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Sample records for helianthus annuus electronic

  1. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  2. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs and 60Co by Helianthus annuus

    Hornik, M.; Pipiska, M.; Vrtoch, L.; Augustin, J.; Lesny, J.

    2005-01-01

    The 60 Co and 137 Cs bioaccumulation by Helianthus annuus L. was measured during 9 day cultivation at 20 ± 2 o C in hydroponic Hoagland medium. Previous starvation for K + and for NH 4 + 2.2 and 2.7 times, respectively, enhanced 137 Cs uptake rate. Previous cultivation in surplus of K + ions 50 mmol·l -1 has no effect on 137 Cs bioaccumulation rate. Both 137 Cs and 60 Co bioaccumulation significantly increase with dilution of basic Hoagland medium up to 1:7 for caesium and up to 1:3 for cobalt followed by mild decrease at higher dilutions. Root to shoot specific 137 Cs radioactivity ratio (Bq.g -1 /Bq·g -1 , fresh wt.) increased with dilution from 1.46 to 9.6-9.8. The values root to shoot specific radioactivity ratio for 60 Co were less dependent on the nutrient concentrations and were within the range 5.7 to 8.5. 137 Cs was localized mainly in young leaves (30%) and roots (39%) and 60 Co mainly in roots (67%) and leaves (20%). Obtained data showed less sensitivity of 60 Co uptake by sunflower on nutrient concentration in hydroponic media. (author)

  3. Helianthus annuus L. production using organic fertilization with manipueira

    Thiago Costa Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an annual plant native to the Americas. Is a grain-producing species with a high oil content, which can be used as a source of biodiesel as well as fodder. The cassava is a liquid derived from the cassava flour production. This organic waste can be used in agriculture due to its high content of nutrients such as, K, N, P, Ca, Mg and S and also avoiding harm the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity of sunflower using organic fertilization with cassava. The experiment was conducted under field conditions at Lagoa Seca, PB State, and were analyzed the total production (PS, dry mass of the inflorescence (FCA, dry mass of seeds and inflorescence (FSC and total dry biomass (FT. The highest yield (934.52 kg ha-1 was obtained with no applied cassava. The dosage of 250 mL of cassava yielded maximum values for dry mass of the inflorescence (2,380 kg ha-1 and dry matter of the seeds and inflorescence (3,432 kg ha-1, promoting a increase of 32.03% and 132.55% respectively when compared to the control treatment. The higher value of total biomass was 28,017 kg ha-1 when applied 375 mL of manipueria. The cassava as a source of organic fertilizer favors the dry matter accumulation of sunflower without raising the grain yield.

  4. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    2009-01-01

    Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messenger RNA and then self-encoded proteins to process retrotransposon mRNA in double stranded extra-chromosomal cDNA copies which may integrate in new chromosomal locations. Results The RT-PCR and IRAP protocol were applied to detect the presence of Copia and Gypsy retrotransposon transcripts and of new events of integration in unstressed plants of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) selfed line. Results show that in sunflower retrotransposons transcription occurs in all analyzed organs (embryos, leaves, roots, and flowers). In one out of sixty-four individuals analyzed, retrotransposons transcription resulted in the integration of a new element into the genome. Conclusion These results indicate that the retrotransposon life cycle is firmly controlled at a post transcriptional level. A possible silencing mechanism is discussed. PMID:20030800

  5. Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

    Thompson, S.M.; Tan, Y.P.; Young, A.J.; Neate, S.M.; Aitken, E.A.B.; Shivas, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are

  6. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  7. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Michael Benjamin Kantar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWR are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap and asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L. were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups, geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  8. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Kantar, Michael B.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Khoury, Colin K.; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C.; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  9. Fytochemický výzkum Helianthus annuus L. II

    Niedobová, Soňa

    2007-01-01

    OF THE DIPLOMA THESIS My diploma thesis was intended on phytochemical study of polar extract of Helianthus annuus L. leaves and simultaneously biological tests were done (so-called bioassay - guided separation) - acute toxicity, antioxidant activity (DPPH test, FRAP metod) and antifungal activity. The Fraction 29 showed the highest antioxidant activity. The Fraction 22-24/3, obtained by preparative chromatography, was analyzed by gas chromatography. This analysis shows present of the oil-acid...

  10. Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Violina R. Angelova; Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska; Galina P. Uzunova; Krasimir I. Ivanov; Huu Q. Lee

    2016-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Field experiments with a randomized, complete block design with five treatments (control, compost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa, and vemicompost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa) were carried out. The accumulation of heavy metals...

  11. Accumulation of radioiodine from aqueous solution by hydroponically cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Soudek, Petr; Tykva, Richard; Vaňková, Radomíra; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2006), s. 220-225 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : radiophytoremediation * Helianthus annuus * radioiodine Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.820, year: 2006

  12. IN VITRO PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS BY Helianthus annuus L. PLANTS

    Almeida, Marcos V. de; Rissato, Sandra R.; Galhiane, Mário S.; Fernandes, João R.; Lodi, Paulo C.; Campos, Marcelo C. de

    2018-01-01

    Plant model systems are needed to properly conduct basic laboratory studies prior to field applications of phytoremediation. In vitro plant cultures are a useful tool for such research. This study focuses on the removal and/or degradation of 24 persistent organic pollutants under in vitro conditions by Helianthus annuus L (sunflower). The main purpose of exploiting this plant for phytoremediation process is due to its strong adaptability to adverse environments conditions such as resistance t...

  13. [Protective effect of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on myocardial infarction in New Zealand rabbit].

    Guardia-Espinoza, Edith; Herrera-Hurtado, Gianina Liseth del Carmen; Garrido-Jacobi, Saúl; Cárdenas-Peralta, Danitza; Martínez-Romero, Christian; Hernández-Figueroa, Pedro; Condori-Calizaya, Mary; La Barrera-Llacchua, Juan; Flores-Ángeles, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Determine the protective effect of oil Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 per group): blank, negative control, experimental 1 (10 mg / kg), experimental 2 (20 mg / kg) and three experimental (40 mg/ kg). Experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received Helianthus annuus oil for two weeks. Epinephrine (2 mg/Kg) to the negative, Experimental Control 1, 2 and 3 groups was given over two consecutive days with an interval of 24 h after pretreatment with oil. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the rabbits were anesthetized and sacrificed. Serum troponin I and polymorphonuclear evaluated by .mu.m.sup.2. Significant difference between the negative control group and the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 was found in the serum variables troponin I and polymorphonuclear by .mu.m.sup.2. Helianthus annuus oil at doses of 20 mg/kg has protective effect on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits.

  14. Phytoremediation of heavy metal copper (Cu2+) by sunflower (Helianthus annuus l.)

    Mahardika, G.; Rinanti, A.; Fachrul, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    A study in microcosmic condition has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of Helianthus annuus as a hyperaccumulator plant for heavy metal, Copper (Cu2+), that exposed in the soil. Artificial pollutants containing Copper (Cu2+) 0, 60, 120, 180 ppm are exposed to uncontaminated soil. The 12-weeks old H. annuus seedling were grown in Cu2+ contaminated soil, with variations of absorption time 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Analysis of Cu2+ concentration on soil and H. annuus (root, stem, leaf) was analised by Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometry (AAS). H. annuus are capable for Cu2+ removal, and the highest removal of Cu2+ is 85.56%, the highest metal accumulation/bioconcentration factor (BCF) is 0.99 occurred at roots with 9 weeks of exposure time and the highest translocation factor (TF) is 0.71. This highest removal is five times better than absorption by stems and leaves. The results concluded, the use of H. annuus for phytoextraction of heavy metals Cu2+ in contaminated soil can be an alternative to the absorption of heavy metal Cu2+ with low concentration metals which is generally very difficult to do in physical-chemical removal.

  15. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  16. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Rec...

  17. Enhanced phytoextraction: II. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on heavy metal uptake by Helianthus annuus from a calcareous soil.

    Lesage, E; Meers, E; Vervaeke, P; Lamsal, S; Hopgood, M; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

    2005-01-01

    High biomass producing plant species, such as Helianthus annuus, have potential for removing large amounts of trace metals by harvesting the aboveground biomass if sufficient metal concentrations in their biomass can be achieved However, the low bioavailability of heavy metals in soils and the limited translocation of heavy metals to the shoots by most high biomass producing plant species limit the efficiency of the phytoextraction process. Amendment of a contaminated soil with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid increases soluble heavy metal concentrations, potentially rendering them more available for plant uptake. This article discusses the effects of EDTA and citric acid on the uptake of heavy metals and translocation to aboveground harvestable plant parts in Helianthus annuus. EDTA was included in the research for comparison purposes in our quest for less persistent alternatives, suitable for enhanced phytoextraction. Plants were grown in a calcareous soil moderately contaminated with Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd and treated with increasing concentrations of EDTA (0.1, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mmol kg(-1) soil) or citric acid (0.01, 0.05, 0.25, 0.442, and 0.5 mol kg(-1) soil). Heavy metal concentrations in harvested shoots increased with EDTA concentration but the actual amount of phytoextracted heavy metals decreased at high EDTA concentrations, due to severe growth depression. Helianthus annuus suffered heavy metal stress due to the significantly increased bioavailable metal fraction in the soil. The rapid mineralization of citric acid and the high buffering capacity of the soil made citric acid inefficient in increasing the phytoextracted amounts of heavy metals. Treatments that did not exceed the buffering capacity of the soil (heavy metal concentrations. Treatments with high concentrations resulted in a dissolution of the carbonates and compaction of the soil. These physicochemical changes caused growth depression of Helianthus annuus. EDTA and citric

  18. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Juan P. Torretta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfoespecies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an important oilseed crop in Argentina. During three agricultural years, the diversity and abundance of diurnal floral visitors of sunflower heads were determined in eight sites spanning much of this crop's cultivation area in Argentina. Seventysix morpho-species of floral visitors, belonging to eight orders, were captured on sunflower. The principal order was Hymenoptera, with 37 species or morpho-species, of which 32 were bees (Apoidea. The most represented bee families were Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 and Halictidae (7. The domestic bee (Apis mellifera L. accounted for 93% of the visits. Floral visitor composition did not show an identifiable variation pattern either throughout the day or

  19. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on stem diameter growth, carbon gain and biomass partitioning in Helianthus annuus

    Thiede, M.E.; Link, S.O.; Fellows, R.J.; Beedlow, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on stem diameter growth, carbon gain, and biomass partitioning, 19-day-old dwarf sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety NK894) were given variable doses (0–40 Gy) from a 60Co gamma source. Exposure of plants to gamma radiation caused a significant reduction in stem growth and root biomass. Doses as low as 5 Gy resulted in a significant increase in leaf density, suggesting that very low doses of radiation could induce morphological growth changes. Carbohydrate analysis of plants exposed to 40 Gy demonstrated significantly more starch content in leaves and significantly less in stems 18 days after exposure compared with control plants. In contrast, the carbohydrate content of the roots of plants exposed to 40 Gy was not significantly different from non-irradiated plants 18 days after exposure. (author)

  1. Elimination of natural uranium and 226Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration using Helianthus annuus L

    Vera Tome, F.; Blanco Rodriguez, P.; Lozano, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The elimination of natural uranium and 226 Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium. Different experiments were designed to determine the optimum age of the seedlings for the remediation process, and also to study the principal way in which the radionuclides are removed from the solution by the sunflower roots. In every trial a precipitate appeared which contained a major fraction of the natural uranium and 226 Ra. The results indicated that the seedlings themselves induced the formation of this precipitate. When four-week-old seedlings were exposed to contaminated water, a period of only 2 days was sufficient to remove the natural uranium and 226 Ra from the solution: about 50% of the natural uranium and 70% of the 226 Ra were fixed in the roots, and essentially the rest was found in the precipitate, with only very small percentages fixed in the shoots and left in solution

  2. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide.

  3. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  4. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along

  5. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  6. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Saurabh Sudha Dhiman

    Full Text Available Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil. The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4% was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt, whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (% as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7% from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  7. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Dongwook; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  8. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  9. Seed Germination and Physiological Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars under Saline Conditions

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to highlight the germination of sunflower seeds affected by the presence of saline stress and the identification of tolerant genotypes. The biological material was represented by sunflower cvs. (Helianthus annuus L.: Coril, Select, Santiago and Fundulea-206. To simulate the saline conditions, germination solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl were used with concentrations corresponding to the osmotic pressures -6 and -10 atm and the control seed hydration was performed with distilled water. Determination of seed germination, growth of seedling, percentage of plumules dry matter, chlorophyll content and free proline were performed. The experimental data obtained suppose the existence in the assimilation apparatus of sunflowers seedling subjected to stress a competitive chlorophyll/free proline biosynthesis processes. The experimental results regarding the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth revealed important differences between genotypes. The radicle growth in the germination process were strongly affected by saline excess, with significant differences between cultivars. Saline stress results in significant reductions in the amount of chlorophyll, and high levels of free proline. It can be observed that with the increase of the stress level the percentage of the dry matter increases, indicating an accentuated water deficit.

  10. Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes.

    Brentan Silva, Denise; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Spring, Otmar

    2017-05-10

    Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes. Herein, we analyzed sesquiterpene lactones, present in CGT, from leaf transversal sections using the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (mixture 1:1) with sodium ions added to increase the ionization in positive ion mode. The results observed for sesquiterpenes and polymethoxylated flavones from LGT were similar. However, upon desiccation, LGT changed their shape in the ionization source, complicating analyses by MSI mainly after matrix application. An alternative method could be applied to LGT regions by employing LDI (without matrix) in negative ion mode. The polymethoxylated flavones were easily ionized by LDI, producing images with higher resolution, but the sesquiterpenes were not observed in spectra. Thus, the application and viability of MALDI imaging for the analyses of protein and secondary metabolites inside trichomes were confirmed, highlighting the importance of optimization parameters.

  11. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease.

  12. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  13. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico

    Lentz, David L.; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution. PMID:18443289

  14. Transcriptome changes induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) roots.

    Vangelisti, Alberto; Natali, Lucia; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Hughes, David; Cavallini, Andrea; Giovannetti, Manuela; Giordani, Tommaso

    2018-01-08

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are essential elements of soil fertility, plant nutrition and productivity, facilitating soil mineral nutrient uptake. Helianthus annuus is a non-model, widely cultivated species. Here we used an RNA-seq approach for evaluating gene expression variation at early and late stages of mycorrhizal establishment in sunflower roots colonized by the arbuscular fungus Rhizoglomus irregulare. mRNA was isolated from roots of plantlets at 4 and 16 days after inoculation with the fungus. cDNA libraries were built and sequenced with Illumina technology. Differential expression analysis was performed between control and inoculated plants. Overall 726 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between inoculated and control plants were retrieved. The number of up-regulated DEGs greatly exceeded the number of down-regulated DEGs and this difference increased in later stages of colonization. Several DEGs were specifically involved in known mycorrhizal processes, such as membrane transport, cell wall shaping, and other. We also found previously unidentified mycorrhizal-induced transcripts. The most important DEGs were carefully described in order to hypothesize their roles in AM symbiosis. Our data add a valuable contribution for deciphering biological processes related to beneficial fungi and plant symbiosis, adding an Asteraceae, non-model species for future comparative functional genomics studies.

  15. Effects of sewage sludge fertilizer on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Belhaj, Dalel; Elloumi, Nada; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Zouari, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Ayadi, Habib; Kallel, Monem

    2016-10-01

    Use of sewage sludge, a biological residue produced from sewage treatment processes in agriculture, is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the usefulness of sewage sludge amendment for Helianthus annuus, a pot experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 % (w/w) amendment ratios to the agricultural soil. Soil pH decreased whereas electrical conductivity, organic matter, total N, available P, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca increased in soil amended with sewage sludge in comparison to unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment led to significant increase in Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations of soil. The increased concentration of heavy metals in soil due to sewage sludge amendment led to increases in shoot and root concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in plant as compared to those grown on unamended soil. Accumulation was more in roots than shoots for most of the heavy metals. Moreover, high metal removal for the harvestable parts of the crops was recorded. Sewage sludge amendment increased root and shoot length, leaves number, biomass, and antioxidant activities of sunflower. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, and soluble sugar content in response to amendment with sewage sludge may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress. Graphical abstract Origin, fate and behavior of sewage sludge fertilizer.

  16. Biosurfactant-assisted phytoremediation of multi-contaminated industrial soil using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Liduino, Vitor S; Servulo, Eliana F C; Oliveira, Fernando J S

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of commercial rhamnolipid biosurfactant supplementation in the phytoremediation of a soil via sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivation. The soil, obtained from an industrial area, was co-contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. The remediation tests were monitored for 90 days. The best results for removal of contaminants were obtained from the tests in which the sunflower plants were cultivated in soil with 4 mg kg -1 of the rhamnolipid. Under these conditions, reductions of 58% and 48% were obtained in the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, respectively; reductions in the concentrations of the following metals were also achieved: Ni (41%), Cr (30%), Pb (29%), and Zn (20%). The PCR-DGGE analysis of soil samples collected before and after the treatments verified that the plant cultivation and biosurfactants supplementation had little effect on the structure of the dominant bacterial community in the soil. The results indicated that sunflower cultivation with the addition of a biosurfactant is a viable and efficient technology to treat soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  17. Alleviation of adverse impact of cadmium stress in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    ALLAH, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Hend, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important ornamental plant and good source of vegetable oil, widely accepted as potential promising plant for phytoremediation. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cadmium on the growth and some biochemical attributes of sunflower and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in assuaging the cadmium stress induced changes. Cadmium treatment reduced growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability. AMF inoculated plants showed increased growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability and also mitigated changes caused due to cadmium. Cadmium caused increase in lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production. An increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed due to cadmium treatment which was further enhanced by inoculation of AMF. Increase in proline and total phenols due to cadmium stress was obvious. Cadmium stressed plants showed enhanced fatty acid content. AMF inoculated plants showed higher activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which were reduced by cadmium stress. However palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) reduced in cadmium treated plants and the negative impact of cadmium was mitigated by AMF. (author)

  18. A time-series phytoremediation experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus on a former uranium mining site

    Kötschau A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a test field situated at a former uranium mining site near Ronneburg (Thuringia, Germany a small scale time-series field experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus was carried out. This area ghas elevated contents for the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn including the radionuclides U and Th. Over a time period of 24 weeks the sunflowers were cultivated on homogenized soil substrate and regularly harvested. The aim was to find the ideal moment to harvest the sunflowers, being defined as having the best balance between the extraction of the contaminants and a high biomass produced. The contents of the elements were determined in soil, roots and above-ground plant parts. The contents in the above-ground plant showed no clear increasing or decreasing trend over time, so they were not the appropriate values to determine the best moment to harvest. Instead the total extracted masses (content in μg/g x biomass in g of the contaminants in the above-ground plant parts were calculated. According to this the best moment to harvest the sunflower plants was reached after 24 weeks of vegetation, because the highest extracted masses for all contaminants were calculated to this time. Additionally the biomass, which could be used e.g. for bio-fuel production, was highest at this time.

  19. IN VITRO PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS BY Helianthus annuus L. PLANTS

    Marcos V. de Almeida

    Full Text Available Plant model systems are needed to properly conduct basic laboratory studies prior to field applications of phytoremediation. In vitro plant cultures are a useful tool for such research. This study focuses on the removal and/or degradation of 24 persistent organic pollutants under in vitro conditions by Helianthus annuus L (sunflower. The main purpose of exploiting this plant for phytoremediation process is due to its strong adaptability to adverse environments conditions such as resistance to pests, disease, and others. The study of bioremediation effects of all chemical molecules under in vitro conditions showed promising results. Sixteen out of twenty-four compounds evaluated reached up to 87% for remediation. The highest accumulation of pollutants was observed in the roots, showing that these results are consistent with the current literature. Through the study, it was observed effective absorption of POPs with logKow ranging from 4.50 to 6.91. Sunflower phytoremediation process efficiently detected heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-chlordane, chlordane, dieldrin, DDE, DDT, methoxychlor, mirex and decachlorobiphenyl.

  20. Hairy roots of Helianthus annuus: a model system to study phytoremediation of tetracycline and oxytetracycline.

    Gujarathi, Ninad P; Haney, Bryan J; Park, Heidi J; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Linden, James C

    2005-01-01

    The release of antibiotics to the environment has to be controlled because of serious threats to human health. Hairy root cultures of Helianthus annuus (sunflower), along with their inherent rhizospheric activity, provide a fast growing, microbe-free environment for understanding plant-pollutant interactions. The root system catalyzes rapid disappearance of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous media, which suggests roots have potential for phytoremediation of the two antibiotics in vivo. In addition, in vitro modifications of the two antibiotics by filtered, cell- and microbe-free root exudates suggest involvement of root-secreted compounds. The modification is confirmed from changes observed in UV spectra of exudate-treated OTC. Modification appears to be more dominant at the BCD chromophore of the antibiotic molecule. Kinetic analyses dismiss direct enzyme catalysis; the modification rates decrease with increasing OTC concentrations. The rates increase with increasing age of cultures from which root exudates are prepared. The decrease in modification rates upon addition of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) suggests involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the antibiotic modification process.

