01

    So-called ''RCA'' activities - practical work undertaken within the framework of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asian and Pacific region - are widely regarded as an example of successful co-operative effort in the application of nuclear techniques at a regional level. Activities undertaken to promote the transfer of nuclear technology within the framework of the RCA cover a large spectrum of nuclear applications in agriculture and food production, medicine, study of the environment, industry, and physics. Fourteen projects are operational this year (1984)

  12. Thoughts on the development of active regional public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro Dos; Sóter, Ana Paula Menezes; Furtado, Lumena Almeida Castro; Pereira, Silvana Souza da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Decentralization and regionalization are strategic themes for reforms in the health system. This paper analyzes the complex process of health regionalization being developed in Brazil. This paper identifies that the normative framework from the Brazilian National Health System, SUS has made advances with respect to its institutionalization and overcoming the initial centrality involved in municipalization. This has strengthened the development of regionalization and the intergovernmental agreement on health but the evidence points to the need to promote a revision. Based on document analysis, literature review and the views given by the authors involved in management in SUS as well as generating radically different views, the challenges for the construction of a regionalization that is active, is debated. We also discuss: its relations with planning and the dimensioning of service networks, the production of active care networks and shared management spaces, the inter-federative agreements and regional regulations, the capacity to coordinate regional systems and financing and the impact of the political dimension and electoral cycles. Regionalization (and SUS itself) is an open book, therefore ways and possibilities on how to maintain an active form of regionalization can be recommended.

  13. Transport barrier in Helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the transport barrier in Helical plasmas are reviewed. There are two mechanisms of transport improvement, that results in the formation of the transport barrier. One is the improvement of neoclassical transport by reducing the ripple loss with radial electric field, which exist only in helical plasma. The other is the improvement of anomalous transport due to the suppression of fluctuations associated with a radial electric field shear both in tokamak and helical plasma. The formation of the transport barrier can be triggered by the radial electric field shear associated with the transition of the radial electric field (L/H transition or ion-electron root transition) or the peaked density or the optimization of magnetic field shear. The mechanisms of transport barrier formation are also discussed. (author). 60 refs

  14. Generalized helicity and Beltrami fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buniy, Roman V., E-mail: roman.buniy@gmail.com [Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); Kephart, Thomas W., E-mail: tom.kephart@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We propose covariant and non-abelian generalizations of the magnetic helicity and Beltrami equation. The gauge invariance, variational principle, conserved current, energy–momentum tensor and choice of boundary conditions elucidate the subject. In particular, we prove that any extremal of the Yang–Mills action functional 1/4 ∫{sub Ω}trF{sub μν}F{sup μν}d{sup 4}x subject to the local constraint ε{sup μναβ}trF{sub μν}F{sub αβ}=0 satisfies the covariant non-abelian Beltrami equation. -- Highlights: •We introduce the covariant non-abelian helicity and Beltrami equation. •The Yang–Mills action and instanton term constraint lead to the Beltrami equation. •Solutions of the Beltrami equation conserve helicity.

  15. Generalized helicity and Beltrami fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniy, Roman V.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose covariant and non-abelian generalizations of the magnetic helicity and Beltrami equation. The gauge invariance, variational principle, conserved current, energy–momentum tensor and choice of boundary conditions elucidate the subject. In particular, we prove that any extremal of the Yang–Mills action functional 1/4 ∫ Ω trF μν F μν d 4 x subject to the local constraint ε μναβ trF μν F αβ =0 satisfies the covariant non-abelian Beltrami equation. -- Highlights: •We introduce the covariant non-abelian helicity and Beltrami equation. •The Yang–Mills action and instanton term constraint lead to the Beltrami equation. •Solutions of the Beltrami equation conserve helicity

  16. Toroidal helical quartz forming machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed

  17. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  18. Determinants of Foreign Technological Activity in German Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta

    This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technological activity across 96 German regions (1996-2009). We identify foreign inventive activity by applying the ‘cross-border-ownership concept’ to transnational patent applications. The descriptive analysis shows...

  19. An active region filament studied simultaneously in the chromosphere and photosphere. I. Magnetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Centeno, R.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: A thorough multiwavelength, multiheight study of the vector magnetic field in a compact active region filament (NOAA 10781) on 2005 July 3 and 5 is presented. We suggest an evolutionary scenario for this filament. Methods: Two different inversion codes were used to analyze the full Stokes vectors acquired with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) in a spectral range that comprises the chromospheric He i 10 830 Å multiplet and the photospheric Si i 10 827 Å line. In addition, we used SOHO/MDI magnetograms, as well as BBSO and TRACE images, to study the evolution of the filament and its active region (AR). High-resolution images of the Dutch Open Telescope were also used. Results: An active region filament (formed before our observing run) was detected in the chromospheric helium absorption images on July 3. The chromospheric vector magnetic field in this portion of the filament was strongly sheared (parallel to the filament axis), whereas the photospheric field lines underneath had an inverse polarity configuration. From July 3 to July 5, an opening and closing of the polarities on either side of the polarity inversion line (PIL) was recorded, resembling the recently discovered process of the sliding door effect seen by Hinode. This is confirmed with both TIP-II and SOHO/MDI data. During this time, a newly created region that contained pores and orphan penumbrae at the PIL was observed. On July 5, a normal polarity configuration was inferred from the chromospheric spectra, while strongly sheared field lines aligned with the PIL were found in the photosphere. In this same data set, the spine of the filament is also observed in a different portion of the field of view and is clearly mapped by the silicon line core. Conclusions: The inferred vector magnetic fields of the filament suggest a flux rope topology. Furthermore, the observations indicate that the filament is divided in two parts, one which lies in the chromosphere and another one that stays

  20. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift

  1. Resonant helical fields in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, V.

    1990-01-01

    Poincare maps of magnetic field lines of a toroidal helical system were made. The magnetic field is a linear superposition of the magnetic fields produced by a toroidal plasma in equilibrium and by external helical currents. Analytical expression for the Poincare maps was no obtained since the magnetic field do not have symmetry. In order to obtain the maps, the equation minus derivative of l vector times B vector = 0 was numerically integrated. In the Poincare maps, the principal and the secondary magnetic island were observed. (author)

  2. Helical system. History and current state of helical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the following: (1) history of nuclear fusion research of Japan's original heliotron method, (2) worldwide development of nuclear fusion research based on helical system such as stellarator, and (3) worldwide meaning of large helical device (LHD) aiming to demonstrate the steady-state performance of heliotron type in the parameter area extrapolable to the core plasma, and research results of LHD. LHD demonstrated that the helical system is excellent in steady operation performance at the world's most advanced level. In an experiment using deuterium gas in 2017, LHD achieved to reach 120 million degrees of ion temperature, which is one index of nuclear fusion condition, demonstrated the realization of high-performance plasma capable of extrapolating to future nuclear fusion reactors, and established the foundation for full-scale research toward the realization of nuclear fusion reactor. Besides experimental research, this paper also described the helical-type stationary nuclear fusion prototype reactor, FFHR-d1, which was based on progress of large-scale simulation at the world's most advanced level. A large-scale superconducting stellarator experimental device, W7-X, with the same scale as LHD, started experiment in December 2015, whose current state is also touched on here. (A.O.)

  3. Helicity and evanescent waves. [Energy transport velocity, helicity, Lorentz transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudin, J L; Platzeck, A M [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina); Albano, J R [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    1978-02-20

    It is shown that the projection of the angular momentum of a circularly polarized electromagnetic evanescent wave along the mean velocity of energy transport (=helicity) can be reverted by a Lorentz transformation, in spite of the fact that this velocity is c.

  4. Hamiltonian theory of vacuum helical torus lines of magnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnudi, Giovanni; Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1994-01-01

    For making plasma into equilibrium state, the lines of magnetic force must have magnetic surfaces. However in a helical system, space is divided into the region having magnetic surface structure and the region that does not have it. Accordingly, it is an important basic research for the plasma confinement in a helical system to examine where is the boundary of both regions and how is the large area structure of the lines of magnetic force in the boundary region. The lines of magnetic force can be treated as a Hamilton mechanics system, and it has been proved that the Hamiltonian for the lines of magnetic force can be expressed by a set of canonical variables and the function of time. In this research, the Hamiltonian that describes the lines of magnetic force of helical system torus coordination in vacuum was successfully determined concretely. Next, the development of new linear symplectic integration method was carried out. The important supports for the theory of determining Hamiltonian are Lie transformation and paraxial expansion. The procedure is explained. In Appendix, Lie transformation, Hamiltonian for the lines of magnetic force, magnetic potential, Taylor expansion of the potential, cylindrical limit approximation, helical toroidal potential and integrable model are described. (K.I.)

  5. Parameterization and measurements of helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Okamura, M.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic fields with helical symmetry can be parameterized using multipole coefficients (a n , b n ). We present a parameterization that gives the familiar multipole coefficients (a n , b n ) for straight magnets when the helical wavelength tends to infinity. To measure helical fields all methods used for straight magnets can be employed. We show how to convert the results of those measurements to obtain the desired helical multipole coefficients (a n , b n )

  6. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  7. The THMIS-MTR observation of a active region filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.

    We present some THMIS-MTR observations of a active region filament on September 4, 2002. The full stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα, CaII 8542 and FeI 6302. By use of the data with high spatial resolution(0.44" per pixel), we probed the fine structure of the filament and gave out the parameters at the barbs' endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Comparing the quiescent filament which we have discussed before, we find that: 1)The velocities of the barbs' endpoints are much bigger in the active region filament, the values are more than one thousand meters per second. 2)The barbs' endpoints terminate at the low logitudinal magnetic field in the active region filament, too.

  8. Geometric analysis of alloreactive HLA α-helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarics, Reiner; Karch, Rudolf; Ilieva, Nevena; Schreiner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) is a valuable tool for the investigation of functional elements in biomolecules, providing information on dynamic properties and processes. Previous work by our group has characterized static geometric properties of the two MHC α-helices comprising the peptide binding region recognized by T cells. We build upon this work and used several spline models to approximate the overall shape of MHC α-helices. We applied this technique to a series of MD simulations of alloreactive MHC molecules that allowed us to capture the dynamics of MHC α-helices' steric configurations. Here, we discuss the variability of spline models underlying the geometric analysis with varying polynomial degrees of the splines.

  9. ICRF heating on helical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Lyon, J.F.; Hoffman, D.J.; Murakami, M.; England, A.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Wang, C.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is currently in use on CHS and W7-AS and is a major element of the heating planned for steady state helical devices. In helical devices, the lack of a toroidal current eliminates both disruptions and the need for ICRF current drive, simplifying the design of antenna structures as compared to tokamak applications. However the survivability of plasma facing components and steady state cooling issues are directly applicable to tokamak devices. Results from LHD steady state experiments should be available on a time scale to strongly influence the next generation of steady state tokamak experiments. The helical plasma geometry provides challenges not faced with tokamak ICRF heating, including the potential for enhanced fast ion losses, impurity accumulation, limited access for antenna structures, and open magnetic field lines in the plasma edge. The present results and near term plans provide the basis for steady state ICRF heating of larger helical devices. An approach which includes direct electron, mode conversion, ion minority and ion Bernstein wave heating addresses these issues

  10. ICRF heating on helical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Lyon, J.F.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is currently in use on CHS and W7AS and is a major element of the heating planned for steady state helical devices. In helical devices, the lack of a toroidal current eliminates both disruptions and the need for ICRF current drive, simplifying the design of antenna structures as compared to tokamak applications. However the survivability of plasma facing components and steady state cooling issues are directly applicable to tokamak devices. Results from LHD steady state experiments should be available on a time scale to strongly influence the next generation of steady state tokamak experiments. The helical plasma geometry provides challenges not faced with tokamak ICRF heating, including the potential for enhanced fast ion losses, impurity accumulation, limited access for antenna structures, and open magnetic field lines in the plasma edge. The present results and near term plans provide the basis for steady state ICRF heating of larger helical devices. An approach which includes direct electron, mode conversion, ion minority and ion Bernstein wave heating addresses these issues

  11. The helical tomotherapy thread effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, M.W.; Fenwick, J.; James, J.A.; Jeraj, R.; Kapatoes, J.M.; Keller, H.; Mackie, T.R.; Olivera, G.; Soisson, E.T.

    2005-01-01

    Inherent to helical tomotherapy is a dose variation pattern that manifests as a 'ripple' (peak-to-trough relative to the average). This ripple is the result of helical beam junctioning, completely unique to helical tomotherapy. Pitch is defined as in helical CT, the couch travel distance for a complete gantry rotation relative to the axial beam width at the axis of rotation. Without scattering or beam divergence, an analytical posing of the problem as a simple integral predicts minima near a pitch of 1/n where n is an integer. A convolution-superposition dose calculator (TomoTherapy, Inc.) included all the physics needed to explore the ripple magnitude versus pitch and beam width. The results of the dose calculator and some benchmark measurements demonstrate that the ripple has sharp minima near p=0.86(1/n). The 0.86 factor is empirical and caused by a beam junctioning of the off-axis dose profiles which differ from the axial profiles as well as a long scatter tail of the profiles at depth. For very strong intensity modulation, the 0.86 factor may vary. The authors propose choosing particular minima pitches or using a second delivery that starts 180 deg off-phase from the first to reduce these ripples: 'Double threading'. For current typical pitches and beam widths, however, this effect is small and not clinically important for most situations. Certain extremely large field or high pitch cases, however, may benefit from mitigation of this effect

  12. Cooling Active Region Loops Observed With SXT and TRACE

    OpenAIRE

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2005-01-01

    An Impulsive Heating Multiple Strand (IHMS) Model is able to reproduce the observational characteristics of EUV (~ 1 MK) active region loops. This model implies that some of the loops must reach temperatures where X-ray filters are sensitive (> 2.5 MK) before they cool to EUV temperatures. Hence, some bright EUV loops must be preceded by bright X-ray loops. Previous analysis of X-ray and EUV active region observations, however, have concluded that EUV loops are not preceded by X-ray loops. In...

  13. Dosimetric aspects of breast radiotherapy with three-dimensional and intensity-modulated radiotherapy helical tomotherapy planning modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Poonam [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Service of Radiation Therapy, University of Wisconsin Aspirus Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Yan, Yue, E-mail: yyan5@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ignatowski, Tasha [Service of Radiation Therapy, University of Wisconsin Aspirus Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Olson, Anna [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Service of Radiation Therapy, University of Wisconsin Aspirus Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigated the dosimetric differences between the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans and the three-dimensional (3D) helical plans based on the TomoTherapy system. A total of 15 patients with supine setup were randomly selected from the data base. For patients with lumpectomy planning target volume (PTV), regional lymph nodes were also included as part of the target. For dose sparing, the significant differences between the helical IMRT and helical 3D were only found in the heart and contralateral breast. For the dose to the heart, helical IMRT reduced the maximum point dose by 6.98 Gy compared to the helical 3D plan (p = 0.01). For contralateral breast, the helical IMRT plans significantly reduced the maximum point dose by 5.6 Gy compared to the helical 3D plan. However, compared to the helical 3D plan, the helical IMRT plan increased the volume for lower dose (13.08% increase in V{sub 5} {sub Gy}, p = 0.01). In general, there are no significant differences in dose sparing between helical IMRT and helical 3D plans.

  14. Dosimetric aspects of breast radiotherapy with three-dimensional and intensity-modulated radiotherapy helical tomotherapy planning modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Poonam; Yan, Yue; Ignatowski, Tasha; Olson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the dosimetric differences between the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans and the three-dimensional (3D) helical plans based on the TomoTherapy system. A total of 15 patients with supine setup were randomly selected from the data base. For patients with lumpectomy planning target volume (PTV), regional lymph nodes were also included as part of the target. For dose sparing, the significant differences between the helical IMRT and helical 3D were only found in the heart and contralateral breast. For the dose to the heart, helical IMRT reduced the maximum point dose by 6.98 Gy compared to the helical 3D plan (p = 0.01). For contralateral breast, the helical IMRT plans significantly reduced the maximum point dose by 5.6 Gy compared to the helical 3D plan. However, compared to the helical 3D plan, the helical IMRT plan increased the volume for lower dose (13.08% increase in V 5 Gy , p = 0.01). In general, there are no significant differences in dose sparing between helical IMRT and helical 3D plans.

  15. Study of electric field pulsation in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S; Itoh, K

    2011-01-01

    A model for the experimental results of the periodic oscillation of the electric field, so-called the electric field pulsation, observed in the Compact Helical Device (Fujisawa et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 2256) and the Large Helical Device (Shimizu et al 2010 Plasma Fusion Res. 5 S1015) is presented. A self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as the simulation result in helical plasmas. The reduction of the anomalous transport diffusivity in the core region is observed due to the strong shear of the radial electric field when the positive electric field is shown in the core region in the periodic oscillation of E r . Two different time scales are found in the self-generated oscillation, which are the transport time scale and the fast time scale at the transition of the radial electric field. This oscillation because of the hysteresis characteristic is attributed to the electric field pulsation observed in helical plasmas. The parameter region of the condition for the self-generated oscillation is derived. It is shown that the multiple solutions of the radial electric field for the ambipolar condition are necessary but not sufficient for obtaining the self-generated oscillation.

  16. Improving cell penetration of helical peptides stabilized by N-terminal crosslinked aspartic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Yanhong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qin, Xuan; Li, Zigang

    2017-01-04

    Cell penetration and nucleus translocation efficiency are important for the cellular activities of peptide therapeutics. For helical peptides stabilized by N-terminal crosslinked aspartic acid, correlations between their penetration efficiency/nucleus translocation and physicochemical properties were studied. An increase in hydrophobicity and isoelectric point will promote cellular uptake and nucleus translocation of stabilized helices.

  17. LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEST REGION THROUGH ACTIVITIES IN ITC DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela\tENACHESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic areas with high technology are key drivers in sustainable regional development, including unemployment and consequently decreasing population migration in the region. Northeast Region is the largest development region of Romania in terms of number of inhabitants and the owned area. On 01/01/2014, according to balance employment, labor resources of the region were numbered 2,428,700, which represent 49.6% of employed population. The registered unemployment rate at 31 August 2014 was 6.5%, with 82 thousand unemployed registered. In terms of participation in the main economic activities, civilian employment in agriculture, forestry and fishing is predominant (40.1% while in service, civilian employment is 37.1%, while industry and construction is 22.8%. The paper aims to analyze the situation that the potential employment and development opportunities for the Northeast region through activities in the field of ITC domain. Unfortunately, this area was the worst in most indicators, the use of computers and the internet to the turnover of companies and investments in the IT & C and unfortunately in terms of employment population that is under 50%

  18. Dynamic Precursors of Flares in Active Region NOAA 10486

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsós, M. B.; Gyenge, N.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2015-03-01

    Four different methods are applied here to study the precursors of flare activity in the Active Region NOAA 10486. Two approaches track the temporal behaviour of suitably chosen features (one, the weighted hori- zontal gradient W G M , is the generalized form of the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, G M ; the other is the sum of the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, G S , for all sunspot pairs). W G M is a photospheric indicator, that is a proxy measure of magnetic non-potentiality of a specific area of the active region, i.e., it captures the temporal variation of the weighted horizontal gradient of magnetic flux summed up for the region where opposite magnetic polarities are highly mixed. The third one, referred to as the separateness parameter, S l- f , considers the overall morphology. Further, G S and S l- f are photospheric, newly defined quick-look indicators of the polarity mix of the entire active region. The fourth method is tracking the temporal variation of small X-ray flares, their times of succession and their energies observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager instrument. All approaches yield specific pre-cursory signatures for the imminence of flares.

  19. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  20. Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...

  1. Birth and development of active region and chromospheric network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartashova, L G

    1975-01-01

    Formation and development of 15 active regions of a simple bipolar configuration with small-sized spots and without noticeable penumbras have been studied by the data of observations with a coronograph CA n the centre and wings of the Hsub(a) line. Resolution on the photographs is 2''. The following conclusions have been drawn: first bright details of the active region formed are generated through brightening of bright points of the chromosphere grid; intensification and stretching of dark points of the chromosphere grid results in the formation of fibrous structure in the vicinity of active region; spots appear either between the flocculi points, or near them closer to the centre of the corresponding cell of the chromosphere grid, among dark points of the chromosphere grid no spots are usually formed; in the process of growing of a simple bipolar group the leader and tail spots draw apart together with the chromosphere grid cells, in which they are formed; at the stage of fast growth in the neighbourhood of most large of the groups under studies a formation of arcs or of almost closed contours of the chromosphere grid is observed in the wings of the line. This rearrangement of the chromosphere grid is apparently closely connected with the formation of a fibrous structure around the active region.

  2. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000

  3. Generalized helicity and its time derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Marklin, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Spheromaks can be sustained against resistive decay by helicity injection because they tend to obey the minimum energy principle. This principle states that a plasma-laden magnetic configuration will relax to a state of minimum energy subject to the constraint that the magnetic helicity is conserved. Use of helicity as a constraint on the minimization of energy was first proposed by Woltjer in connection with astrophysical phenomena. Helicity does decay on the resistive diffusion time. However, if helicity is created and made to flow continuoiusly into a confinement geometry, these additional linked fluxes can relax and sustain the configuration indefinitely against the resistive decay. In this paper we will present an extension of the definition of helicity to include systems where B vector can penetrate the boundary and the penetration can be varying in time. We then discuss the sustainment of RFPs and spheromaks in terms of helicity injection

  4. Regional and national radiation protection activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation protection activities in Egypt go back to 1957 where the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (EAEC) Law was issued. Radiation protection and civil defense department was one of EAEC eighth departments. Ionizing radiation law was issued in 1960 and its executive regulation in 1962. The main aim of the present work is to through some light on the current radiation protection activities in Egypt. This includes not only the role of governmental organizations but also to the non governmental organizations. Currently a new Nuclear Safety law is understudy. Regional activities such as holding the second all African IRPA regional radiation protection congress which was held in April 2007 and national training and workshops are held regularly through EAEA, AAEA and MERRCAC. (author)

  5. WHY IS A FLARE-RICH ACTIVE REGION CME-POOR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Ye, Pinzhong; Liu, Rui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, S. [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Jingxiu, E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: ljliu@mail.ustc.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Solar active regions (ARs) are the major sources of two of the most violent solar eruptions, namely flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The largest AR in the past 24 years, NOAA AR 12192, which crossed the visible disk from 2014 October 17 to 30, unusually produced more than one hundred flares, including 32 M-class and 6 X-class ones, but only one small CME. Flares and CMEs are believed to be two phenomena in the same eruptive process. Why is such a flare-rich AR so CME-poor? We compared this AR with other four ARs; two were productive in both and two were inert. The investigation of the photospheric parameters based on the SDO /HMI vector magnetogram reveals that the flare-rich AR 12192, as with the other two productive ARs, has larger magnetic flux, current, and free magnetic energy than the two inert ARs but, in contrast to the two productive ARs, it has no strong, concentrated current helicity along both sides of the flaring neutral line, indicating the absence of a mature magnetic structure consisting of highly sheared or twisted field lines. Furthermore, the decay index above the AR 12192 is relatively low, showing strong constraint. These results suggest that productive ARs are always large and have enough current and free energy to power flares, but whether or not a flare is accompanied by a CME is seemingly related to (1) the presence of a mature sheared or twisted core field serving as the seed of the CME, or (2) a weak enough constraint of the overlying arcades.

  6. The Effect of "Rogue" Active Regions on the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Melinda; Lemerle, Alexandre; Labonville, François; Petrovay, Kristóf; Charbonneau, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The origin of cycle-to-cycle variations in solar activity is currently the focus of much interest. It has recently been pointed out that large individual active regions with atypical properties can have a significant impact on the long-term behavior of solar activity. We investigate this possibility in more detail using a recently developed 2×2D dynamo model of the solar magnetic cycle. We find that even a single "rogue" bipolar magnetic region (BMR) in the simulations can have a major effect on the further development of solar activity cycles, boosting or suppressing the amplitude of subsequent cycles. In extreme cases, an individual BMR can completely halt the dynamo, triggering a grand minimum. Rogue BMRs also have the potential to induce significant hemispheric asymmetries in the solar cycle. To study the effect of rogue BMRs in a more systematic manner, a series of dynamo simulations were conducted, in which a large test BMR was manually introduced in the model at various phases of cycles of different amplitudes. BMRs emerging in the rising phase of a cycle can modify the amplitude of the ongoing cycle, while BMRs emerging in later phases will only affect subsequent cycles. In this model, the strongest effect on the subsequent cycle occurs when the rogue BMR emerges around cycle maximum at low latitudes, but the BMR does not need to be strictly cross-equatorial. Active regions emerging as far as 20° from the equator can still have a significant effect. We demonstrate that the combined effect of the magnetic flux, tilt angle, and polarity separation of the BMR on the dynamo is via their contribution to the dipole moment, δ D_{BMR}. Our results indicate that prediction of the amplitude, starting epoch, and duration of a cycle requires an accurate accounting of a broad range of active regions emerging in the previous cycle.

  7. Formation of edge transport barrier in the ergodic field layer of helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K; Ohdachi, S; Watanabe, F; Narihara, K; Morisaki, T; Sakakibara, S; Morita, S; Goto, M; Ida, K; Masuzaki, S; Miyazawa, K; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K W; Yoshinuma, M

    2006-01-01

    On the Large Helical Device (LHD), low to high confinement (L-H) transition and edge transport barrier (ETB) formation were observed in the low beta regime ((β dia ) dia ): volume-averaged beta derived from diamagnetic measurement) as well as in relatively high beta regime (>1.5%). In most of ETB plasmas electron density preferentially increases in the edge region without a substantial rise of the edge electron temperature. The ETB zone develops inside the ergodic field layer calculated in the vacuum field. The ETB formation strongly destabilizes edge coherent modes such as m/n = 2/3 or 1/2 (m, n: poloidal and toroidal mode numbers), because the plasma edge region is in the magnetic hill. The ETB is partially destroyed by the combination of these edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities. For a particular experimental condition, the forced generation of a sizable m/n = 1/1 magnetic island near the edge by application of external field perturbations facilitates the L-H transition at a lower electron density and suppresses edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities to lower levels

  8. DIVERGENT HORIZONTAL SUB-SURFACE FLOWS WITHIN ACTIVE REGION 11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, S. C.; Hill, F., E-mail: kjain@nso.edu, E-mail: stripathy@nso.edu, E-mail: fhill@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We measure the horizontal subsurface flow in a fast emerging active region (AR; NOAA 11158) using the ring-diagram technique and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager high spatial resolution Dopplergrams. This AR had a complex magnetic structure and displayed significant changes in morphology during its disk passage. Over a period of six days from 2011 February 11 to 16, the temporal variation in the magnitude of the total velocity is found to follow the trend of magnetic field strength. We further analyze regions of individual magnetic polarity within AR 11158 and find that the horizontal velocity components in these sub-regions have significant variation with time and depth. The leading and trailing polarity regions move faster than the mixed-polarity region. Furthermore, both zonal and meridional components have opposite signs for trailing and leading polarity regions at all depths showing divergent flows within the AR. We also find a sharp decrease in the magnitude of total horizontal velocity in deeper layers around major flares. It is suggested that the re-organization of magnetic fields during flares, combined with the sunspot rotation, decreases the magnitude of horizontal flows or that the flow kinetic energy has been converted into the energy released by flares. After the decline in flare activity and sunspot rotation, the flows tend to follow the pattern of magnetic activity. We also observe less variation in the velocity components near the surface but these tend to increase with depth, further demonstrating that the deeper layers are more affected by the topology of ARs.

  9. Conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.S.; Turek, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Miller, P.; Mehta, M.P.; Forrest, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy provides a unique means of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a novel treatment unit, which merges features of a linear accelerator with a helical CT scanner. Thanks to the CT imaging capacity, targeted regions can be visualized prior to, during, or immediately after each treatment. Such image-guidance through megavoltage CT will allow the realization and refinement of the concept of adaptive radiotherapy - the reconstruction of the actually delivered daily dose (as opposed to planned dose) accompanied by prescription adjustments when appropriate. In addition to this unique feature, helical tomotherapy promises further improvements in the specific avoidance of critical normal structures, i.e. conformal avoidance, the counterpart of conformal therapy. The first definitive treatment protocol using helical tomotherapy is presently underway for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors. In general, such tumors can be treated with conventional external beam radiation therapy but at the cost of severe ocular toxicity due to the anatomy of the canine head. These are readily measurable toxicities and are almost universal in incidence; therefore, the canine nasopharyngeal tumor presents an ideal model to assess the ability to conformally avoid critical structures. It is hoped that conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy will improve tumor control via dose-escalation while reducing ocular toxicity in these veterinary patients. A total of 10 fractions are scheduled for these patients; the first 3 dogs have all received at least 7 fractions delivered via helical tomotherapy. Although preliminary, the first 3 dogs treated have not shown any evidence of ocular toxicity in this ongoing study

  10. A helical scintillating fiber hodoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Altmeier, M; Bisplinghoff, J; Bissel, T; Bollmann, R; Busch, M; Büsser, K; Colberg, T; Demiroers, L; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross, A; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jeske, M; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Lahr, U; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuck, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Pfuff, M; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Sanz, B; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Thomas, S; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Wiedmann, W; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    1999-01-01

    A novel scintillating fiber hodoscope in helically cylindric geometry has been developed for detection of low multiplicity events of fast protons and other light charged particles in the internal target experiment EDDA at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The hodoscope consists of 640 scintillating fibers (2.5 mm diameter), arranged in four layers surrounding the COSY beam pipe. The fibers are helically wound in opposing directions and read out individually using 16-channel photomultipliers connected to a modified commercial encoding system. The detector covers an angular range of 9 deg. <= THETA<=72 deg. and 0 deg. <=phi (cursive,open) Greek<=360 deg. in the lab frame. The detector length is 590 mm, the inner diameter 161 mm. Geometry and granularity of the hodoscope afford a position resolution of about 1.3 mm. The detector design took into consideration a maximum of reliability and a minimum of maintenance. An LED array may be used for monitoring purposes. (author)

  11. Helical CT of ureteral disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikman, Pablo; Bengio, Ruben; Bulacio, Javier; Zirulnik, Esteban; Garimaldi, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Among the new applications of helical CT is the study of the ureteral pathology. The objective of this paper was to evaluate patients with suspected pathology of this organ and the repercussion in the therapeutic plans. We studied 23 patients with a helical CT protocol, without IV contrast injection and performed multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). We called this procedure Pielo CT. Thirteen ureteral stones were detected, 6 calculi, 2 urinary tract tumors, dilatation of the system in a patient with neo-bladder. In 2 patients, in whom ureteral pathology was ruled out, we found other alterations that explained the symptoms, (gallbladder stones, disk protrusion). The Pielo CT let decide a therapeutical approach in 20 or 21 patients with ureteral pathology. (author)

  12. Recent activity of the regional geologic structures in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Bavec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several important geological structures in the western Slovenia were identifiedas active and their activity was quantified. Geologic interpretation is based on the analysis of repeated leveling line campaigns data along the Sečovlje–Bled polygon. Taking intoaccount the limitations of the method – only the vertical component of displacement is measured – the following structures were identified as active:a juvenile syncline between Strunjan and Koper, the Kras Imbricate Structure, the Diva~a fault, the Ra{a fault, the Southalpine Front and the Julian Alps thrust. Vertical movement rate is relative, calculated with respect to the benchmark in Sečovlje. The largest uplift rate difference between Sečovlje and Bled is 7 mm/a.Vertical Geodynamic Activity (VGA is introduced as a link between geologic interpretation of geodetic measurements on one side and possible applications on the other as well as a mean of comparison between tectonically active regions.