  1. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

    Juan P. TORRETTA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol ( Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfo- especies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica ( Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas ( Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.

  2. Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel.

    Stoikou, Vasiliki; Andrianos, Vangelis; Stasinos, Sotiris; Kostakis, Marios G; Attiti, Sofia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2017-07-17

    The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions.

  3. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

    Chacha Joseph Sarima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

  4. Fitoextracción De Plomo, Zinc y Cadmio de Relaves Mineros Utilizando Helianthus annuus L. (Girasol)

    Lizarbe Asmat, Katherine; Rivera López, Yaslin; Mendoza Bobadilla, Jorge; Vera Herrera, Manuel; Rodríguez Espinoza, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el crecimiento de Helianthus annuus L. (girasol), especie bioacumuladora de metales pesados, mediante la adición de acondicionadores orgánicos e inorgánicos al relave minero artesanal, para la fitoextracción de plomo, zinc y cadmio. Métodos: Se probaron cuatro tratamientos de diferentes proporciones relave – acondicionador (100 - 0%, 75 - 25%, 50 – 50%, 25 – 75% respectivamente), con seis repeticiones cada uno, para periodos de tiempo de 30, 60 y 90 días y mediante dos métod...

  5. The sensitivity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants to UV-B radiation is altered by nitrogen status

    Cechin, Inês; Gonzalez, Gisely Cristina; Corniani, Natália; Fumis, Terezinha de Fátima

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Interaction effects between nitrogen and UV-B radiation were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. variety IAC-Iarama) plants grown in a greenhouse under natural photoperiod conditions. Plants were irradiated with 0.8W m-2 (control) or 8.0W m-2 (+UV-B) of UV-B radiation for 7h per day. The plants were grown in pots containing vermiculite and watered with 70% of full strength nitrogen-free Long Ashton solution, containing either low (42.3ppm) or high (282ppm) nitrogen as ammoniu...

  6. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  7. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L..

    Sebastian Moschen

    Full Text Available Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2 previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1 and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could

  8. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B; Hopp, H Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A A; Fernandez, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  9. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  11. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives. 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Physiology and proteomics of drought stress acclimation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Fulda, S; Mikkat, S; Stegmann, H; Horn, R

    2011-07-01

    An easy and manageable in vitro screening system for drought tolerance of sunflower seedlings based on MS media supplemented with polyethylene glycol 6000 was evaluated. Morphological and physiological parameters were compared between control (-0.05 MPa) and drought-stressed (-0.6 MPa) seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick. There was a significant growth deficit in drought-stressed plants compared to control plants in terms of hypocotyl length, and shoot and root fresh mass. Shoot growth was more restricted than root growth, resulting in an increased root/shoot ratio of drought-stressed plants. Accumulation of osmolytes such as inositol (65-fold), glucose (58-fold), proline (55-fold), fructose (11-fold) and sucrose (eightfold), in leaves of drought-stressed plants could be demonstrated by gas-liquid chromatography. Soluble protein patterns of leaves were analysed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A set of 46 protein spots allowed identification of 19 marker proteins. Quantitative changes in protein expression of drought-stressed versus control plants were detected. In leaves of drought-stressed sunflower seedlings six proteins were significantly up-regulated more than twofold: a putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (4.5-fold), a fructokinase 3 (3.3-fold), a vegetative storage protein (2.5-fold), a glycine-rich RNA binding protein (2.2-fold), a CuZn-superoxide dismutase (2.1-fold) and an unknown low molecular weight protein (2.3-fold). These proteins represent general stress proteins induced under drought conditions or proteins contributing to basic carbon metabolism. The up-regulated proteins are interesting candidates for further physiological and molecular investigations regarding drought tolerance in sunflower. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Root water transport of Helianthus annuus L. under iron oxide nanoparticle exposure.

    Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Barroso, Didac; Komárek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The application of nanomaterials in commercially available products is increasing rapidly for agriculture, phytoremediation and biotechnology. Since plants suppose the first sink for the accumulation of nanoparticles from the environment, emerging studies have focused on the general consequences for plants and their effects on the biomass production. However, effects on the root surface, as well as blockage of nutrients and water uptake by the roots, may also occur. This experiment was designed to prove if the plant water relations can be affected by the adsorption of nanoparticles on the root surface, causing a consequent stress for the plants. With this goal, plants of Helianthus annuus were previously grown in a hydroponic culture, and at age of 55 days, their roots were exposed to three different concentrations of nanomaghemite (NM) in the hydroponic solution for 5 days: control without NM; 50 and 100 mg l(-1) NM. The main effect was related to the reduction of the root hydraulic conductivity (Lo) and the nutrients uptake. The concentrations of the macronutrients Ca, K, Mg and S in the shoot were reduced relative to the control plants, which resulted in lower contents of chlorophyll pigments. Although stress was not detected in the plants, after the analysis of stress markers like the accumulation of proline or ascorbate in the tissues, reduction of the root functionality by nanoparticles has been identified here, manifested as the effect of NM on Lo. The treatment with 50 mg l(-1) NM significantly reduced the Lo, by up to 57% of its control value, and it was reduced by up to 26% at 100 mg l(-1) NM. These results will be an important factor to take into account with regard to the applicability of NM for long-term use in crops, particularly during privative water conditions.

  14. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

    Juan P TORRETTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.

  15. Comparative uptake of plutonium from soils by Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus

    Lee, J.H.; Hossner, L.R.; Attrep, M.; Kung, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    Extractability of Pu from soils was most affected by pH and amounts of clay, salts, and carbonates. - Plutonium uptake by Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) from soils with varying chemical composition and contaminated with Pu complexes (Pu-nitrate [ 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ], Pu-citrate [ 239 Pu(C 6 H 5 O 7 ) + ], and Pu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Pu-DTPA [ 239 Pu-C 14 H 23 O 10 N 3 ]) was investigated. Sequential extraction of soils incubated with applied Pu was used to determine the distribution of Pu in the various soil fractions. The initial Pu activity levels in soils were 44.40-231.25 Bq g -1 as Pu-nitrate , Pu-citrate, or Pu-DTPA. A difference in Pu uptake between treatments of Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate without chelating agent was observed only with Indian mustard in acidic Crowley soil. The uptake of Pu by plants was increased with increasing DTPA rates, however, the Pu concentration of plants was not proportionally increased with increasing application rate of Pu to soil. Plutonium uptake from Pu-DTPA was significantly higher from the acid Crowley soil than from the calcareous Weswood soil. The uptake of Pu from the soils was higher in Indian mustard than in sunflower. Sequential extraction of Pu showed that the ion-exchangeable Pu fraction in soils was dramatically increased with DTPA treatment and decreased with time of incubation. Extractability of Pu in all fractions was not different when Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate were applied to the same soil. More Pu was associated with the residual Pu fraction without DTPA application. Consistent trends with time of incubation for other fractions were not apparent. The ion-exchangeable fraction, assumed as plant-available Pu, was significantly higher in acid soil compared with calcareous soil with or without DTPA treatment. When the calcareous soil was treated with DTPA, the ion-exchangeable Pu was comparatively less influenced. This fraction in the soil was more affected with time

  16. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: β-hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratase genes.

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    Two sunflower hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratases evolved into two different isoenzymes showing distinctive expression levels and kinetics' efficiencies. β-Hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein (ACP)]-dehydratase (HAD) is a component of the type II fatty acid synthase complex involved in 'de novo' fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. This complex, formed by four intraplastidial proteins, is responsible for the sequential condensation of two-carbon units, leading to 16- and 18-C acyl-ACP. HAD dehydrates 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP generating trans-2-enoyl-ACP. With the aim of a further understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydratase genes have been cloned from developing seeds, HaHAD1 (GenBank HM044767) and HaHAD2 (GenBank GU595454). Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single copy genes. Differences in their expression patterns across plant tissues were detected. Higher levels of HaHAD2 in the initial stages of seed development inferred its key role in seed storage fatty acid synthesis. That HaHAD1 expression levels remained constant across most tissues suggest a housekeeping function. Heterologous expression of these genes in E. coli confirmed both proteins were functional and able to interact with the bacterial complex 'in vivo'. The large increase of saturated fatty acids in cells expressing HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 supports the idea that these HAD genes are closely related to the E. coli FabZ gene. The proposed three-dimensional models of HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 revealed differences at the entrance to the catalytic tunnel attributable to Phe166/Val1159, respectively. HaHAD1 F166V was generated to study the function of this residue. The 'in vitro' enzymatic characterization of the three HAD proteins demonstrated all were active, with the mutant having intermediate K m and V max values to the wild-type proteins.

  17. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R(12) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Gong, L; Hulke, B S; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is resistant to both of the most predominant and most virulent rust races identified in the Northern Great Plains of the USA. The gene conditioning rust resistance in RHA 464 originated from wild Helianthus annuus L., but has not been molecularly marked or determined to be independent from other rust loci. The objectives of this study are to identify molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene and to investigate the allelism of this gene with the unmapped rust resistance genes present in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397. Virulence phenotypes of seedlings for the F(2) population and F(2:3) families suggested that a single dominant gene confers rust resistance in RHA 464, and this gene was designated as R(12). Bulked segregant analysis identified ten markers polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks. In subsequent genetic mapping, the ten markers covered 33.4 cM of genetic distance on linkage group 11 of sunflower. A co-dominant marker CRT275-11 is the closest marker distal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM, while ZVG53, a dominant marker linked in the repulsion phase, is proximal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 9.6 cM. The allelism test demonstrated that R(12) is not allelic to the rust resistance genes in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397, and it is also not linked to any previously mapped rust resistance genes. Discovery of the R(12) novel rust resistance locus in sunflower and associated markers will potentially support the molecular marker-assisted introgression and pyramiding of R(12) into sunflower breeding lines.

  18. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco; Tome, F. Vera; Fernandez, M. Perez; Lozano, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and 226 Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and 226 Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and 226 Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and 226 Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the 226 Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part

  19. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tome, F. Vera [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Fernandez, M. Perez [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and {sup 226}Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part.

  20. Influence of silver and titanium nanoparticles on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and accumulation of radiocaesium in Helianthus annuus

    Dubchak, S.; Ogar, A.; Mietelski, J. W.; Turnau, K.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on 1 34Cs uptake by Helianthus annuus was studied in a pilot study under growth chamber conditions. Mycorrhizal plants took up five times more 1 34Cs (up to 250,000 Bq kg - 1 dry weight) than non mycorrhizal plants. Silver and titanium nanoparticles, supplied into the surface soil layer decreased both the mycorrhizal colonization and Cs uptake by mycorrhizal plants. The application of activated carbon attenuated the effect of nanoparticles and increased 1 34Cs uptake in the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (up to 400,000 Bq kg - 1 dry weight). The results underline the possible application of phyto remediation techniques based on mycorrhizas assisted plants in decontamination of both radionuclides and nanoparticles. (Author) 27 refs.

  1. Influence of silver and titanium nanoparticles on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and accumulation of radiocaesium in Helianthus annuus

    Dubchak, S.; Ogar, A.; Mietelski, J. W.; Turnau, K.

    2010-07-01

    The influence of albacore's mycorrhizal fungus on {sup 1}34Cs uptake by Helianthus annuus was studied in a pilot study under growth chamber conditions. Mycorrhizal plants took up five times more {sup 1}34Cs (up to 250,000 Bq kg{sup -}1 dry weight) than non mycorrhizal plants. Silver and titanium nanoparticles, supplied into the surface soil layer decreased both the mycorrhizal colonization and Cs uptake by mycorrhizal plants. The application of activated carbon attenuated the effect of nanoparticles and increased {sup 1}34Cs uptake in the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (up to 400,000 Bq kg{sup -}1 dry weight). The results underline the possible application of phyto remediation techniques based on mycorrhizas assisted plants in decontamination of both radionuclides and nanoparticles. (Author) 27 refs.

  2. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties. Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Sunflower oil, Genetic toxicity, Gas chromatography

  3. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  4. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J; Gulya, Thomas J; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-04-03

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F 1 s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2 n ) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F 1 s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2 n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes' fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding. Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

  5. Aseptic hydroponics to assess rhamnolipid-Cd and rhamnolipid-Zn bioavailability for sunflower (Helianthus annuus): a phytoextraction mechanism study.

    Wen, Jia; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K

    2016-11-01

    The availability of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated in rhamnolipid- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-buffered solutions in order to evaluate the influence of aqueous speciation of the metals on their uptake by the plant, in relation to predictions of uptake by the free ion activity model (FIAM). Free metal ion activity was estimated using the chemical equilibrium program MINTEQ or measured by Donnan dialysis. The uptake of Cd followed the FIAM for the EDTA-buffered solution at EDTA concentrations below 0.4 μM; for the rhamnolipid-buffered solution, the uptake of both metals in roots was not markedly affected by increasing rhamnolipid concentrations in solution. This suggests rhamnolipid enhanced metal accumulation in plant roots (per unit free metal in solution) possibly through formation and uptake of lipophilic complexes. The addition of normal Ca concentrations (low millimetre range) to the rhamnolipid uptake solutions reduced Cd accumulation in shoots by inhibiting Cd translocation, whereas it significantly increased Zn accumulation in shoots. This study confirms that although rhamnolipid could enhance accumulation of Cd in plants roots at low Ca supply, it is not suitable for Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil environments where Ca concentrations in soil solution are orders of magnitude greater than those of Cd.

  6. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  7. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  8. Seed yield, N-uptake and oil quality in Helianthus annuus as affected by N-fertilizer

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Attar, J.

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of different nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha as urea) on dry matter yield, N uptake, seed yield, grain oil content and properties of sunflower Helianthus annuus using the 15 N labeling technique. Sunflower plants responded strongly to increasing N supply with respect to growth performance. Dry matter yield and total N uptake were significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Partitioning of N yield in different plant parts showed that capitulum was the principle sink of N (60%) followed by leaves (30%) and stem (10%) regardless of N-fertilizer rates. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly increased at higher N-supply. However, oil concentration was significantly reduced in the N-fertilized treatments. Decreasing of grain oil content due to N addition was overcompensated by the seed yield increase. Consequently, no significant effect of N supply on oil yield was observed. The effect of N supply on iodine number was small, and only a small trend towards lower iodine value in the N100 was observed. No clear trend of the effect of N supply on other oil quality parameters was observed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) was significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Recovery of fertilizer 15 N was of 64% regardless of N-rates. This efficiency was less pronounced in stem and leaves than that in capitulum which had a greater value at higher N-supply. (Author)

  9. The sensitivity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants to UV-B radiation is altered by nitrogen status

    Inês Cechin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Interaction effects between nitrogen and UV-B radiation were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. variety IAC-Iarama plants grown in a greenhouse under natural photoperiod conditions. Plants were irradiated with 0.8W m-2 (control or 8.0W m-2 (+UV-B of UV-B radiation for 7h per day. The plants were grown in pots containing vermiculite and watered with 70% of full strength nitrogen-free Long Ashton solution, containing either low (42.3ppm or high (282ppm nitrogen as ammonium nitrate. High nitrogen increased dry matter of stem, leaves and shoot, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis (A without any alteration in stomatal conductance (gs nor transpiration (E while it reduced the intercellular CO2 (Ci concentration, and malondialdehyde (MDA content. High UV-B radiation had negative effects on dry matter production, A, gs and E with the effects more marked under high nitrogen, whereas it increased Ci under high nitrogen. Activity of PG-POD was reduced by high UV-B radiation under low nitrogen but it was not changed under high nitrogen. The UV-B radiation increased the MDA content independently of nitrogen level. Results indicate that the effects of UV-B radiation on sunflower plants are dependent of nitrogen supply with high nitrogen making their physiological processes more sensitive to UV-B radiation.

  10. Translatome profiling in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds highlights post-transcriptional regulation of germination.

    Layat, Elodie; Leymarie, Juliette; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Caius, José; Langlade, Nicolas; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Seed dormancy, which blocks germination in apparently favourable conditions, is a key regulatory control point of plant population establishment. As germination requires de novo translation, its regulation by dormancy is likely to be related to the association of individual transcripts to polysomes. Here, the polysome-associated mRNAs, that is, the translatome, were fractionated and characterized with microarrays in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos during their imbibition at 10°C, a temperature preventing germination of dormant embryos. Profiling of mRNAs in polysomal complexes revealed that the translatome differs between germinating and nongerminating embryos. Association of transcripts with polysomes reached a maximum after 15 h of imbibition; at this time-point 194 polysome-associated transcripts were specifically found in nondormant embryos and 47 in dormant embryos only. The proteins corresponding to the polysomal mRNAs in nondormant embryos appeared to be very pertinent for germination and were involved mainly in transport, regulation of transcription or cell wall modifications. This work demonstrates that seed germination results from a timely regulated and selective recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, thus opening novel fields of investigation for the understanding of this developmental process. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of three phosphoglycerate kinase isoforms from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds.

    Troncoso-Ponce, M A; Rivoal, J; Venegas-Calerón, M; Dorion, S; Sánchez, R; Cejudo, F J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2012-07-01

    Three cDNAs encoding different phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, EC 2.7.2.3) isoforms, two cytosolic (HacPGK1 and HacPGK2) and one plastidic (HapPGK), were cloned and characterized from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. The expression profiles of these genes showed differences in heterotrophic tissues, such as developing seeds and roots, where HacPGK1 was predominant, while HapPGK was highly expressed in photosynthetic tissues. The cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and biochemically characterized. Despite the high level of identity between sequences, the HacPGK1 isoform showed strong differences in terms of specific activity, temperature stability and pH sensitivity in comparison to HacPGK2 and HapPGK. A polyclonal immune serum was raised against the purified HacPGK1 isoform, which showed cross-immunoreactivity with the other PGK isoforms. This serum allowed the localization of high expression levels of PGK isozymes in embryo tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-01

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  14. Plant domestication and the assembly of bacterial and fungal communities associated with strains of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    Leff, Jonathan W; Lynch, Ryan C; Kane, Nolan C; Fierer, Noah

    2017-04-01

    Root and rhizosphere microbial communities can affect plant health, but it remains undetermined how plant domestication may influence these bacterial and fungal communities. We grew 33 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) strains (n = 5) that varied in their extent of domestication and assessed rhizosphere and root endosphere bacterial and fungal communities. We also assessed fungal communities in the sunflower seeds to investigate the degree to which root and rhizosphere communities were influenced by vertical transmission of the microbiome through seeds. Neither root nor rhizosphere bacterial communities were affected by the extent of sunflower domestication, but domestication did affect the composition of rhizosphere fungal communities. In particular, more modern sunflower strains had lower relative abundances of putative fungal pathogens. Seed-associated fungal communities strongly differed across strains, but several lines of evidence suggest that there is minimal vertical transmission of fungi from seeds to the adult plants. Our results indicate that plant-associated fungal communities are more strongly influenced by host genetic factors and plant breeding than bacterial communities, a finding that could influence strategies for optimizing microbial communities to improve crop yields. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Root biomass response to foliar application of imazapyr for two imidazolinone tolerant alleles of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano; Altieri, Emiliano; Ramos, María Laura

    2012-09-01

    Imisun and CLPlus are two imidazolinone tolerance traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) determined by the expression of two alleles at the locus Ahasl1. Both traits differed in their tolerance level to imazapyr -a type of imidazolinone herbicide- when aboveground biomass is considered, but the concomitant herbicide effect over the root system has not been reported. The objective of this work was to quantify the root biomass response to increased doses of imazapyr in susceptible (ahasl1/ahasl1), Imisun (Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1) and CLPlus (Ahasl1-3/Ahasl1-3) homozygous sunflower genotypes. These materials were sprayed at the V2-V4 stage with increased doses of imazapyr (from 0 to 480 g active ingredient ha(-1)) and 14 days after treatment root biomass of each plant was assessed. Genotype at the Ahasl1 locus, dose of imazapyr and their interaction significantly contributed (P < 0.001) to explain the reduction in root biomass accumulation after herbicide application. Estimated dose of imazapyr required to reduce root biomass accumulation by fifty percent (GR(50)) differed statistically for the three genotypes under study (P < 0.001). CLPlus genotypes showed the highest values of GR(50), 300 times higher on average than the susceptible genotypes, and almost 8 times higher than Imisun materials, demonstrating that both alleles differ in their root biomass response to foliar application of increased doses of imazapyr.

  16. The effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from soil using Helianthus annuus

    Turgut, Cafer; Katie Pepe, M.; Cutright, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility to clean heavy metal contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants has shown great potential. One of the most recently studied species used in phytoremediation applications are sunflowers. In this study, two cultivars of Helianthus annuus were used in conjunction with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as chelators. Two different concentrations of the chelators were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from a silty-clay loam soil. When 1.0 g/kg CA was used, the highest total metal uptake was only 0.65 mg. Increasing the CA concentration posed a severe phytotoxicity to both cultivars as evidenced by stunted growth and diminished uptake rates. Decreasing the CA concentration to 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg yielded results that were not statistically different from the control. EDTA at a concentration of 0.1 g/kg yielded the best results for both cultivars achieving a total metal uptake of ∼0.73 mg compared to ∼0.40 mg when EDTA was present at 0.3 g/kg

  17. The effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from soil using Helianthus annuus.

    Turgut, Cafer; Katie Pepe, M; Cutright, Teresa J

    2004-09-01

    The possibility to clean heavy metal contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants has shown great potential. One of the most recently studied species used in phytoremediation applications are sunflowers. In this study, two cultivars of Helianthus annuus were used in conjunction with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as chelators. Two different concentrations of the chelators were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from a silty-clay loam soil. When 1.0 g/kg CA was used, the highest total metal uptake was only 0.65 mg. Increasing the CA concentration posed a severe phytotoxicity to both cultivars as evidenced by stunted growth and diminished uptake rates. Decreasing the CA concentration to 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg yielded results that were not statistically different from the control. EDTA at a concentration of 0.1 g/kg yielded the best results for both cultivars achieving a total metal uptake of approximately 0.73 mg compared to approximately 0.40 mg when EDTA was present at 0.3 g/kg.

  18. Comparative effect of Al, Se, and Mo toxicity on NO3(-) assimilation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Ruiz, Juan M; Rivero, Rosa M; Romero, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Here, we study the effect caused by three trace elements--Al, Se, and Mo--applied at the same concentration (100 microM) and in their oxyanionic forms--NaAl(OH)(4), Na(2)SeO(4), and Na(2)MoO(4)--on NO(3)(-) assimilation (NO(3)(-), nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities, and concentrations of amino acids and proteins) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. var. Kasol) plants. The most harmful element for sunflower plants proved to be selenate, followed by aluminate. On the contrary, the application of molybdate had no negative effect on the growth of this plant, suggesting the possibility of using sunflower for the phytoremediation of this metal, mainly in agricultural zones used for grazing where the excess of this element can provoke problems of molybdenosis in ruminants (particularly in cattle). In addition, we found that the alteration of NO(3)(-) assimilation by SeO(4)(2-) and Al(OH)(4)(-) directly influences the growth and development of plants, foliar inhibition of NR activity by SeO(4)(2-) being more harmful than the decrease in foliar availability of NO(3)(-) provoked by Al(OH)(4)(-).

  19. The effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from soil using Helianthus annuus

    Turgut, Cafer; Katie Pepe, M.; Cutright, Teresa J

    2004-09-01

    The possibility to clean heavy metal contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants has shown great potential. One of the most recently studied species used in phytoremediation applications are sunflowers. In this study, two cultivars of Helianthus annuus were used in conjunction with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as chelators. Two different concentrations of the chelators were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from a silty-clay loam soil. When 1.0 g/kg CA was used, the highest total metal uptake was only 0.65 mg. Increasing the CA concentration posed a severe phytotoxicity to both cultivars as evidenced by stunted growth and diminished uptake rates. Decreasing the CA concentration to 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg yielded results that were not statistically different from the control. EDTA at a concentration of 0.1 g/kg yielded the best results for both cultivars achieving a total metal uptake of {approx}0.73 mg compared to {approx}0.40 mg when EDTA was present at 0.3 g/kg.

  20. Comparative analysis of tannery-effluent contaminated soil and mixed culture bacterial inoculation on helianthus annuus L. growth

    Yasin, M.; Faisal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we reported the effect of four strains Bacillus pumilus-CrK08, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans-CrK16, Exiguobacterium-CrK19 and Bacillus cereus-CrK20 and tannery contaminated soil on Helianthus annuus L. var Hysun-33 growth parameters. Plants growing in tannery effluent contaminated soil have shown slowed leaf growth, reduced shoot length, burning of leaf margins and tips compared to plants growing in normal garden soil. The inoculated plants had shown overall increase in root length (15%), shoot length (33%) and fresh weight shoot (135%) compared to un-inoculated plants growing in stress conditions. Plants growing in tannery contaminated soil have shown increase in soluble proteins contents (9%), acid phosphatase activity (200%), peroxidase activity (203%) and decrease in chlorophyll a (39%), chlorophyll b (23%) and carotenoids contents (28%) compare to plants growing in normal control soil. Inoculated plants grown in contaminated soil have shown an increased in peroxidase activity, soluble proteins contents, acid phosphatase activity, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid contents compare to respective un-inoculated plants. (author)

  1. Elimination of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration using Helianthus annuus L

    Vera Tome, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The elimination of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium. Different experiments were designed to determine the optimum age of the seedlings for the remediation process, and also to study the principal way in which the radionuclides are removed from the solution by the sunflower roots. In every trial a precipitate appeared which contained a major fraction of the natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra. The results indicated that the seedlings themselves induced the formation of this precipitate. When four-week-old seedlings were exposed to contaminated water, a period of only 2 days was sufficient to remove the natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from the solution: about 50% of the natural uranium and 70% of the {sup 226}Ra were fixed in the roots, and essentially the rest was found in the precipitate, with only very small percentages fixed in the shoots and left in solution.

  2. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  3. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Comparisons of Photosynthetic Responses of Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus to Chronic and Acute Water Stress in Sun and Shade.

    Ben, G Y; Osmond, C B; Sharkey, T D

    1987-06-01

    We have examined the effects of mild, chronic water stress and acute water stress on two water stress sensitive plants, Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus. Using a combination of the leaf disc O(2) electrode to measure the light responses of photosynthesis and 77 K fluorescence to monitor damage to the primary photochemistry, we have found the following: (a) The CO(2) saturated rate of photosynthesis at high light is the most water stress sensitive parameter measured. (b) The apparent quantum yield (moles O(2) per mole photons) was slightly, if at all, affected by mild water stress (>-1.5 megapascals). (c) Severe water stress (<-1.5 megapascals) reduced the quantum yield of photosynthesis regardless of whether the stress was applied in sun or shade. The light independent reduction of quantum yield was not associated with a reduction in 77 K fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) indicating that the quantum yield reduction was not the result of damage to primary photochemistry. (d) The diel fluctuation in 77 K fluorescence seen in sun-exposed control leaves was greatly exaggerated in water stressed leaves because of enhanced decline in 77 K fluorescence in the morning. The rate of recovery was similar in both control and water stressed leaves. Shaded leaves showed no change in 77 K fluorescence regardless of whether water stress was imposed or not. (e) The water stress sensitive plants used in these experiments did not recover from acute water stress severe enough to reduce the quantum yield or chronic water stress which lasted long enough that light dependent damage to primary photochemistry occurred.

  5. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  7. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.

    G. Delchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.: hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology, hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology, hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (Smetolachlor + terbuthylazine – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

  8. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (psunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  9. Pre-haustorial resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cytochemical studies.

    Echevarría-Zomeño, Sira; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Jorrín, Jesús; Maldonado, Ana M

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a root holoparasitic angiosperm considered as one of the major constraints for sunflower production in Mediterranean areas. Breeding for resistance is regarded as the most effective, feasible, and environmentally friendly solution to control this parasite. However, the existing sources of genetic resistance are defeated by the continuous emergence of new more virulent races of the parasite. In this work, the interaction between sunflower and O. cumana has been analysed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms involved in resistance. Two sunflower genotypes were selected showing different behaviour against the new race F of O. cumana, HE-39998 (susceptible) and HE-39999 (resistant), and both compatible and incompatible interactions were compared. Pot and Petri dish bioassays revealed that only HE-39998 plants were severely affected, supporting a high number of successfully established broomrapes to mature flowering, whereas in HE-39999 root tubercles were never observed, resistance being associated with browning symptoms of both parasite and host tissues. Histological aspects of the resistance were further investigated. Suberization and protein cross-linking at the cell wall were seen in the resistant sunflower cells in contact with the parasite, preventing parasite penetration and connection to the host vascular system. In addition, fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy (CLM) observations revealed accumulation of phenolic compounds during the incompatible reaction, which is in agreement with these metabolites playing a defensive role during H. annuus-O. cumana interaction.

  10. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC 1 F 2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC 2 F 3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  11. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  12. Effect of Irrigation with Contaminated Water by Cloth Detergent on Seed Germination Traits and Early Growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Hassan HEIDARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources for irrigation is sewage. Contaminated water may affect seed germination and plant growth. A laboratory experiment and a pot experiment were conducted in 2012 to determine the effect of different doses of detergent on seed germination traits and early growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. The experiments included eight doses of cloth detergent (0, 0.00002, 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 g/L. Results showed that 20 and 2 g/L of detergent severely reduced seed germination, plant height, leaf number per plant, total biomass and stem weight. 20 g/L of detergent reduced shoot length, root length, seedling weight and seed vigor. Seed germination stage was more sensitive to contaminated water than early growth stage. The results demonstrated that irrigating sunflower by contaminated water with household cleaning products at high concentration should be avoided.

  13. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-11-24

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Helianthus annuus L

    moj

    Maximum and minimum reductions were observed in the cases ... markers were identified (P≤0.05) for the studied characters under natural and ..... characters did not provide sufficient information about the functional relations between the.

  15. Evaluating the Competitive Ability of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars against Tumble Pigweed (Amaranthus albus L. in Birjand Region

    mohammad javad babaie zarch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using crop species and cultivars with high competitive ability against weeds is one of the effective strategies for sustainable weed management. Emergence rate, rapid root growth, seed vigor, development rate of leaves, rapid root and shoot biomass accumulation, rapid canopy closure and plant height are important traits in relation to the competitiveness between different cultivars of crops. Competitive ability is measured using two indices including the weed growth prevention ability or weed biomass reduction index and crop tolerance to weed or yield reduction preventing index. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of six oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cultivars and also introducing the most important morpho-physiological attributes affecting their competitive ability with tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus L. in Birjand. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand in 2012. Treatments were included six sunflower oilseed cultivars (Azargol, Jame esfehan, Farrokh, Syrna, Progress, Euroflor and tumble pigweed densities in four levels (zero (control, 5, 10 and 15 plants per square meter. The number of days and cumulative degree days were recorded from sowing to emergence. Plant height, leaf area and dry matter were recorded at four stages from emergence to 75 days after it. Sunflower seeds were harvested after physiological maturity. Preventing indices were used to evaluate the competitive ability of cultivars, competitive tolerance (Watson et al., 2002 and weed biomass. Data were analyzed with the SAS software and cluster analysis was performed using SPSS software. FLSD test was employed for comparison of the means at the 5% significance level. The graphs were prepared by Excel. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that there was a

  16. Myco-phytoremediation of arsenic- and lead-contaminated soils by Helianthus annuus and wood rot fungi, Trichoderma sp. isolated from decayed wood.

    Govarthanan, M; Mythili, R; Selvankumar, T; Kamala-Kannan, S; Kim, H

    2018-04-30

    In the present study, Helianthus annuus grown in arsenic- (As) and lead- (Pb) contaminated soil were treated with plant-growth promoting fungi Trichoderma sp. MG isolated from decayed wood and assessed for their phytoremediation efficiency. The isolate MG exhibited a high tolerance to As (650mg/L) and Pb (500mg/L), and could remove > 70% of metals in aqueous solution with an initial concentration of 100mg/L each. In addition, the isolate MG was screened for plant-growth-promoting factors such as siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, and phosphate solubilisation. Phytoremediation studies indicated that treatment of H. annuus with the isolate MG had the maximum metal-accumulation in shoots (As; 67%, Pb; 59%). Furthermore, a significant increase in the soil extracellular enzyme-activities was observed in myco-phytoremediated soils. The activities of phosphatase (35 U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (41mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.2mg glucose/g/2h), urease (55.4mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (49.3mg glucose/g/2h) and invertase (45.3mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 12%, 14%, 12%, 22%, 19% and 14% in As contaminated soil, respectively. Similarly, the activities of phosphatase (31.4U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (39.3mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.1mg glucose/g/2h), urease (49.8mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (46.3mg glucose/g/2h), and invertase (42.1mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 11%, 15%, 11%, 18%, 20% and 14% in Pb contaminated soil, respectively. Obtained results indicate that the isolate MG could be a potential strain for myco-phytoremediation of As and Pb contaminated soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing targeting of a novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 20 from wild Helianthus argophyllus for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Ma, G J; Markell, S G; Song, Q J; Qi, L L

    2017-07-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed a new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 20 , from wild Helianthus argophyllus located on linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome and closely linked to SNP markers that facilitate the marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most devastating and yield-limiting diseases of sunflower. Downy mildew resistance identified in wild Helianthus argophyllus accession PI 494578 was determined to be effective against the predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii occurring in the United States. The evaluation of 114 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross between HA 89 and PI 494578 against P. halstedii race 734 revealed that single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Genotyping-by-sequencing analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population indicated that the DM resistance gene derived from wild H. argophyllus PI 494578 is located on the upper end of the linkage group (LG) 8 of the sunflower genome, as was determined single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with DM resistance. Analysis of 11 additional SNP markers previously mapped to this region revealed that the resistance gene, named Pl 20 , co-segregated with four markers, SFW02745, SFW09076, S8_11272025, and S8_11272046, and is flanked by SFW04358 and S8_100385559 at an interval of 1.8 cM. The newly discovered P. halstedii resistance gene has been introgressed from wild species into cultivated sunflower to provide a novel gene with DM resistance. The homozygous resistant individuals were selected from BC 2 F 2 progenies with the use of markers linked to the Pl 20 gene, and these lines should benefit the sunflower community for Helianthus improvement.

  19. ROLE OF SOME CHEMICAL MATERIALS ON THE PHYTO-EXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS)

    ABD EL-BARY, S.A.; EL-NAKA, E.A.; RIZK, M.A.; LOTFY, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chelation and complexation of heavy metals were evaluated as practical ways to solubilize, detoxify and enhance heavy metals accumulation by plants. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was selected as potential heavy metals accumulator for metals phyto-extraction in two selected soils (clayey and sandy). To enhance metals phyto-extraction, ammonium nitrate and organic chelates such as EDTA and citric acid were added to soils at the rates from 0 to 20 mmol/kg soil as extracting solutions and applied to the soil by mixing thoroughly before planting. Dry matter production and metals concentrations in shoots and roots and soil pH were measured after 60 days.Plant dry matter production and metals accumulation were varied with soil contamination, chelate / organic acid form and rate, and soil type. The highest metals concentration was obtained in plants grown on clayey soil, however, the lowest content was observed in case of sandy soil. Addition of citric acid increased metals accumulation and translocation to the shoots significantly. Addition of 20 mmol/kg of citric acid to clayey soils increased metals concentration in shoots several folds of magnitude, but addition of ammonium nitrate had little effect on metal translocation to shoots. Citric acid was the most effective chelate in plant accumulation of tested metals.

  20. THE EFFECT OF SPRUCE BARK POLYPHENOLS EXTRACT IN COMBINATION WITH DEUTERIUM DEPLETED WATER (DDW ON GLYCINE MAX L. AND HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. DEVELOPMENT

    Corneliu Tanase

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spruce bark aqueous extract and deuterium depleted water (DDW as bioregulators on the plant growth Glycine max L. and Helianthus annuus. The following specific parameteres were closely monitorised: germination energy and germination capacity, plants vegetative organelles growth and development and photoassimilatory pigments concentrations. The results have shown that DDW presents different effects depending on tested plant species. In the case of soybean, DDW presented stimulatory effects on both germination energy and capacity, radicles elongation, primary leaves growth and development but inhibitory effects on photoassimilatory pigments. Spruce bark extract reduced the germination capacity of soybean seeds, but accelerated the germination process of sunflower seeds and present stimulatory effects on plantlets biomass accumulation. The combination of DDW with Picea abies polyphenolic extract promoted soybean plantlet elongation, especially the rootlets ones and stimulated green biomass accumulation for both soybean and sunflower plantlets. Analyzing the photoassimilatory pigments concentration for sunflower, it can be observed an increasing trend (almost 100% comparing with control when introduce into the growth medium DDW and P. abies polyphenolic extract. DDW and P. abies bark extract have shown an important role in plant growth and development, improving photoassimiliation process.

  1. Comparative study of SOS2 and a novel PMP3-1 gene expression in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines differing in salt tolerance.

    Saadia, Mubshara; Jamil, Amer; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-06-01

    Gene expression pattern of two important regulatory proteins, salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2) and plasma membrane protein 3-1 (PMP3-1), involved in ion homeostasis, was analyzed in two salinity-contrasting sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines, Hysun-38 (salt tolerant) and S-278 (moderately salt tolerant). The pattern was studied at selected time intervals (24 h) under 150 mM NaCl treatment. Using reverse transcription PCR, SOS2 gene fragment was obtained from young leaf and root tissues of opposing lines while that for PMP3-1 was obtained only from young root tissues. Both tolerant and moderately tolerant lines showed a gradual increase in SOS2 expression in sunflower root tissues. Leaf tissues showed the gradually increasing pattern of SOS2 expression in tolerant plants as compared to that for moderately tolerant ones that showed a relatively lower level of expression for this gene. We found the highest level of PMP 3-1 expression in the roots of tolerant sunflower line at 6 and 12 h postsalinity treatment. The moderately tolerant line showed higher expression of PMP3-1 at 12 and 24 h after salt treatment. Overall, the expression of genes for both the regulator proteins varied significantly in the two sunflower lines differing in salinity tolerance.

  2. [Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].

    Tong, Wen-Jie; Chen, Fu; Wen, Xin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.

  3. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  4. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new method for in-situ monitoring of the underground development of Orobanche cumana in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) with a mini-rhizotron.

    Eizenberg, H; Shtienberg, D; Silberbush, M; Ephrath, J E

    2005-11-01

    To develop an in-situ, non-destructive method for observation and monitoring of the underground developmental stages of the root parasite Orobanche cumana. The parasitic weed Orobanche causes severe damage to vegetables and field crops. Most of the damage caused to the crops occurs during the underground, unobservable parasitism stage. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus 'Adi') plants were planted in soil that was artificially inoculated with O. cumana seeds. Clear Plexiglas mini-rhizotron plastic observation tubes were inserted into the soil. Seed germination, early stage of penetration, and formation of tubercles and spikes were observed non-destructively and were monitored throughout the growing season by mean of a mini-rhizotron camera. Use of this technology enabled the complete individual parasite life cycle from the very early development (including germination) to Orobanche shoot to be monitored. In addition, the effect of the systemic herbicide Cadre (imazapic) on the development of O. cumana was inspected and quantified. This novel methodology facilitates the in-situ study of major aspects of the host-parasite interaction and of parasite suppression, such as parasitism dynamics, parasite growth rate, and the effect of chemical treatments on the parasite.

  6. Effect of different levels of foliar application of potassium on hysun-33 and ausigold-4 sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) cultivars under salt stress

    Arshadullah, M.; Ali, A.; Hyder, I.; Mahmood, I.A.; Zaman, B.U.

    2014-01-01

    A hydroponic study was conducted to see the growth response of two cultivars of sunflower (Hysun-33 and Ausigold-4) to K+ nutrition under salt stress during the growing season 2011, at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nursery of Helianthus annuus was raised in sand and ten-day old seedlings per hole were transplanted in each pot having four holes per pot lid. Half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution was filled in each pot. After the establishment of seedlings, salt stress (6 dS/m) was developed artificially. The treatments were, control, 2 and 4 % K + as K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ foliar applications. Salt present in the growing medium caused a significant (P<0.00l), reduction in fresh and dry weights of sunflower. Salt stress suppresses the K uptake from pot. Application of varying levels of K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ improved the fresh and dry weights of sunflower under both control and saline conditions. However, the highest increase in fresh and dry weight of control and stressed plants was observed when 2% K was applied. Further increase in the level of K application did not improve fresh and dry weights of salt stress and unstressed plants. The growth medium salts reduced sunflower growth. (author)

  7. SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers and the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi in the cultivation of oil crops is essential to reduce production costs and minimize negative impacts on natural resources. A field experiment was conducted in an Argissolo Amarelo (Ultisol with the aim of evaluating the effects of fertilizer application and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and on soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of four treatments in regard to application of organic fertilizer (liquid biofertilizer, cow urine, mineral fertilizer, and unfertilized control and two treatments in regard to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (with and without mycorrhizal fungi. The results showed that the physiological attributes of relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio were positively influenced by fertilization, compared to the control treatment, likely brought about by the supply of nutrients from the fertilizers applied. The growth and productivity attributes were positively affected by mycorrhization.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inoculating Helianthus annuus (sunflower) grown in zinc and cadmium contaminated soils with plant growth promoting bacteria--effects on phytoremediation strategies.