  13. Helicity formalism and spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Piovano, U.

    1990-01-01

    The helicity formalism and the technique to compute amplitudes for interaction processes involving leptons, quarks, photons and gluons are reviewed. Explicit calculations and examples of exploitation of symmetry properties are shown. The formalism is then applied to the discussion of several hadronic processes and spin effects: the experimental data, when related to the properties of the elementary constituent interactions, show many not understood features. Also the nucleon spin problem is briefly reviewed. (author)

  14. Radiation characteristics of helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, Robert; Mackie, Thomas R.; Balog, John; Olivera, Gustavo; Pearson, Dave; Kapatoes, Jeff; Ruchala, Ken; Reckwerdt, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a dedicated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) system with on-board imaging capability (MVCT) and therefore differs from conventional treatment units. Different design goals resulted in some distinctive radiation field characteristics. The most significant differences in the design are the lack of flattening filter, increased shielding of the collimators, treatment and imaging operation modes and narrow fan beam delivery. Radiation characteristics of the helical tomotherapy system, sensitivity studies of various incident electron beam parameters and radiation safety analyses are presented here. It was determined that the photon beam energy spectrum of helical tomotherapy is similar to that of more conventional radiation treatment units. The two operational modes of the system result in different nominal energies of the incident electron beam with approximately 6 MeV and 3.5 MeV in the treatment and imaging modes, respectively. The off-axis mean energy dependence is much lower than in conventional radiotherapy units with less than 5% variation across the field, which is the consequence of the absent flattening filter. For the same reason the transverse profile exhibits the characteristic conical shape resulting in a 2-fold increase of the beam intensity in the center. The radiation leakage outside the field was found to be negligible at less than 0.05% because of the increased shielding of the collimators. At this level the in-field scattering is a dominant source of the radiation outside the field and thus a narrow field treatment does not result in the increased leakage. The sensitivity studies showed increased sensitivity on the incident electron position because of the narrow fan beam delivery and high sensitivity on the incident electron energy, as common to other treatment systems. All in all, it was determined that helical tomotherapy is a system with some unique radiation characteristics, which have been to a large extent

  15. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  16. Plasma transport simulation modeling for helical confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.

    1991-08-01

    New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed based on the neoclassical transport theory including the effect of radial electric field and multi-helicity magnetic components, and the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with CHS (Compact Helical System) experimental data, which indicates that the central transport coefficient of the ECH plasma agrees with the neoclassical axi-symmetric value and the transport outside the half radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of NBI-heated plasmas is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these flat-density-profile discharges. For the detailed prediction of plasma parameters in LHD (Large Helical Device), 3-D(dimensional) equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are carried out, which suggests that the global confinement time of LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport near the plasma edge region rather than the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase of the global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to the half level of the present scaling, like so-called 'H-mode' of the tokamak discharge, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius is effective for improving plasma confinement and raising more than 50% of the fusion product by reducing this neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing 10% in the plasma radius. (author)

  17. Plasma transport simulation modelling for helical confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.

    1992-01-01

    New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed on the basis of the neoclassical transport theory, including the effect of the radial electric field and of multi-helicity magnetic components as well as the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with experimental data from the Compact Helical System which indicate that the central transport coefficient of a plasma with electron cyclotron heating agrees with neoclassical axisymmetric value and the transport outside the half-radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of plasmas with neutral beam injection heating is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these discharges with flat density profiles. For a detailed prediction of the plasma parameters in the Large Helical Device (LHD), 3-D equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are performed which suggest that the global confinement time of the LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport in the plasma edge region rather than by the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase in global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to half of the value used in the present scaling, as is the case in the H-mode of tokamak discharges, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius improves the plasma confinement and increases the fusion product by more than 50% by reducing the neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing the plasma radius (10%). (author). 32 refs, 7 figs

  18. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Hornsey, Christopher; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We aim to develop a diagnostic method for the coronal heating mechanism in active region loops. Observational constraints on coronal heating models have been sought using measurements in the X-ray and EUV wavelengths. Statistical analysis, using EUV emission from many active regions, was done by Fludra and Ireland (2008) who studied power-law relationships between active region integrated magnetic flux and emission line intensities. A subsequent study by Fludra and Warren (2010) for the first time compared fully resolved images in an EUV spectral line of OV 63.0 nm with the photospheric magnetic field, leading to the identification of a dominant, ubiquitous variable component of the transition region EUV emission and a discovery of a steady basal heating, and deriving the dependence of the basal heating rate on the photospheric magnetic flux density. In this study, we compare models of single coronal loops with EUV observations. We assess to what degree observations of individual coronal loops made in the EUV range are capable of providing constraints on the heating mechanism. We model the coronal magnetic field in an active region using an NLFF extrapolation code applied to a photospheric vector magnetogram from SDO/HMI and select several loops that match an SDO/AIA 171 image of the same active region. We then model the plasma in these loops using a 1D hydrostatic code capable of applying an arbitrary heating rate as a function of magnetic field strength along the loop. From the plasma parameters derived from this model, we calculate the EUV emission along the loop in AIA 171 and 335 bands, and in pure spectral lines of Fe IX 17.1 nm and Fe XVI 33.5 nm. We use different spatial distributions of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints, and investigate their effect on the modelled EUV intensities. We find a diagnostics based on the dependence of the total loop intensity on the shape of the heating function

  19. Solar activity effects in the ionospheric D region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the D-region electron concentration within the solar activity cycle are considered. It is demonstrated that conclusions of various authors, who have analyzed various sets of experimental data on [e], differ significantly. The most reliable seem to be the conclusions based on analysis of the [e] measurements carried out by the Faraday rotation method and on the theoretical concepts on the D-region photochemistry. Possible QBO effects in the relation of [e] to solar activity are considered and an assumption is made that such effects may be the reason for the aforementioned disagreement in conclusions on the [e] relation to solar indices.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Ion chemistry of the atmosphere · Middle atmosphere

  20. Active sales promotion in urban regions; Aktive Verkaufsfoerderung in Verdichtungsgebieten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H.D. [Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit, Maingas AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    The first step in any worthwhile marketing strategy for urban regions is to make a survey of all real estates without a gas supply. The data stock thus obtained serves as a short, medium, and long-term basis for all further activity. It cal be used to set up yearly personnel and activity plans. The activities are rounded off by incentives in the form of conversion aids or financing offers and additional measures presented within a Full Service Package Defining clear aims makes it easier to evaluate the success of the activities. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der erste Schritt zu einer erfolgreichen Marktbearbeitung in Verdichtungsgebieten ist die Erhebung aller Liegenschaften ohne Gasversorgung. Der gewonnene Datenbestand dient kurz-, mittel- und langfristig als Grundlage aller Aktivitaeten. Eine Personal- und Aktivitaetenplanung kann jaehrlich daraus abgeleitet werden. Kaufanreize in Form von Umstellhilfen, Finanzierungsangeboten und zusaetzlichen Dienstleistungen im Rahmen eines Full-Service-Angebotes runden die Aktivitaeten ab. Die klare Vorgabe von Zielen erleichert die Erfolgskontrolle. (orig.)

  1. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subd...

  2. Helical spin rotators and snakes for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsin, V.I.; Shatunov, Yu.M.; Peggs, S.

    1995-01-01

    The RHIC collider, now under construction at BNL, will have the possibility of polarized proton-proton collisions up to a beam energy of 250 Gev. Polarized proton beams of such high energy can be only obtained with the use of siberian snakes, a special kind of spin rotator that rotates the particle spin by 180 degree around an axis lying in the horizontal plane. Siberian snakes help to preserve the beam polarization while numerous spin depolarizing resonances are crossed, during acceleration. In order to collide longitudinally polarized beams, it is also planned to install spin rotators around two interaction regions. This paper discusses snake and spin rotator designs based on sequences of four helical magnets. The schemes that were chosen to be applied at RHIC are presented

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  4. New formulae for magnetic relative helicity and field line helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    We consider a magnetic field {B} occupying the simply connected domain D and having all its field lines tied to the boundary S of D. We assume here that {B} has a simple topology, i.e., the mapping {M} from positive to negative polarity areas of S associating to each other the two footpoints of any magnetic line, is continuous. We first present new formulae for the helicity H of {B} relative to a reference field {{B}}r having the same normal component {B}n on S, and for its field line helicity h relative to a reference vector potential {{C}}r of {{B}}r. These formulae make immediately apparent the well known invariance of these quantities under all the ideal MHD deformations that preserve the positions of the footpoints on S. They express indeed h and H either in terms of {M} and {B}n, or in terms of the values on S of a pair of Euler potentials of {B}. We next show that, for a specific choice of {{C}}r, the field line helicity h of {B} fully characterizes the magnetic mapping {M} and then the topology of the lines. Finally, we give a formula that describes the rate of change of h in a situation where the plasma moves on the perfectly conducting boundary S without changing {B}n and/or non-ideal processes, described by an unspecified term {N} in Ohm’s law, are at work in some parts of D.

  5. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  6. Recent Results of Helical Nonneutral Plasmas on Compact Helical System (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sanpei, A.; Masamune, S.; Wakabayashi, H.; Isobe, M.

    2006-01-01

    First of all, non-constant space potential φs and electron density ne on magnetic surfaces of helical nonneutral plasmas are verified experimentally. The difference in φs enlarges significantly at the outer region inside the closed magnetic surfaces, and the corresponding equipotential surfaces are inferred to shift upward vertically with respect to magnetic surfaces. Meanwhile, larger value of ne is clearly observed in the downward region (z < 0) of magnetic surfaces, which seems to be consistent with the φs measurement. These results are the first evidence which strongly suggests the equilibrium proposed for nonneutral plasmas confined in closed magnetic surfaces. Secondly, in order to investigate the mechanism of the multiple disruption of helical nonneutral plasmas observed in experiments, space and time evolutions of electron flux are measured carefully inside the magnetic surfaces, when the plasma disruption occurs. Surprisingly, a set of data show that the observed disruption is at first happened at ρ ∼ 0.8, where ρ is the normalized minor radius, and then, it seems to propagate inside magnetic surfaces

  7. MHD stability analysis of helical system plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    Several topics of the MHD stability studies in helical system plasmas are reviewed with respect to the linear and ideal modes mainly. Difference of the method of the MHD stability analysis in helical system plasmas from that in tokamak plasmas is emphasized. Lack of the cyclic (symmetric) coordinate makes an analysis more difficult. Recent topic about TAE modes in a helical system is also described briefly. (author)

  8. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam

    2016-05-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  9. Deceleration of arginine kinase refolding by induced helical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Long; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Park, Daeui; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Yang, Jun-Mo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Hu, Wei-Jiang

    2012-04-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a key metabolic enzyme for keeping energy balance in invertebrates. Therefore, regulation of the enzymatic activity and the folding studies of AK from the various invertebrates have been the focus of investigation. We studied the effects of helical structures by using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) on AK folding. Folding kinetic studies showed that the folding rates of the urea-denatured AKs were significantly decelerated after being induced in various concentrations of HFIP. AK lost its activity completely at concentrations greater than 60%. The results indicated that the HFIP-induced helical structures in the denatured state play a negative role in protein folding, and the helical structures induced in 5% (v/v) HFIP act as the most effective barrier against AK taking its native structure. The computational docking simulations (binding energies for -2.19 kcal/mol for AutoDock4.2 and -20.47 kcal/mol for Dock6.3) suggested that HFIP interacts with the several important residues that are predicted by both programs. The excessively pre-organized helical structures not only hampered the folding process, but also ultimately brought about changes in the three-dimensional conformation and biological function of AK.

  10. FORMATION OF CORONAL HOLES ON THE ASHES OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachik, Nina V.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Abramenko, Valentyna I.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the formation of isolated non-polar coronal holes (CHs) on the remnants of decaying active regions (ARs) at the minimum/early ascending phase of sunspot activity. We follow the evolution of four bipolar ARs and measure several parameters of their magnetic fields including total flux, imbalance, and compactness. As regions decay, their leading and following polarities exhibit different dissipation rates: loose polarity tends to dissipate faster than compact polarity. As a consequence, we see a gradual increase in flux imbalance inside a dissipating bipolar region, and later a formation of a CH in place of more compact magnetic flux. Out of four cases studied in detail, two CHs had formed at the following polarity of the decaying bipolar AR, and two CHs had developed in place of the leading polarity field. All four CHs contain a significant fraction of magnetic field of their corresponding AR. Using potential field extrapolation, we show that the magnetic field lines of these CHs were closed on the polar CH at the North, which at the time of the events was in imbalance with the polar CH at the South. This topology suggests that the observed phenomenon may play an important role in transformation of toroidal magnetic field to poloidal field, which is a key step in transitioning from an old solar cycle to a new one. The timing of this observed transition may indicate the end of solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24.

  11. A brief report on the statistical study of net electric current in solar active regions with longitudinal fields of opposite polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes occurring in solar active regions are dominated by the solar magnetic field. As of now, observations using a solar magnetograph have supplied us with the vector components of a solar photospheric magnetic field. The two transverse components of a photospheric magnetic field allow us to compute the amount of electric current. We found that the electric current in areas with positive (negative) polarity due to the longitudinal magnetic field have both positive and negative signs in an active region, however, the net current is found to be an order-of-magnitude less than the mean absolute magnitude and has a preferred sign. In particular, we have statistically found that there is a systematic net electric current from areas with negative (positive) polarity to areas with positive (negative) polarity in solar active regions in the northern (southern) hemisphere, but during the solar minimum this tendency is reversed over time at some latitudes. The result indicates that there is weak net electric current in areas of solar active regions with opposite polarity, thus providing further details about the hemispheric helicity rule found in a series of previous studies.

  12. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  13. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  14. Determinants of anti-corruption activities at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.

  15. Seismo-active faults in the Banat region, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oros, E.

    2002-01-01

    The knowledge of the seismo-active faults represents a very important element in every seismic hazard analysis. The main purpose of our paper is to best define the seismo-active faults of the Banat Region. The region is characterized by high seismicity, with important focus of strong earthquakes (I>VII MSK degrees). The quality of the historical data is many times too weak for being used in seismotectonic studies. Thus a correlation between historical and recent seismicity must be done. In our study, several seismic sequences that occurred in the Banat Region, are analysed in detail. The distribution of the epicenters and the correlation tectonics-fault plane solutions reveal important seismotectonic features. The obtained results complete the image of the historical seismicity and offer important information for the future studies of seismic hazard. These results are also very important for the development and configuration of the Banat Seismic Network. The recent seismic activity was analysed for 1995-2002 period, when over 2500 local earthquakes were recorded (M min = 0.5 and M max = 4.8). 26 fault plane solutions were determined (first wave polarities method with additional amplitude constraints). For the earthquakes that occurred at the national border with Yugoslavia and Hungary we used the data from international bulletins. The main seismic sequences were concentrated in seven important zones: Moldova Noua, Herculane Spa - Orsova, Petrosani - Western Jiu Valey, Banloc, Voiteg, Timisoara East and Timisoara North. We also located a small seismic sequence in the Baia de Arama - Tirgu Jiu area. The results were correlated with the faults and major structures, with macroseismic field of the strongest local earthquakes, too. The seismic hazard sources and faults from outside the country (Hungary an Yugoslavia) are pointed out. (authors)

  16. HOMOLOGOUS HELICAL JETS: OBSERVATIONS BY IRIS, SDO, AND HINODE AND MAGNETIC MODELING WITH DATA-DRIVEN SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Mark C. M.; Pontieu, B. De; Tarbell, T. D.; Fu, Y.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Boerner, P.; Wülser, J. P.; Lemen, J.; Title, A. M.; Hurlburt, N. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Tian, H.; Testa, P.; Reeves, K. K.; Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Saar, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kleint, L. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstr. 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Carlsson, M., E-mail: cheung@lmsal.com [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); and others

    2015-03-10

    We report on observations of recurrent jets by instruments on board the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and Hinode spacecraft. Over a 4 hr period on 2013 July 21, recurrent coronal jets were observed to emanate from NOAA Active Region 11793. Far-ultraviolet spectra probing plasma at transition region temperatures show evidence of oppositely directed flows with components reaching Doppler velocities of ±100 km s{sup −1}. Raster Doppler maps using a Si iv transition region line show all four jets to have helical motion of the same sense. Simultaneous observations of the region by SDO and Hinode show that the jets emanate from a source region comprising a pore embedded in the interior of a supergranule. The parasitic pore has opposite polarity flux compared to the surrounding network field. This leads to a spine-fan magnetic topology in the coronal field that is amenable to jet formation. Time-dependent data-driven simulations are used to investigate the underlying drivers for the jets. These numerical experiments show that the emergence of current-carrying magnetic field in the vicinity of the pore supplies the magnetic twist needed for recurrent helical jet formation.

  17. Observations of vector magnetic fields in flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1994-01-01

    We present vector magnetograph data of 6 active regions, all of which produced major flares. Of the 20 M-class (or above) flares, 7 satisfy the flare conditions prescribed by Hagyard (high shear and strong transverse fields). Strong photospheric shear, however, is not necessarily a condition for a flare. We find an increase in the shear for two flares, a 6-deg shear increase along the neutral line after a X-2 flare and a 13-deg increase after a M-1.9 flare. For other flares, we did not detect substantial shear changes.

  18. Edge plasma diagnostics in the compact helical system (CHS) device using fast neutral lithium beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Mario

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports the research activities of the author on using fast neutral lithium beam edge plasma diagnostic, at the Japanese National Institute for Fusion Science compact helical system (CHS). (author). 20 figs.

  19. Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: Analytical, numerical, and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, G.; Ronald, K.; Young, A.R.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Cross, A.W.; Konoplev, I.V.; He, W.; Thomson, J.; Whyte, C.G.; Samsonov, S.V.; Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared

  20. Key interactions by conserved polar amino acids located at the transmembrane helical boundaries in Class B GPCRs modulate activation, effector specificity and biased signalling in the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Denise; Reynolds, Christopher A; Smith, Kevin J; Mobarec, Juan C; Furness, Sebastian G B; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2016-10-15

    Class B GPCRs can activate multiple signalling effectors with the potential to exhibit biased agonism in response to ligand stimulation. Previously, we highlighted key TM domain polar amino acids that were crucial for the function of the GLP-1 receptor, a key therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. Using a combination of mutagenesis, pharmacological characterisation, mathematical and computational molecular modelling, this study identifies additional highly conserved polar residues located towards the TM helical boundaries of Class B GPCRs that are important for GLP-1 receptor stability and/or controlling signalling specificity and biased agonism. This includes (i) three positively charged residues (R3.30 227 , K4.64 288 , R5.40 310 ) located at the extracellular boundaries of TMs 3, 4 and 5 that are predicted in molecular models to stabilise extracellular loop 2, a crucial domain for ligand affinity and receptor activation; (ii) a predicted hydrogen bond network between residues located in TMs 2 (R2.46 176 ), 6 (R6.37 348 ) and 7 (N7.61 406 and E7.63 408 ) at the cytoplasmic face of the receptor that is important for stabilising the inactive receptor and directing signalling specificity, (iii) residues at the bottom of TM 5 (R5.56 326 ) and TM6 (K6.35 346 and K6.40 351 ) that are crucial for receptor activation and downstream signalling; (iv) residues predicted to be involved in stabilisation of TM4 (N2.52 182 and Y3.52 250 ) that also influence cell signalling. Collectively, this work expands our understanding of peptide-mediated signalling by the GLP-1 receptor. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Peptides of the Constant Region of Antibodies Display Fungicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C.; Pinto, Marcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  2. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA of antibodies (Fc-peptides exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents.

  3. A proline-hinge alters the characteristics of the amphipathic α-helical AMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Park, Seong-Cheol; Ko, Hyun Sook; Kim, Yangmee; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung

    2013-01-01

    HP (2-20) is a 19-aa, amphipathic, α-helical peptide with antimicrobial properties that was derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1. We previously showed that increasing the net hydrophobicity of HP (2-20) by substituting Trp for Gln(17) and Asp(19) (Anal 3) increased the peptide's antimicrobial activity. In hydrophobic medium, Anal 3 forms an amphipathic structure consisting of an N-terminal random coil region (residues 2-5) and an extended helical region (residues 6-20). To investigate the structure-activity relationship of Anal 3, we substituted Pro for Glu(9) (Anal 3-Pro) and then examined the new peptide's three-dimensional structure, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action. Anal 3-Pro had an α-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol (TFE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). NMR spectroscopic analysis of Anal 3-Pro's tertiary structure in SDS micelles confirmed that the kink potential introduced by Pro(10) was responsible for the helix distortion. We also found that Anal 3-Pro exhibited about 4 times greater antimicrobial activity than Anal 3. Fluorescence activated flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that incorporating a Pro-hinge into Anal 3 markedly reduced its membrane permeability so that it accumulated in the cytoplasm without remaining in the cell membrane. To investigate the translocation mechanism, we assessed its ability to release of FITC-dextran. The result showed Anal 3-Pro created a pore Candida albicans revealed that Anal 3-Pro and buforin II exert similar effects on cell membranes, whereas magainin 2 exerts a different, more damaging, effect. In addition, Anal 3-Pro assumed a helix-hinge-helix structure in the presence of biological membranes and formed micropores in both bacterial and fungal membranes, through which it entered the cytoplasm and tightly bound to DNA. These results indicate that the bending region of Anal 3- Pro peptide is prerequisite for effective

  4. A proline-hinge alters the characteristics of the amphipathic α-helical AMPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Kook Lee

    Full Text Available HP (2-20 is a 19-aa, amphipathic, α-helical peptide with antimicrobial properties that was derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1. We previously showed that increasing the net hydrophobicity of HP (2-20 by substituting Trp for Gln(17 and Asp(19 (Anal 3 increased the peptide's antimicrobial activity. In hydrophobic medium, Anal 3 forms an amphipathic structure consisting of an N-terminal random coil region (residues 2-5 and an extended helical region (residues 6-20. To investigate the structure-activity relationship of Anal 3, we substituted Pro for Glu(9 (Anal 3-Pro and then examined the new peptide's three-dimensional structure, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action. Anal 3-Pro had an α-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol (TFE and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. NMR spectroscopic analysis of Anal 3-Pro's tertiary structure in SDS micelles confirmed that the kink potential introduced by Pro(10 was responsible for the helix distortion. We also found that Anal 3-Pro exhibited about 4 times greater antimicrobial activity than Anal 3. Fluorescence activated flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that incorporating a Pro-hinge into Anal 3 markedly reduced its membrane permeability so that it accumulated in the cytoplasm without remaining in the cell membrane. To investigate the translocation mechanism, we assessed its ability to release of FITC-dextran. The result showed Anal 3-Pro created a pore <1.8 nm in diameter, which is similar to buforin II. Notably, scanning electron microscopic observation of Candida albicans revealed that Anal 3-Pro and buforin II exert similar effects on cell membranes, whereas magainin 2 exerts a different, more damaging, effect. In addition, Anal 3-Pro assumed a helix-hinge-helix structure in the presence of biological membranes and formed micropores in both bacterial and fungal membranes, through which it entered the cytoplasm and tightly

  5. Evolution of the magnetic helicity flux during the formation and eruption of flux ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, P. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Zuccarello, F. P. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F., E-mail: paolo.romano@oact.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia—Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-10-20

    We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.

  6. HELICAL MOTIONS OF FINE-STRUCTURE PROMINENCE THREADS OBSERVED BY HINODE AND IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Takenori J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Tsuneta, Saku, E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    Fine-structure dynamics in solar prominences holds critical clues to understanding their physical nature of significant space-weather implications. We report evidence of rotational motions of horizontal helical threads in two active-region prominences observed by the Hinode and/or Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph satellites at high resolution. In the first event, we found transverse motions of brightening threads at speeds up to 55 km s{sup -1} seen in the plane of the sky. Such motions appeared as sinusoidal space–time trajectories with a typical period of ∼390 s, which is consistent with plane-of-sky projections of rotational motions. Phase delays at different locations suggest the propagation of twists along the threads at phase speeds of 90–270 km s{sup -1}. At least 15 episodes of such motions occurred in two days, none associated with an eruption. For these episodes, the plane-of-sky speed is linearly correlated with the vertical travel distance, suggestive of a constant angular speed. In the second event, we found Doppler velocities of 30–40 km s{sup -1} in opposite directions in the top and bottom portions of the prominence, comparable to the plane-of-sky speed. The moving threads have about twice broader line widths than stationary threads. These observations, when taken together, provide strong evidence for rotations of helical prominence threads, which were likely driven by unwinding twists triggered by magnetic reconnection between twisted prominence magnetic fields and ambient coronal fields.

  7. The Location of ICT activities in EU regions. Implications for regional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barrios

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The location of ICT producing industries does matter for global competitivenessand long-run growth potential. For instance, the differing contribution ofICT to economic growth between the US and the EU is often mentioned as one of themain cause explaining the diverging growth performance of these two areas since themid-1990s. In turn, since the mid-1990s, countries with especially dynamic economicgrowth have tended to be highly specialized in ICT-producing and ICT-using industries,see van Ark and Inkaar (2005. More generally, ICT producing sectors, tendto promote technological change and innovative capability which are seen to be at thecore of economic growth and competitiveness. When considering the EU economy,ICT industries appear to be concentrated in a limited number of regions, see Koski etal. (2002 for empirical evidence. Afirst objective of the present paper is to documentthe location of ICT producing industries in European regions in order to map existingEU clusters as well as to analyze recent changes in these industries using recent dataon employment and firm location, especially in relation to the EU enlargement thathas taken place in May 2004. The location of the ICT-producing sectors is not the endof the story however. A crucial aspect concerns the nature of activities that are beingundertaken in different regions. Importantly, ICT industries do have different characteristicsin terms of human capital, skill requirement, and knowledge content. In particular,because of the positive association between human capital, knowledge andlong-run growth, it is important to analyze to what extent EU regional ICT clustersdiffer in according to these characteristics. The second question addressed in the paperconcerns the nature of ICT activities undertaken in EU regions. Finally, the paperprovides econometric estimates of the location of firms in ICT industries across EUregions. The paper considers more specifically the case of multinationals

  8. MATERIAL SUPPLY AND MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K.; Hao, Q. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: fangc@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is important to study the fine structures of solar filaments with high-resolution observations, since it can help us understand the magnetic and thermal structures of the filaments and their dynamics. In this paper, we study a newly formed filament located inside the active region NOAA 11762, which was observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory from 16:40:19 UT to 17:07:58 UT on 2013 June 5. As revealed by the H α filtergrams, cool material is seen to be injected into the filament spine with a speed of 5–10 km s{sup -1}. At the source of the injection, brightenings are identified in the chromosphere, which are accompanied by magnetic cancellation in the photosphere, implying the importance of magnetic reconnection in replenishing the filament with plasmas from the lower atmosphere. Counter-streamings are detected near one endpoint of the filament, with the plane-of-the-sky speed being 7–9 km s{sup -1} in the H α red-wing filtergrams and 9–25 km s{sup -1} in the blue-wing filtergrams. The observations are indicative that this active region filament is supported by a sheared arcade without magnetic dips, and the counter-streamings are due to unidirectional flows with alternative directions, rather than due to the longitudinal oscillations of filament threads as in many other filaments.

  9. Modification of Spalart-Allmaras model with consideration of turbulence energy backscatter using velocity helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangwei; Lu, Lipeng; Fang, Le; Gao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter is proved in a DNS case of 256 3 -grid homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. The helicity is then proposed to be employed to improve turbulence models and SGS models. Then Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model (SA) is modified with the helicity to take account of the energy backscatter, which is significant in the region of corner separation in compressors. By comparing the numerical results with experiments, it can be concluded that the modification for SA model with helicity can appropriately represent the energy backscatter, and greatly improves the predictive accuracy for simulating the corner separation flow in compressors. -- Highlights: → We study the relativity between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter. → Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is modified with the velocity helicity. → The modified model is employed to simulate corner separation in compressor cascade. → The modification can greatly improve the accuracy for predicting corner separation. → The helicity can represent the energy backscatter in turbulence and SGS models.

  10. Beta-helical polymers from isocyanopeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Donners, J.J.J.M.; Gelder, de R.; Graswinckel, W.S.; Metselaar, G.A.; Rowan, A.E.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymerization of isocyanopeptides results in the formation of high molecular mass polymers that fold in a proteinlike fashion to give helical strands in which the peptide chains are arranged in ß-sheets. The ß-helical polymers retain their structure in water and unfold in a cooperative process at

  11. Magnetic islands created by resonant helical windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.S.; Heller, M.V.; Caldas, I.L.

    1986-01-01

    The triggering of disruptive instabilities by resonant helical windings in large aspect-ratio tokamaks is associated to destruction of magnetic surfaces. The Chirikov condition is applied to estimate analytically the helical winding current thresholds for ergodization of the magnetic field lines. (Autor) [pt

  12. Helicity amplitudes for matter-coupled gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Novaes, S.F.; Spehler, D.

    1992-07-01

    The Weyl-van der Waerden spinor formalism is applied to the evaluation of helicity invariant amplitudes in the framework of linearized gravitation. The graviton couplings to spin-0, 1 - 2 , 1, and 3 - 2 particles are given, and, to exhibit the reach of this method, the helicity amplitudes for the process electron + positron → photon + graviton are obtained. (author)

  13. Stiffness versus architecture of single helical polyisocyanopeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buul, van A.M.; Schwartz, E.; Brocorens, P.; Koepf, M.; Beljonne, D.; Maan, J.C.; Christianen, P.C.M.; Kouwer, P.H.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Engelkamp, H.; Blank, K.; Rowan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Helical structures play a vital role in nature, offering mechanical rigidity, chirality and structural definition to biological systems. Little is known about the influence of the helical architecture on the intrinsic properties of polymers. Here, we offer an insight into the nano architecture of

  14. Physics of the Solar Active Regions from Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfreikh, G. B.

    1999-12-01

    Localized increase of the magnetic field observed by routine methods on the photosphere result in the growth of a number of active processes in the solar atmosphere and the heliosphere. These localized regions of increased magnetic field are called active regions (AR). The main processes of transfer, accumulation and release of energy in an AR is, however, out of scope of photospheric observations being essentially a 3D-process and happening either under photosphere or up in the corona. So, to investigate these plasma structures and processes we are bound to use either extrapolation of optical observational methods or observations in EUV, X-rays and radio. In this review, we stress and illustrate the input to the problem gained from radio astronomical methods and discuss possible future development of their applicatications. Historically speaking each new step in developing radio technique of observations resulted in detecting some new physics of ARs. The most significant progress in the last few years in radio diagnostics of the plasma structures of magnetospheres of the solar ARs is connected with the developing of the 2D full disk analysis on regular basis made at Nobeyama and detailed multichannel spectral-polarization (but one-dimensional and one per day) solar observations at the RATAN-600. In this report the bulk of attention is paid to the new approach to the study of solar activity gained with the Nobeyama radioheliograph and analyzing the ways for future progress. The most important new features of the multicomponent radio sources of the ARs studied using Nobeyama radioheliograph are as follow: 1. The analysis of magnetic field structures in solar corona above sunspot with 2000 G. Their temporal evolution and fluctuations with the periods around 3 and 5 minutes, due to MHD-waves in sunspot magnetic tubes and surrounding plasma. These investigations are certainly based on an analysis of thermal cyclotron emission of lower corona and CCTR above sunspot

  15. Dynamics of zonal flows in helical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2005-03-25

    A theory for describing collisionless long-time behavior of zonal flows in helical systems is presented and its validity is verified by gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulation. It is shown that, under the influence of particles trapped in helical ripples, the response of zonal flows to a given source becomes weaker for lower radial wave numbers and deeper helical ripples while a high-level zonal-flow response, which is not affected by helical-ripple-trapped particles, can be maintained for a longer time by reducing their bounce-averaged radial drift velocity. This implies a possibility that helical configurations optimized for reducing neoclassical ripple transport can simultaneously enhance zonal flows which lower anomalous transport.