    Marques, Ana P G C; Moreira, Helena; Franco, Albina R; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-06-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reducing the toxicity of heavy metals to plants in polluted environments. In this work the effects of inoculating metal resistant and plant growth promoting bacterial strains on the growth of Helianthus annuus grown in Zn and Cd spiked soils were assessed. The PGPR strains Ralstonia eutropha (B1) and Chrysiobacterium humi (B2) reduced losses of weight in metal exposed plants and induced changes in metal bioaccumulation and bioconcentration - with strain B2 decreasing up to 67% Zn accumulation and by 20% Zn bioconcentration factor (BCF) in the shoots, up to 64% Zn uptake and 38% Zn BCF in the roots, and up to 27% Cd uptake and 27% Cd BCF in plant roots. The impact of inoculation on the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of the plant was also assessed. Bacterial community diversity decreased with increasing levels of metal contamination in the soil, but in rhizosphere soil of plants inoculated with the PGPR strains, a higher bacterial diversity was kept throughout the experimental period. Inoculation of sunflower, particularly with C. humi (B2), appears to be an effective way of enhancing the short term stabilization potential of the plant in metal contaminated land, lowering losses in plant biomass and decreasing aboveground tissue contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    López-Valdez, F.; Fernández-Luqueño, F.; Luna-Suárez, S.; Dendooven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO 2 and N 2 O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N 2 O emissions but not CO 2 emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  11. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Qi, L L; Foley, M E; Cai, X W; Gulya, T J

    2016-04-01

    A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. The new germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. Sunflower downy mildew (DM) is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl 18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group (LG) 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with 869 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phenotyping 142 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of HA 89 and H. argophyllus confirmed the single gene inheritance of resistance. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl (18). SSR markers CRT214 and ORS203 flanked Pl(18) at a genetic distance of 1.1 and 0.4 cM, respectively. Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the Pl(18) region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region. Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1.2 cM distal to Pl(18), and another four co-segregating SNP markers were 0.9 cM proximal to Pl(18). The new BC2F4-derived germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    Lopez-Valdez, F., E-mail: flopez2072@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, F. [Natural and Energetic Resources, Cinvestav-Saltillo, C.P. 25900, Coahuila (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Suarez, S. [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Dendooven, L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions but not CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  13. Agronomic performance and chemical response of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) to some organic nitrogen sources and conventional nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions

    Helmy, A. M.; Fawzy Ramadan, M. F.

    2009-07-01

    Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) is an option for oilseed production, particularly in dry land areas due to good root system development. In this study, two field experiments were performed in the El-Khattara region (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt) during the 2005 season. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of organic nitrogen (ON) sources and their combinations as well as to compare the effect of ON and ammonium sulfate (AS) as a conventional fertilizer added individually or in combination on growth, yield components, oil percentage and the uptake of some macro nutrients by sunflowers grown on sandy soil.The treatments of chicken manure (CM) and a mixture of farmyard manure (FYM) with CM were superior to the other treatments and gave the highest yield, dry matter yield, NPK uptake by plants at all growth stages along with seed yield at the mature stage. The effect of the different ON on crop yield and its components may follow the order; CM> palma residues (PR)> FYM. This was more emphasized when the materials were mixed with AS at a ratio of 3:1 and 1:1. The uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by plants was affected by the addition of different N sources and treatments. The highest nutrient content and uptake by straw were obtained when treated with CM followed by PR at all growth stages, while it was PR followed by CM for seeds. Oil recovery was shown to respond to the N supply and the changes in individual fatty acids were not statistically different. However, it seems that the application of organic fertilizers resulted in an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids compared to the control. (Author) 58 refs.

  14. Comparisons of Photosynthetic Responses of Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus to Chronic and Acute Water Stress in Sun and Shade 1

    Ben, Gui-Ying; Osmond, C. Barry; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the effects of mild, chronic water stress and acute water stress on two water stress sensitive plants, Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus. Using a combination of the leaf disc O2 electrode to measure the light responses of photosynthesis and 77 K fluorescence to monitor damage to the primary photochemistry, we have found the following: (a) The CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis at high light is the most water stress sensitive parameter measured. (b) The apparent quantum yield (moles O2 per mole photons) was slightly, if at all, affected by mild water stress (>−1.5 megapascals). (c) Severe water stress (<−1.5 megapascals) reduced the quantum yield of photosynthesis regardless of whether the stress was applied in sun or shade. The light independent reduction of quantum yield was not associated with a reduction in 77 K fluorescence (Fv/Fm) indicating that the quantum yield reduction was not the result of damage to primary photochemistry. (d) The diel fluctuation in 77 K fluorescence seen in sun-exposed control leaves was greatly exaggerated in water stressed leaves because of enhanced decline in 77 K fluorescence in the morning. The rate of recovery was similar in both control and water stressed leaves. Shaded leaves showed no change in 77 K fluorescence regardless of whether water stress was imposed or not. (e) The water stress sensitive plants used in these experiments did not recover from acute water stress severe enough to reduce the quantum yield or chronic water stress which lasted long enough that light dependent damage to primary photochemistry occurred. PMID:16665465

  15. Ridge sowing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a minimum till system improves the productivity, oil quality, and profitability on a sandy loam soil under an arid climate.

    Sher, Ahmad; Suleman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sattar, Abdul; Wasaya, Allah; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a major oilseed crop grown for its edible oil across the globe including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the production of edible oil is less than the required quantity; the situation is being worsened with the increasing population. Thus, there is dire need to grow those sunflower genotypes which perform better under a given set of agronomic practices. In this 2-year study, we compared four sunflower genotypes, viz., Armoni, Kundi, Sinji, and S-278 for their yield potential, oil contents, fatty acid composition, and profitability under three sowing methods, viz., bed sowing, line sowing, and ridge sowing and two tillage system, viz., plow till and minimum till. Among the sunflower genotypes, the genotype Armoni produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, and achene yield; the oil contents and oleic acid were the highest in genotype Sinji. Among the sowing methods, the highest number of leaves per plant, head diameter, number of achenes per head, achene yield, and oil contents were recorded in ridge sowing. Among the tillage systems, the highest head diameter 16. 2 cm, 1000-achene weight (57.2 g), achene yield (1.8 t ha -1 ), oil contents (35.2%), and oleic acid (15.2%) were recorded in minimum till sunflower. The highest net benefits and benefit to cost ratio were recorded in minimum till ridge sown Armoni genotype. In conclusion, the genotype Armoni should be grown on ridges to achieve the highest achene yield, oil contents, and net profitability.

  16. Osmotic and Salt Stresses Modulate Spontaneous and Glutamate-Induced Action Potentials and Distinguish between Growth and Circumnutation in Helianthus annuus Seedlings

    Maria Stolarz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials (APs, i.e., long-distance electrical signals, and circumnutations (CN, i.e., endogenous plant organ movements, are shaped by ion fluxes and content in excitable and motor tissues. The appearance of APs and CN as well as growth parameters in seedlings and 3-week old plants of Helianthus annuus treated with osmotic and salt stress (0–500 mOsm were studied. Time-lapse photography and extracellular measurements of electrical potential changes were performed. The hypocotyl length was strongly reduced by the osmotic and salt stress. CN intensity declined due to the osmotic but not salt stress. The period of CN in mild salt stress was similar to the control (~164 min and increased to more than 200 min in osmotic stress. In sunflower seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium, spontaneous APs (SAPs propagating basipetally and acropetally with a velocity of 12–20 cm min−1 were observed. The number of SAPs increased 2–3 times (7–10 SAPs 24 h−1plant−1 in the mild salt stress (160 mOsm NaCl and KCl, compared to the control and strong salt stress (3–4 SAPs 24 h−1 plant−1 in the control and 300 mOsm KCl and NaCl. Glutamate-induced series of APs were inhibited in the strong salt stress-treated seedlings but not at the mild salt stress and osmotic stress. Additionally, in 3-week old plants, the injection of the hypo- or hyperosmotic solution at the base of the sunflower stem evoked series of APs (3–24 APs transmitted along the stem. It has been shown that osmotic and salt stresses modulate differently hypocotyl growth and CN and have an effect on spontaneous and evoked APs in sunflower seedlings. We suggested that potassium, sodium, and chloride ions at stress concentrations in the nutrient medium modulate sunflower excitability and CN.

  17. Physiological and biochemical responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to nano-CeO2 and excess boron: Modulation of boron phytotoxicity.

    Tassi, E; Giorgetti, L; Morelli, E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Barbafieri, M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with soil constituents and their effects in plants. Boron (B), an essential micronutrient that reduces crop production at both deficiency and excess, has not been investigated with respect to its interaction with cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO 2 ). Considering conflicting results on the nano-CeO 2 toxicity and protective role as antioxidant, their possible modulation on B toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated. Sunflower was cultivated for 30 days in garden pots containing original or B-spiked soil amended with nano-CeO 2 at 0-800 mg kg -1 . At harvest, Ce and B concentrations in tissues, biomass, and activities of stress enzymes in leaves were determined. Results showed that in the original soil, Ce accumulated mainly in roots, with little translocation to stems and leaves, while reduced root Ce was observed in plants from B-spiked soil. In the original soil, higher levels of nano-CeO 2 reduced plant B concentration. Although morphological effects were not visible, changes in biomass and oxidative stress response were observed. Sunflower leaves from B-spiked soil showed visible symptoms of B toxicity, such as necrosis and chlorosis in old leaves, as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, at high nano-CeO 2 level, SOD activity decreased reaching values similar to that of the control. This study has shown that nano-CeO 2 reduced both the B nutritional status of sunflower in original soil and the B phytotoxicity in B-spiked soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs.

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Hulke, Brent S; Qi, Lili; Scheffler, Brian E; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; McPhee, Kevin; Gulya, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Functional markers for Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower were obtained using gene-level information from the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Sclerotinia stalk rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers for genes controlling resistance to S. sclerotiorum will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana defense genes known to be associated with Sclerotinia disease resistance in a sunflower association mapping population evaluated for Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance. The total candidate gene sequence regions covered a concatenated length of 3,791 bp per individual. A total of 187 polymorphic sites were detected for all candidate gene sequences, 149 of which were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 38 were insertions/deletions. Eight SNPs in the coding regions led to changes in amino acid codons. Linkage disequilibrium decay throughout the candidate gene regions declined on average to an r (2) = 0.2 for genetic intervals of 120 bp, but extended up to 350 bp with r (2) = 0.1. A general linear model with modification to account for population structure was found the best fitting model for this population and was used for association mapping. Both HaCOI1-1 and HaCOI1-2 were found to be strongly associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance and explained 7.4 % of phenotypic variation in this population. These SNP markers associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance can potentially be applied to the selection of favorable genotypes, which will significantly improve the efficiency of MAS during the development of stalk rot resistant cultivars.

  19. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. The analysis on of the effect of urea, iron sulfate and vermicompost fertilizers on the growth characteristics and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. The city Darreh Gaz

    mahdiyeh zomorrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of vermicompost and urea and iron sulfate fertilizers on the growth characteristics and yield of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus L. an pediment was conducted in Darreh Gaz located in Khorasan Razavi province in 2012. Factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three factors and three repetition. In this experiment three levels of urea (50; 150 and 250 kg per hectare as the first factor and two level of vermicompost (7 tons per hectare consumption and non-consumption as the second factor and two iron sulfate (80 kilogram per hectare consumption and non- consumption were considered as the third factor. The results showed that the effect of urea × vermicompost treatment combination on stem height, head diameter, stem dry weight and yield was significantly at one percent probability level. The treatment combination of 250 kg. ha-1 × iron sulfate× vermicompost increased plant height, head diameter, petiole dry weight. Vermicompost × iron sulfate treatment combination on the dry weight’s leaf, petiole, stem and head were the highest significant (p≤0.01. The application of vermicompost × iron sulfate treatment combination resulted in the highest rate of stem diameter, leaf dry weight and stem the highest yield belonged to 250 kg.ha-1 × vermicompost. Iron sulfate use different amounts of urea fertilizer redact yield. The lowest yield of 250 kg.ha-1× iron sulfate was related to treatment combination. So it seems that the combined application of organic vermicompost fertilizer and urea and iron sulfate fertilizers on the growth and yield of sunflower Darreh Gaz can be effective in improving properties.

  1. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  3. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  4. Growth and N2-fixation of dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in an inter cropping system using natural abundances of 15N and 13C

    Kurdali, F.

    2010-06-01

    A field experiment on dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants grown in mono cropping and inter cropping systems was conducted to evaluate seed yield , oil content, dry matter production (DM), land equivalent ratio (LER), N- yield, competition for soil N uptake and N 2 -fixation using 13 C and 15 N natural abundance techniques. Three different combinations of sesbania (ses) and sunflower (sun) were investigated in the inter cropping system (1ses:1sun; 1ses:2sun, and 2ses:1sun, row ratio). The results showed that: From productivity standpoint, the 1ses:1sun surpassed the other treatments in terms of N and DM yields and exhibited a similar distribution of total DM and N uptake in the sesbania and sunflower plant species. The 1ses:2sun was next in order in terms of DM and N uptake showing also a similar distribution of total N in both plant species. On the other hand, the 1ses:2sun gave the greatest seed and oil production and together with 1ses:1sun treatment were satisfactory in terms of LER for DM in both species having almost similar values. However, the former treatment was more appropriate than the latter because of its higher LER value for seed and oil yield of sunflower plants. Nevertheless, 2ses:1sun treatment seemed not to be an appropriate treatment due to the divergence of LER values in both species, where sunflower plants had a low value as compared to sesbania. From ecological standpoint, the best treatment was 1ses:2sun which showed the greatest N 2 -fixation. Sesbania plants fixed almost identical amounts of atmospheric N 2 in both the mono cropping and inter cropping systems although the density of these plants in the latter was only 1/3 that of the former system. Moreover, soil N-uptake in the 1ses:2sun was the lowest among other treatments. These results give an advantage to the 1ses:2sun treatment over other treatments in terms of soil N consumption and N 2 fixation to meet sesbania's N requirements. %Δ 13 C in the

  5. Agronomic performance and chemical response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. to some organic nitrogen sources and conventional nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an option for oilseed production, particularly in dry land areas due to good root system development. In this study, two field experiments were performed in the El-Khattara region (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt during the 2005 season. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of organicnitrogen (ON sources and their combinations as well as to compare the effect of ON and ammonium sulfate (AS as a conventional fertilizer added individually or in combination on growth, yield components, oil percentage and the uptake of some macronutrients by sunflowers grown on sandy soil. The treatments of chicken manure (CM and a mixture of farmyard manure (FYM with CM were superior to the other treatments and gave the highest yield, dry matter yield, NPK uptake by plants at all growth stages along with seed yield at the mature stage. The effect of the different ON on crop yield and its components may follow the order; CM> palma residues (PR> FYM. This was more emphasized when the materials were mixed with AS at a ratio of 3:1 and 1:1. The uptake of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K by plants was affected by the addition of different N sources and treatments. The highest nutrient content and uptake by straw were obtained when treated with CM followed by PR at all growth stages, while it was PR followed by CM for seeds. Oil recovery was shown to respond to the N supply and the changes in individual fatty acids were not statistically different. However, it seems that the application of organic fertilizers resulted in an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids compared to the control.El girasol (Helianthus annuus es una opción para la producción de semillas oleaginosas, en particular en terrenos arenosos debido al buen desarrollo de sus raíces. En este trabajo, dos estudios de campo fueron realizados en la región de El-Ishattara (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt durante la estación 2005. El efecto de

  6. Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to N-application and Bio fertilization with Assessment of Fertilizer N Recovery by 15N Versus Subtraction Methods

    Abdel-Salam, A. A.; Zahra, W.R.; Soliman, S. M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Moursy, A.A.; Hekal, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    A factorial field experiment was conducted on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on a sand soil (98% sand) supplied the different combinations of 4 N rates of 0, 105, 140 and 175 kg N ha -1 i.e. N 0 , N 1 , N 2 , and N 3 respectively - as (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 4 bio fertilization inoculation (B) of none, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus megaterium. i.e. B 0 ,B 1 ,B 2 , and B 3 respectively. Labeled ammonium sulphate with 2% 15 N atom excess was used for 15 N assessment. All plots were supplied with 21 Mg compost +24 kg P +80 kg K ha - '1. Non-treated plants gave 0.534 Mg seeds ha -1 while the treated ones - especially those of N or N + bio fertilizers - gave increases of up to 403% (N 2 B). Main effect response patterns were: N: N 3 >N 2 >N 1 , for B: B 1 ≥B 3 ≥B 2 . Seed oil content in the N 0 B 0 treatment was 222 gkg -1 increased reaching as high as 445 gkg -1 by N 2 B 3 ; with N main effect of N 2 >N 3 >N 1 and B main effect of B 2 >B 3 >B 1 . Seed oil yield was 113 kg ha -1 by N 0 B 0 increased to as high as 1105 kg ha -1 by N 2 B 1 with main effects of N 2 >N 3 >N 1 and B 3 ≥B 2 >B 1 .Uptake of N (in total plant parts of roots + stems + leaves + discs + seeds) increased by N application; averages for non-N were 18.1 kg ha -1 18.5,14.7,17.4 by N 0 B 0 , N 0 B 1 , N 0 B 2 , and N 0 B 3 respectively; increased considerably by up to 667% (N 3 B 3 ) upon N application. Plants recovered a portion of fertilizer N of 19.6 to 40.9% by N 1 B 1 and N 2 B 1 respectively as determined by 15 N technique, but 27.7 to 59.6% respectively as calculated by subtraction of non-N from N treatments. The subtraction estimation considerably exceeded the 15 N determined ones by + 39.5% to as high as + 194.6% indicating a non-real estimation of recovered fertilizer-N in crops. Thus, in studies using non-tracer techniques, estimation of uptake of fertilizer N could be erroneous. The reason in the current study could most certainly be a greater

  7. Effects of supplement with sanitary landfill leachate in gas exchange of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings under drought stress.

    Nunes Junior, Francisco H; Freitas, Valdineia S; Mesquita, Rosilene O; Braga, Brennda B; Barbosa, Rifandreo M; Martins, Kaio; Gondim, Franklin A

    2017-10-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is one of the major problems arising from disposal of urban waste. Sanitary landfill leachate may, however, have use in agriculture. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze initial plant growth and gas exchange in sunflower seedlings supplemented with sanitary landfill leachate and subjected to drought stress through variables of root fresh mass (RFM), shoot fresh mass (SFM), total fresh mass (TFM), relative chlorophyll content (CL), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), net photosynthetic rate (A), ratio of internal to external CO 2 concentration (Ci/Ca),water use efficiency (EUA), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), and electron transport rate (ETR). The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 (irrigated and non-irrigated) × 4 (sand, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 organic fertilizer, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate, and sand + 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate) factorial with five replicates. Under drought stress conditions, leachate treatment supplemented with 100 kg N ha -1 exhibited higher plant fresh weights than those of the treatment containing 150 kg N ha -1 . Increases in fresh mass in plant treatments supplemented with 100 and 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate were related to higher photosynthetic rates.

  8. Effect of light on the kinetics and equilibrium of the textile dye (Reactive Red 120) adsorption by Helianthus annuus hairy roots.

    Srikantan, Chitra; Suraishkumar, G K; Srivastava, Smita

    2018-06-01

    The study demonstrates for the first time that light influences the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of a dye by root culture system. The azo dye (Reactive Red 120) adsorption by the hairy roots of H. annuus followed a pseudo first-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium parameters were best estimated using Langmuir isotherm. The maximum dye adsorption capacity of the roots increased 6-fold, from 0.26 mg g -1 under complete dark conditions to 1.51 mg g -1 under 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod. Similarly, adsorption rate of the dye and removal (%) also increased in the presence of light, irrespective of the initial concentration of the dye (20-110 mg L -1 ). The degradation of the azo dye upon adsorption by the hairy roots of H. annuus was also confirmed. In addition, a strategy for simultaneous dye removal and increased alpha-tocopherol (industrially relevant) production by H. annuus hairy root cultures has been proposed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  10. Reconstructing the origin of Helianthus deserticola: Survival and selection on the desert floor

    Gross, B.L.; Kane, D.L.; Lexer, C.; Ludwig, F.; Rosenthal, D.R.; Donovan, L.A.; Rieseberg, L.H.

    2004-01-01

    The diploid hybrid species Helianthus deserticola inhabits the desert floor, an extreme environment relative to its parental species Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. Adaptation to the desert floor may have occurred via selection acting on transgressive, or extreme, traits in early

  11. Molecular aspects of zygotic embryogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): correlation of positive histone marks with HaWUS expression and putative link HaWUS/HaL1L.