  16. α-Helical element at the hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor functions as a signaling element to activate its tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jonathan; Whittaker, Linda J; Roberts, Charles T; Phillips, Nelson B; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C; Weiss, Michael A

    2012-07-10

    The primary hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor spans one face of the N-terminal β-helix of the α-subunit (the L1 domain) and an α-helix in its C-terminal segment (αCT). Crystallographic analysis of the free ectodomain has defined a contiguous dimer-related motif in which the αCT α-helix packs against L1 β-strands 2 and 3. To relate structure to function, we exploited expanded genetic-code technology to insert photo-activatable probes at key sites in L1 and αCT. The pattern of αCT-mediated photo-cross-linking within the free and bound receptor is in accord with the crystal structure and prior mutagenesis. Surprisingly, L1 photo-probes in β-strands 2 and 3, predicted to be shielded by αCT, efficiently cross-link to insulin. Furthermore, anomalous mutations were identified on neighboring surfaces of αCT and insulin that impair hormone-dependent activation of the intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase (contained within the transmembrane β-subunit) disproportionately to their effects on insulin binding. Taken together, these results suggest that αCT, in addition to its hormone-recognition role, provides a signaling element in the mechanism of receptor activation.

  17. Examining the Conservation of Kinks in Alpha Helices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor C Law

    Full Text Available Kinks are a structural feature of alpha-helices and many are known to have functional roles. Kinks have previously tended to be defined in a binary fashion. In this paper we have deliberately moved towards defining them on a continuum, which given the unimodal distribution of kink angles is a better description. From this perspective, we examine the conservation of kinks in proteins. We find that kink angles are not generally a conserved property of homologs, pointing either to their not being functionally critical or to their function being related to conformational flexibility. In the latter case, the different structures of homologs are providing snapshots of different conformations. Sequence identity between homologous helices is informative in terms of kink conservation, but almost equally so is the sequence identity of residues in spatial proximity to the kink. In the specific case of proline, which is known to be prevalent in kinked helices, loss of a proline from a kinked helix often also results in the loss of a kink or reduction in its kink angle. We carried out a study of the seven transmembrane helices in the GPCR family and found that changes in kinks could be related both to subfamilies of GPCRs and also, in a particular subfamily, to the binding of agonists or antagonists. These results suggest conformational change upon receptor activation within the GPCR family. We also found correlation between kink angles in different helices, and the possibility of concerted motion could be investigated further by applying our method to molecular dynamics simulations. These observations reinforce the belief that helix kinks are key, functional, flexible points in structures.

  18. Impact of helical boundary conditions on nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veranda, M; Bonfiglio, D; Cappello, S; Chacón, L; Escande, D F

    2013-01-01

    Helical self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) regimes emerge both numerically—in 3D visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations—and experimentally, as in the RFX-mod device at high current (I P above 1 MA). These states, called quasi-single helicity (QSH) states, are characterized by the action of a MHD mode that impresses a quasi-helical symmetry to the system, thus allowing a high degree of magnetic chaos healing. This is in contrast with the multiple helicity (MH) states, where magnetic fluctuations create a chaotic magnetic field degrading the confinement properties of the RFP. This paper reports an extensive numerical study performed in the frame of 3D visco-resistive MHD which considers the effect of helical magnetic boundary conditions, i.e. of a finite value of the radial magnetic field at the edge (magnetic perturbation, MP). We show that the system can be driven to a selected QSH state starting from both spontaneous QSH and MH regimes. In particular, a high enough MP can force a QSH helical self-organization with a helicity different from the spontaneous one. Moreover, MH states can be turned into QSH states with a selected helicity. A threshold in the amplitude of MP is observed above which is able to influence the system. Analysis of the magnetic topology of these simulations indicates that the dominant helical mode is able to temporarily sustain conserved magnetic structures in the core of the plasma. The region occupied by conserved magnetic surfaces increases reducing secondary modes' amplitude to experimental-like values. (paper)

  19. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    function for the topology of the streamline pattern in incompressible flows. On this basis, we perform a comprehensive study of the topology of the flow field generated by a helical vortex filament in an ideal fluid. The classical expression for the stream function obtained by Hardin (Hardin, J. C. 1982...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified...... and an extra parameter is introduced. In this setting two new flow topologies arise, but not more than two critical points occur for any combination of parameters....

  20. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  1. The quantum Hall effect helicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Keshav N., E-mail: keshav1001@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2015-04-16

    The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.

  2. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-06-27

    To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. By using data from the Health section of 2008's Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil's National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making. Apresentar estimativas nacionais sobre o deslocamento a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho no Brasil e em 10 de suas regiões metropolitanas. Utilizando dados do Suplemento sobre Saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2008, estimamos a frequência de pessoas empregadas que se deslocam a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho estratificada por sexo, e segundo faixa etária, escolaridade, renda domiciliar per capita, residência em área urbana ou rural, regiões metropolitanas e macrorregiões do país. Adicionalmente, estimamos a distribuição da mesma frequ

  3. A Model for Straight and Helical Solar Jets: II. Parametric Study of the Plasma Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariat, E.; Dalmasse, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Jets are dynamic, impulsive, well-collimated plasma events that develop at many different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Aims. Jets are believed to be induced by magnetic reconnection, a process central to many astrophysical phenomena. Within the solar atmosphere, jet-like events develop in many different environments, e.g. in the vicinity of active regions as well as in coronal holes, and at various scales, from small photospheric spicules to large coronal jets. In all these events, signatures of helical structure and/or twisting/rotating motions are regularly observed. The present study aims to establish that a single model can generally reproduce the observed properties of these jet-like events. Methods. In this study, using our state-of-the-art numerical solver ARMS, we present a parametric study of a numerical tridimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of solar jet-like events. Within the MHD paradigm, we study the impact of varying the atmospheric plasma beta on the generation and properties of solar-like jets. Results. The parametric study validates our model of jets for plasma beta ranging from 10(sup 3) to 1, typical of the different layers and magnetic environments of the solar atmosphere. Our model of jets can robustly explain the generation of helical solar jet-like events at various beta less than or equal to 1. We show that the plasma beta modifies the morphology of the helical jet, explaining the different observed shapes of jets at different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Conclusions. Our results allow us to understand the energisation, triggering, and driving processes of jet-like events. Our model allows us to make predictions of the impulsiveness and energetics of jets as determined by the surrounding environment, as well as the morphological properties of the resulting jets.

  4. Recent earthquake activity in Trichonis region and its tectonic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. DELIBASIS

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. - The aftershock activity associated with the central Greece
    (Trichonis Lake earthquake of |une-Dec. 1975, has been studied, with emphasis
    on the time and magnitude distribution. It has been found that the value of b,
    in Gutenberg - R i c h t e r ' s relationship was near the same for the primary as
    well as the secondary or second order aftershocks of the sequences, but depends
    upon the focal depth.
    A correlation between the calculated focal mechanisms and the associated
    stress components to the distribution pattern of meizoseismic effects as well
    as to the geological structure of the seismic region was found.
    The seismic region lies at the top of an anticline which was found moving
    downwards, apparently due to compressional stresses.
    Within the series of three earthquakes the progress of the destruction of
    the buildings was observed and reported. The interest is concentrated to modern
    buildings out of reinforced concrete and infill brick walls. The relatively unexpected
    rather bad performance of the later case of buildings was compared to that
    of the traditional small houses out of brick or stone masonry, the behaviour of
    which may be considered as better from what it was expected.

  5. Compensating Faraday Depolarization by Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Ashurova, Mohira B. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Jabbari, Sarah, E-mail: brandenb@nordita.org [School of Mathematical Sciences and Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2017-08-20

    A turbulent dynamo in spherical geometry with an outer corona is simulated to study the sign of magnetic helicity in the outer parts. In agreement with earlier studies, the sign in the outer corona is found to be opposite to that inside the dynamo. Line-of-sight observations of polarized emission are synthesized to explore the feasibility of using the local reduction of Faraday depolarization to infer the sign of helicity of magnetic fields in the solar corona. This approach was previously identified as an observational diagnostic in the context of galactic magnetic fields. Based on our simulations, we show that this method can be successful in the solar context if sufficient statistics are gathered by using averages over ring segments in the corona separately for the regions north and south of the solar equator.

  6. Institutional Capacity of Innovation Activity Development in theRegion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Aleksandrovich Rumyantsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study under the theme of development of institutions of innovation sphere, transfer of scientific results to the real sector of the economy. The purpose of the study is to reveal institutional capacities of strengthening the implementation of research findings, drawing on the functional properties of institutions with regard to innovation activities. The methodology is to apply well-known methodological principles to the solution of emerging challenges (software-based method for fundamental scientific result implementation, sectoral research organizations in the new management environment and statistical records of process innovations by analogy with product innovations. The article puts forward and justifies the proposal for strategic innovation as the institution of communicating the results of fundamental research to social practice by integrating into a single process the results of oriented fundamental research, applied research, engineering development, development and other works, which are realized in the form of a material object or service of a high technology level. The distinguishing feature of strategic innovation is a future-oriented outlook and the solution of long-term objectives. Russian scientific achievements can become the basis for strategic innovation development. The article gives examples of possible research field where strategic innovation can be developed and demonstrates an innovative implementation mechanism in the format of specialized research-and-production program which combines government and business participation. The paper gives arguments and development ways of the institution of sectoral research organizations as providers of state technological policy in sectors and regions; coordination of import substitution; centers of communication establishment with engineering companies; analytical and predictive research. The study justifies the expediency of developing an

  7. Tritium volume activity in natural waters of NPP Temelin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Wilhelmova, L [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Rep., Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of tritium measurement in selected rivers of NPP Temelin before its operation obtained during the period 1991-1994. Particular attention is paid to Vltava river into which liquid effluents will be discharged and which is also utilized as a drinking water supply for the capital Prague. Samples from the Vltava river were collected near the mouth of NPP waste canal (point Hladna)and in front of the intake into Prague water works (point Podoli). Tritium content was analysed also in surface waters of Paleckuv, Temelinsky and Strouha streams which can be affected by gaseous effluents due to atmospheric removal processes. Tritium activity was measured with Tric-Carb 1050 TR/LL liquid scintillation counter. The mean annual tritium activities of investigated river waters varied within 1.9-3.0 Bq/l during the period 1991-1994 and that their trend has been slowly decreasing. This fact, as well as seasonal variability, suggests, that tritium level in the surface waters of studied region is largely governed by this radionuclide global atmospheric fallout. The results of this work indicate the trend of background tritium in examined natural waters and make possible the evaluation of their potential future contamination. (J.K.) 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  8. The evolution of flaring and non-flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Sahin, S.; Sarp, V.; Obridko, V.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2018-06-01

    According to the modified Zurich classification, sunspot groups are classified into seven different classes (A, B, C, D, E, F and H) based on their morphology and evolution. In this classification, classes A and B, which are small groups, describe the beginning of sunspot evolution, while classes D, E and F describe the large and evolved groups. Class C describes the middle phase of sunspot evolution and the class H describes the end of sunspot evolution. Here, we compare the lifetime and temporal evolution of flaring and non-flaring active regions (ARs), and the flaring effect on ARs in these groups in detail for the last two solar cycles (1996 through 2016). Our main findings are as follows: (i) Flaring sunspot groups have longer lifetimes than non-flaring ones. (ii) Most of the class A, B and C flaring ARs rapidly evolve to higher classes, while this is not applicable for non-flaring ARs. More than 50 per cent of the flaring A, B and C groups changed morphologically, while the remaining D, E, F and H groups did not change remarkably after the flare activity. (iii) 75 per cent of all flaring sunspot groups are large and complex. (iv) There is a significant increase in the sunspot group area in classes A, B, C, D and H after flaring activity. In contrast, the sunspot group area of classes E and F decreased. The sunspot counts of classes D, E and F decreased as well, while classes A, B, C and H showed an increase.

  9. Educational activity on nuclear energy in Aomori region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsunori

    2008-01-01

    There are many nuclear industries and research facilities in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Fuel cycle facilities and a LWR power station are now in operation. Another fuel cycle facilities and power stations will soon be under construction. Fusion research activity, ITER-BA, has started last year. We have launched nuclear-related education and research programs to teach nuclear engineering knowledge and skills to the local students. Hachinohe Institute of Technology is located on Pacific ocean side of Aomori Prefecture close to Rokkasho area, and has six undergraduate departments and three graduate courses. Hitherto, many alumni have engaged in nuclear-related companies in the area. In addition to previous subject on nuclear engineering, a new activity 'Challenge Nuclear-site Experience Program' started in 2007, as one of nuclear educational promotion programs in Japan. The students from various engineering departments learned the status and role of nuclear industries and researches. A curriculum course for nuclear engineering will be ready in 2009 for undergraduate students through various departments. In the summer of 2007, the introductory lesson on nuclear power generation and the technical tour to the power station were carried out for two days. In the autumn, the introductory lesson on nuclear fuel cycle and the tour to fuel cycle facilities were performed for three days, including one day tour to research facilities in the area. Its aim was to let the students recognize the role of regional nuclear activities and the attractiveness of nuclear-related industries. The program was supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was performed in cooperation with Tohoku Electric Power Company, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited and Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  10. Polymorphic transformation of helical flagella of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sookkyung; Howard Berg Collaboration; William Ko Collaboration; Yongsam Kim Collaboration; Wanho Lee Collaboration; Charles Peskin Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria such as E. coli swim in an aqueous environment by utilizing the rotation of flagellar motors and alternate two modes of motility, runs and tumbles. Runs are steady forward swimming driven by bundles of flagellar filaments whose motors are turning CCW; tumbles involve a reorientation of the direction of swimming triggered by motor reversals. During tumbling, the helical flagellum undergoes polymorphic transformations, which is a local change in helical pitch, helical radius, and handedness. In this work, we investigate the underlying mechanism of structural conformation and how this polymorphic transition plays a role in bacterial swimming. National Science Foundation.

  11. Modelling simple helically delivered dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, John D; Tome, Wolfgang A; Kissick, Michael W; Mackie, T Rock

    2005-01-01

    In a previous paper, we described quality assurance procedures for Hi-Art helical tomotherapy machines. Here, we develop further some ideas discussed briefly in that paper. Simple helically generated dose distributions are modelled, and relationships between these dose distributions and underlying characteristics of Hi-Art treatment systems are elucidated. In particular, we describe the dependence of dose levels along the central axis of a cylinder aligned coaxially with a Hi-Art machine on fan beam width, couch velocity and helical delivery lengths. The impact on these dose levels of angular variations in gantry speed or output per linear accelerator pulse is also explored

  12. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@hao.ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  13. Observations of the Growth of an Active Region Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    We present observations of the growth of an active region filament caused by magnetic interactions among the filament and its adjacent superpenumbral filament (SF) and dark thread-like structures (T). Multistep reconnections are identified during the whole growing process. Magnetic flux convergence and cancellation occurring at the positive footpoint region of the filament is the first step reconnection, which resulted in the filament bifurcating into two sets of intertwined threads. One set anchored in situ, while the other set moved toward and interacted with the SF and part of T. This indicates the second step reconnection, which gave rise to the disappearance of the SF and the formation of a long thread-like structure that connects the far ends of the filament and T. The long thread-like structure further interacted with the T and then separated into two parts, representing the third step reconnection. Finally, another similar long thread-like structure, which intertwined with the fixed filament threads, appeared. Hαobservations show that this twisted structure is a longer sinistral filament. Based on the observed photospheric vector magnetograms, we performed a non-linear force-free field extrapolation to reconstruct the magnetic fields above the photosphere and found that the coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament consists of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. These results suggest that magnetic interactions among filaments and their adjacent SFs and T could lead to the growth of the filaments, and the filament is probably supported in a flux rope.

  14. Effects of stochastic field lines on the pressure driven MHD instabilities in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohdachi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Sakakibara, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Ming, Tingfeng; Du, Xiaodi; LHD Expriment Group Team

    2014-10-01

    In the Large Helical Device (LHD), the plasma is surrounded by the so-called magnetic stochastic region, where the Kolmogorov length of the magnetic field lines is very short, from several tens of meters and to thousands meters. Finite pressure gradient are formed in this region and MHD instabilities localized in this region is observed since the edge region of the LHD is always unstable against the pressure driven mode. Therefore, the saturation level of the instabilities is the key issue in order to evaluate the risk of this kind of MHD instabilities. The saturation level depends on the pressure gradient and on the magnetic Reynolds number; there results are similar to the MHD mode in the closed magnetic surface region. The saturation level in the stochastic region is affected also by the stocasticity itself. Parameter dependence of the saturation level of the MHD activities in the region is discussed in detail. It is supported by NIFS budget code ULPP021, 028 and is also partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 26249144, by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program NSFC: No. 11261140328.

  15. Non-Solenoidal Startup via Helicity Injection in the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, M. W.; Bodner, G. M.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Perry, J. M.; Pierren, C.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Weberski, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    Research on the A 1 . 2 Pegasus ST is developing the physics and technology basis for optimal non-solenoidal tokamak startup. Recent work explores startup via Local Helicity Injection (LHI) using compact, multi-MW current sources placed at the plasma edge in the lower divertor region. This minimizes inductive drive from poloidal fields and dynamic shaping. Plasmas with Ip =Te >= 50 - 100 eV and large-amplitude MHD activity driven by the injectors. Under some conditions, MHD fluctuations abruptly decrease by over an order of magnitude without loss of LHI drive, improving realized Ip , and suggesting short-wavelength modes may relate to the current drive mechanism. The high IN >= 10 , ion heating, and low li driven by LHI, and the favorable stability of A 1 STs allows access to record βt 100 % and high βN 6 . 5 . Such high-βt plasmas have a minimum | B | well spanning 50 % of the plasma volume. Enhancements to the Pegasus facility are considered to increase BT towards NSTX-U levels; establish coaxial helicity injection capabilities; and add auxiliary heating and current drive. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  16. The Use of Faraday Rotation Sign Maps as a Diagnostic for Helical Jet Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichstein, Andrea; Gabuzda, Denise

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of the sign of the Faraday Rotation measure obtained from multi-frequency radio observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) considered have B-field structures with a central 'spine' of B-field orthogonal to the jet and/or a longitudinal B-field near one or both edges of the jet. This structure can plausibly be interpreted as being caused by a helical/toroidal jet magnetic field. Faraday Rotation is a rotation of the plane of polarization that occurs when the polarized radiation passes through a magnetized plasma. The sign of the RM is determined by the direction of the line-of-sight B-field in the region causing the Faraday Rotation, and an ordered toroidal or helical magnetic field associated with an AGN jet will thus produce a distinctive bilateral distribution of the RMs across the jet. We present and discuss RM-sign maps and their possible interpretation regarding the magnetic field geometries for several sources.

  17. Plasmoid behavior in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, R.; Nakajima, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that an ablation cloud; a high density and low temperature plasmoid, drifts to the lower field side in tokamak plasmas, which leads to a good performance on fueling in tokamak. Such a good performance, however, has not been obtained yet in the planar axis heliotron; Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, even if a pellet has been injected from the high field side. The purpose of the study is to clarify the difference on the plasmoid motion between tokamak and LHD plasmas by using the MHD simulation including ablation processes. It is found in tokamaks that the drift motion is induced by a tire tube force and 1/R force in the major radius direction, and that the pressure and density of the plasmoid have oscillation due to fast compressional Alfven wave. On the other hand, the upper and lower portions surrounding the plasmoid center drift to the higher field side, because 1/R force by magnetic field becomes negative in the major radius direction since the magnetic field surrounding the plasmoid is accumulated by the extremely large ablation pressure and the magnetic pressure perturbation becomes positive. It is also found that the plasmoid does not drift when the perturbation of the plasmoid is small. In addition, the motion of the plasmoid is investigated in LHD plasmas in four cases that the plasmoids are initially located at the inner and outer sides of the torus on the vertically and horizontally elongated poloidal cross sections. The plasmoids drift to the lower field sides in all cases. However, in the case that it is located at the inner side of the torus on the horizontally elongated poloidal cross section, it is found that the plasmoid drifts in the negative direction of the major radius and subsequently drifts in the positive direction of it. In other words, the plasmoid finally drifts in the positive direction of the major radius the same as the plasmoid located at the outer side of the torus. This fact might be one of the

  18. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  19. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Park, S.Y.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude

  20. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  1. Using helical compressors for coke gas condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, V E; Rezunenko, Yu I; Lelyanov, N V; Zarnitzkii, G Eh; Gordienko, A A; Derebenko, I F; Venzhega, A G; Leonov, N P; Gorokhov, N N

    1982-08-01

    Coke oven gas compression is discussed. Presently used multilevel piston compressors are criticized. The paper recommends using helical machines which combine advantages of using volume condensing compressors and compact high-efficiency centrifugal machines. Two kinds of helical compressors are evaluated: dry and oil-filled; their productivities and coke oven gas chemical composition are analyzed. Experiments using helical compressors were undertaken at the Yasinovskii plant. Flowsheet of the installation is shown. Performance results are given in a table. For all operating conditions content of insolubles in oil compounds is found to be lower than the acceptable value (0.08%). Compressor productivity measurements with variable manifold pressure are evaluated. Figures obtained show that efficient condensation of raw coke oven gas is possible. Increasing oil-filled compressor productivity is recommended by decreasing amount of oil injected and simultaneously increasing rotation speed. The dry helical compressor with water seal is found to be most promising for raw coke oven gas condensation. (10 refs.)

  2. [HPV vaccination: active offer in an Italian region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Elisa; D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Aquilani, Silvia; Aversa, Anna Maria; Bartolomei, Giuseppina; Calenda, Maria Gabriella; Catapano, Raffaele; Compagno, Silvio; Della Rovere, Piera; Fraioli, Angelo; Ieraci, Roberto; Reggiani, Daniela; Sgricia, Stefano; Spadea, Antonietta; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus is responsible for 4.8% of cancers, and is the main cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be reduced by mean of secondary prevention (PAP-test, HPV-DNA test), while through primary prevention (anti-HPV vaccine) the incidence of other HPV-attributable cancers can also be reduced. In Italy, anti-HPV vaccination is part of the immunization schedule in girls since 2008, and in 2017 it was extended to boys. However, vaccine coverage is decreasing nationwide. This study aims to examine anti-HPV vaccination practices in Health care services of Lazio Region, Italy. Questionnaires were sent or administered directly to those in charge of vaccinations. Data, collected from 11/12 (92%) Lazio Local Health Units and from 116 vaccination centers, show a remarkable diversity in the offer: 41% of the centers open only 1-2 days/week, 42% only in the morning, and only 7% are open on Saturday. Vaccination is available by reservation only in 62% of the centers, while vaccines are not administered to ≥18 years subjects in 33%; 93% of the centers call actively the girls in the target cohort, while 70% and 94% recall the patients who had not received the first or the second dose of vaccine, respectively. Collaboration with family physicians and/or pediatricians was declared by 80% of the centers. Vaccine coverage could probably be improved by addressing the highlighted critical issues and applying best practices widely.

  3. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Drummond, Peter D.; Li, Wenwu; Schlereth, Tanja; Albrecht, Nahid; Finch, Philip M.; Dawson, Linda F.; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unresolved, but TNF-α and IL-6 are elevated in experimental skin blister fluid from CRPS affected limbs, as is tryptase, a marker for mast cells. In the rat fracture model of CRPS exaggerated sensory and sympathetic neural signaling stimulate keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation, causing the local production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to pain behavior. The current investigation used CRPS patient skin biopsies to determine whether keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation occur in CRPS skin and to identify the cellular source of the up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6, and tryptase observed in CRPS experimental skin blister fluid. Skin biopsies were collected from the affected skin and the contralateral mirror site in 55 CRPS patients and the biopsy sections were immunostained for keratinocyte, cell proliferation, mast cell markers, TNF-α, and IL-6. In early CRPS keratinocytes were activated in the affected skin, resulting in proliferation, epidermal thickening, and up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 expression. In chronic CRPS there was reduced keratinocyte proliferation with epidermal thinning in the affected skin. Acute CRPS patients also had increased mast cell accumulation in the affected skin, but there was no increase in mast cell numbers in chronic CRPS. PMID:24462502

  4. Spatially resolved X-ray spectra of coronal active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catura, R.C.; Acton, L.W.; Joki, E.G.; Rapley, C.G.; Culhane, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray spectra from a number of coronal active regions were obtained during ATM support rocket flights carried out by the Lockheed group on June 11 and December 19, 1973. Multi-grid collimators were used to provide fields of view of 40ins. diameter and 90ins. diameter for a number of scanning crystal spectrometers and a bent crystal spectrometer which employed a position sensitive proportional counter to register the diffracted spectrum. A solar image was produced on film and on a TV camera on board the rocket with the aid of a 1 A Hα filter. A small part of the X-ray collimator was used to generate a multiple spot diffraction pattern which was superimposed on the Hα image and the composite picture was transmitted to the ground. Pre-launch calibrations allowed the spot corresponding to the X-ray collimator axis to be identified and so the collimator pointing direction on the solar disc was controlled from the ground by means of commands sent to the rocket. (Auth.)

  5. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  6. Magnetic Separatrix as the Source Region of the Plasma Supply for an Active-region Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Solar filaments can be formed via chromospheric evaporation followed by condensation in the corona or by the direct injection of cool plasma from the chromosphere to the corona. We here confirm with high-resolution H α data observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 2015 August 21 that an active-region filament is maintained by the continuous injection of cold chromospheric plasma. We find that the filament is rooted along a bright ridge in H α , which corresponds to the intersection of a magnetic quasi-separatrix layer with the solar surface. This bright ridge consists of many small patches whose sizes are comparable to the width of the filament threads. It is found that upflows originate from the brighter patches of the ridge, whereas the downflows move toward the weaker patches of the ridge. The whole filament is composed of two opposite-direction streams, implying that longitudinal oscillations are not the only cause of the counterstreamings, and unidirectional siphon flows with alternative directions are another possibility.

  7. Helicity evolution at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    We construct small-x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g 1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of α s ln 2  (1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of α s ln (1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-N c and large-N c   N f limits. As a cross-check, in the ladder approximation, our equations map onto the same ladder limit of the infrared evolution equations for the g 1 structure function derived previously by Bartels, Ermolaev and Ryskin http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002880050285.

  8. Dynamics of helicity transport and Taylor relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Malkov, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of the dynamics of Taylor relaxation is derived using symmetry principles alone. No statistical closure approximations are invoked or detailed plasma model properties assumed. Notably, the model predicts several classes of nondiffusive helicity transport phenomena, including traveling nonlinear waves and superdiffusive turbulent pulses. A universal expression for the scaling of the effective magnetic Reynolds number of a system undergoing Taylor relaxation is derived. Some basic properties of intermittency in helicity transport are examined

  9. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  10. Hydrogen recycling and transport in the helical divertor of TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, Meike

    2010-07-01

    observed. Its absence can be explained using an extended two point model including heat convection applied to the region dominated by parallel transport (laminar region). The radial penetration depth of the neutral hydrogen particles ({lambda}{sub n} {approx} 3-4 cm) estimated from spectroscopic measurements was found to be often larger than the varying radial extent of this laminar region (few mm up to 6 cm) which finally leads to convective heat transport reducing parallel temperature gradients. Increasing the radial extent of the laminar region especially in front of the divertor strike points could lead to an improvement in this respect and provide access to a high recycling regime. The radiation instability developing at high plasma densities in the helical divertor in TEXTOR is preceded by a transient partial detachment of the plasma from the divertor target plates and leads to the formation of a poloidally structured and helically inclined radiating belt, a helical divertor MARFE. While typically leading to a density limit disruption, this MARFE has been stabilised using a feedback system and could provide some divertor functionality such as low target temperature, increased neutral density and increased radiation within the stochastic boundary. Simulations using two different cross-field transport coefficients showed, that an agreement is only found at a certain level of cross-field transport (D {sub perpendicular} {sub to} =1 m{sup 2}s{sup -1}). The inclusion of carbon impurities in the simulations results in the experimentally observed reduction of the recycling flux. (orig.)

  11. Hydrogen recycling and transport in the helical divertor of TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, Meike

    2010-01-01

    observed. Its absence can be explained using an extended two point model including heat convection applied to the region dominated by parallel transport (laminar region). The radial penetration depth of the neutral hydrogen particles (λ n ∼ 3-4 cm) estimated from spectroscopic measurements was found to be often larger than the varying radial extent of this laminar region (few mm up to 6 cm) which finally leads to convective heat transport reducing parallel temperature gradients. Increasing the radial extent of the laminar region especially in front of the divertor strike points could lead to an improvement in this respect and provide access to a high recycling regime. The radiation instability developing at high plasma densities in the helical divertor in TEXTOR is preceded by a transient partial detachment of the plasma from the divertor target plates and leads to the formation of a poloidally structured and helically inclined radiating belt, a helical divertor MARFE. While typically leading to a density limit disruption, this MARFE has been stabilised using a feedback system and could provide some divertor functionality such as low target temperature, increased neutral density and increased radiation within the stochastic boundary. Simulations using two different cross-field transport coefficients showed, that an agreement is only found at a certain level of cross-field transport (D perpendicular to =1 m 2 s -1 ). The inclusion of carbon impurities in the simulations results in the experimentally observed reduction of the recycling flux. (orig.)

  12. On the helicity of open magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C.; Yeates, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the topological interpretation of magnetic helicity for magnetic fields in open domains, and relate this to the relative helicity. Specifically, our domains stretch between two parallel planes, and each of these ends may be magnetically open. It is demonstrated that, while the magnetic helicity is gauge-dependent, its value in any gauge may be physically interpreted as the average winding number among all pairs of field lines with respect to some orthonormal frame field. In fact, the choice of gauge is equivalent to the choice of reference field in the relative helicity, meaning that the magnetic helicity is no less physically meaningful. We prove that a particular gauge always measures the winding with respect to a fixed frame, and propose that this is normally the best choice. For periodic fields, this choice is equivalent to measuring relative helicity with respect to a potential reference field. However, for aperiodic fields, we show that the potential field can be twisted. We prove by construction that there always exists a possible untwisted reference field.

  13. Helical wire stress analysis of unbonded flexible riser under irregular response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Chunyan

    2017-06-01

    A helical wire is a critical component of an unbonded flexible riser prone to fatigue failure. The helical wire has been the focus of much research work in recent years because of the complex multilayer construction of the flexible riser. The present study establishes an analytical model for the axisymmetric and bending analyses of an unbonded flexible riser. The interlayer contact under axisymmetric loads in this model is modeled by setting radial dummy springs between adjacent layers. The contact pressure is constant during the bending response and applied to determine the slipping friction force per unit helical wire. The model tracks the axial stress around the angular position at each time step to calculate the axial force gradient, then compares the axial force gradient with the slipping friction force to judge the helical wire slipping region, which would be applied to determine the bending stiffness for the next time step. The proposed model is verified against the experimental data in the literature. The bending moment-curvature relationship under irregular response is also qualitatively discussed. The stress at the critical point of the helical wire is investigated based on the model by considering the local flexure. The results indicate that the present model can well simulate the bending stiffness variation during irregular response, which has significant effect on the stress of helical wire.

  14. Mutations in the alpha-helical region of the amino terminus of the Maize rayado fino virus capsid protein and CP:RNA ratios affect virus-like particle encapsidation of RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natilla, Angela; Murphy, Charles; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2015-01-22

    Viral-based nanoplatforms rely on balancing the delicate array of virus properties to optimally achieve encapsidation of foreign materials with various potential objectives. We investigated the use of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV)-virus-like particles (VLPs) as a multifunctional nanoplatform and their potential application as protein cages. MRFV-VLPs are composed of two serologically related, carboxy co-terminal coat proteins (CP1 and CP2) which are capable of self-assembling in Nicotiana benthamiana plants into 30nm particles with T=3 symmetry. The N-terminus of CP1 was targeted for genetic modification to exploit the driving forces for VLP assembly, packaging and retention of RNA in vivo and in vitro. The N-terminus of MRFV-CP1 contains a peptide sequence of 37 amino acids which has been predicted to have an alpha-helical structure, is rich in hydrophobic amino acids, facilitates CP-RNA interactions, and is not required for self-assembly. Amino acid substitutions were introduced in the 37 amino acid N-terminus by site-directed mutagenesis and the mutant VLPs produced in plants by a Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector were tested for particle stability and RNA encapsidation. All mutant CPs resulted in production of VLPs which encapsidated non-viral RNAs, including PVX genomic and subgenomic (sg) RNAs, 18S rRNA and cellular and viral mRNAs. In addition, MRFV-VLPs encapsidated GFP mRNA when was expressed in plant cells from the pGD vector. These results suggest that RNA packaging in MRFV-VLPs is predominantly driven by electrostatic interactions between the N-terminal 37 amino acid extension of CP1 and RNA, and that the overall species concentration of RNA in the cellular pool may determine the abundance and species of the RNAs packaged into the VLPs. Furthermore, RNA encapsidation is not required for VLPs stability, VLPs formed from MRFV-CP1 were stable at temperatures up to 70°C, and can be disassembled into CP monomers, which can then reassemble in vitro into

  15. Diffusion in a tokamak with helical magnetic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, Masahiro

    1975-05-01

    In a tokamak with helical magnetic cells produced by a resonant helical magnetic field, diffusion in the collisional regime is studied. The diffusion coefficient is greatly enhanced near the resonant surface even for a weak helical magnetic field. A theoretical model for disruptive instabilities based on the enhanced transport due to helical magnetic cells is discussed. This may explain experiments of the tokamak with resonant helical fields qualitatively. (author)

  16. Helical-tokamak hybridization concepts for compact configuration exploration and MHD stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Arimoto, H.; Baba, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Ozeki, H.; Shoji, T.; Mikhailov, M.I.

    2010-11-01

    To search for low-aspect-ratio torus systems, a lot of exotic confinement concepts are proposed so far historically. One of the authors previously proposed the tokamak-helical hybrid called TOKASTAR (Tokamak-Stellarator Hybrid) to improve the magnetic local shear near the bad curvature region. This is characterized by simple and compact coil systems with enough divertor space relevant to reactor designs. Based on this TOKASTAR concept, a toroidal mode number N=2 C (compact) -TOKASTAR machine (R - 35 mm) was constructed. The rotational transform of this compact helical configuration is rather small to confine hot ions, but can be utilized as a compact electron plasma machine for multi-purposes. The C-TOKASTAR has a pair of spherically winding helical coils and a pair of poloidal coils. Existence of magnetic surface and electron confinement property in C-TOKASTAR device were investigated by an electron-emission impedance method. Calculation of the particle orbit also supports that closed magnetic surface is formed in the cases that the ratio between poloidal and helical coil current is appropriate. Another aspect of the research using TOKASTAR configuration includes the evaluation of the effect of the outboard helical field application to tokamak plasmas. It is considered that outboard helical field has roles to assist the initiation of plasma current, to improve MHD stability, and so on. To check these roles, we made TOKASTAR-2 machine (R - 0.12 m, B - 1 kG) with ohmic heating central coil, eight toroidal field coils, a pair of vertical field coils and two outboard helical field coil segments. The electron cyclotron heating plasma start-up and plasma current disruption control experiments might be expected in this machine. Calculation of magnetic field line tracing has revealed that magnetic surface can be formed using additional outer helical coils. (author)

  17. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  18. The SMM UV observations of Active Region 5395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Gurman, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft was used extensively to study the spatial morphology and time variability of solar active regions in the far UV (at approx. wavelength of 1370 A) since July 1985. The normal spatial resolution of UVSP observations in this 2nd-order mode is 10 sec., and the highest temporal resolution is 64 milliseconds. To make a full-field, 4 min. by 4 min. image this wavelength using 5 sec. raster steps takes about 3 minutes. UVSP can also make observations of the Sun at approx. wavelength of 2790 with 3 sec. spatial resolution when operated in its 1st-order mode; a full-field image at this wavelength (a so-called SNEW image) takes about 8 minutes. UVSP made thousands of observations (mostly in 2nd-order) of AR 5395 during its transit across the visible solar hemisphere (from 7 to 19 March, inclusive). During this period, UVSP's duty cycle for observing AR 5395 was roughly 40 percent, with the remaining 60 percent of the time being fairly evenly divided between aeronomy studies of the Earth's atmosphere and dead time due to Earth occultation of the Sun. UVSP observed many of the flares tagged to AR 5395, including 26 GOES M-level flares and 3 X-level flares, one of which produced so much UV emission that the safety software of UVSP turned off the detector to avoid damage due to saturation. Images and light curves of some of the more spectacular of the AR 5395 events are presented.

  19. CONTRACTING AND ERUPTING COMPONENTS OF SIGMOIDAL ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui; Wang Yuming; Liu Chang; Wang Haimin; Török, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been noted that solar eruptions can be associated with the contraction of coronal loops that are not involved in magnetic reconnection processes. In this paper, we investigate five coronal eruptions originating from four sigmoidal active regions, using high-cadence, high-resolution narrowband EUV images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). The magnitudes of the flares associated with the eruptions range from GOES class B to class X. Owing to the high-sensitivity and broad temperature coverage of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO, we are able to identify both the contracting and erupting components of the eruptions: the former is observed in cold AIA channels as the contracting coronal loops overlying the elbows of the sigmoid, and the latter is preferentially observed in warm/hot AIA channels as an expanding bubble originating from the center of the sigmoid. The initiation of eruption always precedes the contraction, and in the energetically mild events (B- and C-flares), it also precedes the increase in GOES soft X-ray fluxes. In the more energetic events, the eruption is simultaneous with the impulsive phase of the nonthermal hard X-ray emission. These observations confirm that loop contraction is an integrated process in eruptions with partially opened arcades. The consequence of contraction is a new equilibrium with reduced magnetic energy, as the contracting loops never regain their original positions. The contracting process is a direct consequence of flare energy release, as evidenced by the strong correlation of the maximal contracting speed, and strong anti-correlation of the time delay of contraction relative to expansion, with the peak soft X-ray flux. This is also implied by the relationship between contraction and expansion, i.e., their timing and speed.

  20. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65 0 of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of ∼10 G to as high as ∼450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65 0 of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  1. Mechanisms regulating regional cerebral activation during dynamic handgrip in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, James; Friedman, D B; Mitchell, J H

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic hand movement increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the contralateral motor sensory cortex (MS1). This increase is eliminated by regional anesthesia of the working arm, indicating the importance of afferent neural input. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific...

  2. Polymer dynamics driven by a helical filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Andrew; Shendruk, Tyler; Zoettl, Andreas; Yeomans, Julia

    Microbial flagellates typically inhabit complex suspensions of extracellular polymeric material which can impact the swimming speed of motile microbes, filter-feeding of sessile cells, and the generation of biofilms. There is currently a need to better understand how the fundamental dynamics of polymers near active cells or flagella impacts these various phenomena. We study the hydrodynamic and steric influence of a rotating helical filament on suspended polymers using Stokesian Dynamics simulations. Our results show that as a stationary rotating helix pumps fluid along its long axis, nearby polymers migrate radially inwards and are elongated in the process. We observe that the actuation of the helix tends to increase the probability of finding polymeric material within its pervaded volume. At larger Weissenberg numbers, this accumulation of polymers within the vicinity of the helix is greater. Further, we have analysed the stochastic work performed by the helix on the polymers and we show that this quantity is positive on average and increases with polymer contour length. Our results provide a basis for understanding the microscopic interactions that govern cell dynamics in complex media. This work was supported through funding from the ERC Advanced Grant 291234 MiCE and we acknowledge EMBO funding to TNS (ALTF181-2013).

  3. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  4. Neutronics investigation of advanced self-cooled liquid blanket systems in helical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Sagara, A.; Muroga, T.; Youssef, M.Z.

    2006-10-01

    Neutronics performances of advanced self-cooled liquid blanket systems have been investigated in design activity of the helical-type reactor FFHR2. In the present study, a new three-dimensional (3-D) neutronics calculation system has been developed for the helical-type reactor to enhance quick feedback between neutronics evaluation and design modification. Using this new calculation system, advanced Flibe-cooled and Li-cooled liquid blanket systems proposed for FFHR2 have been evaluated to make clear design issues to enhance neutronics performance. Based on calculated results, modification of the blanket dimensions and configuration have been attempted to achieve the adequate tritium breeding ability and neutron shielding performance in the helical reactor. The total tritium breeding ratios (TBRs) obtained after modifying the blanket dimensions indicated that all the advanced blanket systems proposed for FFHR2 would achieve adequate tritium self-sufficiency by dimension adjustment and optimization of structures in the breeder layers. Issues in neutron shielding performance have been investigated quantitatively using 3-D geometry of the helical blanket system, support structures, poloidal coils etc. Shielding performance of the helical coils against direct neutrons from core plasma would achieve design target by further optimization of shielding materials. However, suppression of the neutron streaming and reflection through the divertor pumping areas in the original design is important issue to protect the poloidal coils and helical coils, respectively. Investigation of the neutron wall loading indicated that the peaking factor of the neutron wall load distribution would be moderated by the toroidal and helical effect of the plasma distribution in the helical reactor. (author)

  5. Creating Collaborative Advantages Through Coordination of Regional Development Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpor, Marijana

    2006-01-01

    Through the increasing importance of networking and use of participatory strategic planning approaches in the regional development practice, it seems that local and regional development theory moves from the concept of competitive advantages towards collaborative advantages. This conceptual move implies a redefinition of inter- and intra-institutional relations of the public and private sector, and therefore, calls for defining new forms of governance. The exploration of the concept of collab...

  6. Dynamic helical CT mammography of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Fukushima, Hitoshi; Okamura, Ryuji; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Taisuke; Urata, Yoji; Mukaihara, Sumio; Hayakawa, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dynamic helical computed tomography (CT)-mammography could assist in selecting the most appropriate surgical method in women with breast cancer. Preoperative contrast-enhanced helical CT scanning of the breast was performed on 133 female patients with suspicion of breast cancer at the same time as clinical, mammographic, and/or ultrasonographic examinations. The patients were scanned in the prone position with a specially designed CT-compatible device. A helical scan was made with rapid intravenous bolus injection (3 ml/s) of 100 ml of iodine contrast material. Three-dimensional maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed, and CT findings were correlated with surgical and histopathological findings. Histopathological analysis revealed 84 malignant lesions and seven benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy levels of the CT scanning were 94.6%, 58.6%, and 78.9%. Helical scanning alone revealed additional contralateral carcinomas in three of four patients and additional ipsilateral carcinomas in three of five patients. However, the technique gave false-positive readings in 24 patients. The preoperative CT-mammogram altered the surgical method in six patients. Dynamic helical CT-mammography in the prone position may be one of the choices of adjunct imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer scheduled for surgery. (author)

  7. Introduction to the m = 1 helicity source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Wright, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The m = 1 Helicity Source, formerly called the Kinked Z-pinch, was developed as part of the Electrode Studies program at Los Alamos. The Electrode Studies program was initiated to study the control of electrode erosion in long discharge duration spheromak sources. Erosion control is necessary to reduce plasma impurities and to obtain adequate electrode lifetimes. The first task of the Electrode Studies program is to determine, from among a variety of configurations including the coaxial one, a helicity source geometry with good prospects for erosion control. The more efficient the helicity source the easier it will be to control erosion, but the source most also be easy to diagnose and modify if it is to be a useful test bed. The various erosion control techniques which have been proposed will require extensive experimentation to evaluate and optimize. Proposed techniques include, using refractory metals, profiling of the electrodes and magnetic fields, and various gas injection schemes including porous electrodes. It is considered necessary to do these experiments on an optimized helicity source so that the electrode geometries and plasma properties will be relevant. Therefore the present Electrode Studies program is aimed at developing an improved helicity source design

  8. Connecting Coronal Mass Ejections to Their Solar Active Region Sources: Combining Results from the HELCATS and FLARECAST Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sophie A.; Guerra, Jordan A.; Zucca, Pietro; Park, Sung-Hong; Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Vilmer, Nicole; Bothmer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and other solar eruptive phenomena can be physically linked by combining data from a multitude of ground-based and space-based instruments alongside models; however, this can be challenging for automated operational systems. The EU Framework Package 7 HELCATS project provides catalogues of CME observations and properties from the Heliospheric Imagers on board the two NASA/STEREO spacecraft in order to track the evolution of CMEs in the inner heliosphere. From the main HICAT catalogue of over 2,000 CME detections, an automated algorithm has been developed to connect the CMEs observed by STEREO to any corresponding solar flares and active-region (AR) sources on the solar surface. CME kinematic properties, such as speed and angular width, are compared with AR magnetic field properties, such as magnetic flux, area, and neutral line characteristics. The resulting LOWCAT catalogue is also compared to the extensive AR property database created by the EU Horizon 2020 FLARECAST project, which provides more complex magnetic field parameters derived from vector magnetograms. Initial statistical analysis has been undertaken on the new data to provide insight into the link between flare and CME events, and characteristics of eruptive ARs. Warning thresholds determined from analysis of the evolution of these parameters is shown to be a useful output for operational space weather purposes. Parameters of particular interest for further analysis include total unsigned flux, vertical current, and current helicity. The automated method developed to create the LOWCAT catalogue may also be useful for future efforts to develop operational CME forecasting.

  9. alpha-helical structural elements within the voltage-sensing domains of a K(+) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Smerin, Y; Hackos, D H; Swartz, K J

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels are tetramers with each subunit containing six (S1-S6) putative membrane spanning segments. The fifth through sixth transmembrane segments (S5-S6) from each of four subunits assemble to form a central pore domain. A growing body of evidence suggests that the first four segments (S1-S4) comprise a domain-like voltage-sensing structure. While the topology of this region is reasonably well defined, the secondary and tertiary structures of these transmembrane segments are not. To explore the secondary structure of the voltage-sensing domains, we used alanine-scanning mutagenesis through the region encompassing the first four transmembrane segments in the drk1 voltage-gated K(+) channel. We examined the mutation-induced perturbation in gating free energy for periodicity characteristic of alpha-helices. Our results are consistent with at least portions of S1, S2, S3, and S4 adopting alpha-helical secondary structure. In addition, both the S1-S2 and S3-S4 linkers exhibited substantial helical character. The distribution of gating perturbations for S1 and S2 suggest that these two helices interact primarily with two environments. In contrast, the distribution of perturbations for S3 and S4 were more complex, suggesting that the latter two helices make more extensive protein contacts, possibly interfacing directly with the shell of the pore domain.

  10. α-Helical Structural Elements within the Voltage-Sensing Domains of a K+ Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Smerin, Yingying; Hackos, David H.; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels are tetramers with each subunit containing six (S1–S6) putative membrane spanning segments. The fifth through sixth transmembrane segments (S5–S6) from each of four subunits assemble to form a central pore domain. A growing body of evidence suggests that the first four segments (S1–S4) comprise a domain-like voltage-sensing structure. While the topology of this region is reasonably well defined, the secondary and tertiary structures of these transmembrane segments are not. To explore the secondary structure of the voltage-sensing domains, we used alanine-scanning mutagenesis through the region encompassing the first four transmembrane segments in the drk1 voltage-gated K+ channel. We examined the mutation-induced perturbation in gating free energy for periodicity characteristic of α-helices. Our results are consistent with at least portions of S1, S2, S3, and S4 adopting α-helical secondary structure. In addition, both the S1–S2 and S3–S4 linkers exhibited substantial helical character. The distribution of gating perturbations for S1 and S2 suggest that these two helices interact primarily with two environments. In contrast, the distribution of perturbations for S3 and S4 were more complex, suggesting that the latter two helices make more extensive protein contacts, possibly interfacing directly with the shell of the pore domain. PMID:10613917

  11. Resistive interchange mode destabilized by helically trapped energetic ions and its effects on energetic ions and bulk plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, X.D.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.

    2014-10-01

    A resistive interchange mode with bursting behavior and rapid frequency chirping in the range less than 10 kHz is observed for the first time in the magnetic hill region of net current-free, low beta LHD (Large Helical Device) plasmas during high power injection of perpendicular neutral beams. The mode resonates with the precession motion of helically trapped energetic beam ions, following the resonant condition. The radial mode structure is found to be very similar to that of usual pressure-driven interchange mode, of which radial displacement eigenfunction has an even function around the rational surface. This beam driven mode is excited when the beta value of helically trapped energetic ions exceed a certain threshold. The radial transport of helically trapped energetic ions induced by the mode transiently generates significant radial electric field near the plasma peripheral region. Thus generated radial electric field clearly suppresses micro turbulence and improves bulk plasma confinement, suggesting strong flow shear generation. (author)

  12. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, James E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  13. Clinical application of helical CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Huiliang; Zhu Xinjin; Liang Rujian; Liang Jianhao; Ou Weiqian; Wen Haomao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of 16-slice helical CT colonography in the diagnosis of colon tumor and polypus. Methods: 16-slice helical CT volumetric scanning was performed in 18 patients with colonic disease, including colonic tumor (n=16) and colonic polypus (n=2). 3D images, virtual endoscopy and multiplanar reformation were obtained in the AW4.1 workstation. CT appearances were compared with operation and fiberoptic colonoscopy. Results: Satisfied results were achieved from 18 patients, no difference found in results between CT colonography and operation in 16 patients with colonic tumor. Conclusion: 16-slice helical CT colonography is of great value in preoperative staging of colonic tumor and have a high value in clinical application. (authors)

  14. Helicity antenna showers for hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine; Skands, Peter [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Lifson, Andrew [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-15

    We present a complete set of helicity-dependent 2 → 3 antenna functions for QCD initial- and final-state radiation. The functions are implemented in the Vincia shower Monte Carlo framework and are used to generate showers for hadron-collider processes in which helicities are explicitly sampled (and conserved) at each step of the evolution. Although not capturing the full effects of spin correlations, the explicit helicity sampling does permit a significantly faster evaluation of fixed-order matrix-element corrections. A further speed increase is achieved via the implementation of a new fast library of analytical MHV amplitudes, while matrix elements from Madgraph are used for non-MHV configurations. A few examples of applications to QCD 2 → 2 processes are given, comparing the newly released Vincia 2.200 to Pythia 8.226. (orig.)

  15. Manipulation of wavefront using helical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhaokun; Tao, Huan; Zhao, Ming

    2016-08-08

    Helical metamaterials, a kind of 3-dimensional structure, has relatively strong coupling effect among the helical nano-wires. Therefore, it is expected to be a good candidate for generating phase shift and controlling wavefront with high efficiency. In this paper, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we studied the phase shift properties in the helical metamaterials. It is found that the phase shift occurs for both transmitted and reflected light waves. And the maximum of reflection coefficients can reach over 60%. In addition, the phase shift (φ) is dispersionless in the range of 600 nm to 860 nm, that is, it is only dominated by the initial angle (θ) of the helix. The relationship between them is φ = ± 2θ. Using Jones calculus we give a further explanation for these properties. Finally, by arranging the helixes in an array with a constant phase gradient, the phenomenon of anomalous refraction was also observed in a broad wavelength range.

  16. Helicity antenna showers for hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nadine; Lifson, Andrew; Skands, Peter

    2017-10-01

    We present a complete set of helicity-dependent 2→ 3 antenna functions for QCD initial- and final-state radiation. The functions are implemented in the Vincia shower Monte Carlo framework and are used to generate showers for hadron-collider processes in which helicities are explicitly sampled (and conserved) at each step of the evolution. Although not capturing the full effects of spin correlations, the explicit helicity sampling does permit a significantly faster evaluation of fixed-order matrix-element corrections. A further speed increase is achieved via the implementation of a new fast library of analytical MHV amplitudes, while matrix elements from Madgraph are used for non-MHV configurations. A few examples of applications to QCD 2→ 2 processes are given, comparing the newly released Vincia 2.200 to Pythia 8.226.

  17. Neutrino's helicity in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansart, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    By using approximated solutions of Dirac's equation, we show that there is no helicity reversal for light neutrinos in the Schwarzschild metric nor in an expanding universe. The actual coupling between a particle spin and the angular momentum of a heavy rotating body induces a possible helicity reversal but with an unobservable probability proportional to m 2 p / E 2 , where m p is the particle mass and E its energy. In these calculations, the helicity is defined through the spin orientation with respect to the current and not with respect to the linear momentum. This definition gives simple expressions and is equal to the usual definition in the case of a flat space. (N.T.)

  18. Single-superfield helical-phase inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketov, Sergei V., E-mail: ketov@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-10

    Large-field inflation in supergravity requires the approximate global symmetry needed to protect flatness of the scalar potential. In helical-phase inflation, the U(1) symmetry of the Kähler potential is assumed, the phase part of the complex scalar of a chiral superfield plays the role of inflaton, and the radial part is strongly stabilized. The original model of helical phase inflation, proposed by Li, Li and Nanopoulos (LLN), employs an extra (stabilizer) superfield. We propose a more economical new class of the helical phase inflationary models without a stabilizer superfield. As the specific examples, the quadratic, the natural, and the Starobinsky-type inflationary models are studied in our approach.

  19. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Otto G; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction–diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general. (paper)

  20. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  1. The Geography of Entrepreneurial Activity and Regional Economic Development : Multilevel Analyses for Dutch and European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182375102

    2009-01-01

    Countries and regions are committed to stimulating entrepreneurship by opening doors to (potential) entrepreneurs. The commonly held belief is that a variety of entrepreneurs would lead to an enriched dynamic environment and as such lies at the root of economic prosperity. Over the past 25 years,

  2. Antibody constant region peptides can display immunomodulatory activity through activation of the Dectin-1 signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gabrielli

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc of human IgG(1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB-α activation. More importantly, it causes an up-regulation of Dectin-1 expression. This leads to an increased activation of β-glucan-induced pSyk, CARD9 and pIkB-α, and an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. The increased activation of this pathway coincides with an augmented phagocytosis of non opsonized Candida albicans cells by monocytes. The findings suggest that some Fc-peptides, potentially deriving from the proteolysis of immunoglobulins, may cause an unexpected immunoregulation in a way reminiscent of innate immunity molecules.

  3. Nonideal, helical, vortical magnetohydrodynamic steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agim, Y.Z.; Montgomery, D.

    1991-01-01

    The helically-deformed profiles of driven, dissipative magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are constructed through second order in helical amplitude. The resultant plasma configurations are presented in terms of contour plots of magnetic flux function, pressure, current flux function and the mass flux function, along with the stability boundary at which they are expected to appear. For the Wisconsin Phaedrus-T Tokamak, plasma profiles with significant m = 3, n = 1 perturbation seem feasible; for these, the plasma pressure peaks off-axis. For the smaller aspect ratio case, the configuration with m 1,n =1 is thought to be relevant to the density perturbation observed in JET after a pellet injection. (author)

  4. Equilibrium calculations for helical axis stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    An average method based on a vacuum flux coordinate system is presented. This average method permits the study of helical axis stellarators with toroidally dominated shifts. An ordering is introduced, and to lowest order the toroidally averaged equilibrium equations are reduced to a Grad-Shafranov equation. Also, to lowest order, a Poisson-type equation is obtained for the toroidally varying corrections to the equilibium. By including these corrections, systems that are toroidally dominated, but with significant helical distortion to the equilibrium, may be studied. Numerical solutions of the average method equations are shown to agree well with three-dimensional calculations

  5. Helical post stellarator. Part 1: Vacuum configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-08-01

    Results on a novel type of stellarator configuration, the Helical Post Stellarator (HPS), are presented. This configuration is different significantly from all previously known stellarators due to its unique geometrical characteristics and unique physical properties. Among those are: the magnetic field has only one toroidal period (M = 1), the plasma has an extremely low aspect ratio, A ∼ 1, and the variation of the magnetic field, B, along field lines features a helical ripple on the inside of the torus. Among the main advantages of a HPS for a fusion program are extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform, large plasma volume, and improved particle transport characteristics

  6. Equilibrium studies of helical axis stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Harris, J.H.; Rome, J.A.; Cantrell, J.L.; Lynch, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The equilibrium properties of helical axis stellarators are studied with a 3-D equilibrium code and with an average method (2-D). The helical axis ATF is shown to have a toroidally dominated equilibrium shift and good equilibria up to at least 10% peak beta. Low aspect ratio heliacs, with relatively large toroidal shifts, are shown to have low equilibrium beta limits (approx. 5%). Increasing the aspect ratio and number of field periods proportionally is found to improve the equilibrium beta limit. Alternatively, increasing the number of field periods at fixed aspect ratio which raises and lowers the toroidal shift improves the equilibrium beta limit

  7. Relation of flare activity to the approach and separation of sunspots in an active region and to its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, E.

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the flare activity of active regions within the scope of a large complex and the magnetic gradients of these active regions and their daily variations is investigated in the interval of the exceptionally high flare activity occurring in June 1970. New indices, characterizing the active region, were defined, e.g., the instantaneous sunspot-area density and the instantaneous sunspot-number density. These indices were determined on the basis of measurements of the surface containing all sunspots of the complex of active regions enclosed by an envelope. An attempt was made to substitute the surface in the relation for the individual indices by distance. The daily variations of these indices were again compared with the flare activity and some mutual relations were derived. (author)

  8. Magnetic structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, C.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: While the magnetic field in quiescent prominences has been widely investigated, less is known about the field in activated prominences. We report observational results on the magnetic field structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region. In particular, we studied its magnetic structure and line-of-sight flows during its early activated phase, shortly before it displayed signs of rotation. Methods: We inverted the Stokes profiles of the chromospheric He i 10 830 Å triplet and the photospheric Si i 10 827 Å line observed in this filament by the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife. Using these inversion results, we present and interpret the first maps of the velocity and magnetic field obtained in an activated filament, both in the photosphere and the chromosphere. Results: Up to five different magnetic components are found in the chromospheric layers of the filament, while outside the filament a single component is sufficient to reproduce the observations. Magnetic components displaying an upflow are preferentially located towards the centre of the filament, while the downflows are concentrated along its periphery. Moreover, the upflowing gas is associated with an opposite-polarity magnetic configuration with respect to the photosphere, while the downflowing gas is associated with a same-polarity configuration. Conclusions: The activated filament has a very complex structure. Nonetheless, it is compatible with a flux rope, albeit a distorted one, in the normal configuration. The observations are best explained by a rising flux rope in which part of the filament material is still stably stored (upflowing material, rising with the field), while the rest is no longer stably stored and flows down along the field lines. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Adams, Mitzi [Space Science Office, VP62, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gary, G. Allen [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)], E-mail: David.falconer@msfc.nasa.gov

    2009-08-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R {sub Sun}. The two quantities are {sup L}WL{sub SG}, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and {sup L}{phi}, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log {sup L}WL{sub SG}, log {sup L}{phi}) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  10. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Adams, Mitzi; Gary, G. Allen

    2009-01-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R Sun . The two quantities are L WL SG , a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and L Φ, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log L WL SG , log L Φ) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  11. Political Marketing Activity In Simultaneous Regional Elections 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMA Suyanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional head election system was change in 2015. It has impact on political marketing strategy to all stake holders, such as political party and candidatures.The purposes of this research is to analyzeashifting ofpolitical marketing issueson regional election 2015. The research approach uses the mix method with the type of sequential explanatory. The subjects of this research are the candidates, election successful teams or supporting team, and young voters. Location of research based on cluster system district and sub district in Bandung, Cianjur, Magelang, Sleman, and Medan. The data are collected through techniques of questionnaires to young voters; interview to candidates, election successful teams and young voters, as well as the documentation of media and data on Regional General Elections Commission (KPUD. There are also triangular data techniqueinterviews with the General Elections Commission (KPU, the community and supporting team, and documentation and questionnaire form. The result shows that the system of political marketing has already started shifting from product, promotion, price, place, and people known as the 5Ps from mostly dominated by Political Partyinto the role of PEOPLE as candidature in influensing the voters. The Result also tells that shifting from using convetional media into almost using digital media was powerfull.

  12. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  13. Dosimetric verification of helical tomotherapy for total scalp irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Soisson, Emilie; Metcalfe, Peter; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2008-01-01

    Total scalp irradiation is a treatment technique used for a variety of superficial malignancies. Helical tomotherapy is an effective technique used for total scalp irradiation. Recent published work has shown the TomoTherapy planning system to overestimate the superficial dose. In this study, the superficial doses for a helical tomotherapy total scalp irradiation have been measured on an anthropomorphic phantom using radiochromic and radiographic film as well as a new skin dosimeter, the MOSkin. The superficial dose was found to be accurately calculated by the TomoTherapy planning system. This is in contrast to recent reports, probably due to a combination of the smaller dose grid resolution used in planning and this particular treatment primarily consisting of beamlets tangential to the scalp. The superficial dose was found to increase from 33.6 to 41.2 Gy and 36.0 to 42.0 Gy over the first 2 mm depth in the phantom in selected regions of the PTV, measured with radiochromic film. The prescription dose was 40 Gy. The superficial dose was at the prescription dose or higher in some regions due to the bolus effect of the thermoplastic head mask and the head rest used to aid treatment setup. It is suggested that to achieve the prescription dose at the surface (≤2 mm depth) bolus or a custom thermoplastic helmet is used.