    Salvini, Mariangela; Fambrini, Marco; Giorgetti, Lucia; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The link HaWUS/ HaL1L , the opposite transcriptional behavior, and the decrease/increase in positive histone marks bond to both genes suggest an inhibitory effect of WUS on HaL1L in sunflower zygotic embryos. In Arabidopsis, a group of transcription factors implicated in the earliest events of embryogenesis is the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) protein family including WUSCHEL (WUS) and other 14 WOX protein, some of which contain a conserved WUS-box domain in addition to the homeodomain. WUS transcripts appear very early in embryogenesis, at the 16-cell embryo stage, but gradually become restricted to the center of the developing shoot apical meristem (SAM) primordium and continues to be expressed in cells of the niche/organizing center of SAM and floral meristems to maintain stem cell population. Moreover, WUS has decisive roles in the embryonic program presumably promoting the vegetative-to-embryonic transition and/or maintaining the identity of the embryonic stem cells. However, data on the direct interaction between WUS and key genes for seed development (as LEC1 and L1L) are not collected. The novelty of this report consists in the characterization of Helianthus annuus WUS (HaWUS) gene and in its analysis regarding the pattern of the methylated lysine 4 (K4) of the Histone H3 and of the acetylated histone H3 during the zygotic embryo development. Also, a parallel investigation was performed for HaL1L gene since two copies of the WUS-binding site (WUSATA), previously identified on HaL1L nucleotide sequence, were able to be bound by the HaWUS recombinant protein suggesting a not described effect of HaWUS on HaL1L transcription.

  12. Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

    2013-06-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contaminação por Aspergillus flavus e A. fumigatus em sementes de girassol (Helianthus annuus utilizados na alimentação de psitacídeos

    Alexsandro Machado Conceição

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p145 Amplamente difundido na alimentação de psitacídeos em razão do preço baixo, elevada palatabilidade, e por razões culturais, o Helianthus annuus, conhecido como girassol, vem se mostrando importante na clínica aviária em decorrência do excesso de calorias, e da alta incidência na contaminação por alguns fungos, principalmente do gênero Aspergillus, especificamente A. flavus e A. fumigatus. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação por Aspegillus ssp. em sementes de girassol destinada à alimentação de psitacídeos comercializadas em Aracaju, estado de Sergipe. As análises foram realizadas no Laboratório de Microbiologia, do Hospital Veterinário Dr. Vicente Borreli, na Faculdade Pio Décimo. Avaliaram-se quatro amostras de sementes de girassol, sendo uma comercializada no mercado público municipal, de forma granel e três marcas comerciais, envasadas e de diferentes hipermercados, processadas segundo Forsythe (2002. De acordo com a pesquisa realizada, foi possível observar um elevado desenvolvimento de A. flavus e A. fumigatus nas sementes de girassol. Esta contaminação pode estar relacionada a vários fatores: colheita e fases de secagem, beneficiamento e armazenamento do grão inadequado. Além disso, é importante destacar a necessidade de que haja um melhor armazenamento de grãos, com controle de temperatura e umidade relativa, visando reduzir a possibilidade de contaminação por Aspergillus spp. que causa prejuízos na alimentação de psitacídeos, e de outras espécies animais.

  14. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow.

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Souza, Luiz Silva; Resende, Marielly Reis; Silva, Thaísla Andrielle da; Oliveira, Nelma de Mello Silva; Resck, Maria Cristina Costa; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-04-02

    This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control - NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using the sunflower tincture and oils separately and in combination with NUE or DXR. For THALS, analysis of the MNPCEs showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250-2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCE was observed when THALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) was administered in combination with DXR (5 mg.Kg-1). For POHALS or FOHALS, analysis of the MNPCEs also showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250-2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. However, the combination DXR + POHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) or DXR + FOHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) not contributed to the MNPCEs reduction. This research suggests absence of genotoxicity of THALS, dose-, time- and sex-independent, and its combination with DXR can reduce the genotoxic effects of DXR. POHALS and FOHALS also showed absence of genotoxicity, but their association with DXR showed no antigenotoxic effects.

  15. (Helianthus annuus L.) on physiology of wheat

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (15), pp. 3555-3559, 4 ... physiology of wheat seedlings including protein, proline, sugars, DNA, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and .... (1956) as modified by Johnson et al. (1966).

  16. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  17. Allelopathic potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) on soil ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The effect of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) variety, namely Hysun 38, on metals and of aqueous extracts of its leaves on germination in two varieties of wheat, namely Margalla 99 and Chakwall 97, were studied under laboratory conditions. In particular, the effect of leaf extract on hormones produced ...

  18. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  19. Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) interference in soybean (Glycine max)

    Geier, P.W.; Maddux, L.D.; Moshier, L.J.; Stahlman, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple weed species in the field combine to cause yield losses and can be described using one of several empirical models. Field studies were conducted to compare observed corn yield loss caused by common sunflower and shattercane populations with predicted yield losses modeled using a multiple species rectangular hyperbola model, an additive model, or the yield loss model in the decision support system, WeedSOFT, and to derive competitive indices for common sunflower and shattercane. Common sunflower and shattercane emerged with corn and selected densities established in field experiments at Scandia and Rossville, KS, between 2000 and 2002. The multiple species rectangular hyperbola model fit pooled data from three of five location–years with a predicted maximum corn yield loss of 60%. Initial slope parameter estimate for common sunflower was 49.2 and 4.2% for shattercane. A ratio of these estimates indicated that common sunflower was 11 times more competitive than shattercane. When common sunflower was assigned a competitive index (CI) value of 10, shattercane CI was 0.9. Predicted yield losses modeled for separate common sunflower or shattercane populations were additive when compared with observed yield losses caused by low-density mixed populations of common sunflower (0 to 0.5 plants m −2 ) and shattercane (0 to 4 plants m −2 ). However, a ratio of estimates of these models indicated that common sunflower was only four times as competitive as shattercane, with a CI of 2.5 for shattercane. The yield loss model in WeedSOFT underpredicted the same corn losses by 7.5%. Clearly, both the CI for shattercane and the yield loss model in WeedSOFT need to be reevaluated, and the multiple species rectangular hyperbola model is proposed. (author)

  20. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  1. Creating Sunflower Mutant Lines (Helianthus Annuus L.) Using Induced Mutagenesis

    Encheva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immature sunflower zygotic embryos of sunflower fertility restorer line 374 R were treated with ultrasound and gamma radiation before plating embryos to culture medium. All plants were isolated and self-pollinated for several generations. New sunflower forms with inherited morphological and biochemical changes were obtained. The genetic changes occurring during the mutation procedure included fourteen morphological and biochemical characters. In comparison to the check line 374 R, decreasing of the mean value of the indexes was registered for 33 % of the total number of characters and vise verse, significant increasing was observed for 60 %. Mutation for resistance to the local population of Orobanche cumana race A-E was obtained from the susceptible Bulgarian control line 374 R. Two investigated mutant lines possessed 100 % resistance to Orobanche and stable inheritance in the next generations. Our results showed that induced mutagenesis in sunflower can be successfully used to develop new lines useful for heterosis breeding

  2. Impact of allelopathy of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) roots ...

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: ... and carbon dioxide and also interfere with its normal ...... The ability of the plants to absorb nutrients.

  3. Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... The first frost kills the stems and leaves, but tubers withstand freezing for months. Average tuber yields of 16 to 20 ton/ha may be expected from crops grown under ordinary farm conditions. Yields of tops for forage average are 18 to 28 ton/ha green weight (Duke,. 1983). The effect of cutting of Helianthus ...

  4. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus × H. argophyllus).

    Doncheva, Snezhana; Moustakas, Michael; Ananieva, Kalina; Chavdarova, Martina; Gesheva, Emiliya; Vassilevska, Rumyana; Mateev, Plamen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of two sunflower genotypes (cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus cv. 1114 and newly developed genotype H. annuus × Helianthus argophyllus) to Pb medium-term stress and the role of exogenously applied EDTA in alleviating Pb toxicity in hydroponics. Plant growth, morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues, electrolyte leakage, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, total flavonoid content, and superoxide dismutase isoenzyme profile were studied by conventional methods. Differential responses of both genotypes to Pb supplied in the nutrient solution were recorded. Pb treatment induced a decrease in the relative growth rate, disturbance of plasma membrane integrity, and changes in the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues and in the antioxidant capacity, which were more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb when compared with the cultivar. This was mainly due to increased photosynthetically active area, maintenance of plasma membrane integrity, permanently high total antioxidant activity, and free radical scavenging capacity as well as total flavonoid content. The addition of EDTA into the nutrient solution led to limitation of the negative impact of Pb ions on the above parameters in both genotypes. This could be related to the reduced content of Pb in the roots, stems, and leaves, suggesting that the presence of EDTA limited the uptake of Pb. The comparative analysis of the responses to Pb treatment showed that the deleterious effect of Pb was more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype H. annuus × H. argophyllus was more productive and demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb medium-term stress, which could indicate that it may possess certain mechanisms to tolerate high Pb concentrations. This character could be inherited from the wild parent used in the

  5. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus PlARG introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus

    Wieckhorst, S.; Bachlava, E.; Dußle, C. M.; Tang, S.; Gao, W.; Saski, C.; Knapp, S. J.; Schön, C.-C.; Hahn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus PlARG originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped PlARG on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F2 individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with PlARG as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOSsel × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F2 individuals that does not segregate for PlARG. A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with PlARG. Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the PlARG region on LG 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1416-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700574

  6. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  7. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  8. MEDICAL IMPORTANCE OF HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS- A REVIEW

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of Helianthus tuberosus showed that it contained coumarins, unsaturated fatty acids, polyacetylenic derivatives, phenols, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, protein, amino acid, reducing sugars, organic acids, lactones and cardiac glycoside. The pharmacological investigations revealed that Helianthus tuberosus exerted antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal and α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity, as well as it produced inulin which used as functional food and possesse...

  9. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants.

    Alfonso Ortega

    Full Text Available The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress.

  10. HISTORY OF in vitro CULTURE STUDIES ON Helianthus annuus L. IN TURKEY

    Sergun DAYAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques offer important approaches about sunflower breeding and germplasm conservation. The available data on the subject in Turkey was reviewed in order to encourage the researchers to study on tissue culture of sunflower. In vitro studies on sunflower in Turkey started in the first half of the 90s. A large number of in vitro culture studies on sunflower using anthers, hypocotyls, cotyledons, petioles of cotyledon, shoot-tips, mature embryos, immature embryos, leaves, petioles, immature cotyledons and microspores as different explants have been published. Microspore culture, anther culture, embryo culture, slow growth storage, micropropagation and gene transfer with Agrobacterium were also used in these culture studies. Although these studies formed an important scientific knowledge about sunflower tissue culture in the country, it is still not sufficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need to make more in vitro studies on sunflower which is an important agricultural plant for Turkey. The transfer of the results of these studies to agricultural applications is also essential from a sectoral standpoint.

  11. Isolation and characterization of undenatured chlorogenic acid free sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    Gonzales-Perez, S.; Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for obtaining sunflower protein (SFP) isolate, nondenatured and free of chlorogenic acid (CGA), has been developed. During the isolating procedure, the extent of CGA removal and protein denaturation was monitored. The defatted flour contained 2.5 percent CGA as the main phenolic compound.

  12. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services within sunflower fields, with edges receiving higher coverage than field centers. To generate more accurate maps of services, we advocate directly measuring the autecology of ecosystem service providers, which vary by crop system, pollinator species, and region. Improving estimates of the factors affecting pollinator populations can increase the accuracy of pollination service maps and help clarify the influence of farming practices on wild bees occurring in agricultural landscapes.

  13. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location

    Sardiï as, HS; Tom, K; Ponisio, LC; Rominger, A; Kremen, C

    2016-01-01

    � 2016 by the Ecological Society of America. The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination cove...

  14. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-12-31

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}) or high PAR (HL; 800 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F{sub v}/F{sub max} and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  15. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  16. Metabolic aspects of growth in HU-treated crown-gall tissue cultures. II. Helianthus annuus

    Aldona Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth and changes in nucleic acid and protein contents in sunflower calluses and tumours cultured in hydroxyurea (HU containing media were examined. HU-induced changes in healthy tissues ran in parallel always in the same direction, in tumourous ones however an uncoupling between DNA synthesis and tissue growth on one hand and RNA and protein synthesis on the other took place. A detailed analysis of the results allows to suppose that the specific activity of HU on tumourous tissue could be an index of: 1 quantitative disturbances in its genes function (2 degree of the lass of sensitivity to the factors of regulation.

  17. The effects of gamma rays and genotypes on sunflower organogenesis traits [Helianthus annuus L.

    Rachid Al-Chaarani, G.; Gentzbittel, L.; Berrault, G.; Lenoble, S.; Sarrafi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of two inbred lines (AS613 and AS616) and their hybrid were irradiated with seven gamma rays doses (5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 Grays). Organogenesis traits were studied for all irradiated seeds as well as non irradiated ones used as control. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block with three replications. Each replication consisted of 16 Petri dishes with four explants per gamma rays dose and per genotype. The regeneration ability of genotypes and the effects of gamma rays on regeneration were scored by assessing the percentage of explants forming shoots (ES/100E), the average number of shoots per explant shooting (S/ES) and the average number of shoots per explant plated (S/E). Genetic variability was observed among the three genotypes for all studied traits. The effect of irradiation and the interaction between genotype and irradiation were also significant for all the studied traits. Heterosis, when the hybrid was compared with the mean of the two parents, was significant for the different gamma rays doses in all traits except for 15 and 55 Grays, which were not significant for the percentage of explants forming shoots (ES/100E). Seed irradiation by 5 and 15 Grays is likely to have a significant effect by increasing the regeneration ability by cotyledon culture in sunflower [it

  18. Potential of sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of nickle (Ni) and lead (Pb) contaminated water

    Mukhtar, S.M.; HAQ Bhatti, H.N.; Khalid, M.; Haq, M.A; Shahzad, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metals are contaminants of much environmental apprehension, as they are hazardous to human being and other biota. Buildup of heavy metals in crop plants is of great concern due to the probability of food contamination through the soil-root interface. For this purpose, a hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower plant to phytoremediate Pb and Ni contaminated water in the absence and presence of synthetic chelator. Results showed that application of Ni and Pb reduced the dry weights of shoot and root (up to 55.1 and 38.3%; 50.5 and 33.6%), shoot and root length (up to 64.5 and 58.1%; 64.1 and 55.8%), chlorophyll content (up to 63.8 and 54.4%), and photosynthetic activity (up to 66.1 and 62.7%), respectively with EDTA as compared to control. While, maximum concentration of Ni and Pb in shoot and root (up to 18.43 and 20.73 mg kg/sup -1/; 12.82 and 18.67 mg kg/sup -1/), total accumulation (up to 55.82 and 72.28 mg kg/sup -1/), and proline content (up to 128.2 and 98.3%) were recorded in the presence of EDTA respectively as compared to control. Generally, it was observed that concentration and total accumulation of Pb was more than Ni in sunflower plant. The study concludes that the use of synthetic chelator increased the uptake and translocation of heavy metals in plant biomass that could enhance the phytoremediation of Ni and Pb from contaminated water. (author)

  19. Allelopathic sorghum water extract helps to improve yield of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.)

    Shah, S.; Khan, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Allelopathy provides eco-friendly environment in managing weeds by reducing the use of synthetic herbicides that cause environmental pollution and herbicide resistance problems. Therefore, weeds have been controlling by plant derived organic compounds as an alternative of inorganic herbicides since the last two decades. In this study, sorghum aqueous extracts were applied individually as well as accumulatively with reduced levels of Dual Gold at the rate (S-Metolachlor) as foliar sprays in sunflower at 50, 70 and 90 DAS. For comparison, standard level of S-Metolachlor was also applied as foliar sprays along with weedy check. The highest reduction of total weed density (93.7%) was recorded by three sprays of sorghum aqueous extracts at rate of 15 L/ha mixed with 1/3rd S-Metolachlor at 1.6 L/ha as foliar applications. This reduction rate was statistically similar to one that was obtained by standard level of S-Metolachlor (1.6 L/ha). The highest achene yield was achieved by applying three foliar sprays of aqueous sorghum extracts along with reduced doses of S-Metolachlor, which was almost similar to full recommended dose of S-Metolachlor. These findings demonstrate that allelopathy offers environment friendly and economical opportunity for weed control in sunflower reducing the dependence and cost of herbicides. (author)

  20. Evaluation Of Proteome Alterations Induced By Cadmium Stress In Sunflower (helianthus Annuus L.) Cultures.

    Lopes Júnior, Cícero Alves; Barbosa, Herbert de Sousa; Moretto Galazzi, Rodrigo; Ferreira Koolen, Hector Henrique; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates, at a proteomic level, changes in protein abundance in sunflower leaves in the absence or presence (at 50 or 700 mg) of cadmium (as CdCl2). At the end of the cultivation period (45 days), proteins are extracted from leaves with phenol, separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), and excised from the gels. The differential protein abundances (for proteins differing by more than 1.8 fold, which corresponds to 90% variation) are characteriz...

  1. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las características cualitativas y cuantitativas de semilla de girasol y aceites de semilla fueron evaluadas. Dos cultivos de girasol (Gulshan-98 y Sun Cross fueron sembrados en el campo. El tratamiento de estrés hídrico fue aplicado en el estado vegetativo y reproductivo. El análisis de la semilla de girasol mostro que el contenido en aceite disminuyo significativamente (p ≤ 0.05 (un descenso del 10,52% respecto al control debido al estrés hídrico cuando se impone en ambos estado de crecimiento. Ambos cultivos de girasol mostraron respuestas diferenciadas al estrés hídrico con respecto a los contenidos de los ácidos oleico y linoleico. Una correlación negativa significativa entre los ácidos oleico y linoleico fue observada en cv. Gulshan-98 bajo condiciones de déficit de agua en comparación con Suncross en la que tal efecto del estres hídrico sobre los ácidos oleico y linoleico no fue obsevado. Las condiciones de déficit de agua causan una reducción en el ácido linoleico en Gulshan-98, mientras que permanece inalterado en Suncross. Los contenidos de ácido esteárico aumentaron en cv. Gulshan-98 debido a la sequia, mientras que no se observo efecto del estrés hídrico sobre el contenido de ácido palmítico en el aceite de ambos cultivos de girasol. En general, los ácidos grasos poliinsaturado del aceite permanecen sin cambios en condiciones de estrés hídrico o en plantas regadas normalmente de ambos cultivo, sin embargo los ácidos grasos saturados incrementaron en Gulshan-98. Los contenidos de tocoferoles totales o individuales (α, γ, and δ en aceite de semilla se incrementaron significativamente con la aplicación de estrés hídrico en ambos cultivos. Una evaluación de las características físicas y químicas de ambos cultivos de girasol revelan que el estrés por sequia causa un marcado incremento en el contenido de materia insaponificable (18,75% con respecto al control y un descenso del índice de yodo (5,87% respecto al control, aunque el índice de saponificación, densidad, peso específico y índice de refracción permanecen sin cambios.

  2. Ontogenetic changes in radiation use efficiency of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crops

    Trapani, N.; Hall, A.J.; Sadras, V.O.; Vilella, F.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation use efficiency (ϵ) values for sunflower were derived using data from periodic determinations of crop aerial or total (aerial + root) biomass and radiation interception in two experiments conducted at Junin and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Analysis showed that three distinct phases, each characterized by a different value of ϵ, could be distinquished. The phases were establishment (0–47 days after emergence (dae)), rapid growth (47 dae-anthesis) and postanthesis (anthesis-physiologcial maturity). The crops had reached the bud-visible stage and intercepted at least 85% of incident radiation by 47 dae. Efficiency values based on aerial biomass were highest during the rapid growth (ϵrg = 2.4 ± 0.22 g/MJ PAR) phase and lower during the establishment (ϵ e = 1.01 ± 0.25 g/MJ PAR) and postanthesis (ϵ pa = 1.3 ± 0.15 g/MJ PAR) phases. The differences between ϵ pa and ϵ rg are attributed to the increased respiration load, high synthesis costs of the oil-rich grains and leaf senescence during grain filling. The value of ϵe was less than of ϵ rg even when efficiencies were calculated on the basis of total crop biomass (i.e. including root biomass). Hence, ontogenetic changes in partitioning of biomass between the root and aerial organs do not seem to be the cause of the changes in the value of ϵ. No variations in photosynthetic capacity with leaf position could be found, and it is concluded that the most likely reason for the lower values of ϵ e lies in saturation of canopy photosynthesis at less than full sunlight while crop cover is incomplete. (author)

  3. Genetic variability and heritability for resistance to black stem (Phoma macdonaldii) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Abou Al Fadil, T.; Dechamp-Guillaume, G.; Poormohammad Kiani, S.; Sarrafi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Black stem, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, is one of the most important diseases of sunflower in many Countries. In order to study the genetic control of the disease, seeds of the inbred line AS-613 were exposed to 75 Grays of gamma rays and M1 and M2 plants were self-pollinated to obtain the M3 generation. Among M3 mutants, M3-8, a relatively resistant line to black stem, was crossed with AS-613. Seeds from this cross were grown and F1 plants were self-pollinated to produce F2 seeds from which the F3 generation was produced. Eighty-eight F3 families and two parents were used to determine the genetic variability of partial resistance to black stem in sunflower. Twelve-day-old seedlings were inoculated at the junction of the cotyledon petiole and hypocotyl with 20 micronl of pycniospore suspension. Seven days after inoculation, both cotyledon petioles of the seedling were scored according to the percentage of petiole area exhibiting symptoms (necrosis). Significant difference in resistance between the two parents, M3-8 and AS-613, indicates that mutagenesis can be considered as important tool to produce genetic variation for resistance to Phoma in sunflower. Results showed that F3 families included extreme genotypes with a relatively high resistance rate compared with the parents. Ten percent of F3 families showed a resistance rate higher than the one of the best parent, indicating transgressive segregation for resistance to black stem among families. The percentage of heritability was 69.6, which indicates that progeny selection for resistance to the disease is possible [it

  4. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  5. Exogenous ascorbic acid improves defence responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) exposed to multiple stresses.

    Kaya, Armagan

    2017-09-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays role both on growth and development and also stress response of the plant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbate on physiological and biochemical changes of sunflower that was exposed to multiple stresses. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased and glutathione, ascorbate and malondialdehyde contents as well as antioxidant enzyme activities increased for sunflower plant that was exposed to 50 mM NaCl and pendimethalin at different concentrations. These changes were found to be more significant in groups simultaneously exposed to both stress factors. While malondialdehyde content decreased, chlorophyll, carotenoid, ascorbate, glutathione contents and antioxidant enzyme activities increased in plants treated exogenously with ascorbate, compared to the untreated samples. According to the findings of our study; compared to individual stress, the effect of stress is more pronounced in sunflower exposed to multiple stresses, and treatment with exogenous ascorbate reduces the negative effects of stress.

  6. Chemical composition of open pollinated and hybrid population of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.)

    Nisar, M.; Hussain, S.; Nausheen, A.; Siddique, F.

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower is the world fourth most important sources of edible oil. A lot of work has been done for varietal improvement through conventional breeding in Pakistan. Sunflower is the cash crop and is easily adapted to many region of Pakistan, genetic and agronomical improvement was needed so that economically valuable crop could be harvested. In the present work, 16 cultivars (open pollinated population 'OPP' and hybrid population 'HP' eight each) of sunflower was evaluated. The study was aimed at evaluating the mineral composition, estimation of moisture contents, measuring electrical conductivity and 100 seeds weight. The mineral composition was fractionated though Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, which indicate that Zn +2 was 8.54 and 9.35%; Cu/sup +2/ 0.5 and 0.02%; Mn/sup +2/ 3.48 and 9.72%; Co/sup +2/ 18.67 and 16.81%; Mg/sup +2/ 68.27 and 83.53%; Fe/sup +3/ 4.32 and 4.35% were estimated in HP and OPP respectively. Similarly, moisture contents 6.26 and 6.78%, and 1000-seeds weight 510.8 and 598 g were calculated in the HP and OPP respectively. In comparative picture the mineral concentration, moisture contents and 100 seeds weight in open pollinated population were high as compared to hybrid. A total of 11.7 % genetic diversity was observed in mineral composition of both the populations. The EC was high in HP ranging from 70. 85-137.8, while comparatively low in OPP ranged 46.81 - 120.18. (author)

  7. Breeding sunflower for drought tolerance: genetic variability for drought torrance in sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

    Hussain, M.K.; Ilyas, M.; Rehman, O.U.

    1994-01-01

    Five inbred lines and their all possible crosses excluding reciprocals were evaluated for tolerance to drought and effect of drought adversely influenced the traits of leaf area, days to maturity, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant, whereas number of leaves per plant and plant height were comparatively less affected. Average performance of sunflower cross/hybrids was far more better than parental lines. Inbred lines GIMSUN-420x-431 and GIMSUN-498x-477 produced higher achene yield under drought conditions and showed less loses than other. Effect of drought on various growth stages showed that button (R1 stage) was the most critical as compared to 50% flowering (R5 stage) and seed formation (R6 stage) which reduced leaf area, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant by 40-59, 32-14 and 31-07 percent respectively. (author)

  8. Formation and Stability of Foams Made with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Foam properties of a sunflower isolate (SI), as well as those of helianthinin and sunflower albumins (SFAs), were studied at various pH values and ionic strengths and after heat treatment. Less foam could be formed from helianthinin than from SFAs, but foam prepared with helianthinin was more stable

  9. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of some Evaporation Matters on Storability of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) Seed.

    El-Saidy, Aml E A; El-Hai, K M Abd

    This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability. Therefore, it is recommended using 100% propionic acid to reduce deterioration and seed-borne pathogens of sunflower under storage conditions.

  12. Evaluation of proteome alterations induced by cadmium stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultures.

    Lopes Júnior, Cícero Alves; Barbosa, Herbert de Sousa; Moretto Galazzi, Rodrigo; Ferreira Koolen, Hector Henrique; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluates, at a proteomic level, changes in protein abundance in sunflower leaves in the absence or presence (at 50 or 700mg) of cadmium (as CdCl2). At the end of the cultivation period (45 days), proteins are extracted from leaves with phenol, separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), and excised from the gels. The differential protein abundances (for proteins differing by more than 1.8 fold, which corresponds to 90% variation) are characterized using nESI-LC-MS/MS. The protein content decreases by approximately 41% in plants treated with 700mg Cd compared with control plants. By comparing all groups of plants evaluated in this study (Control vs. Cd-lower, Control vs. Cd-higher and Cd-lower vs. Cd-higher), 39 proteins are found differential and 18 accurately identified; the control vs. Cd-higher treatment is that presenting the most differential proteins. From identified proteins, those involved in energy and disease/defense (including stress), are the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain, transketolase, and heat shock proteins are the most differential abundant proteins. Thus, at the present study, photosynthesis is the main process affected by Cd in sunflowers, although these plants are highly tolerant to Cd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  14. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  15. Selenium alleviates cadmium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings.

    Saidi, Issam; Chtourou, Yacine; Djebali, Wahbi

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenium (Se) in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. The exposure of sunflower seedlings to 20μM Cd inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations and strongly increased accumulation of Cd in both roots and shoots. Similarly, Cd enhanced hydrogen peroxides content and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking seeds with Se (5, 10 and 20μM) alleviated the negative effect of Cd on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Cd. Furthermore, Se enhanced the activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, but lowered that of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. As important antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione contents in sunflower leaves exposed to Cd were significantly decreased by Se treatment. The data suggest that the beneficial effect of Se during an earlier growth period could be related to avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Cd, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  18. Physicochemical properties of 2S Albumins and the corresponding protein isolate from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower albumins (SFAs) are a diverse group of proteins present in sunflower isolates, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 2S. This research presents a detailed study of the influence of pH on the structure and solubility of SFAs. The effect of temperature on the structure of SFAs

  19. Assessment of RAPD Markers to Analyse the Genetic Diversity among Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genotypes

    Ali Raza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity estimation among different species is an important tool for genetic improvement to maximize the yield, desirable quality, wider adaptation, pest and insect resistance that ultimately boosting traditional plant breeding methods. The most efficient way of diversity estimation is application of molecular markers. In this study, twenty random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers were utilized to estimate the genetic diversity between ten sunflower genotypes. Overall 227 bands were amplified by 20 primers with an average of 11.35 bands per primer. RAPD data showed 86.34% polymorophic bands and 13.65% of monomorophic bands. Genetic similarity was ranged from 50.22% to 87.22%. The lowest similarity (50.22% was observed between FH-352 and FH-359 and the maximum similarity 87.22% was observed between A-23 and G-46. Polymorphic information content (PIC values were varying from 0.05 to 0.12 with a mean of 0.09. Cluster analysis based on RAPD results displayed two major distinct groups 1 and 2. Group-2 contains FH-352 which was the most diverse genotype, while group-1 consists of few sub groups with all other genotypes. Ample diversity was found in all the genotypes. Present study reveals novel information about sunflower genome which can be used in future studies for sunflower improvement.

  20. Genetic control of some morphological mutants in sunflower [Helianthus annuus L.

    Nabipour, A.; Sarrafi, A.; Yazdi-Samadi, B.

    2004-01-01

    Inheritance study of induced mutants is an important tool in genetic and breeding programs. Sunflower is one of the most important oil crops for which mutant collection is meager. Seeds of sunflower line AS-613 were irradiated with gamma rays and mutant phenotypes were traced until M4 generation. In M5 generation, the following traits were studied: dwarfing, branching, leaf shape, albinism, rosette, lack of apex and alternative leaves. In most cases, the mutated characters were controlled by a single recessive gene, while in two cases they were controlled by two recessive genes. In M5 progenies, segregation for two albino, one alternative leaves, one dwarfism, 5 branching, one rosette, 2 lacks of apex and 5 leaf shape mutants was recorded. Amongst five cases of branching, one was controlled by two recessive genes, where at least one homozygote recessive locus was necessary for branching. In one case, the lack of apex was controlled by two recessive genes and even only one dominant allele could provoke the normal plant [it

  1. Use of tritium-labelled water in the study of transfers and exchanges in Helianthus annuus

    Puard, M.

    1982-01-01

    A labelling method with tritium-labelled water was developed and an experiment was carried out to study the kinetics of water transfer in the plant, to measure the extend of water vapour exchange between the leaves and atmosphere and the migration of this water towards the root systems [fr

  2. Molecular and physiological responses of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to pgpr and sa under salt stress

    Naz, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the efficacy of PGPR (Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) and its modulation by salicylic acid. Two hybrids of sunflower (Hysun and Parsun) were inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. prior to sowing. Salt stress (20 dSm-1) was applied 28 d after sowing followed by foliar spray of salicylic acid (100 micro M) after 4 h of salt treatment. Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculation alone and in combination with salicylic acid alleviated the effects of salt stress on both the sunflower hybrids. The salt tolerance in these treatments was mediated by an increase in relative water content, carotenoids, proline, ABA, induction of new polypeptide bands and yield of sunflower hybrids. In response to salt stress four new polypeptide bands were synthesized in both Hysun, whereas, a group of six polypeptide bands were observed in Parsun. Application of salicylic acid alone and in combination with Azospirillum found to induce four new polypeptide bands in Hysun and Parsun. It is inferred that synthesis of new proteins in response to the combined application of salicylic acid and Azospirillum under salt stress, may play an important role as stress proteins in tolerance of sunflower hybrids to salt stress. (author)

  3. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 μmol m -2 s -1 ) or high PAR (HL; 800 μmol m -2 s -1 ). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F v /F max and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.)

  4. Genetic architecture of capitate glandular trichome density in florets of domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. Capitate glandular trichomes can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resist...

  5. Carbon conversion efficiency and central metabolic fluxes in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos.

    Alonso, Ana P; Goffman, Fernando D; Ohlrogge, John B; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2007-10-01

    The efficiency with which developing sunflower embryos convert substrates into seed storage reserves was determined by labeling embryos with [U-(14)C6]glucose or [U-(14)C5]glutamine and measuring their conversion to CO2, oil, protein and other biomass compounds. The average carbon conversion efficiency was 50%, which contrasts with a value of over 80% previously observed in Brassica napus embryos (Goffman et al., 2005), in which light and the RuBisCO bypass pathway allow more efficient conversion of hexose to oil. Labeling levels after incubating sunflower embryos with [U-(14)C4]malate indicated that some carbon from malate enters the plastidic compartment and contributes to oil synthesis. To test this and to map the underlying pattern of metabolic fluxes, separate experiments were carried out in which embryos were labeled to isotopic steady state using [1-(13)C1]glucose, [2-(13)C1]glucose, or [U-(13)C5]glutamine. The resultant labeling in sugars, starch, fatty acids and amino acids was analyzed by NMR and GC-MS. The fluxes through intermediary metabolism were then quantified by computer-aided modeling. The resulting flux map accounted well for the labeling data, was in good agreement with the observed carbon efficiency, and was further validated by testing for agreement with gas exchange measurements. The map shows that the influx of malate into oil is low and that flux through futile cycles (wasting ATP) is low, which contrasts with the high rates previously determined for growing root tips and heterotrophic cell cultures.

  6. Growth and yield response of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to sulphur and boron application

    Tahir, M.; Shah, S.A.; Tanveer, A.; Rehman, H.U.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the growth and yield response of sunflower to sulphur and boron application. Sulphur (control, 15, 30 kg/ha) and foliar sprays of 1% boron solution (control, spray at 4 week after emergence, 20 days after first spray, at 4 weeks after germination + 20 days after first spray) was applied in soil. The results showed significant increase of all growth and yield parameters by varying levels of sulphur and boron application. Application of 30 kg sulphur/ha enhanced stem diameter (1.99 cm), number of achene per head (765.75) and oil content (36.42%). In case of combined use of sulphur and boron application, maximum plant height (171 cm), head diameter (20.71 cm), 1000-achene weight (54.56 g), biological yield (16.49 t/ha) and achene yield (3.99 t/ha) was recorded by the application of 2 sprays of boron solution (1%) at 4 weeks after germination and reproductive stage. (author)

  7. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    López, R; Vaca, M; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Morales, J; Flores, J; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product

  8. Phytoaccumulation, interaction, toxicity and remediation of cadmium from Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower).

    Mani, Dinesh; Sharma, Bechan; Kumar, Chitranjan

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the interaction between Cd and Ca, Zn and organic matter for Cd-phytoremediation in sunflower on the alluvium soil of the Sheila Dhar Institute (SDI) experimental farm, Allahabad (India). Application of 40 ppm Zn produced 11.18% extra dry matter (DM) content and 5.8% extra seed yield over the control. We recommended 1.0% Ca, 40 ppm Zn and 20 tons/ha of compost to enhance dry matter yield and diminish the Cd accumulation in 15 ppm Cd- ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)-treated plots up to 1/12 folds in sunflower (phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil through soil-plant-rhizospheric processes.

  9. Hydroponic phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and Fe: can Helianthus annuus hyperaccumulate multiple heavy metals?

    January, Mary C; Cutright, Teresa J; Van Keulen, Harry; Wei, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Sundance sunflowers were subjected to contaminated solutions containing 3, 4, or 5 heavy metals, with and without EDTA. The sunflowers exhibited a metal uptake preference of Cd=Cr>Ni, Cr>Cd>Ni>As and Fe>As>Cd>Ni>Cr without EDTA and Cr>Cd>Ni, Fe>As>Cd>Cr>Ni with EDTA. As uptake was not affected by other metals, but it decreased Cd and Ni concentration in the stems. The presence of Fe improved the translocation of the other metals regardless of whether EDTA was present. In general, EDTA served as a hindrance to metal uptake. For the experiment with all five heavy metals, EDTA decreased Cd in the roots and stems from 2.11 to 1.36 and from 2.83 to 2.3 2mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. For the same conditions, Ni in the stems decreased from 1.98 to 0.94 mg g(-1) total metal uptake decreased from 14.95 mg to 13.89 mg, and total biomass decreased from 2.38 g to 1.99 g. These results showed an overall negative effect in addition of EDTA. However it is unknown whether the negative effect was due to toxicity posed by EDTA or the breaking of phytochelatin-metal bonds. The most important finding was the ability of Sundance sunflowers to achieve hyperaccumulator status for both As and Cd under all conditions studied. Ni hyperaccumulator status was only achieved in the presence of three metals without EDTA.

  10. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  11. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  12. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Kantar, M.B.; Sosa, C.C.; Khoury, C.K.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bernau, V.; Kane, N.C.; Marek, L.; Seiler, G.; Rieseberg, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and

  13. Genotype by environment interaction in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) to optimize trial network efficiency

    Gonzalez-Barrios, P.; Castro, M.; Pérez, O.; Vilaró, D.; Gutiérrez, L.

    2017-07-01

    Modeling genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is one of the most challenging aspects of plant breeding programs. The use of efficient trial networks is an effective way to evaluate GEI to define selection strategies. Furthermore, the experimental design and the number of locations, replications, and years are crucial aspects of multi-environment trial (MET) network optimization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and performance of a MET network of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Specifically, we evaluated GEI in the network by delineating mega-environments, estimating genotypic stability and identifying relevant environmental covariates. Additionally, we optimized the network by comparing experimental design efficiencies. We used the National Evaluation Network of Sunflower Cultivars of Uruguay (NENSU) in a period of 20 years. MET plot yield and flowering time information was used to evaluate GEI. Additionally, meteorological information was studied for each sunflower physiological stage. An optimal network under these conditions should have three replications, two years of evaluation and at least three locations. The use of incomplete randomized block experimental design showed reasonable performance. Three mega-environments were defined, explained mainly by different management of sowing dates. Late sowings dates had the worst performance in grain yield and oil production, associated with higher temperatures before anthesis and fewer days allocated to grain filling. The optimization of MET networks through the analysis of the experimental design efficiency, the presence of GEI, and appropriate management strategies have a positive impact on the expression of yield potential and selection of superior cultivars.

  14. Inheritance of resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in an interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus and Helianthus debilis subsp. tardiflorus

    Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) constrains sunflower cultivation in increasing areas of Europe and Asia. Populations classified as race G that overcome all known resistance genes have recently appeared. The objective of this research was to study the inheritance of resistance to broomr...

  15. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile

  16. Abscisic acid, a stress hormone helps in improving water relations and yield of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) hybrids under drought

    Hussain, S.; Saleem, M.F.; Cheema, M.A.; Ashraf, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Genotypic variation in water relations under drought is an important index of studying drought tolerance of crops. Abscisic acid (ABA) application helped in mitigating drought stress by improving water relations and yield. Three sunflower hybrids viz., DK-4040 (tall stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were subjected to different irrigation and ABA application regimes i.e., four irrigations (25 days after sowing (DAS), at bud initiation, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at bud initiation, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at flower initiation. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and had three replications. Exogenous application of ABA under drought at either stage (bud or flower initiation) was helpful in ameliorating drought stress by improving water relations and yield of sunflower hybrids; however response was better when ABA was applied under drought at bud initiation than at flower initiation stage. Sunflower hybrid DK- 4040 showed better enhancement of drought tolerance by exogenous application of ABA under drought than SF-187 and S-278 because it showed more improvement in water potential, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, relative leaf water contents and achene yield. (author)

  17. EVALUATION OF YEAR WEATHER CONDITIONS AND HYBRIDS IMPACT ON THE SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. ACHENE YIELD AND FAT CONTENT

    Ivan Černý

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field polyfactorial trials were carried out on experimental fields of the Plant Biology and Ecology Centre, the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SUA in Nitra Dolná Malanta in two experimental years 2010 and 2011. Experimental locality is situated in the corn production area (climatic region: warm; climatic sub-region dry; climatic zone: warm, dry with mild winter and long sunshine, in altitude 250 m above sea level, with brown soil. On the trials was observed the influence of both temperature and moisture conditions of experimental area on sunflower yield of achenes and fat content. Fore crop of sunflower was spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Technological system of sunflower cultivation was realized in accordance with conventional technology of cultivation. The basic fertilization was made by balance method on the base of agrochemical analysis of soil for expected yield 3 t ha-1. The meteorological data were got out from agro-meteorological station the Faculty of Horticulture and Land Engineering SUA in Nitra. The results show statistically high significant impact of the year weather conditions on the both achenes yield and fat content. In the range of weather conditions, year 2011 have better impact on the values of both indicators than year 2010. The effect of hybrids on monitored production parameters was statistically high significant. In the year 2010 and 2011, in terms of yield quantity but also fat content had hybrid NK Kondi the most stable production. In 2010 and 2011 were reported negative correlations of fat content from achenes yield except of hybrid NK Tristan, which reach positive addiction in 2010.