  14. Triple helical DNA in a duplex context and base pair opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esguerra, Mauricio; Nilsson, Lennart; Villa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    It is fundamental to explore in atomic detail the behavior of DNA triple helices as a means to understand the role they might play in vivo and to better engineer their use in genetic technologies, such as antigene therapy. To this aim we have performed atomistic simulations of a purine-rich antiparallel triple helix stretch of 10 base triplets flanked by canonical Watson–Crick double helices. At the same time we have explored the thermodynamic behavior of a flipping Watson–Crick base pair in the context of the triple and double helix. The third strand can be accommodated in a B-like duplex conformation. Upon binding, the double helix changes shape, and becomes more rigid. The triple-helical region increases its major groove width mainly by oversliding in the negative direction. The resulting conformations are somewhere between the A and B conformations with base pairs remaining almost perpendicular to the helical axis. The neighboring duplex regions maintain a B DNA conformation. Base pair opening in the duplex regions is more probable than in the triplex and binding of the Hoogsteen strand does not influence base pair breathing in the neighboring duplex region. PMID:25228466

  15. Helical equilibria and criteria for the kink instability of cylindrical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Yoshikawa, Shoichi.

    1974-10-01

    Helical equilibria and criteria for the kink instability have been obtained numerically for various current distribution, including camel hump distribution. It is found that the unstable region expressed by q(a) is the largest in the case of uniform current. (auth.)

  16. Theoretical transport analysis of density limit with radial electric field in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2010-11-01

    The confinement property in helical toroidal plasmas is clarified. The analysis is performed by use of the one-dimensional transport equations with the effect of the radiative loss and the radial profile of the electric field. The analytical results in the edge region show the steep gradient in the electron temperature, which indicates the transport barrier formation. Because of the rapid increase of the radiative loss at the low electron temperature, the anomalous heat diffusivity is reduced near the edge. Next, the efficiency of the heating power input in the presence of the radiative loss is studied. The scaling of the critical density in helical devices is also derived. (author)

  17. Approach to analysis of inter-regional similarity of investment activity support measures in legislation of regions (on the example of Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Lapo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most part of stimulation methods in Russia are concentrated in legal documents of the regions of the Russian Federation. They directed on intensification of investment activity in regions. How similar are these investment stimulation conceptions? There is no mention in the literature of the methodical questions of quantitative analysis and inter-regional comparisons. In addition, there are no results of statistical research of inter-regional correlations of stimulation methods and analysis of dynamics of this process. There are no special measuring instruments. The presented work is aimed at completion of these blanks. The approach for the spatial correlation analysis of legislative norms is offered in research. Classification of investments’ stimulation methods is developed. The way of preparing and coding data for research is offered. The approach and system of coefficients for the analysis of inter-regional interrelations of legislative systems of investments’ stimulation is offered. A proximity coefficient of regional legislation, a factor of structure similarity and a dynamic coincidence index are proposed. The space-time base of investment stimulation methods on Russian Federation regions for 12 years is collected and statistically processed for research. There are only 758 documents. A source of texts is a site of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation.Research of documents has allowed revealing a number of laws in formation of regional investment stimulation systems. The regions that are the most similar in terms of structure of stimulation methods are identified. We have found the group of regions for which it is observed the increase in similarity of the legislation and the group with the reduction of similarity. Therefore, it is obvious that the general trend to reduction of similarity in the legislation takes place between Krasnoyarsk territory and the other regions of the Russian Federation. Calculations have

  18. Amplification of chirality in helical supramolecular polymers: the majority-rules principle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestel, van J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Amplification of chirality, being a strongly nonlinear response of the optical activity of helical polymers to a small (net) amount of optically active material, has recently been discovered in supramolecular copolymers. Apart from the sergeants-and-soldiers type we discussed in earlier work,

  19. Review of the helicity formalism; Revision del formalismo de helicidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, F; Cerrada, M; Fernandez, E

    1972-07-01

    Our purpose in these notes has been to present a brief and general review of the helicity formalism. We begin by discussing Lorentz invariance, spin and helicity ideas, in section 1 . In section 2 we deal with the construction of relativistic states and scattering amplitudes in the helicity basis and we study their transformation properties under discrete symmetries. Finally we present some more sophisticated topics like kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes, kinematical constraints and crossing relations 3, 4, 5 respectively. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. Local Helicity Injection Systems for Non-solenoidal Startup in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection is being developed in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment for non-solenoidal startup in spherical tokamaks. The effective loop voltage due to helicity injection scales with the area of the injectors, requiring the development of electron current injectors with areas much larger than the 2 cm2 plasma arc injectors used to date. Solid and gas-effused metallic electrodes were found to be unusable due to reduced injector area utilization from localized cathode spots and narrow operational regimes. An integrated array of 8 compact plasma arc sources is thus being developed for high current startup. It employs two monolithic power systems, for the plasma arc sources and the bias current extraction system. The array effectively eliminates impurity fueling from plasma-material interaction by incorporating a local scraper-limiter and conical-frustum bias electrodes to mitigate the effects of cathode spots. An energy balance model of helicity injection indicates that the resulting 20 cm2 of total injection area should provide sufficient current drive to reach 0.3 MA. At that level, helicity injection drive exceeds that from poloidal induction, which is the relevant operational regime for large-scale spherical tokamaks. Future placement of the injector array near an expanded boundary divertor region will test simultaneous optimization of helicity drive and the Taylor relaxation current limit. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  1. Crystal structure of the Src family kinase Hck SH3-SH2 linker regulatory region supports an SH3-dominant activation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, John J; Betts, Laurie; Moroco, Jamie A; Smithgall, Thomas E; Yeh, Joanne I

    2010-11-12

    Most mammalian cell types depend on multiple Src family kinases (SFKs) to regulate diverse signaling pathways. Strict control of SFK activity is essential for normal cellular function, and loss of kinase regulation contributes to several forms of cancer and other diseases. Previous x-ray crystal structures of the SFKs c-Src and Hck revealed that intramolecular association of their Src homology (SH) 3 domains and SH2 kinase linker regions has a key role in down-regulation of kinase activity. However, the amino acid sequence of the Hck linker represents a suboptimal ligand for the isolated SH3 domain, suggesting that it may form the polyproline type II helical conformation required for SH3 docking only in the context of the intact structure. To test this hypothesis directly, we determined the crystal structure of a truncated Hck protein consisting of the SH2 and SH3 domains plus the linker. Despite the absence of the kinase domain, the structures and relative orientations of the SH2 and SH3 domains in this shorter protein were very similar to those observed in near full-length, down-regulated Hck. However, the SH2 kinase linker adopted a modified topology and failed to engage the SH3 domain. This new structure supports the idea that these noncatalytic regions work together as a "conformational switch" that modulates kinase activity in a manner unique to the SH3 domain and linker topologies present in the intact Hck protein. Our results also provide fresh structural insight into the facile induction of Hck activity by HIV-1 Nef and other Hck SH3 domain binding proteins and implicate the existence of innate conformational states unique to individual Src family members that "fine-tune" their sensitivities to activation by SH3-based ligands.

  2. The Location of ICT activities in EU regions. Implications for regional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barrios

    2008-01-01

    estimaciones econométricas sobre la localización de las empresas en la industria de las TIC a través de las regiones de la UE. El trabajo considera específicamente el caso de la localización de las multinacionales. Los resultados de los determinantes de la localización de las empresas parece diferir ampliamente dependiendo del sector de las TIC considerado, como del tipo de empresa considerada. A partir de estos resultados se deriva un número de implicaciones de política.

  3. Extended emission-line regions in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, J.B.; Hickson, P.

    1988-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of four active galaxies in the redshift range 0.06-0.10 are presented. Two have interacting companions. Spectra of the galaxies show extended narrow emission lines in all cases. Continuum color changes, emision-line ratio changes, and velocity changes with 1 arcsec resolution can be detected. Relative velocities between AGN and companion galaxies are also given. These objects appear to lie in galaxies in which there is considerable star-formation activity, and very extended line emision. 20 references

  4. Structure determination of helical filaments by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumdooh; Spehr, Johannes; König, Renate; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Rand, Ulfert; Lührs, Thorsten; Ritter, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The controlled formation of filamentous protein complexes plays a crucial role in many biological systems and represents an emerging paradigm in signal transduction. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a central signal transduction hub in innate immunity that is activated by a receptor-induced conversion into helical superstructures (filaments) assembled from its globular caspase activation and recruitment domain. Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most powerful techniques for atomic resolution structures of protein fibrils. However, for helical filaments, the determination of the correct symmetry parameters has remained a significant hurdle for any structural technique and could thus far not be precisely derived from ssNMR data. Here, we solved the atomic resolution structure of helical MAVSCARD filaments exclusively from ssNMR data. We present a generally applicable approach that systematically explores the helical symmetry space by efficient modeling of the helical structure restrained by interprotomer ssNMR distance restraints. Together with classical automated NMR structure calculation, this allowed us to faithfully determine the symmetry that defines the entire assembly. To validate our structure, we probed the protomer arrangement by solvent paramagnetic resonance enhancement, analysis of chemical shift differences relative to the solution NMR structure of the monomer, and mutagenesis. We provide detailed information on the atomic contacts that determine filament stability and describe mechanistic details on the formation of signaling-competent MAVS filaments from inactive monomers. PMID:26733681

  5. Magnetic field structure near the plasma boundary in helical systems and divertor tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1990-02-01

    Magnetic field structure of the scrape off layer (SOL) region in both helical systems and divertor tokamaks is studied numerically by using model fields. The connection length of the field line to the wall is calculated. In helical systems, the connection length, L, has a logarithmic dependence on the distance from the outermost magnetic surface or that from the residual magnetic islands. The effect of axisymmetric fields on the field structure is also determined. In divertor tokamaks, the connection length also has logarithmic properties near the separatrix. Even when the perturbations, which resonate to rational surfaces near the plasma boundary, are added, logarithmic properties still remain. We compare the connection length of torsatron/helical-heliotron systems with that of divertor tokamaks. It is found that the former is shorter than the latter by one order magnitude with similar aspect ratio. (author)

  6. Influence of crystallite size and temperature on the antiferromagnetic helices of terbium and holmium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Jens-Peter; Michels, Andreas [Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); University of Luxembourg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Ferdinand, Adrian; Birringer, Rainer [Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Baller, Joerg; Sanctuary, Roland [University of Luxembourg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Philippi, Stefan [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Lott, Dieter [GKSS Research Center, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Balog, Sandor [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rotenberg, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California 94720 (United States); Kaindl, Guenter [Freie Universitaet Berlin, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Doebrich, Kristian M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Max-Born-Institut, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We report on the results of grain-size and temperature-dependent magnetization, specific-heat, neutron-scattering, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments on the heavy rare-earth metals terbium and holmium, with particular emphasis on the temperature regions where the helical antiferromagnetic phases exist. In contrast to Ho, we find that the helical structure in Tb is relative strongly affected by microstructural disorder, specifically, it can no longer be detected for the smallest studied grain size of D=18 nm. Moreover, in coarse-grained Tb a helical structure persists even in the ferromagnetic regime, down to about T=215 K, in agreement with the ARPES data, which reveal a nesting feature of the Fermi surface at the L point of the Brillouin zone at T=210 K.

  7. Exabyte helical scan devices at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Kaczar, K.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Votava, M.; White, V.; Hockney, G.; Bracker, S.; de Miranda, J.M.

    1989-05-01

    Exabyte 8mm helical scan storage devices are in use at Fermilab in a number of applications. These devices have the functionality of magnetic tape, but use media which is much more economical and much more dense than conventional 9 track tape. 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  9. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  10. Electron image reconstruction of helical protein assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, A.F.M.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of projections of large ordered biological systems obtained by electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens is described. The biological structures amenable to this approach are constructed from a large number of identical protein molecules, which are arranged according to helical symmetry. Electron images of these structures generally contain sufficient information in order to calculate a three-dimensional density map. (Auth.)

  11. Adaptive radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeswani, Sam; Ruchala, Kenneth; Olivera, Gustavo; Mackie, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    As commonly known in the field, adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is the use of feedback to modify a radiotherapy treatment. There are numerous ways in which this feedback can be received and used, and this presentation will discuss some of the implementations of ART being investigated with a helical TomoTherapy system

  12. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  13. A Prospective Evaluation of Helical Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Rodrigues, George; Lewis, Craig; Venkatesan, Varagur M.; Yu, Edward; Hammond, Alex; Perera, Francisco; Ash, Robert; Dar, A. Rashid; Lock, Michael; Baily, Laura; Coad, Terry C; Trenka, Kris C.; Warr, Barbara; Kron, Tomas; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report results from two clinical trials evaluating helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Patients were enrolled in one of two prospective trials of HT (one for palliative and one for radical treatment). Both an HT plan and a companion three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan were generated. Pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography was used for daily image guidance. Results: From September 2004 to January 2006, a total of 61 sites in 60 patients were treated. In all but one case, a clinically acceptable tomotherapy plan for treatment was generated. Helical tomotherapy plans were subjectively equivalent or superior to 3D-CRT in 95% of plans. Helical tomotherapy was deemed equivalent or superior in two thirds of dose-volume point comparisons. In cases of inferiority, differences were either clinically insignificant and/or reflected deliberate tradeoffs to optimize the HT plan. Overall imaging and treatment time (median) was 27 min (range, 16-91 min). According to a patient questionnaire, 78% of patients were satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment process. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy demonstrated clear advantages over conventional 3D-CRT in this diverse patient group. The prospective trials were helpful in deploying this technology in a busy clinical setting

  14. Development of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises: regional accent

    OpenAIRE

    VINITCHENKO I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical principles, modern state and prospects of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises, are considered. Going is certain near a management innovative development of agrarian sphere, that can be applied in the process of forming of corresponding soil of forming of the conceptual going near state administration an innovative process in an agrarian sphere.

  15. A study of lightning activity over land and oceanic regions of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important point and above results have strongly motivated us to take up the study of land–land and land–ocean contrast in lightning activity over. India. The geographic regions of India chosen for the present study include: • Eastern region (ER) and western region (WR) of India,. • East coast of India and a strip of six oceanic.

  16. Helicity-flip in particle production on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeldt, G.

    1977-01-01

    Coherent nuclear production processes are generally analyzed assuming helicity conserving production amplitudes. In view of the uncertainties of the actual helicity structure this could be a dangerous assumption. It is shown that helicity-flip contributions might be part of the explanation of the small effective (pππ)-nucleon cross sections observed in coherent production. (Auth.)

  17. A real-scale helical coil winding trial of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Tamaki, T.; Asano, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yamauchi, T.; Uchida, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Yamagiwa, T.; Suzuki, S.; Miyoshi, R.; Sasa, H.; Watanabe, S.; Tatemura, M.; Hatada, N.; Yamaguchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Yanagi, N.; Satow, T.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.

    1995-01-01

    A real-scale helical coil winding trial of the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been conducted for a study of coil winding configuration and winding methods and for exhibiting the state of the art. It includes construction and test run of a specifically designed winding machine and development of various manufacturing methods for accurate coil winding. It has been carried out in Hitachi Works before in situ winding, and has provided much needed engineering data for construction of the LHD. (orig.)

  18. Geometry of Hα active region loops observed on the solar disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan-le, C.; Loughhead, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma loops are the dominant structures in the higher levels of the Sun's atmosphere above active regions. A geometrical technique has been used to reconstruct the true shapes of two large dark loops of the type ordinarily found in active regions in the absence of flares

  19. Transcriptional activation by the E1A regions of adenovirus types 40 and 41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.E. van; Gilardi, P.; Perricaudet, M.; Rozijn, Th. H.; Sussenbach, J.S.

    In order to establish whether the poor growth of the two fastidious adenoviruses types 40 and 41 (Ad40 and Ad41) in HeLa cells is due to a reduced trans-activation by the early region to (E1A), we have determined the trans-activating effect of this region on the expression of the chloramphenicol

  20. Propagating wave in active region-loops, located over the solar disk observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Hou, Y. J.; Zhang, J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: We aim to ascertain the physical parameters of a propagating wave over the solar disk detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Methods: Using imaging data from the IRIS and the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), we tracked bright spots to determine the parameters of a propagating transverse wave in active region (AR) loops triggered by activation of a filament. Deriving the Doppler velocity of Si IV line from spectral observations of IRIS, we have determined the rotating directions of active region loops which are relevant to the wave. Results: On 2015 December 19, a filament was located on the polarity inversion line of the NOAA AR 12470. The filament was activated and then caused a C1.1 two-ribbon flare. Between the flare ribbons, two rotation motions of a set of bright loops were observed to appear in turn with opposite directions. Following the end of the second rotation, a propagating wave and an associated transverse oscillation were detected in these bright loops. In 1400 Å channel, there was bright material flowing along the loops in a wave-like manner, with a period of 128 s and a mean amplitude of 880 km. For the transverse oscillation, we tracked a given loop and determine the transverse positions of the tracking loop in a limited longitudinal range. In both of 1400 Å and 171 Å channels, approximately four periods are distinguished during the transverse oscillation. The mean period of the oscillation is estimated as 143 s and the displacement amplitude as between 1370 km and 690 km. We interpret these oscillations as a propagating kink wave and obtain its speed of 1400 km s-1. Conclusions: Our observations reveal that a flare associated with filament activation could trigger a kink propagating wave in active region loops over the solar disk. Movies associated to Figs. 1-4 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  1. Bearing capacity of helical pile foundation in peat soil from different, diameter and spacing of helical plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnanta, F.; Satibi, S.; Muhardi

    2018-03-01

    In an area dominated by thick peat soil layers, driven piles foundation is often used. These piles are generally skin friction piles where the pile tips do not reach hard stratum. Since the bearing capacity of the piles rely on the resistance of their smooth skin, the bearing capacity of the piles are generally low. One way to increase the bearing capacity of the piles is by installing helical plates around the pile tips. Many research has been performed on helical pile foundation. However, literature on the use of helical pile foundation on peat soil is still hardly found. This research focus on the study of axial bearing capacity of helical pile foundation in peat soil, especially in Riau Province. These full-scale tests on helical pile foundation were performed in a rectangular box partially embedded into the ground. The box is filled with peat soil, which was taken from Rimbo Panjang area in the district of Kampar, Riau Province. Several helical piles with different number, diameter and spacing of the helical plates have been tested and analysed. The tests result show that helical pile with three helical plates of uniform diameter has better bearing capacity compared to other helical piles with varying diameter and different number of helical plates. The bearing capacity of helical pile foundation is affected by the spacing between helical plates. It is found that the effective helical plates spacing for helical pile foundation with diameter of 15cm to 35cm is between 20cm to 30cm. This behaviour may be considered to apply to other type of helical pile foundations in peat soil.

  2. Unsupervised segmentation of task activated regions in fmRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rasmus; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become a central measuring modality to quantify functional activiation of the brain in both task and rest. Most analysis used to quantify functional activation requires supervised approaches as employed in statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to extract...... framework for the analysis of task fMRI and resting-state data in general where strong knowledge of how the task induces a BOLD response is missing....

  3. Physical activities of students in special primary schools in the central Bohemian region

    OpenAIRE

    Beznosova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract Title of the thesis: Physical activities of students in special primary schools in the central Bohemian region Aim of the study: The aim of the thesis is a comprehensive survey of physical activities provided by special primary schools in the Central Bohemian region. Method: We used a method of an empirical research. We studied a representative sample of special primary schools located in the Central Bohemia region in order to ascertain characteristics of the objects of observation...

  4. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares - relatorio de atividades - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000.

  5. Kabachenko A. Restoration of entrepreneurial activity rate in the context of Donetsk region labor market stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Кабаченко, Г. С.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the state of entrepreneurship inDonetskregion, which is characterized by: disproportion specialization of small enterprises by economic activity; uneven deployment of small businesses in the region; the tendency to reduce business in the region; uneven distribution of human capital size enterprises. The analysis shows that small and medium businesses in the region and slowed develops unevenly. Its potential is not realized sufficiently due to several problems at both the region...

  6. Kinematic model of some types of motion of matter in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platov, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematics of matter motion in variable magnetic fields of active regions on the Sun in the MHD approximation of a strong field and cold plasma is investigated. It is shown that the variation of sunspot magnetic moments lead to the development of different active phenomena in the solar atmosphere. The development of such phenomena at first can occur at the phase of active region growth, when new sunspots together with developed sunspots emerge in an active region or relative motions take place in a sunspot group

  7. ON THE NON-KOLMOGOROV NATURE OF FLARE-PRODUCTIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandage, Revati S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University, 6100 Main MS-61, Houston, TX 77005-1827 (United States); McAteer, R. T. James, E-mail: mcateer@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88001 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    A magnetic power spectral analysis is performed on 53 solar active regions, observed from 2011 August to 2012 July. Magnetic field data obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, inverted as Active Region Patches, are used to study the evolution of the magnetic power index as each region rotates across the solar disk. Active regions are classified based on the numbers and sizes of solar flares they produce in order to study the relationship between flare productivity and the magnetic power index. The choice of window size and inertial range plays a key role in determining the correct magnetic power index. The overall distribution of magnetic power indices has a range of 1.0–2.5. Flare-quiet regions peak at a value of 1.6. However, flare-productive regions peak at a value of 2.2. Overall, the histogram of the distribution of power indices of flare-productive active regions is well separated from flare-quiet active regions. Only 12% of flare-quiet regions exhibit an index greater than 2, whereas 90% of flare-productive regions exhibit an index greater than 2. Flare-quiet regions exhibit a high temporal variance (i.e., the index fluctuates between high and low values), whereas flare-productive regions maintain an index greater than 2 for several days. This shows the importance of including the temporal evolution of active regions in flare prediction studies, and highlights the potential of a 2–3 day prediction window for space weather applications.

  8. Ion temperature gradient modes in toroidal helical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, T. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sugama, H.; Kanno, R.; Okamoto, M.

    2000-04-01

    Linear properties of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in helical systems are studied. The real frequency, growth rate, and eigenfunction are obtained for both stable and unstable cases by solving a kinetic integral equation with proper analytic continuation performed in the complex frequency plane. Based on the model magnetic configuration for toroidal helical systems like the Large Helical Device (LHD), dependences of the ITG mode properties on various plasma equilibrium parameters are investigated. Particularly, relative effects of {nabla}B-curvature drifts driven by the toroidicity and by the helical ripples are examined in order to compare the ITG modes in helical systems with those in tokamaks. (author)

  9. Ion temperature gradient modes in toroidal helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Sugama, H.; Kanno, R.; Okamoto, M.

    2000-04-01

    Linear properties of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in helical systems are studied. The real frequency, growth rate, and eigenfunction are obtained for both stable and unstable cases by solving a kinetic integral equation with proper analytic continuation performed in the complex frequency plane. Based on the model magnetic configuration for toroidal helical systems like the Large Helical Device (LHD), dependences of the ITG mode properties on various plasma equilibrium parameters are investigated. Particularly, relative effects of ∇B-curvature drifts driven by the toroidicity and by the helical ripples are examined in order to compare the ITG modes in helical systems with those in tokamaks. (author)

  10. Biot-Savart helicity versus physical helicity: A topological description of ideal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahihi, Taliya; Eshraghi, Homayoon

    2014-08-01

    For an isentropic (thus compressible) flow, fluid trajectories are considered as orbits of a family of one parameter, smooth, orientation-preserving, and nonsingular diffeomorphisms on a compact and smooth-boundary domain in the Euclidian 3-space which necessarily preserve a finite measure, later interpreted as the fluid mass. Under such diffeomorphisms the Biot-Savart helicity of the pushforward of a divergence-free and tangent to the boundary vector field is proved to be conserved and since these circumstances present an isentropic flow, the conservation of the "Biot-Savart helicity" is established for such flows. On the other hand, the well known helicity conservation in ideal flows which here we call it "physical helicity" is found to be an independent constant with respect to the Biot-Savart helicity. The difference between these two helicities reflects some topological features of the domain as well as the velocity and vorticity fields which is discussed and is shown for simply connected domains the two helicities coincide. The energy variation of the vorticity field is shown to be formally the same as for the incompressible flow obtained before. For fluid domains consisting of several disjoint solid tori, at each time, the harmonic knot subspace of smooth vector fields on the fluid domain is found to have two independent base sets with a special type of orthogonality between these two bases by which a topological description of the vortex and velocity fields depending on the helicity difference is achieved since this difference is shown to depend only on the harmonic knot parts of velocity, vorticity, and its Biot-Savart vector field. For an ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow three independent constant helicities are reviewed while the helicity of magnetic potential is generalized for non-simply connected domains by inserting a special harmonic knot field in the dynamics of the magnetic potential. It is proved that the harmonic knot part of the vorticity

  11. Regions important for the adhesin activity of Moraxella catarrhalis Hag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafontaine Eric R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Moraxella catarrhalis Hag protein, an Oca autotransporter adhesin, has previously been shown to be important for adherence of this respiratory tract pathogen to human middle ear and A549 lung cells. Results The present study demonstrates that adherence of M. catarrhalis isogenic hag mutant strains to the human epithelial cell lines Chang (conjunctival and NCIH292 (lung is reduced by 50–93%. Furthermore, expressing Hag in a heterologous Escherichia coli background substantially increased the adherence of recombinant bacteria to NCIH292 cells and murine type IV collagen. Hag did not, however, increase the attachment of E. coli to Chang cells. These results indicate that Hag directly mediates adherence to NCIH292 lung cells and collagen, but is not sufficient to confer binding to conjunctival monolayers. Several in-frame deletions were engineered within the hag gene of M. catarrhalis strain O35E and the resulting proteins were tested for their ability to mediate binding to NCIH292 monolayers, middle ear cells, and type IV collagen. These experiments revealed that epithelial cell and collagen binding properties are separable, and that residues 385–705 of this ~2,000 amino acid protein are important for adherence to middle ear and NCIH292 cells. The region of O35E-Hag encompassing aa 706 to 1194 was also found to be required for adherence to collagen. In contrast, β-roll repeats present in Hag, which are structural features conserved in several Oca adhesins and responsible for the adhesive properties of Yersinia enterocolitica YadA, are not important for Hag-mediated adherence. Conclusion Hag is a major adherence factor for human cells derived from various anatomical sites relevant to pathogenesis by M. catarrhalis and its structure-function relationships differ from those of other, closely-related autotransporter proteins.

  12. Taxation of the economical activities developed in the sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcio Branco de

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the power of taxation is straightly connected to the idea of territory. It is important to establish the limits of tax jurisdiction not only for taxes in view of which territoriality is part of the taxable event as defined in legislation - import tax (I.I.) and excise tax (IPI) -, but also for those the location of a possession - property tax (IPTU) - or the place in which services are rendered - service occupation tax (ISS) and sales tax (ICMS) - appear as the main component of the taxable event. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, and the Brazilian internal legislation as well, Federal Government has full sovereignty over its territorial sea -12 mile zone. In other areas (contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and brazilian continental shelf), sovereignty is restricted to the supervision of some activities, not involving power of taxation. (author)

  13. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  14. Low-frequency current drive and helicity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; Miller, R.L.; Ohkawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    For ω much-lt Ω i , where Ω i is the ion cyclotron frequency, circularly polarized waves can drive current far exceeding the current resulting from linearly polarized waves. Further, the efficiency can be independent of plasma density. In some cases, this circular polarization may be interpreted in terms of helicity injection. For tokamak applications, where the wavenumber in the toroidal direction is a real quantity, wave helicity is injected only with finite E z waves, where z is the direction of the static magnetic field. The Alfven waves are possible current drive candidates but, in the cylindrical model considered, the compressional wave is weakly damped because E z =0, while the shear Alfven wave is totally absorbed at the surface because of finite E z . A mixture of the two modes is shown to drive an oscillatory surface current even though the efficiency is high and independent of density. A more promising current drive candidate is a fast wave that propagates to the plasma interior and is damped by the minority cyclotron resonance. Near the minority mode conversion region, the fast wave is left-handed circularly polarized and it has a small but finite E z component at high electron temperatures. The current drive efficiency, although not as high as that of the Alfven wave, is still good and independent of density, making it attractive for fusion reactors

  15. Core electron-root confinement (CERC) in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Ida, K.; Maassbcrg, H.

    2006-10-01

    The improvement of core electron heat confinement has been realized in a wide range of helical devices such as CHS, LHD, TJ-II and W7-AS. Strongly peaked electron temperature profiles and large positive radial electric field, E r , in the core region are common fractures for this improved confinement. Such observations are consistent with a transition to the electron-root' solution of the ambipolarity condition for E r in the context of the neoclassical transport, which is unique to non-axisymmetric configurations. Based on this background, this improved confinement has been collectively dubbed 'core electron-root confinement' (CERC). The electron heat diffusivity is much reduced due to the electron-root E r compared to that with E r =0 assumed, which clearly demonstrates that 1/v ripple diffusion (ν being the collision frequency) in low-collisional helical plasmas could be overcome. The magnetic configuration properties play important roles in this transition, and thresholds are found for the collisionality and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power. (author)

  16. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  17. Transport analysis of oscillatory state for plasma dynamics in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2012-11-01

    In helical plasmas, two kinds of the oscillation for the plasma quantities are experimentally observed. Firstly, the limit cycle phenomena in the temporal evolution of the electrostatic potential, namely the electric pulsation, have been observed in the core region. The temporally self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as a simulation result in the core region. The dependence of the transition point for the radial electric field on the source is examined. Secondly, the density limit oscillation in the helical device was reported. To realize the oscillation phenomena at the density limit, the temporal evolution of the density profile is newly included in a simulation when the radiative loss is calculated in the edge region. Two stationary plasma states, where the transport loss or radiative loss is dominant in the edge region, are obtained. The dynamics of the plasma quantity is found to show the transition from the transport-dominated state to the radiation-dominated state. (author)

  18. Magnetic helicity balance in the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallard, B.W.; Hooper, E.B.; Woodruff, S.; Bulmer, R.H.; Hill, D.N.; McLean, H.S.; Wood, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic helicity balance between the helicity input injected by a magnetized coaxial gun, the rate-of-change in plasma helicity content, and helicity dissipation in electrode sheaths and Ohmic losses have been examined in the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, and R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)]. Helicity is treated as a flux function in the mean-field approximation, allowing separation of helicity drive and losses between closed and open field volumes. For nearly sustained spheromak plasmas with low fluctuations, helicity balance analysis implies a decreasing transport of helicity from the gun input into the spheromak core at higher spheromak electron temperature. Long pulse discharges with continuously increasing helicity and larger fluctuations show higher helicity coupling from the edge to the spheromak core. The magnitude of the sheath voltage drop, inferred from cathode heating and a current threshold dependence of the gun voltage, shows that sheath losses are important and reduce the helicity injection efficiency in SSPX

  19. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  20. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis, E-mail: pablogm@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and Sede Andina—Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN), Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB-CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  1. THE FORMATION AND MAGNETIC STRUCTURES OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS OBSERVED BY NVST, SDO, AND HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Wang, J. C.; Xiang, Y. Y.; Kong, D. F.; Yang, L. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Pan, G. M. [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)

    2015-08-15

    To better understand the properties of solar active-region filaments, we present a detailed study on the formation and magnetic structures of two active-region filaments in active region NOAA 11884 during a period of four days. It is found that the shearing motion of the opposite magnetic polarities and the rotation of the small sunspots with negative polarity play an important role in the formation of two active-region filaments. During the formation of these two active-region filaments, one foot of the filaments was rooted in a small sunspot with negative polarity. The small sunspot rotated not only around another small sunspot with negative polarity, but also around the center of its umbra. By analyzing the nonlinear force-free field extrapolation using the vector magnetic fields in the photosphere, twisted structures were found in the two active-region filaments prior to their eruptions. These results imply that the magnetic fields were dragged by the shearing motion between opposite magnetic polarities and became more horizontal. The sunspot rotation twisted the horizontal magnetic fields and finally formed the twisted active-region filaments.