  18. Marcha de absorção de macronutrientes na cultura do girassol Macronutrient uptake of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer curvas de acúmulo de macronutrientes na cultura do girassol. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em campo sobre Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura muito argilosa, localizado na fazenda experimental da Embrapa Soja, em Londrina/PR. As parcelas foram constituídas de 14 linhas com 25 m de comprimento cada e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,70 m, resultando em área total de 245 m². Cada parcela foi repetida quatro vezes. A adubação de semeadura foi de 300 kg ha-1 da fórmula 5-20-20, aplicada a lanço, antes do plantio. A adubação de cobertura foi parcelada em duas aplicações: 25 e 1 kg ha-1 de N e B, respectivamente, sendo a primeira aos 21 e a segunda aos 35 dias após a semeadura. O híbrido utilizado foi o BRS-191, e a densidade final de plantas foi de 40.000 plantas ha-1. Amostras de plantas foram coletadas em intervalos de 14 dias após a emergência e separadas em pecíolos, folhas, caules e, quando existentes, em capítulo e em aquênios. Após secagem, cada parte da planta foi pesada e moída para, em seguida, determinarem-se os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. A partir desses nutrientes e da matéria seca de cada parte da planta, foram obtidas as curvas de acúmulo. Verificou-se que, para obtenção de produtividades superiores a 3.000 kg ha-1, o híbrido BRS 191 extrai aproximadamente 150, 24, 286, 116, 42 e 24 kg ha-1 de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, respectivamente, resultando na seguinte ordem de extração: K > N > Ca > Mg > P = S. Em relação à exportação, a ordem dos nutrientes foi a seguinte: N > P = K > Mg = S > Ca. Portanto, atenção especial deve ser dada à manutenção da adequada disponibilidade de N, K e Ca, devido à alta demanda da cultura por esses nutrientes.This study aimed to establish curves of macronutrient accumulation in sunflower. The experiment was conducted in the field on a Typic Hapludox, at the experimental station of Embrapa Soja in Londrina, State of Paraná. The plots consisted of 14 25 m long rows spaced 0.70 m apart, resulting in a total area of 245 m², with four replications. Prior to sowing a fertilization seeding of 300 kg ha-1 of 05-20-20 NPK fertilizer was applied. Fertilization was split in two applications of 25 + 1 kg ha-1 N and B, which were applied 21 and 35 days after sowing, respectively. The hybrid BRS 191 and a final plant density of 40,000 plants ha-1 were used. Plant samples were collected every two weeks after emergence and separated in the different parts (petioles, leaves, stems and, when applicable, capitula and achenes. After drying, each plant part was weighed and ground to determine the N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S content. From the contents of these nutrients and dry mass of each plant, the accumulation curve was obtained. It was found that for yields > 3,000 kg ha-1, BRS 191 extracted about 150, 24, 286, 116, 42, and 24 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, in the following order of extraction: K> N> Ca> P = S. In addition to the relation to exportation, the nutrient order was: N> P = K> S = Mg> Ca. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the maintenance of an adequate supply of N, K and Ca, due to the high demand of sunflower.

  19. TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. EMERGENCE, YIELD, QUALITY, AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM

    ABDULLAH SESSIZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between crop growing and soil tillage treatment are play important role in agricultural production. Soils under conventional tillage (CT generally have lower bulk density and associated higher total porosity within the plough layer than under no tillage (NT. No-till farming can reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and minimize labor and fuel consumption. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of conventional, reduced and notillage methods on soil physical properties, sunfl ower yield and yield components, protein and oil content and fuel consumption in Southeastern of Turkey. Six tillage methods for the second crop sunfl ower were tested and compared each other within after lentil harvesting at 2003 and 2004 years in a clay loam soil. According to results, the fi rst year, the bulk density had decreased from 1.29 to 1.09 g cm-3, the second year the δb had decreased from 1.41 to 1.23 g cm-3. Differences between years and tillage methods in terms of yield were found signifi cant (p<0.05. However, no differences were found between the NT and CT. There were also no signifi cance differences in content of protein, oil and ash among six tillage methods. The highest fuel consumption was measured in conventional method (CT whereas the lowest value was found in direct seeding method as 33.48 L ha-1 and 6.6 L ha-1, respectively.

  20. The effect of species, planting date, and management of cover crops on weed community in hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus

    M. Bolandi Amoughein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies showed that if mixed populations of annual weeds grow with the sunflower, for every 10% increase in weed biomass, seed yield would decrease by 13% (Van Gessel & Renner, 2000. In addition to control weeds using herbicides multi-stage spraying is required. In organic farming systems mulch is used to control weeds, protection, fertility and improve soil quality (Glab & Kulig, 2008; Kuchaki et al., 2001. Surface mulches from cover crops suppress weed growth by reducing light levels at the soil surface, thereby slowing photosynthesis. In return, these conditions reduce seed germination and act as a physical barrier to seedling emergence and growth (Teasdale et al., 2007. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in Ardabil Agricultural Research Station, as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 1390-1391. The first factor was considered four types of cover crops including winter rye (Secale cereal, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and control (no cover crop, no weeding.The second factor was mulch management at two levels (living mulch and dead mulch and the third factor was two planting dates for cover crops (synchronous with sunflower planting and 45 days after sunflower planting. Sunflower seeding performed manually on 23 May on the ridges with 50 cm row distance and spacing between plants was 25 cm in depth of 5 cm. Cover crops seeds, rye, barley and wheat, were planted between rows of sunflower. Due to the low density of weeds in study field, complete weeding and sampling of weeds in one session was performed (60 days after planting date sunflower. Statistical analysis of data performed using SAS software and mean comparison performed using Duncan's test with probability level of 5% and 1%. Diagrams drawn using Excel (Version 8.2. Results and Discussion\t: Density and dry weight of Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.: Results of the study indicated that the interaction between cover crop and planting date on density and dry weight of bindweed was significant at probability level of 5% and 1%, respectively. The best condition of reduced density of bindweed was related to the time of using rye cover crop where reduced Field bindweed density to 64% compared to control (without cover crop, no weeding. Date of simultaneous planting of cover crop, reduced bindweed density from mean 15/7% plant.m-2 to 11/62 plant.m-2, compared to 45 days after sunflower planting. Hasannejad and Alizadeh, (2005 reported that rye significantly controlled the weeds of redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, knotgrass, russian thistle and field bindweed compared to controls with no cover crop. All three cover crops had significant effect on reducing the dry weight of bindweed. Cover crops showed the potential to reduce density and total dry weight of weeds compared to no control weeds and increase the plant yield. In a study, the density and dry weight of field bindweed in treated living rye and dead rye reduced 100% and 85% respectively (Samadani & Montazeri, 2009. Density and dry weightof Pale bugloss (Anchusa italica Retz: The interaction (cover crop × planting date on pale bugloss density and dry weight was meaningful in probability level of 1%.All three cover crops with simultaneous planting date showed lowest density of pale bugloss. Rye with proper ground cover in the beginning of season, and due to the long-term preservation of residues in the ground level, inhibited germination and growth of weeds for longer times. Results of the studies by (Abdollahyan Noghaby et al., 2011 on sugar beet showed that the effects of planting cover crops of triticale, wheat, rye and barley, between rows where sugar beet planted, to control weeds population would be the same as when herbicide used to control these weeds. Density and dry weight ofRussian thistle (Salsola kali L.: Results indicated that the interaction effect (cover crop × planting date on density and dry weight of russian thistle was meaningful at probability levels of 1% and 5% respectively. The best result on the reduced density and dry weight of russian thistle observed when rye cover crop was used. Elmore, (1980 in a study observed that rye stubble, has more potential in reducing the biomass of wide spectrum of weeds, particularly the annuals. Density and dry weight ofCommon reed (Phragmites australis L.: Density of common reed on main effect of cover crop and its dry weight on main effect of cover crop and planting date showed meaningful difference with probability level of 1%. Cover crop of rye, due to the increased biomass, initial growth vigor, high tillering and in fact because of high allelopathy showed better performance in reducing density of perennial weeds such as common reed when planted simultaneously with sunflower, compared to wheat and barley. Samedani et al., (2005 reported that rye and wheat can better control the weeds due to high biomass. Dry yield of sunflower seed: Regarding the results of data analysis, the yield of sunflower seed influenced by cover crop treatments (P≤0.05. Sunflower seed yield in treatments of rye and wheat cover crops with control 1 treatment (no cover crop, complete weeding showed no meaningful difference. Among cover crops, highest yield of seed related to wheat with 3916/7 kg.ha-1. Cover crop of barley showed poor yield compared to rye and wheat that was likely due to lower growth of barley and the lack of producing sufficient biomass and proper control of weeds. Cover crops can have positive or negative effects on grain crop yields, depending on environment, cover crop species and management (Miguez & Bollero, 2005. Conclusion: Results showed that cover crops, particularly rye, are very effective in reducing the density and dry weight of weeds so that the application of cover crops even resulted in increased yield of sunflower seed. Therefore, use of cover crops between planting rows of crops can be a good option to replace herbicides and conventional tillage and as a new and proper approach for sustainable management of weeds.

  1. THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS WITH LEAD NITROGENOUS TREATMENT AT HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. FAVORIT AND PR64A83 CULTIVARS

    Felicia Vlad-Rusen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of some cytogenetic parameters shows that the nitrogenous lead application on Favorit and PR64A83 cultivars of sunflower exercises a light mutagenic effect on the cells of the root apex. At same time an intensification of the frequency of the ana-telophases with aberration takes place, especially of those with bridges, with lagging chromosomes, but also of those with fragments, demonstrating the perturbatory action that this substance exercises on the division axle. The apparition of a great number of metaphases with displayed chromosomes proves the perturbation of well function to division axle, effect signalized especially at the Favorit cultivar.

  2. Effect of postirradiation storage of seeds on the structural chromosomal mutations in chlorophyll mutants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L)

    Sizova, L.I.

    1976-01-01

    The paper comprises the results of the investigation of the storage effect in irradiated seeds on the frequency and the spectrum of structural mutations of chromosomes in normal green plants and in spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of sunflower. The seeds of chlorophyll mutants lutescens and xantha and those of green plants stored for 3 years have been 60 Co gamma-irradiated with doses of 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 5.0 and 10 kr. After the irradiation the seeds have been stored for a year under conventional laboratory conditions. As a result of the post-irradiation storage of seeds for a year the decrease in the proportion of aberrant cells by 3 to 6% at the expense of cells with paired fragments has been observed in green plants. In chlorophyll mutants the storage of seeds after the irradiation results in the 9 to 37% increase of the proportion of aberrant cells at the expense of cells with single and paired bridges and with paired fragments. This gives evidence in favour of the assumption that in spontaneous chlorophyll mutants the processes of the post-irradiation recovery either fail altogether, or proceed at a very low level

  3. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genome

    Navdeep Gill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  4. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  5. Rhizosphere colonization and arsenic translocation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by arsenate reducing Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L.

    Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Bachate, Sachin Prabhakar; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, six arsenic-resistant strains previously isolated were tested for their plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, in order to choose one model strain as an inoculum for sunflower plants in pot experiments. The aim was to investigate the effect of arsenic-resistant strain on sunflower growth and on arsenic uptake from arsenic contaminated soil. Based on plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L was chosen as an inoculum. Beside the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite via an Ars operon, the strain exhibited 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity and it was also able to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid. Pot experiments were conducted with an agricultural soil contaminated with arsenic (214 mg kg⁻¹). A real time PCR method was set up based on the quantification of ACR3(2) type of arsenite efflux pump carried by Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L, in order to monitor presence and colonisation of the strain in the bulk and rhizospheric soil. As a result of strain inoculation, arsenic uptake by plants was increased by 53 %, whereas ACR3(2) gene copy number in rhizospheric soil was 100 times higher in inoculated than in control pots, indicating the colonisation of strain. The results indicated that the presence of arsenate reducing strains in the rhizosphere of sunflower influences arsenic mobilization and promotes arsenic uptake by plant.

  6. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11.

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile bacterium, producing 4.5 μg mL(-1) indole acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It utilized 27 out of 95 substrates in BIOLOG GN2 micro plate system. It was able to convert insoluble tri-calcium phosphate to soluble phosphorus up to 43.5 μg mL(-1) with decrease in pH of the medium up to 4.5 after 10 days incubation at 28 ± 2 °C in the Pikovskaya's broth. High performance liquid chromatography of cell free supernatant showed that Fs-11 produced malic acid and gluconic acid (2.43 and 16.64 μg mL(-1), respectively) in Pikovskaya's broth. Analysis of 900 bp fragment of pyrroloquinoline quinine pqqE gene sequence showed 98 % homology with that of E. cloacae pqqE gene. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed strong colonization of fluorescently labeled Fs-11 with sunflower roots. Sunflower inoculation with Fs-11 and its rifampicin resistant derivative in sterile sand and natural soil showed that Fs-11 colonized sunflower roots up to 30 days after transplanting in both sterile sand as well as natural soil. Moreover, Fs-11 inoculation resulted in increased plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and total phosphorus contents as compared to un-inoculated plants. The data showed that Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 is an efficient phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and has great potential to be used as bio-inoculant for sunflower under phosphorus deficient conditions.

  7. Toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on growth and metabolism in germinating seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Sadiq, Rumana; Hussain, Mumtaz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, M Sajid Aqeel

    2011-12-01

    To assess the toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on the growth and some key metabolic processes in sunflower, varying levels of Ni as Ni(NO(3))(2) up to 60 mg L(-1) were applied once to sunflower cultivars SF-187 and Hysun-33 at sowing time in sand culture. An increase in Ni in the growth medium adversely affected growth parameters, sugar concentration (both reducing and non-reducing), as well as the activities of α-amylase and protease. It also slowed down mobilization of stored proteins and amino acids in the germinating seeds. However, an increase in the activities of α-amylase and protease was observed over time from 24 to 120 h after sowing. Cultivar Hysun-33 showed better performance than SF-187 in the presence of excess Ni. Overall, Ni-induced reduction in germination of sunflower seed appeared to be due to disturbance in biochemical metabolism as the availability of sugars for the synthesis of metabolic energy as well as necessary amino acids for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes essential for the growing embryo are generally reduced due to suppression in α-amylase and protease activities.

  8. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence. PMID:24833511

  10. Pl(17) is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Qi, L L; Long, Y M; Jan, C C; Ma, G J; Gulya, T J

    2015-04-01

    Pl 17, a novel downy mildew resistance gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in sunflowers, was genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.). Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in the USA. To determine the chromosomal location of this resistance, 186 F 2:3 families derived from a cross of HA 458 with HA 234 were phenotyped for their resistance to race 734 of P. halstedii. The segregation ratio of the population supported that the resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene, Pl 17. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were used to identify molecular markers linked to Pl 17. Bulked segregant analysis using 849 SSR markers located Pl 17 to linkage group (LG) 4, which is the first DM gene discovered in this linkage group. An F2 population of 186 individuals was screened with polymorphic SSR and SNP primers from LG4. Two flanking markers, SNP SFW04052 and SSR ORS963, delineated Pl 17 in an interval of 3.0 cM. The markers linked to Pl 17 were validated in a BC3 population. A search for the physical location of flanking markers in sunflower genome sequences revealed that the Pl 17 region had a recombination frequency of 0.59 Mb/cM, which was a fourfold higher recombination rate relative to the genomic average. This region can be considered amenable to molecular manipulation for further map-based cloning of Pl 17.

  11. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Selection on crop-derived traits and QTL in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crop-wild hybrids under water stress.

    Owart, Birkin R; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M; Dechaine, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions.

  13. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves and roots under drought stress by RNA sequencing.

    Liang, Chunbo; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Li, Cen; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Shuquan; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Liguo; Li, Weizhong; Huang, Xutang

    2017-10-25

    Sunflower is recognized as one of the most important oil plants with strong tolerance to drought in the world. In order to study the response mechanisms of sunflower plants to drought stress, gene expression profiling using high throughput sequencing was performed for seedling leaves and roots (sunflower inbred line R5) after 24 h of drought stress (15% PEG 6000). The transcriptome assembled using sequences of 12 samples was used as a reference. 805 and 198 genes were identified that were differentially expressed in leaves and roots, respectively. Another 71 genes were differentially expressed in both organs, in which more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated. In agreement with results obtained for other crops or from previous sunflower studies, we also observed that nine genes may be associated with the response of sunflower to drought. The results of this study may provide new information regarding the sunflower drought response, as well as add to the number of known genes associated with drought tolerance.

  15. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients.

    Ghosh, Nandini; Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level, which substantiated the clinical evidence of sunflower allergy. Further purification and recombinant expression of these allergens will improve component-resolved diagnosis and therapy of pollen allergy.

  16. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  17. Integration of transcriptomic and metabolic data reveals hub transcription factors involved in drought stress response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Moschen, Sebastián; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Higgins, Janet; Tohge, Takayuki; Watanabe, Mutsumi; González, Sergio; Rivarola, Máximo; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Hopp, H Esteban; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Paniego, Norma; Fernández, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2017-07-01

    By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach. Our results showed a delay in plant senescence with an increase in the expression level of photosynthesis related genes as well as higher levels of sugars, osmoprotectant amino acids and ionic nutrients under drought conditions. In addition, we identified transcription factors that were upregulated during drought conditions and that may act as hubs in the transcriptional network. Many of these transcription factors belong to families implicated in the drought response in model species. The integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data in this study, together with physiological measurements, has improved our understanding of the biological responses during droughts and contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved under this environmental condition. These findings will provide useful biotechnological tools to improve stress tolerance while maintaining crop yield under restricted water availability.

  18. Recognition of Orobanche cumana Below-Ground Parasitism Through Physiological and Hyper Spectral Measurements in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Cochavi, Amnon; Rapaport, Tal; Gendler, Tania; Karnieli, Arnon; Eizenberg, Hanan; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E

    2017-01-01

    Broomrape ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) parasitism is a severe problem in many crops worldwide, including in the Mediterranean basin. Most of the damage occurs during the sub-soil developmental stage of the parasite, by the time the parasite emerges from the ground, damage to the crop has already been done. One feasible method for sensing early, below-ground parasitism is through physiological measurements, which provide preliminary indications of slight changes in plant vitality and productivity. However, a complete physiological field survey is slow, costly and requires skilled manpower. In recent decades, visible to-shortwave infrared (VIS-SWIR) hyperspectral tools have exhibited great potential for faster, cheaper, simpler and non-destructive tracking of physiological changes. The advantage of VIS-SWIR is even greater when narrow-band signatures are analyzed with an advanced statistical technique, like a partial least squares regression (PLS-R). The technique can pinpoint the most physiologically sensitive wavebands across an entire spectrum, even in the presence of high levels of noise and collinearity. The current study evaluated a method for early detection of Orobanche cumana parasitism in sunflower that combines plant physiology, hyperspectral readings and PLS-R. Seeds of susceptible and resistant O. cumana sunflower varieties were planted in infested (15 mg kg -1 seeds) and non-infested soil. The plants were examined weekly to detect any physiological or structural changes; the examinations were accompanied by hyperspectral readings. During the early stage of the parasitism, significant differences between infected and non-infected sunflower plants were found in the reflectance of near and shortwave infrared areas. Physiological measurements revealed no differences between treatments until O. cumana inflorescences emerged. However, levels of several macro- and microelements tended to decrease during the early stage of O. cumana parasitism. Analysis of leaf cross-sections revealed differences in range and in mesophyll structure as a result of different levels of nutrients in sunflower plants, manifesting the presence of O. cumana infections. The findings of an advanced PLS-R analysis emphasized the correlation between specific reflectance changes in the SWIR range and levels of various nutrients in sunflower plants. This work demonstrates potential for the early detection of O. cumana parasitism on sunflower roots using hyperspectral tools.

  19. Recognition of Orobanche cumana Below-Ground Parasitism Through Physiological and Hyper Spectral Measurements in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Amnon Cochavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. parasitism is a severe problem in many crops worldwide, including in the Mediterranean basin. Most of the damage occurs during the sub-soil developmental stage of the parasite, by the time the parasite emerges from the ground, damage to the crop has already been done. One feasible method for sensing early, below-ground parasitism is through physiological measurements, which provide preliminary indications of slight changes in plant vitality and productivity. However, a complete physiological field survey is slow, costly and requires skilled manpower. In recent decades, visible to-shortwave infrared (VIS-SWIR hyperspectral tools have exhibited great potential for faster, cheaper, simpler and non-destructive tracking of physiological changes. The advantage of VIS-SWIR is even greater when narrow-band signatures are analyzed with an advanced statistical technique, like a partial least squares regression (PLS-R. The technique can pinpoint the most physiologically sensitive wavebands across an entire spectrum, even in the presence of high levels of noise and collinearity. The current study evaluated a method for early detection of Orobanche cumana parasitism in sunflower that combines plant physiology, hyperspectral readings and PLS-R. Seeds of susceptible and resistant O. cumana sunflower varieties were planted in infested (15 mg kg-1 seeds and non-infested soil. The plants were examined weekly to detect any physiological or structural changes; the examinations were accompanied by hyperspectral readings. During the early stage of the parasitism, significant differences between infected and non-infected sunflower plants were found in the reflectance of near and shortwave infrared areas. Physiological measurements revealed no differences between treatments until O. cumana inflorescences emerged. However, levels of several macro- and microelements tended to decrease during the early stage of O. cumana parasitism. Analysis of leaf cross-sections revealed differences in range and in mesophyll structure as a result of different levels of nutrients in sunflower plants, manifesting the presence of O. cumana infections. The findings of an advanced PLS-R analysis emphasized the correlation between specific reflectance changes in the SWIR range and levels of various nutrients in sunflower plants. This work demonstrates potential for the early detection of O. cumana parasitism on sunflower roots using hyperspectral tools.

  20. Selection and estimation of the heritability of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollen collection behavior in Apis mellifera colonies.