  2. Zipper plot: visualizing transcriptional activity of genomic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Cobos, Francisco; Anckaert, Jasper; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Everaert, Celine; Rombaut, Dries; Vandesompele, Jo; De Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter

    2017-05-02

    Reconstructing transcript models from RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data and establishing these as independent transcriptional units can be a challenging task. Current state-of-the-art tools for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) annotation are mainly based on evolutionary constraints, which may result in false negatives due to the overall limited conservation of lncRNAs. To tackle this problem we have developed the Zipper plot, a novel visualization and analysis method that enables users to simultaneously interrogate thousands of human putative transcription start sites (TSSs) in relation to various features that are indicative for transcriptional activity. These include publicly available CAGE-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing and DNase-sequencing datasets. Our method only requires three tab-separated fields (chromosome, genomic coordinate of the TSS and strand) as input and generates a report that includes a detailed summary table, a Zipper plot and several statistics derived from this plot. Using the Zipper plot, we found evidence of transcription for a set of well-characterized lncRNAs and observed that fewer mono-exonic lncRNAs have CAGE peaks overlapping with their TSSs compared to multi-exonic lncRNAs. Using publicly available RNA-seq data, we found more than one hundred cases where junction reads connected protein-coding gene exons with a downstream mono-exonic lncRNA, revealing the need for a careful evaluation of lncRNA 5'-boundaries. Our method is implemented using the statistical programming language R and is freely available as a webtool.

  3. Structural rearrangement of the intracellular domains during AMPA receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Linda Grønborg; Katchan, Ljudmila; Jensen, Anna Guldvang

    2016-01-01

    -clamp fluorometry of the double- and single-insert constructs showed that both the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) and the loop region between the M1 and M2 helices move during activation and the CTD is detached from the membrane. Our time-resolved measurements revealed unexpectedly complex fluorescence...

  4. Motion-induced dose artifacts in helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bryan; Chen, Jeff; Battista, Jerry [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (Canada); Kron, Tomas [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: bryan.kim@lhsc.on.ca

    2009-10-07

    Tumor motion is a particular concern for a complex treatment modality such as helical tomotherapy, where couch position, gantry rotation and MLC leaf opening all change with time. In the present study, we have investigated the impact of tumor motion for helical tomotherapy, which could result in three distinct motion-induced dose artifacts, namely (1) dose rounding, (2) dose rippling and (3) IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect. Dose rounding and dose rippling effects have been previously described, while the IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect is a newly discovered motion-induced dose artifact. Dose rounding is the penumbral widening of a delivered dose distribution near the edges of a target volume along the direction of tumor motion. Dose rippling is a series of periodic dose peaks and valleys observed within the target region along the direction of couch motion, due to an asynchronous interplay between the couch motion and the longitudinal component of tumor motion. The IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect is caused by an asynchronous interplay between the temporal patterns of leaf openings and tumor motion. The characteristics of each dose artifact were investigated individually as functions of target motion amplitude and period for both non-IMRT and IMRT helical tomotherapy cases, through computer simulation modeling and experimental verification. The longitudinal dose profiles generated by the simulation program agreed with the experimental data within {+-}0.5% and {+-}1.5% inside the PTV region for the non-IMRT and IMRT cases, respectively. The dose rounding effect produced a penumbral increase up to 20.5 mm for peak-to-peak target motion amplitudes ranging from 1.0 cm to 5.0 cm. Maximum dose rippling magnitude of 25% was calculated, when the target motion period approached an unusually high value of 10 s. The IMRT leaf opening asynchronization effect produced dose differences ranging from -29% to 7% inside the PTV region. This information

  5. The effects of activation procedures on regional cerebral blood flow in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, D.; Wolfson, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) can be measured using 133XE and collimated detectors. The radionuclide can be administered either by inhalation or intracarotid injection. Comparison of blood flow determinations at rest and during performance of an activity identifies those brain regions that become active during the performance of the activity. Relatively specific patterns of r-CBF are observed during hand movements, sensory stimulation, eye movements, speech, listening, and reading. Regional CBF changes during reasoning and memorization are less specific and less well characterized. It is clear that brain lesions affect r-CBF responses to various activities, but this effect has not been well correlated with functional deficits or recovery of function. Regional CBF measurement gives information about brain activity and the functional response to experimental manipulation. This approach may well add to our understanding of normal, as well as pathologic, brain functioning

  6. Helical CT of congenital ossicular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Hisato; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari

    2001-01-01

    Since January 1996 to December 2000, 26 cases of congenital ossicular anomaly could be diagnosed with helical CT. All cases were unilateral. In 8 patients with malformation of the external ear, CT showed malleoincudal fixation (n=5), malleoincudal fixation and deformed incuts long process (n=1), deformed incus long process (n=1), and partial fusion of malleus neck and incus long process (n=1). In 18 patients with normal external ear, CT showed defect of the incus long process (n=5), defect of both the incus long process and stapes superstructure (n=8, 2 patients with congenital cholesteatoma, 1 with hypoplastic oval window), defect of the stapes superstructure (n=2, 1 patient with oval window absence), defect of the malleus manubrium (n=1), ossification of the stampede's tendon (n=1), and monopod stapes (n=1). Helical CT can evaluate the auditory ossicular chain in detail and is useful for diagnosing congenital ossicular anomaly. (author)

  7. Weaving Knotted Vector Fields with Tunable Helicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Foster, David; Dennis, Mark R; Irvine, William T M

    2016-12-30

    We present a general construction of divergence-free knotted vector fields from complex scalar fields, whose closed field lines encode many kinds of knots and links, including torus knots, their cables, the figure-8 knot, and its generalizations. As finite-energy physical fields, they represent initial states for fields such as the magnetic field in a plasma, or the vorticity field in a fluid. We give a systematic procedure for calculating the vector potential, starting from complex scalar functions with knotted zero filaments, thus enabling an explicit computation of the helicity of these knotted fields. The construction can be used to generate isolated knotted flux tubes, filled by knots encoded in the lines of the vector field. Lastly, we give examples of manifestly knotted vector fields with vanishing helicity. Our results provide building blocks for analytical models and simulations alike.

  8. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, O B; Clarke, J A; Bailey, I R; Dainton, J B; Malysheva, L I; Barber, D P; Cooke, P; Baynham, E; Bradshaw, T; Brummitt, A; Carr, S; Ivanyushenkov, Y; Rochford, J; Moortgat-Pick, G A

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of ∼10MeV∼10MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of ∼100nTorr∼100nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4–6mm4–6mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100–200m100–200m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  9. Turbulent convective heat transfer of methane at supercritical pressure in a helical coiled tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Sun, Baokun; Lin, Wei; He, Fan; You, Yingqiang; Yu, Jiuyang

    2018-02-01

    The heat transfer of methane at supercritical pressure in a helically coiled tube was numerically investigated using the Reynolds Stress Model under constant wall temperature. The effects of mass flux ( G), inlet pressure ( P in) and buoyancy force on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Results show that the light fluid with higher temperature appears near the inner wall of the helically coiled tube. When the bulk temperature is less than or approach to the pseudocritical temperature ( T pc ), the combined effects of buoyancy force and centrifugal force make heavy fluid with lower temperature appear near the outer-right of the helically coiled tube. Beyond the T pc , the heavy fluid with lower temperature moves from the outer-right region to the outer region owing to the centrifugal force. The buoyancy force caused by density variation, which can be characterized by Gr/ Re 2 and Gr/ Re 2.7, enhances the heat transfer coefficient ( h) when the bulk temperature is less than or near the T pc , and the h experiences oscillation due to the buoyancy force. The oscillation is reduced progressively with the increase of G. Moreover, h reaches its peak value near the T pc . Higher G could improve the heat transfer performance in the whole temperature range. The peak value of h depends on P in. A new correlation was proposed for methane at supercritical pressure convective heat transfer in the helical tube, which shows a good agreement with the present simulated results.

  10. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    February 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to...300169 1 of 9 BUOYANT HELICAL TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is a divisional...application and claims the benefit of the filing date of United States Patent Application No. 14/280,889; filed on May 19, 2014; and entitled “Twin-Axial

  11. Molecular Dynamics with Helical Periodic Boundary Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kessler, Jiří; Bouř, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 21 (2014), s. 1552-1559 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551205; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : periodic boundary conditions * helical symmetry * molecular dynamics * protein structure * amyloid fibrils Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.589, year: 2014

  12. Simplification of the helical TEN2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, K.-H.

    1980-04-01

    The observation that the helical TEN2 laser can effectively be simplified by giving up the use of decoupling elements as well as by abolishing the segmentation of the electrode structure is examined. Although, as a consequence of this simplification, the operating pressure range was slightly decreased, the output power could be improved by roughly 30%, a result which is attributed to the new electrode geometry exhibiting lower inductance and lower damping losses.

  13. Field of a helical Siberian Snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.

  14. Helical waves in easy-plane antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Yuriy G.; Li, Xi-Lai; Xu, Xinyi; Kim, Ki Wook

    2017-12-01

    Effective spin torques can generate the Néel vector oscillations in antiferromagnets (AFMs). Here, it is theoretically shown that these torques applied at one end of a normal AFM strip can excite a helical type of spin wave in the strip whose properties are drastically different from characteristic spin waves. An analysis based on both a Néel vector dynamical equation and the micromagnetic simulation identifies the direction of magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor as the two key parameters determining the dynamics. Helical wave propagation requires the hard axis of the easy-plane AFM to be aligned with the traveling direction, while the damping limits its spatial extent. If the damping is neglected, the calculation leads to a uniform periodic domain wall structure. On the other hand, finite damping decelerates the helical wave rotation around the hard axis, ultimately causing stoppage of its propagation along the strip. With the group velocity staying close to spin-wave velocity at the wave front, the wavelength becomes correspondingly longer away from the excitation point. In a sufficiently short strip, a steady-state oscillation can be established whose frequency is controlled by the waveguide length as well as the excitation energy or torque.

  15. Helical CT in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Olivier; Leroy, Christophe; Sergent, Geraldine; Bulois, Philippe; Saint-Drenant, Sophie; Paris, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of helical CT in depicting the location of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A three-phase helical CT of the abdomen was performed in 24 patients referred for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis of the bleeding site was established by CT when there was at least one of the following criteria: spontaneous hyperdensity of the peribowel fat; contrast enhancement of the bowel wall; vascular extravasation of the contrast medium; thickening of the bowel wall; polyp or tumor; or vascular dilation. Diverticula alone were not enough to locate the bleeding site. The results of CT were compared with the diagnosis obtained by colonoscopy, enteroscopy, or surgery. A definite diagnosis was made in 19 patients. The bleeding site was located in the small bowel in 5 patients and the colon in 14 patients. The CT correctly located 4 small bowel hemorrhages and 11 colonic hemorrhages. Diagnosis of the primary lesion responsible for the bleeding was made in 10 patients. Our results suggest that helical CT could be a good diagnostic tool in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding to help the physician to diagnose the bleeding site. (orig.)

  16. Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Willen, Erich; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Jain, Animesh K; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Okamura, Masahiro; Plate, Stephen R; Roser, Thomas; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that t...

  17. Total scalp irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, Nigel; Jaradat, Hazim; Welsh, James; Tome, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Homogeneous irradiation of the scalp poses technical and dosimetric challenges due to the extensive, superficial, curved treatment volume. Conventional treatments on a linear accelerator use multiple matched electron fields or a combination of electron and photon fields. Problems with these techniques include dose heterogeneity in the target due to varying source-to-skin distance (SSD) and angle of beam incidence, significant dose to the brain, and the potential for overdose or underdose at match lines between the fields. Linac-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans have similar problems. This work presents treatment plans for total scalp irradiation on a helical tomotherapy machine. Helical tomotherapy is well-suited for scalp irradiation because it has the ability to deliver beamlets that are tangential to the scalp at all points. Helical tomotherapy also avoids problems associated with field matching and use of more than one modality. Tomotherapy treatment plans were generated and are compared to plans for treatment of the same patient on a linac. The resulting tomotherapy plans show more homogeneous target dose and improved critical structure dose when compared to state-of-the-art linac techniques. Target equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the best tomotherapy plan was slightly higher than for the linac plan, while the volume of brain tissue receiving over 30 Gy was reduced by two thirds. Furthermore, the tomotherapy plan can be more reliably delivered than linac treatments, because the patient is aligned prior to each treatment based on megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT)

  18. Determination of GMPE functional form for an active region with limited strong motion data: application to the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Ketan; Anbazhagan, P.

    2018-01-01

    Advancement in the seismic networks results in formulation of different functional forms for developing any new ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for a region. Till date, various guidelines and tools are available for selecting a suitable GMPE for any seismic study area. However, these methods are efficient in quantifying the GMPE but not for determining a proper functional form and capturing the epistemic uncertainty associated with selection of GMPE. In this study, the compatibility of the recent available functional forms for the active region is tested for distance and magnitude scaling. Analysis is carried out by determining the residuals using the recorded and the predicted spectral acceleration values at different periods. Mixed effect regressions are performed on the calculated residuals for determining the intra- and interevent residuals. Additionally, spatial correlation is used in mixed effect regression by changing its likelihood function. Distance scaling and magnitude scaling are respectively examined by studying the trends of intraevent residuals with distance and the trend of the event term with magnitude. Further, these trends are statistically studied for a respective functional form of a ground motion. Additionally, genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method are used respectively for calculating the hinge point and standard error for magnitude and distance scaling for a newly determined functional form. The whole procedure is applied and tested for the available strong motion data for the Himalayan region. The functional form used for testing are five Himalayan GMPEs, five GMPEs developed under NGA-West 2 project, two from Pan-European, and one from Japan region. It is observed that bilinear functional form with magnitude and distance hinged at 6.5 M w and 300 km respectively is suitable for the Himalayan region. Finally, a new regression coefficient for peak ground acceleration for a suitable functional form that governs the attenuation

  19. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Helical Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Nakajima, N.; Fukuyama, A.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Funaba, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Murakami, S.; Ida, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamada, H.

    2005-07-01

    Recent progress of computers (parallel/vector-parallel computers, PC clusters, for example) and numerical codes for helical plasmas like three-dimensional MHD equilibrium codes, combined with the development of the plasma diagnostics technique, enable us to do the detailed theoretical analyses of the individual experimental observations. Now, it is pointed out that the experimental data analysis from the viewpoints of integrated physics is an important issue to understand the confinement physics globally. In addition to that, there are international movements towards the integrated numerical simulation study. One is several proposals of integrated modeling of burning tokamak plasmas, motivated by the ITER activity. The integrated numerical simulation will be a good help to draw up new experimental plans especially for burning plasma experiments. Another movement is international collaborations on the confinement database and neoclassical transport in helical plasmas/stellarators. These backgrounds motivate us to start the development of the integrated simulation system which has a modular structure and user-friendly interfaces. The integrated simulation system, which is based on the hierarchical and multi-scale (time and space) modeling, will also be a platform for theoreticians to test their own model such as turbulent transport model. In this paper, we will show the strategy of developing the integrated simulation system and present status of the development. Especially, we discuss the modeling of the time evolution of the plasma net current profile, which is equivalent to the time evolution of the rotational transform profile, in the resistive time scale. (Author)

  20. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrodynamic studies of CNT nanofluids in helical coil heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita; Sharma, S. K.; Mital Gupta, Shipra; Kumar, Arinjay

    2017-12-01

    Helical coils are extensively used in several industrial processes such as refrigeration systems, chemical reactors, recovery processes etc to accommodate a large heat transfer area within a smaller space. Nanofluids are getting great attention due to their enhanced heat transfer capability. In heat transfer equipments, pressure drop is one of the major factors of consideration for pumping power calculations. So, the present work is aimed to study hydrodynamics of CNT nanofluids in helical coils. In this study, pressure drop characteristics of CNT nanofluid flowing inside horizontal helical coils are investigated experimentally. The helical coil to tube diameter was varied from 11.71 to 27.34 keeping pitch of the helical coil constant. Double distilled water was used as basefluid. SDBS and GA surfactants were added to stablilize CNT nanofluids. The volumetric fraction of CNT nanofluid was varied from 0.003 vol% to 0.051 vol%. From the experimental data, it was analyzed that the friction factor in helical coils is greater than that of straight tubes. Concentration of CNT in nanofluids also has a significant influence on the pressure drop/friction factor of helical coils. At a constant concentration of CNT, decreasing helical coil to tube diameter from 27.24 to 11.71, fanning friction factor of helical coil; f c increases for a constant value of p/d t. This increase in the value of fanning friction factor can be attributed to the secondary flow of CNT nanofluid in helical coils.

  2. Interplay of Chiral and Helical States in a Quantum Spin Hall Insulator Lateral Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M. R.; de Juan, F.; Ilan, R.; Fox, E. J.; Bestwick, A. J.; Mühlbauer, M.; Wang, J.; Ames, C.; Leubner, P.; Brüne, C.; Zhang, S. C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study the electronic transport across an electrostatically gated lateral junction in a HgTe quantum well, a canonical 2D topological insulator, with and without an applied magnetic field. We control the carrier density inside and outside a junction region independently and hence tune the number and nature of 1D edge modes propagating in each of those regions. Outside the bulk gap, the magnetic field drives the system to the quantum Hall regime, and chiral states propagate at the edge. In this regime, we observe fractional plateaus that reflect the equilibration between 1D chiral modes across the junction. As the carrier density approaches zero in the central region and at moderate fields, we observe oscillations in the resistance that we attribute to Fabry-Perot interference in the helical states, enabled by the broken time reversal symmetry. At higher fields, those oscillations disappear, in agreement with the expected absence of helical states when band inversion is lifted.

  3. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-11-15

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Definition of regional dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes means of the dispersive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Bykov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In article application of the dispersive analysis for an estimation of dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes from region of constant residing, age, sex and the disease diagnosis is considered.

  5. Oil Exploration and Ethnic Militia activities in the Niger Delta Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    dominant source of livelihood of the people in the region. The exploration .... ranging from freedom fighting and Nationalism to activities bordering on criminality. This paper .... a kind of private army whose members are enrolled on military lives ...

  6. Derivation of a regional active-optical reflectance sensor corn algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active-optical reflectance sensor (AORS) algorithms developed for in-season corn (Zea mays L.) N management have traditionally been derived using sub-regional scale information. However, studies have shown these previously developed AORS algorithms are not consistently accurate when used on a region...

  7. Internal transport barrier in tokamak and helical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Fujita, T.

    2018-03-01

    The differences and similarities between the internal transport barriers (ITBs) of tokamak and helical plasmas are reviewed. By comparing the characteristics of the ITBs in tokamak and helical plasmas, the mechanisms of the physics for the formation and dynamics of the ITB are clarified. The ITB is defined as the appearance of discontinuity of temperature, flow velocity, or density gradient in the radius. From the radial profiles of temperature, flow velocity, and density the ITB is characterized by the three parameters of normalized temperature gradient, R/{L}T, the location, {ρ }{ITB}, and the width, W/a, and can be expressed by ‘weak’ ITB (small R/{L}T) or ‘strong’ (large R/{L}T), ‘small’ ITB (small {ρ }{ITB}) or ‘large’ ITB (large {ρ }{ITB}), and ‘narrow’ (small W/a) or ‘wide’ (large W/a). Three key physics elements for the ITB formation, radial electric field shear, magnetic shear, and rational surface (and/or magnetic island) are described. The characteristics of electron and ion heat transport and electron and impurity transport are reviewed. There are significant differences in ion heat transport and electron heat transport. The dynamics of ITB formation and termination is also discussed. The emergence of the location of the ITB is sometimes far inside the ITB foot in the steady-state phase and the ITB region shows radial propagation during the formation of the ITB. The non-diffusive terms in momentum transport and impurity transport become more dominant in the plasma with the ITB. The reversal of the sign of non-diffusive terms in momentum transport and impurity transport associated with the formation of the ITB reported in helical plasma is described. Non-local transport plays an important role in determining the radial profile of temperature and density. The spontaneous change in temperature curvature (second radial derivative of temperature) in the ITB region is described. In addition, the key parameters of the control of the

  8. Complex active regions as the main source of extreme and large solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    A study of solar proton sources indicated that solar flare events responsible for ≥2000 pfu proton fluxes mostly occur in complex active regions (CARs), i.e., in transition structures between active regions and activity complexes. Different classes of similar structures and their relation to solar proton events (SPEs) and evolution, depending on the origination conditions, are considered. Arguments in favor of the fact that sunspot groups with extreme dimensions are CARs are presented. An analysis of the flare activity in a CAR resulted in the detection of "physical" boundaries, which separate magnetic structures of the same polarity and are responsible for the independent development of each structure.

  9. Organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the region: comparative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Igorevna Antipina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes the approach to evaluate the organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the regions in quantitative and qualitative indicators, as well as the method to calculate the assessment of regulatory support of this activity. It justifies the author’s approach of comparative efficiency evaluation of innovation legislation and regions’ innovation development level. The article gives the qualitative estimation of regulatory support of innovation development in the regions that are innovation leaders. It singles out key directions to develop regulatory support of innovation activity, which encourage RF subjects’ innovation activity

  10. A 3-Step Algorithm Using Region-Based Active Contours for Video Objects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Jehan-Besson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a 3-step algorithm for the automatic detection of moving objects in video sequences using region-based active contours. First, we introduce a very full general framework for region-based active contours with a new Eulerian method to compute the evolution equation of the active contour from a criterion including both region-based and boundary-based terms. This framework can be easily adapted to various applications, thanks to the introduction of functions named descriptors of the different regions. With this new Eulerian method based on shape optimization principles, we can easily take into account the case of descriptors depending upon features globally attached to the regions. Second, we propose a 3-step algorithm for detection of moving objects, with a static or a mobile camera, using region-based active contours. The basic idea is to hierarchically associate temporal and spatial information. The active contour evolves with successively three sets of descriptors: a temporal one, and then two spatial ones. The third spatial descriptor takes advantage of the segmentation of the image in intensity homogeneous regions. User interaction is reduced to the choice of a few parameters at the beginning of the process. Some experimental results are supplied.

  11. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-01-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb 3 Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb 3 Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb 3 Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary project was approved by the

  12. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-07

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb3Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb3Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary

  13. Edge transport barrier formation in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S; Minami, T; Oishi, T; Suzuki, C; Ida, K; Isobe, M; Yoshimura, Y; Nagaoka, K; Toi, K; Fujisawa, A; Akiyama, T; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, R; Kado, S; Matsuoka, K; Matsushita, H; Nakamura, K; Nakano, H; Nishimura, S; Nishiura, M; Ohshima, S; Shimizu, A; Takagi, S; Takahashi, C; Takeuchi, M; Yoshinuma, M

    2004-01-01

    The edge transport barrier (ETB) for particle transport is formed in the neutral beam (NB) heated hydrogen discharges in compact helical system (CHS). The transition to the ETB formation and the back transition are controlled by the heating power. The existence of the heating power threshold is confirmed and it is roughly proportional to the density. The Hα emission signal shows a clear drop at the transition (the timescale of signal decrease is ∼1 ms for the high heating power case). The ETB formation continues for the full duration of NB injection (100 ms) with a moderate level of radiation power loss. Local density profile measurement shows increase of the edge density and the movement of the density gradient region towards the edge

  14. Modelling of helical current filaments induced by LHW on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Michael; Denner, Peter; Liang, Yunfeng [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Zeng, Long [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Gong, Xianzu; Gan, Kaifu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Fukun; Qian, Jinping; Shen, Biao; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Gauthier, Eric [Association EURATOM-CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: the EAST Team

    2013-07-01

    Helical radiation belts have been observed in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the plasma during the application of lower hybrid wave (LHW) heating at the superconducting tokamak EAST. Modelled SOL field lines, starting in-front of the LHW antennas, show agreement in position and pitch angle to the experimental observed radiation belts. A splitting of the strike-line can be observed on the outer divertor plates during the application of LHW heating. Agreement in the comparison of the Mirnov coil signals and a modelled electric current flow along these SOL field lines was found. A lower hybrid current drive can induce such an electric current flow near the plasma edge. This electric current flow causes a change of the plasma topology which could result in the splitting of the strike-line as known from the application of resonant magnetic perturbation fields. Comparisons of modelled footprint structures and experimental observed heat load patterns in the divertor region are discussed.

  15. Solar and Stellar Active Regions:Cosmic laboratories for the study of Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahos, Loukas

    2008-01-01

    Solar active regions are driven dissipative dynamical systems. The turbulent convection zone forces new magnetic flux tubes to rise above the photosphere and shuffles the magnetic fields which are already above the photosphere. The driven 3D active region responds to the driver with the formation of Thin Current Sheets in all scales and releases impulsively energy, when special thresholds are met, on the form of nano-, micro-, flares and large scale coronal mass ejections. It has been documen...

  16. Economic method for helical gear flank surface characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulin, G.; Reavie, T.; Frazer, R. C.; Shaw, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Typically the quality of a gear pair is assessed based on simplified geometric tolerances which do not always correlate with functional performance. In order to identify and quantify functional performance based parameters, further development of the gear measurement approach is required. Methodology for interpolation of the full active helical gear flank surface, from sparse line measurements, is presented. The method seeks to identify the minimum number of line measurements required to sufficiently characterise an active gear flank. In the form ground gear example presented, a single helix and three profile line measurements was considered to be acceptable. The resulting surfaces can be used to simulate the meshing engagement of a gear pair and therefore provide insight into functional performance based parameters. Therefore the assessment of the quality can be based on the predicted performance in the context of an application.

  17. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. System assessment of helical reactors in comparison with tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Imagawa, S.; Muroga, T.; Sagara, A.; Okamura, S.

    2002-10-01

    A comparative assessment of tokamak and helical reactors has been performed using equivalent physics/engineering model and common costing model. Higher-temperature plasma operation is required in tokamak reactors to increase bootstrap current fraction and to reduce current-drive (CD) power. In helical systems, lower-temperature operation is feasible and desirable to reduce helical ripple transport. The capital cost of helical reactor is rather high, however, the cost of electricity (COE) is almost same as that of tokamak reactor because of smaller re-circulation power (no CD power) and less-frequent blanket replacement (lower neutron wall loading). The standard LHD-type helical reactor with 5% beta value is economically equivalent to the standard tokamak with 3% beta. The COE of lower-aspect ratio helical reactor is on the same level of high-β N tokamak reactors. (author)

  19. Differences in signal activation by LH and hCG are mediated by the LH/CG receptor`s extracellular hinge region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGrzesik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD, as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10 deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region s. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge region

  20. Differences in Signal Activation by LH and hCG are Mediated by the LH/CG Receptor's Extracellular Hinge Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Paul; Kreuchwig, Annika; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schuelein, Ralf; Kleinau, Gunnar; Gromoll, Joerg; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The human lutropin (hLH)/choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG) - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH) - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich-repeat domain (LRRD), as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting) mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone-induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10-deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge

  1. Differences in Signal Activation by LH and hCG are Mediated by the LH/CG Receptor’s Extracellular Hinge Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Paul; Kreuchwig, Annika; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schuelein, Ralf; Kleinau, Gunnar; Gromoll, Joerg; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The human lutropin (hLH)/choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG) – secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH) – produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor’s leucine-rich-repeat domain (LRRD), as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting) mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone-induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10-deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  3. Perceived built environment and physical activity in U.S. women by sprawl and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troped, Philip J; Tamura, Kosuke; Whitcomb, Heather A; Laden, Francine

    2011-11-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated relationships between the perceived built environment and physical activity among adults. However, little is known about whether these associations differ by U.S. region and level of urban sprawl. To examine associations between the perceived built environment and physical activity in U.S. women by region and urban sprawl. Nurses' Health Study II participants (N=68,968) completed four perceived neighborhood environment survey items in 2005. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with meeting physical activity recommendations, adjusting for demographic and weight-status variables, and stratifying by region and sprawl. Data analyses were completed in 2011. Perceived proximity to shops/stores was positively associated with physical activity across regions and levels of sprawl (ORs=1.21-1.46). Perceived access to recreation facilities was also a positive physical activity correlate in most region-sprawl strata, with strongest relationships found in the West (ORs=1.31-1.70). Perceived crime and presence of sidewalks did not show statistically significant associations with physical activity in most region-sprawl strata, although ORs for perceived crime showed a consistent pattern of negative associations (ORs=0.60-0.95). A higher number of positive environmental attributes was associated with a greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Findings indicate that perceived proximity to shops/stores and access to recreation facilities are important correlates of physical activity for women, irrespective of region or sprawl. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical simulation of an excited round jet under helical disturbances by three-dimensional discrete vortex method; Helical kakuran ni yoru reiki enkei funryu no uzuho simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, S.; Kiya, M.; Mochizuki, O. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-09-25

    The evolution of vortical structure in an impulsively started round jet has been studied numerically by means of a three-dimensional vortex blob method. The viscous diffusion of vorticity is approximated by a core spreading model originally proposed by Leonard (1980). The jet is forced by axisymmetric, helical and multiple disturbances. The multiple disturbances are combinations of two helical disturbances of the same mode rotating in the opposite directions. The multiple disturbances are found to enhance both the generation of small-scale structures and the growth rate of the jet. The small-scale structures have highly organized spatial distributions. The core spreading method is effective in aquiring the core overlapping in regions of high extensional rate of strain. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  6. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  7. FINE MAGNETIC FEATURES AND CHIRALITY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongqi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present fine magnetic features near the magnetic inversion line in the solar active region NOAA 10930. The high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained by Hinode allow detailed analyses around magnetic fibrils in the active region. The analyses are based on the fact that the electric current density can be divided into two components: the shear component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity and the twist component caused by the magnetic field twist. The relationships between magnetic field, electric current density, and its two components are examined. It is found that the individual magnetic fibrils are dominated by the current density component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity, while the large-scale magnetic region is generally dominated by the electric current component associated with the magnetic twist. The microstructure of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere is far from the force-free field. The current mainly flows around the magnetic flux fibrils in the active regions.

  8. Determination of 137Cs activities in soil samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Oe.; Belivermis, M.; Cotuk, Y.; Coskun, M.; Cayir, A.; Kuecer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 1 37Cs, 4 0K and physico-chemical parameters of soil samples collected from 99 sampling stations in the east and south of Marmara Region of Turkey were determined. The study region was divided into 20 x 20 km grids and soil samples collected randomly in each square from 0-5 cm surface layer. Activities were measured by means of multichannel gamma analyser provided with high purity germanium detector. Relations among 1 37Cs concentrations and physico-chemical parameters of soils and climatic factors of the region were evaluated. Arc View GIS version 3.1 was used mapping of study area. Distribution of radionuclide concentrations in the region illustrated with contour maps using Surfer 8.0 for Windows. The range of activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 4 0K were measured to be 0.92-153.72 and 69.24-1085.57 Bq/kg respectively

  9. Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B

    2011-01-01

    A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.

  10. Ratios of helicity amplitudes for exclusive ρ0 electroproduction on transversely polarized proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaenkov Serguei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ρ0-meson electroproduction is studied by the HERMES experiment, using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron/positron beam of HERA and a transversely polarized hydrogen target, in the kinematic region 1.0 GeV2 < Q2 < 7.0 GeV2, 3.0 GeV < W < 6.3 GeV, and −t′ < 0.4 GeV2. Using an unbinned maximum-likelihood method, 25 parameters are extracted. They determine the real and imaginary parts of the ratios of certain helicity amplitudes describing ρ0-meson production by a virtual photon, where the denominator is the dominant amplitude F012012${F_{0{1 \\over 2}}}_{0{1 \\over 2}}$. The latter is the nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitude, which describes the production of a longitudinal ρ0 meson by a longitudinal virtual photon. The transverse target polarization allows for the first time the extraction of ratios of a number of nucleon-helicity-flip amplitudes to F012012${F_{0{1 \\over 2}}}_{0{1 \\over 2}}$. The ratios of nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitudes are found to be in good agreement with those from the previous HERMES analysis.

  11. Neutronics Design of Helical Type DEMO Reactor FFHR-d1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Sagara, A.; Goto, T.; Yanagi, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Muroga, T., E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Neutronics design study has been performed in a newly started conceptual design activity for a helical type DEMO reactor FFHR-d1. Features of the FFHR-d1 design are enlargement of the basic configurations of reactor components and extrapolation of plasma parameters from those of the helical type plasma experimental machine Large Helical Device (LHD) to achieve the highest feasibility. From the neutronics point of view, a blanket space of FFHR-d1 is severely limited at the inboard of the torus. This is due to the core plasma position shifting to the inboard side under the confinement condition extrapolated from LHD. The first step of the neutronics investigation using the MCNP code has been performed with a simple torus model simulating thin inboard blanket space. A Flibe+Be/Ferritic steel breeding blanket showed preferable performances for both tritium breeding and shielding, and has been adapted as a reference blanket system for FFHR-d1. The investigations indicate that a combination of a 15 cm thick breeding blanket, 55 cm thick WC+B4C shield, i.e., the blanket space of 70 cm, could suppress the fast neutron flux and nuclear heating in the helical coils to the design targets for the neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m{sup 2}. Since the outboard side can provide a large space for a 60 cm thick breeding blanket, a fully-covered tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 1.31 has been obtained in the simple torus model. The neutronics design study has proceeded to the second step using a 3-D helical reactor model. The most important issue in the 3-D neutronics design is a compatibility with the helical divertor design. To achieve a higher TBR and shielding performance, the core plasma has to be covered by the breeding blanket layers as possible. However, the dimensions of the blanket layers are limited by magnetic field lines connecting an edge of the core plasma and divertor pumping ports. After repeating modification of the blanket configuration, the global TBR of 1

  12. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  13. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Acoustic Waves Near Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsue, Teresa; Pesnell, Dean; Hill, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Active region areas on the Sun are abundant with a variety of waves that are both acoustically helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic in nature. The occurrence of a solar flare can disrupt these waves, through MHD mode-mixing or scattering by the excitation of these waves. We take a multi-wavelength observational approach to understand the source of theses waves by studying active regions where flaring activity occurs. Our approach is to search for signals within a time series of images using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, by producing multi-frequency power map movies. We study active regions both spatially and temporally and correlate this method over multiple wavelengths using data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. By surveying the active regions on multiple wavelengths we are able to observe the behavior of these waves within the Solar atmosphere, from the photosphere up through the corona. We are able to detect enhancements of power around active regions, which could be acoustic power halos and of an MHD-wave propagating outward by the flaring event. We are in the initial stages of this study understanding the behaviors of these waves and could one day contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for their formation; that has not yet been explained.

  14. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  15. Alteration of helical vortex core without change in flow topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2011-01-01

    topology. The helical symmetry as such is preserved, although the characteristic parameters of helical symmetry of the vortex core transfer from a smooth linear variation to a different trend under the influence of a non-uniform pressure gradient, causing an increase in helical pitch without changing its......The abrupt expansion of the slender vortex core with changes in flow topology is commonly known as vortex breakdown. We present new experimental observations of an alteration of the helical vortex core in wall bounded turbulent flow with abrupt growth in core size, but without change in flow...

  16. Helicity conservation under quantum reconnection of vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L

    2015-12-01

    Here we show that under quantum reconnection, simulated by using the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, self-helicity of a system of two interacting vortex rings remains conserved. By resolving the fine structure of the vortex cores, we demonstrate that the total length of the vortex system reaches a maximum at the reconnection time, while both writhe helicity and twist helicity remain separately unchanged throughout the process. Self-helicity is computed by two independent methods, and topological information is based on the extraction and analysis of geometric quantities such as writhe, total torsion, and intrinsic twist of the reconnecting vortex rings.

  17. Superposition of helical beams by using a Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunqing; Qi, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yidong; Weber, Horst

    2010-01-04

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a helical beam is of great interests in the high density optical communication due to its infinite number of eigen-states. In this paper, an experimental setup is realized to the information encoding and decoding on the OAM eigen-states. A hologram designed by the iterative method is used to generate the helical beams, and a Michelson interferometer with two Porro prisms is used for the superposition of two helical beams. The experimental results of the collinear superposition of helical beams and their OAM eigen-states detection are presented.

  18. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  19. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R.; Singh, T.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  20. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasmas Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Singh, T.; Srivastava, A. K., E-mail: n.g.gyenge@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi (India)

    2017-03-20

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  1. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Singh, T.; Kiss, T. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Erdélyi, R.

    2017-03-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  2. Progress with helicity injection current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) experiments in the NSTX and HIT-II devices are reported. NSTX has produced toroidal currents of 0.4 MA and pulse lengths of up to 0.33 s. These discharges nearly fill the NSTX main chamber, and show the n=1 rotating distortion characteristic of high-performance CHI plasmas. CHI has been used in HIT-II to provide a closed flux startup plasma for inductive drive. The CHI startup method saves transformer volt-seconds and greatly improves reproducibility and reliability of inductively driven discharges, even in the presence of diminishing wall conditions. (author)

  3. Heat loss by helicity injection in spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented for spheromak buildup and decay including thermal diffusivity associated with magnetic turbulence during helicity injection. It is shown that heat loss by magnetic turbulence scales more favorably than gyroBohm transport. Thus gyroBohm scaling for the proposed ignition experiment would be the conservative choice, though present experiments may be dominated by magnetic turbulence. Because of a change in boundary conditions when the gun is turned off, the model may account for the observed increase in electron temperature in CTX after turnoff

  4. Rotation influence on the plasma helical instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, T.I.; Tsypin, V.S.; Boleslavskaya, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the rotation on helical instability of a plasma with the fixed boundaries (HIFB) is investigated taking into account the compressibility. A case of infinitely long cylinder with distributed current is considered. Cases when a rotating plasma is confined by current magnetic field are analytically considered. It is shown that in the case of the fixed boundary taking into account the compressibility in the HIFB increment increases and the picture of the rotation influence on HIFB considerably changes. Besides, it is shown that in the case of high plasma pressures HIFB can stabilize as a result of the rotation

  5. Evaluation of the functional activity of activated sludge from local waste water treatment plant in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of the activated sludge in the local wastewater treatment plant (LWTP and its ability to purify fully domestic sewage water in the Far North. Biochemical process of destruction of organic pollutants is influenced by a microbial complex functioning in aeration tanks. Taking into account climatic conditions of the region where the organic matter degradation processes are slowed, and lack of control over the operation, efficiency and occupational safety of LWTPs, it seems to be important to study the physiological characteristics of the bacteria used in bioremediation, and their ability to maximize the purifying domestic sewage in the Arctic region. Undue intervention in the biosphere systems leads to disruption of the balance of internal and external ecosystems communications. The goal of research is studying structural determination and functioning of activated sludge bacteriocenosis of LWTP TOPAS-5 (GK "Topol-ECO" in certain physical and chemical conditions of the habitat, and establishing completeness of cleaning process in this treatment plant. The paper considers the structure (quantitative and qualitative composition and function of LWTP activated sludge bacteriocenosis functioning in the Arctic region. The estimation of the activated sludge of full waste water treatment process of the LWTP has been given. The research's results have allowed to identify and determine the bacterial count of physiological groups of microorganisms purified domestic sewage; to isolate from activated sludge the bioflocculant-producing microorganisms' on the experimental medium; to evaluate efficiency of LWTP work in the Arctic region

  6. Positron-emission tomography of brain regions activated by recognition of familiar music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, M; Takeda, K; Nagata, K; Shimosegawa, E; Kuzuhara, S

    2006-05-01

    We can easily recognize familiar music by listening to only one or 2 of its opening bars, but the brain regions that participate in this cognitive processing remain undetermined. We used positron-emission tomography (PET) to study changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) that occur during listening to familiar music. We used a PET subtraction technique to elucidate the brain regions associated with the recognition of familiar melodies such as well-known nursery tunes. Nonmusicians performed 2 kinds of musical tasks: judging the familiarity of musical pieces (familiarity task) and detecting deliberately altered notes in the pieces (alteration-detecting task). During the familiarity task, bilateral anterior portions of bilateral temporal lobes, superior temporal regions, and parahippocampal gyri were activated. The alteration-detecting task bilaterally activated regions in the precunei, superior/inferior parietal lobules, and lateral surface of frontal lobes, which seemed to show a correlation with the analysis of music. We hypothesize that during the familiarity task, activated brain regions participate in retrieval from long-term memory and verbal and emotional processing of familiar melodies. Our results reinforced the hypothesis reported in the literature as a result of group and case studies, that temporal lobe regions participate in the recognition of familiar melodies.

  7. Electronic transport in single-helical protein molecules: Effects of multiple charge conduction pathways and helical symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.kunduphy@gmail.com; Karmakar, S.N.

    2016-07-15

    We propose a tight-binding model to investigate electronic transport properties of single helical protein molecules incorporating both the helical symmetry and the possibility of multiple charge transfer pathways. Our study reveals that due to existence of both the multiple charge transfer pathways and helical symmetry, the transport properties are quite rigid under influence of environmental fluctuations which indicates that these biomolecules can serve as better alternatives in nanoelectronic devices than its other biological counterparts e.g., single-stranded DNA.

  8. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  9. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Felipe Farias; Terezinha Maria Souza; Martônio Ponte Viana; Bruno Marques Soares; Arcelina Pacheco Cunha; Ilka Maria Vasconcelos; Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo; Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira; Vânia Maria Maciel Melo; Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardner...

  10. Improvement of Measurement and Evaluation of Regional Authorities Activity: Model and Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Elena Аleksandrovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of strategy of long-term social and economic development is a basis for effective functioning of executive authorities and the assessment of its efficiency in general. Modern theories of assessment of public administration productivity are guided by the process approach when it is expedient to carry out the formation of business processes of regional executive authorities according to strategic indicators of territorial development. In this regard, there is a problem of modeling of interrelation of indicators of social and economic development of the region and quantitative indices of results of business processes of executive authorities. At the first stage of modeling, two main directions of strategic development, namely innovative and investment activity of regional economic systems are considered. In this regard, the work presents the results of modeling the interrelation between the indicators of regional social and economic development and innovative and investment activity. Therefore, for carrying out the analysis, the social and economic system of the region is presented in space of the main indicators of social and economic development of the territory and indicators of innovative and investment activity. The analysis is made on values of the indicators calculated for regions of the Russian Federation during 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2011. It was revealed that strategic indicators of innovative and investment activity have the most significant impact on key signs of social and economic development.

  11. Formation of helical dislocations in ammonothermal GaN substrate by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horibuchi, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kimoto, Yasuji; Nishikawa, Koichi; Kachi, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    GaN substrate produced by the basic ammonothermal method and an epitaxial layer on the substrate was evaluated using synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and transmission electron microscopy. We revealed that the threading dislocations present in the GaN substrate are deformed into helical dislocations and the generation of the voids by heat treatment in the substrate for the first observation in the GaN crystal. These phenomena are formed by the interactions between the dislocations and vacancies. The helical dislocation was formed in the substrate region, and not in the epitaxial layer region. Furthermore, the evaluation of the influence of the dislocations on the leakage current of Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on the epitaxial layer is discussed. The dislocations did not affect the leakage current characteristics of the epitaxial layer. Our results suggest that the deformation of dislocations in the GaN substrate does not adversely affect the epitaxial layer. (paper)

  12. First results of closed helical divertor experiment in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.

    2012-11-01

    The baffle-structured closed Helical Divertor (CHD) is being constructed in LHD to actively control the edge plasma, which consists of ten discrete modules installed on inboard side of the torus. At this stage, two of ten modules have been constructed. In the initial experiments, performance of CHD was experimentally investigated, comparing with numerical expectations. During the continuous gas puffing discharge, it was observed the neutral pressure in the CHD was more than 10 times higher than that in the open HD, which agrees well with the numerical simulation. In the high density regime, indication of the divertor detachment was observed in CHD, which was caused by the high recycling and high density state in CHD. With a Penning discharge diagnostics, the neutral particle behaviour with different species was investigated. Little difference between hydrogen and helium was observed in transport property. (author)

  13. Photospheric Velocity Structures during the Emergence of Small Active Regions on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlystova, Anna; Toriumi, Shin

    2017-01-01

    We study the plasma flows in the solar photosphere during the emergence of two small active regions, NOAA 9021 and 10768. Using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory /Michelson Doppler Imager data, we find that the strong plasma upflows appear at the initial stage of active region formation, with maximum upflow velocities of −1650 and −1320 m s −1 . The structures with enhanced upflows have size ∼8 Mm in diameter, and they exist for 1–2 hr. The parameters of the enhanced upflows are consistent with those of the large active region NOAA 10488, which may suggest the possibility that the elementary emerging magnetic loops that appear at the earliest phase of active region formation have similar properties, irrespective of scales of active regions. Comparison between the observations and a numerical simulation of magnetic flux emergence shows a striking consistency. We find that the driving force of the plasma upflow is at first the gas pressure gradient and later the magnetic pressure gradient.

  14. Photospheric Velocity Structures during the Emergence of Small Active Regions on the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlystova, Anna [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Lermontov St., 126a, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Toriumi, Shin, E-mail: hlystova@iszf.irk.ru, E-mail: shin.toriumi@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We study the plasma flows in the solar photosphere during the emergence of two small active regions, NOAA 9021 and 10768. Using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory /Michelson Doppler Imager data, we find that the strong plasma upflows appear at the initial stage of active region formation, with maximum upflow velocities of −1650 and −1320 m s{sup −1}. The structures with enhanced upflows have size ∼8 Mm in diameter, and they exist for 1–2 hr. The parameters of the enhanced upflows are consistent with those of the large active region NOAA 10488, which may suggest the possibility that the elementary emerging magnetic loops that appear at the earliest phase of active region formation have similar properties, irrespective of scales of active regions. Comparison between the observations and a numerical simulation of magnetic flux emergence shows a striking consistency. We find that the driving force of the plasma upflow is at first the gas pressure gradient and later the magnetic pressure gradient.

  15. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal. - Highlights: • We use an econometric model as a tool for assessing the effects of regional policies on the development of economic activities related to the use of the sea and on the impact on the marine environment. • Through scenario simulation we provide strategic guidelines for policy makers and economic planners • The model features feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas.

  16. Local study of helical magnetorotational instability in viscous Keplerian disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    MahdaviGharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, regarding the recent detection of significant azimuthal magnetic field in some accretion disks such as protostellar (Donati et al. in Nature 438:466, 2005), the multi-fluid model has been employed to analysis the stability of Keplerian rotational viscous dusty plasma system in a current-free helical magnetic field structure. Using the fluid-Maxwell equations, the general dispersion relation of the excited modes in the system has been obtained by applying the local approximation method in the linear perturbation theory. The typical numerical analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the high-frequency regime shows that the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component in Keplerian flow has a considerable role in the stability conditions of the system. It also shows that the magnetic field helicity has a stabilization role against the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the system due to contraction of the unstable wavelength region and decreasing the maximum growth rate of the instability. In this sense, the stabilization role of the viscosity term is more considerable for HMRI (instability in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component) than the corresponding MRI (instability in the absence of azimuthal magnetic field component). Moreover, considering the discovered azimuthal magnetic field in these systems, the MRI can be arisen in the over-all range of dust grains construction values in contract with traditional MRI. This investigation can greatly contribute to better understanding the physics of some astrophysical phenomena, such as the main source of turbulence and angular momentum transport in protostellar and the other sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks, where the azimuthal magnetic field component in these systems can play a significant role.

  17. Phase diagram of structure of radial electric field in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2002-01-01

    A set of transport equations in toroidal helical plasmas is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the radial electric field. Multiple solutions of E r for the ambipolar condition induces domains of different electric polarities. A structure of the domain interface is analyzed and a phase diagram is obtained in the space of the external control parameters. The region of the reduction of the anomalous transport is identified. (author)

  18. Finite-β stabilization of a diffuse helical l = MHD equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.; Nuehrenberg, J.

    1975-04-01

    The stability of helically symmetric finite-β, l = 1 magnetohydrostatic equilibria with arbitrary pressure profile and vanishing longitudinal current is investigated by means of Mercier's criterion, a sufficient criterion by Lortz, Rebhan and Spies, and Shafranov's condition for a high-β magnetic well. The new finite-β effects are that 1) a magnetic well is created throughout the plasma region for 0.2 approximately [de

  19. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  20. Regional differences in commuting activities of inhabitants in the Tokyo metropolitan suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kawase

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to elucidate gender differences and regional differences of co-mmuting activities by inhabitants in Japanese metropolitan suburbs. I found the different parts by districts in the metropolitan suburb. Regional factors cause gender differences in commuting activities and result in regional differences: In residential areas, inhabitants who work in metropolitan centers occupy much of the population. In older built-up areas, there are many “local” persons. In rural areas, motorization is progressing because access to rail-roads has been inconvenient. These regional factors influence the behavioral characteristics of commuting by married men, married women, never married men and never married women.

  1. Neutrino helicity flips via electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaemers, K.J.F.; Gandhi, R.; Lattimer, J.M.; Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1989-01-01

    Electroweak mechanisms via which neutrinos may flip helicity are examined in detail. Exact and approximate expressions for a variety of flip processes relevant in astrophysics and cosmology, mediated by W, Z, and γ exchange, including their interference, are derived for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos (with emphasis on the former). It is shown that in general flip and nonflip cross sections differ by more than just a multiplicative factor of m/sub ν/ 2 /4E/sub ν/ 2 contrary to what might be expected and that this additional dependence on helicities can be significant. It is also shown that within the context of the standard model with massive neutrinos, for νe yields νe scattering, σ/sub Z//sup flip//σ/sub γ//sup flip/ ∼ 10 4 , independent of particle masses and energies to a good approximation. As an application, using some general considerations and the fact that the observed bar nu/sub e/ burst from SN 1987A lasted several seconds, these weak-interaction flip cross sections are used to rule out μ and tau neutrino masses above 30 keV. Finally, some other consequences for astrophysics in general and supernovae in particular are briefly discussed

  2. Helical type thermonuclear device and control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional helical type thermonuclear device, electric current flows in the toroidal direction under magnetic fields of helical coils and vertical magnetic coils, by which a circulating electric field is caused. Therefore, there is a problem that electrons as a seed are generated by cosmic rays, etc., the electrons are confined in a magnetic field boundary, are accelerated by the circulating electric field, to reach a high energy level, collide against structures in a vacuum vessel and emit a great amount of X-rays. Then, compensation coils for offsetting the magnetic fields generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils and the power source therefor are disposed at the positions opposing to each other on both sides of the vertical magnetic coils for controlling the variation coefficient rate of electric current upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils. Since the compensation coils also offset the magnetic field generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic field coils by this control, the circulating magnetic field is not caused in the vacuum vessel to reduce the X-ray radiation by electrons at high energy level. (N.H.)

  3. Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul M Bellan

    2001-01-01

    OAK-B135 The goal of the Caltech program is to determine how helicity injection works by investigating the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with magnetic relaxation. A new coaxial helicity injection source has been constructed and brought into operation. The key feature of this source is that it has maximum geometric simplicity. Besides being important for fusion research, this work also has astrophysical implications. Photos obtained using high-speed cameras show a clear sequence of events in the formation process. In particular, they show initial merging/reconnection processes, jet-like expansion, kinking, and separation of the plasma from the source. Various diagnostics have been developed, including laser induced fluorescence and soft x-ray detection using high speed diodes. Gas valves have been improved and a patent disclosure relating to puffed gas valves has been filed. Presentations on this work have been given in the form of invited talks at several university physics departments that were previously unfamiliar with laboratory plasma experiments

  4. On the motion of multiple helical vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D. H.; Boersma, J.

    2001-11-01

    The analysis of the self-induced velocity of a single helical vortex (Boersma & Wood 1999) is extended to include equally spaced multiple vortices. This arrangement approximates the tip vortices in the far wake of multi-bladed wind turbines, propellers, or rotors in ascending, descending, or hovering flight. The problem is reduced to finding, from the Biot Savart law, the additional velocity of a helix due to an identical helix displaced azimuthally. The resulting Biot Savart integral is further reduced to a Mellin Barnes integral representation which allows the asymptotic expansions to be determined for small and for large pitch. The Biot Savart integral is also evaluated numerically for a total of two, three and four vortices over a range of pitch values. The previous finding that the self-induced velocity at small pitch is dominated by a term inversely proportional to the pitch carries over to multiple vortices. It is shown that a far wake dominated by helical tip vortices is consistent with the one-dimensional representation that leads to the Betz limit on the power output of wind turbines. The small-pitch approximation then allows the determination of the blade&s bound vorticity for optimum power extraction. The present analysis is shown to give reasonable estimates for the vortex circulation in experiments using a single hovering rotor and a four-bladed propeller.

  5. Perspectives on confinement in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae

    1989-01-01

    A review on recent experimental results and theoretical models on anomalous transport and density limit in toroidal helical devices is presented. Importance of transport problems is discussed. Experiments on Heliotron-E, Wendelstein-VIIA and new devices, i.e., ATF, Wendelstein-VIIAS and CHS, are reviewed and an overview on confinement property is given. From recent experimental results one sees that there are anomalous transport, which increases with temperature, and density limit, and that they limit the energy confinement time as well as the attainable beta value. The confinement characteristics of the scrape off layer plasma and loss cone loss are discussed, and perspectives on the high temperature plasma are given. These anomalous transport and density limit will be difficult obstacles in realizing a reactor grade plasma in helical systems. It is an urgent task to draw a realistic picture of the confinement based on the present data base. The relevant knowledge now would be critically essential for the successful development of the research in 1990's. (author) 102 refs

  6. Neutrino helicity reversal and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentschura, U D; Wundt, B J

    2014-01-01

    A rather elusive helicity reversal occurs in a gedanken experiment in which a massive left-handed Dirac neutrino, traveling at a velocity u < c, is overtaken on a highway by a speeding vehicle (traveling at velocity v with u < v < c). Namely, after passing the neutrino, looking back, one would see a right-handed neutrino (which has never been observed in nature). The Lorentz-invariant mass of the right-handed neutrino is still the same as before the passing. The gedanken experiment thus implies the existence of right-handed, light neutrinos, which are not completely sterile. Furthermore, overtaking a bunch of massive right-handed Dirac neutrinos leads to gradual de-sterilization. We discuss the helicity reversal and the concomitant sterilization and de-sterilization mechanisms by way of an illustrative example calculation, with a special emphasis on massive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. We contrast the formalism with a modified Dirac neutrino described by a Dirac equation with a pseudoscalar mass term proportional to the fifth current. (paper)

  7. Quality assurance of a helical tomotherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J D; Tome, W A; Jaradat, H A; Hui, S K; James, J A; Balog, J P; DeSouza, C N; Lucas, D B; Olivera, G H; Mackie, T R; Paliwal, B R

    2004-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy has been developed at the University of Wisconsin, and 'Hi-Art II' clinical machines are now commercially manufactured. At the core of each machine lies a ring-gantry-mounted short linear accelerator which generates x-rays that are collimated into a fan beam of intensity-modulated radiation by a binary multileaf, the modulation being variable with gantry angle. Patients are treated lying on a couch which is translated continuously through the bore of the machine as the gantry rotates. Highly conformal dose-distributions can be delivered using this technique, which is the therapy equivalent of spiral computed tomography. The approach requires synchrony of gantry rotation, couch translation, accelerator pulsing and the opening and closing of the leaves of the binary multileaf collimator used to modulate the radiation beam. In the course of clinically implementing helical tomotherapy, we have developed a quality assurance (QA) system for our machine. The system is analogous to that recommended for conventional clinical linear accelerator QA by AAPM Task Group 40 but contains some novel components, reflecting differences between the Hi-Art devices and conventional clinical accelerators. Here the design and dosimetric characteristics of Hi-Art machines are summarized and the QA system is set out along with experimental details of its implementation. Connections between this machine-based QA work, pre-treatment patient-specific delivery QA and fraction-by-fraction dose verification are discussed

  8. Role of regional policies in promoting networking and innovation activity of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsi Mukkala; Jari Ritsilä

    2004-01-01

    The success of firms and regions is increasingly defined by their innovation and learning capabilities. It has been emphasized in several studies that a local operational environment may have a positive impact on innovation activity of firms. From policy point of view, the relationship between firms and their local environment is an important research topic. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether there is a demand for regional policy makers in promoting innovative and networking acti...

  9. Seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in tropical and temperate regions of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J

    2016-02-11

    Thunderstorms are convective systems characterised by the occurrence of lightning. Lightning and thunderstorm activity has been increasingly studied in recent years in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and various other large-scale modes of atmospheric and oceanic variability. Large-scale modes of variability can sometimes be predictable several months in advance, suggesting potential for seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in various regions throughout the world. To investigate this possibility, seasonal lightning activity in the world's tropical and temperate regions is examined here in relation to numerous different large-scale modes of variability. Of the seven modes of variability examined, ENSO has the strongest relationship with lightning activity during each individual season, with relatively little relationship for the other modes of variability. A measure of ENSO variability (the NINO3.4 index) is significantly correlated to local lightning activity at 53% of locations for one or more seasons throughout the year. Variations in atmospheric parameters commonly associated with thunderstorm activity are found to provide a plausible physical explanation for the variations in lightning activity associated with ENSO. It is demonstrated that there is potential for accurately predicting lightning and thunderstorm activity several months in advance in various regions throughout the world.

  10. An efficient and low resistant circumferential overlap trisection helical baffle heat exchanger with folded baffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Cong; Li, Dongshuang; Zheng, Youqu; Li, Guoneng; Suo, Yange; Chen, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel cothHXf with circumferential overlap and folded baffles is first proposed. • The key sections of cylindrical and dumbbell are constructed to analyze local flow field characteristics. • The restricted leakage, easier to install and low resistant characteristics are emphasized. • The enhanced heat transfer mechanism of Dean Vortex secondary flow is analyzed. • A variety of comprehensive efficiency assessments are used. - Abstract: An efficient and low resistant circumferential overlap trisection helical baffle shell-and-tube heat exchanger with folded baffles (cothHXf) is presented. It is a modified trisection helical baffle heat exchanger with folded helical baffles for setting rods-and-spanning sleeves. It not only inherits all the merits of circumferential overlap helical baffle scheme, but also adds many additional advantages, such as supporting the inclined baffles with the least rods, simplifying the manufacturing process of spanning tubes and effectively inhibiting the reverse leakage at triangular areas between adjacent baffles. The improved flow characteristic and heat transfer enhancement mechanism of this heat exchanger were numerically investigated in comparison with conventional segmental baffles shell-and-tube heat exchanger (segHX). The flow fields within triangular area of adjacent baffles and nearby regions were depicted. The impacts of the folded baffles on shell-side helical flow, secondary vortex flow, and leakage pattern were analyzed. The distribution configurations of fields of velocity, pressure, temperature and local heat flow rate were revealed. The results show that the heat transfer performance and comprehensive performance evaluation indexes of the cothHXf are much better than those of the segHX while the pressure drop of the cothHXf is much lower than that of the segHX. The numerical simulation results of vivid distributions of flow and thermal fields of the cothHXf can provide theoretical basis for an

  11. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Céspedes

    Full Text Available Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high α-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the α-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-γ by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the α-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.

  12. Gating-by-rotation: a solution to the problem of intratreatment motion in helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatoes, J.M.; Olivera, G.H.; Schloesser, E.A.; Pearson, D.W.; Balog, J.P.; Ruchala, K.J.; Schmidt, R.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Mehta, M.P.; Mackie, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of addressing intratreatment motion issues in helical tomotherapy by gating the treatments by rotation. Intratreatment motion is a problem common to all IMRT techniques. Traditional methods of gating in conformal radiotherapy and some forms of IMRT are not applicable to helical tomotherapy due to the continuous rotation of the gantry. An alternative method is presented. Materials and Methods: Rotation-gating in helical tomotherapy is the process in which one rotation of treatment is immediately followed by a rotation of non-treatment. This on-off strategy is repeated for the full treatment volume. During the treatment rotations, the patient is required to hold their breath while the intensity-modulated fan beam deposits dose. For the non-treatment rotations, the patient is allowed to breathe freely as all leaves of the MLC will be closed, the accelerator disabled, or both. The couch indexes normally for treatment rotations and holds the patient stationary during non-treatment rotations. An investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of rotation-gating. Film was placed between two hemispheres of a water phantom and a continuous helical delivery was carried out with all leaves opened. The film was replaced and another treatment was performed employing rotation-gating. The two films were compared to assess the process. The films were irradiated to dose levels within the linear region of the film response curve (maximum film dose ∼35 cGy). Films were also acquired with all leaves closed to quantify leakage dose through the collimation systems. Results: Central profiles for the inferior-superior direction (parallel to the direction of translation) for both films are displayed in Figure 1. The profiles agree very well, illustrating that a rotation-gated treatment closely mimics a continuous helical delivery. The only significant discrepancy lay in the tails of the profiles: a higher film dose is seen for the rotation

  13. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  14. On the relation of Hsub(α) plage brightness variations in solar active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogir', M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The variations of hydrogen plage brightnesses in seven spot groups belonging to five active regions are discussed. The observations were made on the Crimean observatory coronograph in 1974 and 1977. The correlation in brightness variations of plages situated in the regions of growing magnetic field was obtained. This was observed in the plages on one spot group as well as in the different groups removing on about 27x10 4 km. In developed groups correlations are mainly seen within a spot group and they are expressed better during flares. The correlations of brightnesses are changing during the active region evolution. Three days observations showed good brightness correlations of all plages in the growing magnetic field region and their decrease that can be explained by the field weakening during natural active region evolution or by the strong flare influence. The existence of the simultaneous variations of brightness in the regions with the growing magnetic field speaks in favour of the simultaneous carring-out of magnetic field or its disturbances into the chromosphere [ru

  15. The Stimulating Mechanisms Of Regional Economic Activity In Spain: Lessous For Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Seredinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is a country that traditionally suffers a lot from high level of regional disparities. From the end of XX century Spanish government has taken different measures to smooth them. For example, the state of autonomies was established, statutes were approved for every region, more powers were transferred to regional authorities. There are several institutions in Spain that increase the efficiency of cooperation between different levels of authorities and between autonomies, such as conference of the presidents, sectoral conferences, agreements on cooperation and bilateral commissions. Activity of these mechanisms is of a great interest for the author. The author tries to find the ways to modernize Russian regional policy using Spanish experience, considering its pros and cons. Undoubtedly it is impossible to copy other countries practice as Russia and Spain differ a lot, for example, in size, population, the level of socialeconomic development and the supply of mineral resources. Still there is something in common, like high level of regional disparities and amount of authorities the territories obtain. Even though Spain is a unitary state, its autonomies are quite independent. Territorial status of the country is a hybrid between unitary and federative state. Its institutional structure of regional policy is pretty diversified. So both these aspects are worth considering. Regional policy is one the most important directions of the state activity in Russia, because of its extensive territories. Today Russia has to face a number of regional challenges and regional policy cannot cope with them. The growing territorial polarization slow down the development of the whole country. It is useful to analyze foreign institutions, which solve regional problems in the other states, to adapt their practice to the Russian realities.

  16. Altered spontaneous brain activity in adolescent boys with pure conduct disorder revealed by regional homogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaocui; Dong, Daifeng; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in several brain regions of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) performing various tasks. However, little is known about the spontaneous neural activity in people with CD in a resting state. The aims of this study were to investigate CD-associated regional activity abnormalities and to explore the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and regional activity abnormalities. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were administered to 28 adolescents with CD and 28 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HCs). The rs-fMRI data were subjected to regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. ReHo can demonstrate the temporal synchrony of regional blood oxygen level-dependent signals and reflect the coordination of local neuronal activity facilitating similar goals or representations. Compared to HCs, the CD group showed increased ReHo bilaterally in the insula as well as decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus, left anterior cerebellum anterior, and right posterior cerebellum. In the CD group, mean ReHo values in the left and the right insula correlated positively with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) total scores. The results suggest that CD is associated with abnormal intrinsic brain activity, mainly in the cerebellum and temporal-parietal-limbic cortices, regions that are related to emotional and cognitive processing. BIS scores in adolescents with CD may reflect severity of abnormal neuronal synchronization in the insula.

  17. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  18. Energy fluxes in helical magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... large-scale magnetic field arising due to non-helical interactions and (2) inverse energy flux of magnetic energy caused by helical interactions. Based on our flux results, a primitive model for galactic dynamo has been constructed. Our calculations yield dynamo time-scale for a typical galaxy to be of the order of 108 years.

  19. Alpha-Effect, Current and Kinetic Helicities for Magnetically Driven ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Key words. Sun—dynamo, helicity, turbulent convection. Extended abstract. Recent numerical simulations lead to the result that turbulence is much more mag- netically driven than believed. ... positive (and negative in the northern hemisphere), this being just opposite to what occurs for the current helicity which is negative ...

  20. Space vehicle electromechanical system and helical antenna winding fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Guenther, David; Enemark, Donald; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven

    2017-12-26

    A space vehicle electromechanical system may employ an architecture that enables convenient and practical testing, reset, and retesting of solar panel and antenna deployment on the ground. A helical antenna winding fixture may facilitate winding and binding of the helical antenna.

  1. Low-energy properties of fractional helical Luttinger liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, T.; Fritz, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371569559; Schuricht, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284690; Loss, D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the low-energy properties of (quasi) helical and fractional helical Luttinger liquids. In particular, we calculate the Drude peak of the optical conductivity, the density of states, as well as charge transport properties of the interacting system with and without attached Fermi liquid

  2. A helical naphthopyran dopant for photoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yuna; Frigoli, Michel; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The first photoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystal comprising a photoisomerizable helical naphthopyran derivative dopant and a nematic liquid crystal is reported. An unprecedented helical twisting power switching ratio of over 90% allowed us to demonstrate multi-cycle rotational motion of micro-objects by UV light irradiation.

  3. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  4. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V V; Savelyev, A V; Zhukov, A E; Omelchenko, A V; Maximov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value

  5. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value.

  6. Forward modeling transient brightenings and microflares around an active region observed with Hi-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobelski, Adam R. [Now at National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); McKenzie, David E., E-mail: kobelski@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 173840, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Small-scale flare-like brightenings around active regions are among the smallest and most fundamental of energetic transient events in the corona, providing a testbed for models of heating and active region dynamics. In a previous study, we modeled a large collection of these microflares observed with Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) using EBTEL and found that they required multiple heating events, but could not distinguish between multiple heating events on a single strand, or multiple strands each experiencing a single heating event. We present here a similar study, but with extreme-ultraviolet data of Active Region 11520 from the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket. Hi-C provides an order of magnitude improvement to the spatial resolution of XRT, and a cooler temperature sensitivity, which combine to provide significant improvements to our ability to detect and model microflare activity around active regions. We have found that at the spatial resolution of Hi-C (≈0.''3), the events occur much more frequently than expected (57 events detected, only 1 or 2 expected), and are most likely made from strands of the order of 100 km wide, each of which is impulsively heated with multiple heating events. These findings tend to support bursty reconnection as the cause of the energy release responsible for the brightenings.

  7. Exact Reconstruction From Uniformly Attenuated Helical Cone-Beam Projections in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Grant T.; Huang, Qiu; You, Jiangsheng; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the development of cone-beam reconstruction algorithms has been an active research area in x-ray computed tomography (CT), and significant progress has been made in the advancement of algorithms. Theoretically exact and computationally efficient analytical algorithms can be found in the literature. However, in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), published cone-beam reconstruction algorithms are either approximate or involve iterative methods. The SPECT reconstruction problem is more complicated due to degradations in the imaging detection process, one of which is the effect of attenuation of gamma ray photons. Attenuation should be compensated for to obtain quantitative results. In this paper, an analytical reconstruction algorithm for uniformly attenuated cone-beam projection data is presented for SPECT imaging. The algorithm adopts the DBH method, a procedure consisting of differentiation and backprojection followed by a finite inverse cosh-weighted Hilbert transform. The significance of the proposed approach is that a selected region of interest can be reconstructed even with a detector with a reduced field of view. The algorithm is designed for a general trajectory. However, to validate the algorithm, a numerical study was performed using a helical trajectory. The implementation is efficient and the simulation result is promising

  8. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity diagnostics for the quality of NLFF field extrapolations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  9. Stimuli-Directed Helical Chirality Inversion and Bio-Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Lv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Helical structure is a sophisticated ubiquitous motif found in nature, in artificial polymers, and in supramolecular assemblies from microscopic to macroscopic points of view. Significant progress has been made in the synthesis and structural elucidation of helical polymers, nevertheless, a new direction for helical polymeric materials, is how to design smart systems with controllable helical chirality, and further use them to develop chiral functional materials and promote their applications in biology, biochemistry, medicine, and nanotechnology fields. This review summarizes the recent progress in the development of high-performance systems with tunable helical chirality on receiving external stimuli and discusses advances in their applications as drug delivery vesicles, sensors, molecular switches, and liquid crystals. Challenges and opportunities in this emerging area are also presented in the conclusion.

  10. Helicity conservation and twisted Seifert surfaces for superfluid vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hayder

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the continuum definition of helicity, we derive from first principles its different contributions for superfluid vortices. Our analysis shows that an internal twist contribution emerges naturally from the mathematical derivation. This reveals that the spanwise vector that is used to characterize the twist contribution must point in the direction of a surface of constant velocity potential. An immediate consequence of the Seifert framing is that the continuum definition of helicity for a superfluid is trivially zero at all times. It follows that the Gauss-linking number is a more appropriate definition of helicity for superfluids. Despite this, we explain how a quasi-classical limit can arise in a superfluid in which the continuum definition for helicity can be used. This provides a clear connection between a microscopic and a macroscopic description of a superfluid as provided by the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov equations. This leads to consistency with the definition of helicity used for classical vortices.

  11. High performance operational limits of tokamak and helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The plasma operational boundaries of tokamak and helical systems are surveyed and compared with each other. Global confinement scaling laws are similar and gyro-Bohm like, however, local transport process is different due to sawtooth oscillations in tokamaks and ripple transport loss in helical systems. As for stability limits, achievable tokamak beta is explained by ideal or resistive MHD theories. On the other hand, beta values obtained so far in helical system are beyond ideal Mercier mode limits. Density limits in tokamak are often related to the coupling between radiation collapse and disruptive MHD instabilities, but the slow radiation collapse is dominant in the helical system. The pulse length of both tokamak and helical systems is on the order of hours in small machines, and the longer-pulsed good-confinement plasma operations compatible with radiative divertors are anticipated in both systems in the future. (author)

  12. On Helical Projection and Its Application in Screw Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riliang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As helical surfaces, in their many and varied forms, are finding more and more applications in engineering, new approaches to their efficient design and manufacture are desired. To that end, the helical projection method that uses curvilinear projection lines to map a space object to a plane is examined in this paper, focusing on its mathematical model and characteristics in terms of graphical representation of helical objects. A number of interesting projective properties are identified in regard to straight lines, curves, and planes, and then the method is further investigated with respect to screws. The result shows that the helical projection of a cylindrical screw turns out to be a Jordan curve, which is determined by the screw's axial profile and number of flights. Based on the projection theory, a practical approach to the modeling of screws and helical surfaces is proposed and illustrated with examples, and its possible application in screw manufacturing is discussed.

  13. A BPF-FBP tandem algorithm for image reconstruction in reverse helical cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungryong; Xia, Dan; Pellizzari, Charles A.; Pan Xiaochuan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Reverse helical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a scanning configuration for potential applications in image-guided radiation therapy in which an accurate anatomic image of the patient is needed for image-guidance procedures. The authors previously developed an algorithm for image reconstruction from nontruncated data of an object that is completely within the reverse helix. The purpose of this work is to develop an image reconstruction approach for reverse helical CBCT of a long object that extends out of the reverse helix and therefore constitutes data truncation. Methods: The proposed approach comprises of two reconstruction steps. In the first step, a chord-based backprojection-filtration (BPF) algorithm reconstructs a volumetric image of an object from the original cone-beam data. Because there exists a chordless region in the middle of the reverse helix, the image obtained in the first step contains an unreconstructed central-gap region. In the second step, the gap region is reconstructed by use of a Pack-Noo-formula-based filteredbackprojection (FBP) algorithm from the modified cone-beam data obtained by subtracting from the original cone-beam data the reprojection of the image reconstructed in the first step. Results: The authors have performed numerical studies to validate the proposed approach in image reconstruction from reverse helical cone-beam data. The results confirm that the proposed approach can reconstruct accurate images of a long object without suffering from data-truncation artifacts or cone-angle artifacts. Conclusions: They developed and validated a BPF-FBP tandem algorithm to reconstruct images of a long object from reverse helical cone-beam data. The chord-based BPF algorithm was utilized for converting the long-object problem into a short-object problem. The proposed approach is applicable to other scanning configurations such as reduced circular sinusoidal trajectories.

  14. Comprehensive Assessment of Integration Activity of Business Structures in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gennad’evna Karelina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic sanctions and growing international isolation, the research into regional differences in integration development acquires special relevance for Russia; this fact determines the need for a comprehensive assessment of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions. The diversity of approaches to the study of problems and prospects of economic integration and the current debate about the role of integration processes in the development of regional economies determined a comprehensive approach to the concepts of “integration” and “integration activity” in order to create objective prerequisites for analyzing integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The information base of the research is the data of Russian information and analytical agencies. The tools used in the research include methods for analyzing structural changes, methods for analyzing economic differentiation and concentration, nonparametric statistics methods, and econometric analysis methods. The first part of the paper shows that socio-economic development in constituent entities of Russia is closely connected with the operation of integrated business structures located on their territory. Having studied the structure and dynamics of integration activity, we reveal the growing heterogeneity of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions. The hypothesis about significant divergence of mergers and acquisitions for corporate structures in Russian regions was confirmed by high values of the Gini coefficient, the Herfindahl index and the decile differentiation coefficient. The second part of the paper contains a comparative analysis and proposes an econometric approach to the measurement of integration activity of business structures in subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of integral synthetic categories. The approach we propose focuses on the development of a system of indicators

  15. Patterns of uterine enhancement with helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, H.; Loyer, E.M.; Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Box 57, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Minami, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enhancement characteristics of the normal uterine body and cervix using dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT. Methods: Thirty-eight women scheduled for pelvic CT for non-gynecologic malignancies underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT of the pelvis. Data acquisition was during the arterial phase (30-45 s after the start of injection), the parenchymal phase (90-120 s after the start of injection), and delayed phase (3-9 min after the start of injection). The images were evaluated by four radiologists for the pattern of myometrial and cervical enhancement. Correlation was made with the age and menstrual status of the patients. Results: In the uterine body, three types of enhancement were observed. Type 1 enhancement, seen in 16 patients (42%), was characterized by the visualization of a subendometrial zone of enhancement, 30-120 s after the start of injection. Eight of these patients also showed an enhancing zone in the outer myometrium. Both zones were transitory, and in all cases, the uterus became homogeneous in the delayed phase. This pattern was seen predominantly in premenopausal women with a mean age of 34 years. Type 2 enhancement, seen in 17 cases (45%), was defined by the absence of subendometrial enhancement in the early phase. Enhancement was either diffuse from the outset or originated in the outer myometrium. This pattern was seen nearly equally in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with a mean age of 40 years. Type 3 enhancement was seen in five postmenopausal patients (13%) with a mean age of 53 years and was characterized by faint diffuse enhancement. In the cervix, a zonal pattern of enhancement defining inner and outer stroma was seen in 23 patients (61%). Fifteen patients were premenopausal and eight were postmenopausal. Conclusion: In this study, we have shown a transitory zonal distribution of the contrast in the myometrium and cervix using dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT

  16. Patterns of uterine enhancement with helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, H.; Loyer, E.M.; Charnsangavej, C.; Minami, M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enhancement characteristics of the normal uterine body and cervix using dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT. Methods: Thirty-eight women scheduled for pelvic CT for non-gynecologic malignancies underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT of the pelvis. Data acquisition was during the arterial phase (30-45 s after the start of injection), the parenchymal phase (90-120 s after the start of injection), and delayed phase (3-9 min after the start of injection). The images were evaluated by four radiologists for the pattern of myometrial and cervical enhancement. Correlation was made with the age and menstrual status of the patients. Results: In the uterine body, three types of enhancement were observed. Type 1 enhancement, seen in 16 patients (42%), was characterized by the visualization of a subendometrial zone of enhancement, 30-120 s after the start of injection. Eight of these patients also showed an enhancing zone in the outer myometrium. Both zones were transitory, and in all cases, the uterus became homogeneous in the delayed phase. This pattern was seen predominantly in premenopausal women with a mean age of 34 years. Type 2 enhancement, seen in 17 cases (45%), was defined by the absence of subendometrial enhancement in the early phase. Enhancement was either diffuse from the outset or originated in the outer myometrium. This pattern was seen nearly equally in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with a mean age of 40 years. Type 3 enhancement was seen in five postmenopausal patients (13%) with a mean age of 53 years and was characterized by faint diffuse enhancement. In the cervix, a zonal pattern of enhancement defining inner and outer stroma was seen in 23 patients (61%). Fifteen patients were premenopausal and eight were postmenopausal. Conclusion: In this study, we have shown a transitory zonal distribution of the contrast in the myometrium and cervix using dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT

  17. Contextual Multi-Scale Region Convolutional 3D Network for Activity Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng

    2018-01-28

    Activity detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Detecting activities of different temporal scales is particularly challenging. In this paper, we propose the contextual multi-scale region convolutional 3D network (CMS-RC3D) for activity detection. To deal with the inherent temporal scale variability of activity instances, the temporal feature pyramid is used to represent activities of different temporal scales. On each level of the temporal feature pyramid, an activity proposal detector and an activity classifier are learned to detect activities of specific temporal scales. Temporal contextual information is fused into activity classifiers for better recognition. More importantly, the entire model at all levels can be trained end-to-end. Our CMS-RC3D detector can deal with activities at all temporal scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. We test our detector on two public activity detection benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. Extensive experiments show that the proposed CMS-RC3D detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on THUMOS14 by a substantial margin and achieves comparable results on ActivityNet despite using a shallow feature extractor.

  18. Contextual Multi-Scale Region Convolutional 3D Network for Activity Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng; Xu, Huijuan; Saenko, Kate; Ghanem, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Activity detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Detecting activities of different temporal scales is particularly challenging. In this paper, we propose the contextual multi-scale region convolutional 3D network (CMS-RC3D) for activity detection. To deal with the inherent temporal scale variability of activity instances, the temporal feature pyramid is used to represent activities of different temporal scales. On each level of the temporal feature pyramid, an activity proposal detector and an activity classifier are learned to detect activities of specific temporal scales. Temporal contextual information is fused into activity classifiers for better recognition. More importantly, the entire model at all levels can be trained end-to-end. Our CMS-RC3D detector can deal with activities at all temporal scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. We test our detector on two public activity detection benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. Extensive experiments show that the proposed CMS-RC3D detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on THUMOS14 by a substantial margin and achieves comparable results on ActivityNet despite using a shallow feature extractor.

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  20. Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, S.; Priest, E. R.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganization of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We inves...

  1. The Role of the Nobles-Philanthropists in the Activities of Hospitals in the Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Goncharova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the legal and regulatory basis in the sphere of the guardianship treatment centres in the Russian Empire in the middle of the XIXth century, alleging the establishment of the public supervision over the activities of city, County and provincial hospitals. Contents of the powers of the Trustees, their objectives and main activities. Specific examples in the Danube region proved the thesis that among the Trustees were dominated by representatives of the nobility.

  2. Annual report on activities of Regional Public Health Offices in the Slovak Republic in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Regional Public Health Offices in the Slovak Republic in 2009 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Environment; (2) Preventive occupational medicine; (3) Hygiene, nutrition, food safety and cosmetic products; (4) Hygiene of children and youth; (5) Epidemiology; (6) Objectification of environmental factors and working environment; (7) Medical microbiology; (8) Health promotion; (9) Health protection against radiation; (10) Complaints and petitions; (11) Control of tobacco and alcohol.

  3. Annual report on activities of Regional Public Health Offices in the Slovak Republic in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Regional Public Health Offices in the Slovak Republic in 2010 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Environment; (2) Preventive occupational medicine; (3) Hygiene, nutrition, food safety and cosmetic products; (4) Hygiene of children and youth; (5) Epidemiology; (6) Objectification of environmental factors and working environment; (7) Medical microbiology; (8) Health promotion; (9) Health protection against radiation; (10) Complaints and petitions; (11) Control of tobacco and alcohol.

  4. Investigation of the Radium Activity Concentration in Drinking Water of central Region Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zovko, E.; Sirbubalo, M.; Catovic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary investigation of the 226 Ra activity concentration in drinking water in central region of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been performed. The results show that the activity concentrations of the samples vary between 33.3 - 48.8 Bq m -3 . According to the legal stipulation as given by the Official Bulletin of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2/.92), it can be concluded that the results are within given regulations. (author)

  5. Numerical simulation of thermal-dynamic characteristics through a helical coiled tube with annular cross section for laminar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangying; Chen Sujun; Li Yourong; Li Longjian

    2009-01-01

    A numerical method for simulating three-dimensional laminar forced convective heat transfer in a helical coiled passage with annular cross section under uniform wall temperature condition is presented. The helical coiled passage is fabricated by bending a 0.03 m inner diameter and 0.05 m outer diameter straight tube into a helical-coil of two turns. The results presented in this paper cover a Reynolds number range of 200 ∼ 1000, a pitch range of 0.1 ∼ 0.2 and a curvature ratio range of 0.1 ∼ 0.3. The numerical computations reveal the development and distribution of heat transfer and flow fields in the helical coiled passage when the inner annular wall is heated and the outer annular wall is insulated. In addition, the effects of Reynolds number, curvature ratio, and coil pitch on the average friction factor, average Nusselt number at different axial cross-section have been discussed. The results show that the secondary flow is weak and can be neglected at the entrance region, but the effect of the secondary flow is enhanced, the maximum velocity perpendicular to axial cross section shifts toward the outer side of helical coiled passage. Furthermore, the average Nusselt number and friction factor at every different axial location present different characteristics when the Reynolds number, curvature ratio and pitch change. Compared with the curvature ratio, the pitch has relatively little influence on the heat transfer and flow performance. (authors)

  6. Crossmodal Activation of Visual Object Regions for Auditorily Presented Concrete Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper J F van den Bosch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual-coding theory (Paivio, 1986 postulates that the human mind represents objects not just with an analogous, or semantic code, but with a perceptual representation as well. Previous studies (eg, Fiebach & Friederici, 2004 indicated that the modality of this representation is not necessarily the one that triggers the representation. The human visual cortex contains several regions, such as the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, that respond specifically to object stimuli. To investigate whether these principally visual representations regions are also recruited for auditory stimuli, we presented subjects with spoken words with specific, concrete meanings (‘car’ as well as words with abstract meanings (‘hope’. Their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain contrasts showed overlap between regions differentially activated by words for concrete objects compared to words for abstract concepts with visual regions activated by a contrast of object versus non-object visual stimuli. We functionally localized LOC for individual subjects and a preliminary analysis showed a trend for a concreteness effect in this region-of-interest on the group level. Appropriate further analysis might include connectivity and classification measures. These results can shed light on the role of crossmodal representations in cognition.

  7. Blue-green ZnSe lasers with a new type of active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.V.; Toropov, A.A.; Sorokin, S.V.; Shubina, T.V.; Sedova, I.V.; Kop'ev, P.S.; Alferov, Zh.I.; Waag, A.; Lugauer, H.J.; Reuscher, G.; Keim, M.; Fischer, F.F.; Landwehr, G.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of molecular-beam epitaxy of ZnSe-based laser heterostructures with a new structure of the active region, which contains a fractional-monolayer CdSe recombination region in an expanded ZnSe quantum well and a waveguide based on a variably-strained, short-period superlattice are reported. Growth of a fractional-monolayer CdSe region with a nominal thickness of 2-3 ML, i.e., less than the critical thickness, on a ZnSe surface (Δa/a∼7%) leads to the formation of self-organized, pseudomorphic, CdSe-enriched islands with lateral dimensions ∼10-30 nm and density ∼2x10 10 cm -2 , which serve as efficient centers of carrier localization, giving rise to effective spatial separation of defective regions and regions of radiative recombination and, as a result, a higher quantum efficiency. Laser structures for optical pumping in the (Zn, Mg) (S, Se) system with a record-low threshold power density (less than 4 kW/cm 2 at 300 K) and continuous-wave laser diodes in the system (Be, Mg, Zn) Se with a 2.5 to 2.8-ML-thick, fractional-monolayer CdSe active region have been obtained. The laser structures and diodes have an improved degradation resistance

  8. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  9. Empirical Analysis of the Integration Activity of Business Structures in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gennadyevna Karelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. A wide variety of approaches to the study of the problems and prospects of economic integration and the current dispute on the role of integration processes in the regional economic development have determined the complexity of the concepts “integration” and “integration activities” in order to develop the objective conditions to analyse the integration activity of business structures in the Russian regions. The monitoring of the current legal system of the Russian Federation carried out in the area of statistics and compiling statistical databases on mergers and acquisitions has showed the absence of the formal executive authority dealing with the compiling and collections of information on the integration activity at the regional level. In this connection, the data of Russian information and analytical agencies are made from the information and analytical base. As the research tools, the methods of analysis of structural changes, methods of analysis of economic differentiation and concentration, methods of non-parametric statistics are used. The article shows the close relationship between the social and economic development of the subjects of Russia and the integrated business structures functioning on its territory. An investigation of the integration activity structure and dynamics in the subjects of the Russian Federation based on the statistical data for the period from 2003 to 2012 has revealed the increasing heterogeneity of the integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The hypothesis of a substantial divergence of mergers and acquisitions of corporate structures in the Russian regions was confirmed by the high values of the Gini coefficient, the Herfindahl index, and the decile coefficient of differentiation. The research results are of practical importance since they can be used to improve the existing

  10. Drivers of Concentration of Economic Activity in Russia’s Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolaevna Rastvortseva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The uneven distribution of economic activity in Russia promotes the differentiation of its constituent entities by level of development. Regions are independent participants of economic relations, and they often act as competitors rather than partners. Agglomeration effects arise in more successful regions and contribute to the concentration of resources, manufacturing enterprises, service providers, skilled workers, and scientific and technological knowledge. The aim of the study, the results of which are reflected in the paper, is to identify the factors and assess their impact on the concentration (dispersion of economic activity on the basis of Russia’s regions. The paper describes the benefits of agglomeration processes from the standpoint of economic geography, allocation theory and international trade theory. The concentration of economic activity in Russia’s regions is estimated by the Herfindahl–Hirschman index of industrial production taking into consideration the volume of investments in fixed capital and the number of people employed in the economy in Russia’s regions in 1990–2013. It is determined that fixed capital investments have the propensity to concentrate, but react strongly to economic crises. Labor resources, by contrast, are distributed relatively evenly, and their concentration in certain regions is increasing steadily. The article considers key factors such as wage growth, distance to large cities, direct foreign investment, road network density, the degree of development of the services sector in the region. The factor model is constructed using the least squares method. The authors conclude that the growth of wages in the region (relative to national average has a negative effect on the concentration of economic activity. There is a positive correlation between the growth of direct foreign investment and the density of hard surface roads. The development of services has the greatest positive impact on

  11. Long term regional migration patterns of physicians over the course of their active practice careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Ricketts, Thomas C; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Randolph, R; Asghari, Shabnam

    2007-01-01

    The geographic distribution of physicians in the United States of America has been often described as unbalanced or maldistributed. There is much in the literature on the regional distribution of physicians but far less is written about their pattern of movement. This study aimed to examine the geographic transition of physicians at two points in time (1981 and 2003), in and out the four US census regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). We identified 83 383 non-federal clinically active primary care physicians (CAPCP) who were clinically active both in 1981 and in 2003 as registered in the American Medical Association Physician Masterfiles. The main variable was the migration status observed between 1981 and 2003, and they were categorized into three groups: (1) non-migrants (same county of practice); (2) internal migrants (different counties of practice, same region); or (3) external migrants (different regions of practice). Covariables were gender and age for the CAPCP, and the percentage of non-whites in the population, the mean per capita income of the population, the ratio of primary care physicians and the ratio of hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants, as well as the rural/urban status for the county of practice in 1981 (large metropolitan area, small metropolitan area, or non-adjacent). Overall, 13.2 % of CAPCP moved from one region to another between 1981 and 2003. Women and young CAPCPs were more prone to migrate during their career. Proportionally, a greater outflow of the 1981 workforce is observed for the Northeast and Midwest regions with 16% and 18%, respectively, compared with 10% for both the West and South regions. When taking into account the total flow (in and out) for each region, the West and the South 'benefited' from CAPCPs' migration, with respectively a 1.10 and 1.07 increase in 2003 when compared with 1981; while the Midwest and the Northeast regions ended with a 0.90 and 0.92 decrease in 2003. Both logistic regression and regression

  12. Chaotic coordinates for the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, S. R., E-mail: shudson@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Suzuki, Y. [National Institute for Natural Sciences, National Institute for Fusion Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    The theory of quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFM) surfaces is reviewed, and numerical techniques that allow high-order QFM surfaces to be efficiently constructed for experimentally relevant, non-integrable magnetic fields are described. As a practical example, the chaotic edge of the magnetic field in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is examined. A precise technique for finding the boundary surface is implemented, the hierarchy of partial barriers associated with the near-critical cantori is constructed, and a coordinate system, which we call chaotic coordinates, that is based on a selection of QFM surfaces is constructed that simplifies the description of the magnetic field, so that flux surfaces become “straight” and islands become “square.”.

  13. ATLAS helicity analyses in beauty hadron decays

    CERN Document Server

    Smizanska, M

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS detector will allow a precise spatial reconstruction of the kinematics of B hadron decays. In combination with the efficient lepton identification applied already at trigger level, ATLAS is expected to provide large samples of exclusive decay channels cleanly separable from background. These data sets will allow spin-dependent analyses leading to the determination of production and decay parameters, which are not accessible if the helicity amplitudes are not separated. Measurement feasibility studies for decays B/sub s //sup 0/ to J/ psi phi and Lambda /sub b//sup 0/ to Lambda J/ psi , presented in this document, show the experimental precisions that can be achieved in determination of B/sub s//sup 0/ and Lambda /sub b //sup 0/ characteristics. (19 refs).

  14. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbiao.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value

  15. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value

  16. Microinstability Studies for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Ku, L.-P.; Tang, W.M.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Cooper, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fully kinetic assessments of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes have been obtained for cases for the Large Helical Device (LHD). This calculation employs the comprehensive linear microinstability code FULL, as recently extended for nonaxisymmetric systems. The code retains the important effects in the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities in the electrostatic limit. These effects include trapped particles, FLR, transit and bounce and magnetic drift frequency resonances, etc., for any number of plasma species. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by trapped electrons and ion temperature gradients are presented, using numerically-calculated three-dimensional MHD equilibria. These are reconstructed from experimental measurements. Quasilinear fluxes of particles and energy for each species are also calculated. Pairs of LHD discharges with different magnetic axis positions and with and without pellet injection are compared

  17. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were positively correlated with the age of onset of hearing aid use and were negatively correlated with the percentage of lifetime hearing aid use in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that earlier and longer hearing aid use may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early deaf subjects. Granger

  18. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...... structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant...

  19. 77 FR 50520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... copy of the information collection instrument with supplementary documents, or need additional...-0061] Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant Investor Pilot Program, Form I-924 and Form I-924A; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

  20. Filling the Gap : Relationship Between the Serotonin-Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region and Amygdala Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Servaas, Michelle N.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Nolte, Ilja M.; Riese, Harriette; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The alleged association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and amygdala activation forms a cornerstone of the common view that carrying the short allele of this polymorphism is a potential risk factor for affective disorders. The authors of a recent meta-analysis