    Basualdo, M; Rodríguez, E M; Bedascarrasbure, E; De Jong, D

    2007-06-20

    We selected honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) with a high tendency to collect sunflower pollen and estimated the heritability of this trait. The percentage of sunflower pollen collected by 74 colonies was evaluated. Five colonies that collected the highest percentages of sunflower pollen were selected. Nineteen colonies headed by daughters of these selected queens were evaluated for this characteristic in comparison with 20 control (unselected) colonies. The variation for the proportion of sunflower pollen was greater among colonies of the control group than among these selected daughter colonies. The estimated heritability was 0.26 +/- 0.23, demonstrating that selection to increase sunflower pollen collection is feasible. Such selected colonies could be used to improve sunflower pollination in commercial fields.

  1. Siderophores mediate reduced and increased uptake of cadmium by Streptomyces tendae F4 and sunflower (Helianthus annuus), respectively.

    Dimkpa, C O; Merten, D; Svatos, A; Büchel, G; Kothe, E

    2009-11-01

    As a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd) affects microbial and plant metabolic processes, thereby potentially reducing the efficiency of microbe or plant-mediated remediation of Cd-polluted soil. The role of siderophores produced by Streptomyces tendae F4 in the uptake of Cd by bacteria and plant was investigated to gain insight into the influence of siderophores on Cd availability to micro-organisms and plants. The bacterium was cultured under siderophore-inducing conditions in the presence of Cd. The kinetics of siderophore production and identification of the siderophores and their metal-bound forms were performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was used to measure iron (Fe) and Cd contents in the bacterium and in sunflower plant grown in Cd-amended soil. Siderophores significantly reduced the Cd uptake by the bacterium, while supplying it with iron. Bacterial culture filtrates containing three hydroxamate siderophores secreted by S. tendae F4 significantly promoted plant growth and enhanced uptake of Cd and Fe by the plant, relative to the control. Furthermore, application of siderophores caused slightly more Cd, but similar Fe uptake, compared with EDTA. Bioinoculation with Streptomyces caused a dramatic increase in plant Fe content, but resulted only in slight increase in plant Cd content. It is concluded that siderophores can help reduce toxic metal uptake in bacteria, while simultaneously facilitating the uptake of such metals by plants. Also, EDTA is not superior to hydroxamate siderophores in terms of metal solubilization for plant uptake. The study showed that microbial processes could indirectly influence the availability and amount of toxic metals taken up from the rhizosphere of plants. Furthermore, although EDTA is used for chelator-enhanced phytoremediation, microbial siderophores would be ideal for this purpose.

  2. Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper by Helianthus annuus L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements.

    Rivelli, Anna Rita; De Maria, Susanna; Puschenreiter, Markus; Gherbin, Piergiorgio

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects on physiological response, trace elements and nutrients accumulation of sunflower plants grown in soil contaminated with: 5 mg kg(-1) of Cd; 5 and 300 mg kg(-1) of Cd and Zn, respectively; 5, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Zn, and Cu, respectively. Contaminants applied did not produce large effects on growth, except in Cd-Zn-Cu treatment in which leaf area and total dry matter were reduced, by 15%. The contamination with Cd alone did not affect neither growth nor physiological parameters, despite considerable amounts of Cd accumulated in roots and older leaves, with a high bioconcentration factor from soil to plant. By adding Zn and then Cu to Cd in soil, significant were the toxic effects on chlorophyll content and water relations due to greater accumulation of trace elements in tissues, with imbalances in nutrients uptake. Highly significant was the interaction between shoot elements concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Ca) and treatments. Heavy metals concentrations in roots always exceeded those in stem and leaves, with a lower translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting a strategy of sunflower to compartmentalise the potentially toxic elements in physiologically less active parts in order to preserve younger tissues.

  3. Detection of herbicide effects on pigment composition and PSII photochemistry in Helianthus annuus by Raman spectroscopy and chlorophyll a fluorescence

    Vítek, Petr; Novotná, Kateřina; Hodaňová, Petra; Rapantová, Barbora; Klem, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 170, Jan (2017), s. 234-241 ISSN 1386-1425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1530373 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raman mapping * Chlorophyll fluorescence * Carotenoids * Flavonoids * Photosynthesis * Secondary metabolites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016

  4. Genetic variation for germination and physiological traits in sunflower mutants induced by gamma rays [Helianthus annuus L.

    Alejo-Jaimes, A.; Jardinaud, M.F.; Maury, P.; Alibert, G.; Gentzbittel, L.; Sarrafi, A.; Grieu, P.; Petiprez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of sunflower line AS-613 were irradiated with gamma rays and 1,559 M4 progenies were studied for their germination characteristics and the following traits were studied: thousand seed weight, seed size, time before emergence, percentage of emerged seedlings, hypocotyl length and diameter, number of cotyledons and cotyledons pigmentation intensity. A high genetic variability was observed for all the studied traits. Through M4 progenies, 9 mutants presenting the most differences with the original genotype (AS-613) were planted in a randomized blocks design with 8 replications in a controlled greenhouse and some morphological and physiological traits were studied, which are: plant height, number of leaves, total leaf area, net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and net carbon assimilation. When harvesting, flower head diameter, head weight, stem weight, leaves weight, total number of seeds per plant and thousand seed weight were measured. The differences between mutants and also non irradiated genotype (AS-613) were significant for most of studied traits suggesting that several developmental processes have been modified [it

  5. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  6. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Karyological investigations on Erigeron canadensis L. and E. annuus (L. Pers. from natural stands in Poland

    K. Bijok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of chromosomes in metaphases root meristems of Erigeron canadensis L. (2n= 18 and E. annuus (L. Pers. (2n=27 was determined. The chromosomes of both species showed a morphological differentiation - they were heterobrachial or isobrachial; E. annuus had an additional unpaired isobrachial chromosome.

  8. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  9. Phyto-crystallization of silver and gold by Erigeron annuus (L. Pers flower extract and catalytic potential of synthesized and commercial nano silver immobilized on sodium alginate hydrogel

    Palanivel Velmurugan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A green, eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs using Erigeron annuus (L. pers flower extract as both the reducing and capping agent is reported for the first time. Optimal nanoparticle production was achieved by adjusting various parameters including pH, extract concentration, metal ion concentration, and time. Initial verification of AgNP and AuNP production was done by visual observation and measuring surface plasmon spectra at 434 and 537 nm, respectively. The synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs were characterized by high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and zeta potential. The catalytic potential of E. annuus flower extract, silver ions, synthesized AgNPs, commercial grade AgNPs, and a mixture of flower extract and AgNPs immobilized on sodium alginate hydrogel beads (Na/Al HB was analyzed. The ability of these immobilized materials to degrade methylene blue was investigated. Commercial grade AgNPs immobilized with Na/Al HB 1.5 g/20 mL were observed to have good catalytic activity followed by a mixture of synthesized AgNPs immobilized with Na/Al HB and E. annuus flower extract immobilized with Na/Al HB at 1.5 g/20 mL.

  10. Genotypic diversity and clonal structure of Erigeron annuus (Asteraceae in Lithuania

    Tunaitienė, Virginija

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the clonal structure and genetic diversity of alien herbaceous plant species Erigeron annuus. The global warming and changes in agriculture practice in the past few decades were favourable for the expansion of this species in Lithuania. We used RAPD and ISSR assays to assess genetic variation within and among 29 populations of E. annuus. A total of 278 molecular markers were revealed. Our study detected reduced level of genetic diversity of invasive populations of E. annuus. Significant differences in DNA polymorphism among populations of E. annuus were also found. Some populations of this species are composed of genetically identical plants, while others were polymorphic. Clonal diversity of study populations ranged from 0.083 to 0.4 for both DNA marker systems. The Simpsons diversity index values ranged from 0.0 to 0.636. The average number of genotypes per population established using both assays was about 1.7. Out of 328 E. annuus individuals only 16 showed unique RAPD and 14 unique ISSR banding patterns. The remaining plants were clones of different size. The most common genotype of E. annuus identified in our study was represented by predominate in nine populations.

  11. Triploid production from interspecific crosses of two diploid perennial Helianthus with cultivated sunflower

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic source for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. ...

  12. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  13. Translocation of 11C from leaves of Helianthus: preliminary results

    Fensom, D.S.; Aikman, D.; Scobie, J.; Drinkwater, A.; Ledingham, K.W.O.

    1977-01-01

    11 C fed to leaves as 11 CO 2 was used to study the dynamics of short-term translocation of photosynthate in Helianthus. As in 14 C studies small amounts of tracer were often detected in the stem close to the fed leaf in th first 5 min, followed by a larger mass flow after 15 min. The speed of mass flow of tracer movement was calculated to be 60 to 400 cm.h -1 depending on the method of calculation. There was no evidence in the premass flow for discrete spots along the stem or petiole where tracer accumulated. Neither was there firm evidence for pulses of tracer moving steadily forward, but there were point fluctuations of greater variability than would be expected by chance alone, which suggest the possibility of aberrations of movement superimposed on the mass flow. Details of these aberrations could not be assessed with certainty from these preliminary experiments owing to the rather low tracer activity. The translocation profiles were sensitive to the prior light conditioning of the plant and above all to chilling. In Helianthus the latter produced temporary restrictions in translocation which lasted for some 10-12 min. (author)

  14. ISOLATION OF ENT-KAUR-16-EN-19-OIC AND ENT-TRACHILOBAN-19-OIC ACIDS FROM THE SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.DRY WASTE

    Nicon Ungur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple method for isolation of the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (1 and ent-trachiloban-19-oic (2 acids from dry waste of sunflower processing has been elaborated, and it has been shown that the waste can serve as an accessible source of ent-kauranic and ent-trachilobanic diterpenoids.

  15. Allelopathic potential of Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. on the early growth of maize (Zea mays L. and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and glasshouse experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic potential of different plant parts of D. stramonium on maize and sunflower on early growth stages. The aqueous leachates of D. stramonium roots and shoot did not produc a significant effect on germination and shoot length of maize, but root length of maize was significantly reduced at the highest (1/1 D. stramonium roots leachate compared to control. From the other side, germination of sunflower was significantly reduced at the highest (1/1 D. stramonium shoot leachate concentration, but lower (1/5 and 1/2 D. stramonium roots leachate concentrations significantly increased root and shoot length of sunflower compared to control. In glasshouse experiment, no one treatment with different D. stramonium plant residues significantly affected density, height and fresh weight of maize plants compared to control. Contrary, D. stramonium mixtures with 1/1 root and shoot residues significantly reduced plants density and fresh weight of sunflower plants compared to control. Lower (1/2 and 1/5 mixtures of D. stramonium roots residues and mixture with 1/5 D. stramonium shoot residues significantly increased the height of the sunflower plants.

  16. Variability in oil tocopherol concentration and composition of traditional and high oleic sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L. in the Pampean region (Argentina

    Mateo, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of food fat and fulfill an important biological requirement in humans. There are no previous studies on the variability of tocopherol concentration and composition in the oil of sunflower traditional hybrids (TH and high oleic sunflower hybrids (HOH from different environments in Argentina. The objective of this work was to detect and  examine that variability. Seed samples were obtained from i seven TH grown in four locations (Experiment I and, ii five hybrids (three HOH and two traditional ones grown in three locations (Experiment II. Concentrations of total tocopherol in oil ranged from 634 to 1054 μg g oil–1. α-tocopherol accounted for 90.8 to 97% of the total tocopherols. Total and α-tocopherol concentrations were highly genetically determined (more than 80%. In Experiment I, a significant, although low in value, interaction between hybrid and location was found for total and α-tocopherol concentrations. In Experiment II, mean values for total tocopherol concentration in HOH and in each environment were larger than in TH. Significant differences for total and α-tocopherol concentration were not found among HOH and environments. The variation of tocopherol concentration for each hybrid across environments was higher than the variation among hybrids in the same environment. To obtain oil with high tocopherol concentration, both hybrid and environment must be selected.Los tocoferoles son antioxidantes naturales que aumentan la estabilidad de los aceites y cumplen una importante actividad biológica en humanos. No son conocidos estudios sobre la variabilidad del contenido y composición de tocoferoles en el aceite de híbridos de girasol tradicionales (HT y “alto oleico” (HAO sembrados en diferentes ambientes en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar y examinar esa variabilidad. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de a 7 HT sembrados en 4 localidades (Experimento I, y, b 5 híbridos ( 3 HAO y 2 HT sembrados en 3 localidades (Experimento II. La concentración de tocoferoles totales varió entre 634 y 1054 μg g aceite–1. El α-tocoferol aportó con el 90.8 a 97.0% del contenido total de tocoferol. Las concentraciones de α-tocoferol y tocoferol total estuvieron genéticamente determinadas (más del 80%. Para ambas variables, la interacción híbrido x localidad en el Experimento I fue significativa aunque de pequeño valor. La concentración media de tocoferoles totales entre ambientes y en cada ambiente fue mayor en los HAO que en los HT en el Experimento II, mientras que no hubo diferencias significativas entre HAO ni entre ambientes para esta variable, ni para α-tocoferol. En ambos experimentos, la variabilidad en la concentración de tocoferoles para cada híbrido a través de los ambientes fue más alta que la ocurrida entre híbridos en un mismo ambiente. Para obtener aceite de girasol con alta concentración de tocoferoles deben seleccionarse tanto el genotipo como el ambiente.

  17. Potential of Brassic rapa, Cannabis sativa, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays for phytoextraction of heavy metals from calcareous dredged sediment derived soils.

    Meers, E; Ruttens, A; Hopgood, M; Lesage, E; Tack, F M G

    2005-10-01

    Remediation of soil pollution is one of the many current environmental challenges. Anthropogenic activity has resulted in the contamination of extended areas of land, the remediation of which is both invasive and expensive by conventional means. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils has the prospect of being a more economic in situ alternative. In addition, phytoextraction targets ecotoxicologically the most relevant soil fraction of these metals, i.e. the bioavailable fraction. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the potential of four high biomass crop species in their potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals, with or without with the use of soil amendments (EDTA or EDDS). A calcareous dredged sediment derived surface soil, with high organic matter and clay content and moderate levels of heavy metal pollution, was used in the experiments. No growth depression was observed in EDTA or EDDS treated pots in comparison to untreated controls. Metal accumulation was considered to be low for phytoextraction purposes, despite the use of chelating agents. The low observed shoot concentrations of heavy metals were attributed to the low phytoavailability of heavy metals in this particular soil substrate. The mobilising effects induced by EDTA in the soil were found to be too long-lived for application as a soil amendment in phytoextraction. Although EDDS was found to be more biodegradable, higher effect half lives were observed than reported in literature or observed in previous experiments. These findings caution against the use of any amendment, biodegradable or otherwise, without proper investigation of its effects and the longevity thereof.

  18. Identification of SSR and retrotransposon-based molecular markers linked to morphological characters in oily sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L.) under natural and water-limited states.

    Ali, Soleimani Gezeljeh; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Ebrahimi, Asa; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    Sunflower is an important source of edible oil. Drought is known as an important factor limiting the growth and productivity of field crops in most parts of the world. Agricultural biotechnology mainly aims at developing crops with higher tolerance to the challenging environmental conditions, such as drought. This study examined a number of morphological characters, along with relative water content (RWC) in 100 inbred sunflower lines. A 10 × 10 simple lattice design with two replications was employed to measure the mentioned parameters under natural and water-limited states during two successive years. In molecular trial, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, as well as 14 inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and 14 retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) primer combinations were used for DNA fingerprinting of the lines. Most of the examined characters had lower average values under water-limited than natural states. Maximum and minimum reductions were observed in the cases of yield and oil percentage, respectively. The broad-sense heritabilities for all the examined characters were 0.20-0.73 and 0.10-0.34 under natural and water-limited states, respectively. In the studied samples, 8.97% of the 435 possible locus pairs of the SSRs represented significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) levels. In the association analysis using SSR markers, 22 and 21 markers were identified (P ≤ 0.05) for the studied characters under natural and water-limited states, respectively. The corresponding values were 50 and 37 using retrotransposon-based molecular markers. Some detected markers were communal between the characters under water-limited and natural states. This was in line with the phenotypic correlations detected between the characters. Communal markers facilitate the simultaneous selection of several characters and can thus improve the efficacy of selection based on markers in the plant-breeding activities.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Physiological Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under Irrigation and Drought Stress

    Azam POURMOHAMMAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementing appropriate breeding strategies for sunflower, alongside dependable information on heritability and gene effects upon yield and related traits under drought conditions, are all necessary. Thirty sunflower hybrids were produced by line × tester cross of six male-sterile and five restorer lines. Their hybrids were evaluated in three levels of irrigation, as follows: (1 non-stressed plots, irrigated at regular intervals (W1; (2 mild water stress (W2, irrigated from the beginning of the button stage (R4 to seed filling initiation (R6; (3 severe water stress (W3 started from the beginning of button stage (R4 to physiological maturity. Based on observations and specific methods for determination, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index, relative water content and proline content, were studied by additive effects, under the different irrigation conditions. Canopy temperatures,chlorophyll index, relative water content, leaf water potential, proline content and yield were controlled by additive effects under mild stressed conditions. Under severe stress conditions however, canopy temperatures, leaf water potential and proline content were controlled by additive effects, while chlorophyll index and relative water content were controlled by both additive and dominant effects, as seed yield was mainly influenced by the dominant effects. The narrow sense heritability ranged from 47-97% for all traits, except for chlorophyll fluorescence. Yield correlated positively with chlorophyll index and relative water content, and negatively with canopy temperature and leaf water potential. Therefore, under drought stressed conditions in breeding programs, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index and relative water content can be reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant genotypes with prospect to higher yields.

  20. Efecto y tolerancia de semillas de Helianthus Annuus (Asteraceae), Mentha Pepirita (Lamiaceae) y Medicago Sativa (Fabaceae) a diferentes concentraciones de Cadmio

    Panchi Campues, Fabiola Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which by their nature have a high threat to not be chemically or biologically degradable, why is one of the causes of environmental degradation, and causes direct damage in man. In Ecuador this metal is as a result of industrial activities present in the effluents and soil, causing an environmental impact due to their involvement to be directly related to water sources. At present there are proposed various types of wastewater treatment for removal of ...

  1. (Helianthus annuus L.-frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en función del nitrógeno y fósforo

    Edgar J. Morales Rosales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2003 se realizó un estudio en Montecillo, Estado de México, para determinar el efecto de la aplicación de nitrógeno (0, 40 y 80 kg ha–1 y fósforo (0, 30 y 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 en la siembra combinada de girasol (cv. Victoria y frijol (cv. Michoacán. Con el suministro de 80 kg N ha–1 (80 – 00 – 00 se incrementó la producción de biomasa y rendimiento de semilla superando al testigo sin fertilizante en 32% y 35%. Cuando se adicionaron 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 (00 – 60 – 00 se obtuvo una producción de materia seca y rendimiento de semilla superior al testigo en 24 y 27%, respectivamente. Aunque la interacción nitrógeno x fósforo no fue significativa, existió una tendencia positiva a medida de que se incrementaron los niveles de nitrógeno y fósforo (80 – 60 – 00, alcanzando los máximos valores en la producción de biomasa (2667.9 g m–2 y rendimiento de semilla (644.6 g m–2, los cuales superaron en 49 y 50% al testigo sin fertilizante.

  2. Stable transformation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using a non-meristematic regeneration protocol and green fluorescent protein as a vital marker.

    Müller, A; Iser, M; Hess, D

    2001-10-01

    Stable transformation of sunflower was achieved using a non-meristematic hypocotyl explant regeneration protocol of public inbred HA300B. Uniformly transformed shoots were obtained after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a gfp (green fluorescent protein) gene containing an intron that blocks expression of gfp in Agrobacterium. Easily detectable, bright green fluorescence of transformed tissues was used to establish an optimal regeneration and transformation procedure. By Southern blot analysis, integration of the gfp and nptll genes was confirmed. Stable transformation efficiency was 0.1%. From 68 T1 plants analyzed, 17 showed transmission of transgene DNA and 15 of them contained the intact gfp gene. Expression of gfp was detected in 10 T1 plants carrying the intact gfp gene using a fluorimetric assay or western blot analysis. Expression of the nptll gene was confirmed in 13 T1 plants. The transformation system enables the rapid transfer of agronomically important genes.

  3. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mechanical wounding induces a nitrosative stress by down-regulation of GSNO reductase and an increase in S-nitrosothiols in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings

    Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana M.; Carreras, Alfonso; Gómez-Rodríguez, Maria. V.; Pedrajas, José R.; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Luque, Francisco; Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules such as peroxynitrite, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and nitrotyrosine, among others, are involved in physiological processes as well in the mechanisms of response to stress conditions. In sunflower seedlings exposed to five different adverse environmental conditions (low temperature, mechanical wounding, high light intensity, continuous light, and continuous darkness), key components of the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the enzyme activities L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS), S-nitrosogluthathione reductase (GSNOR), nitrate reductase (NR), catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the content of lipid hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), the cellular level of NO, GSNO, and GSNOR, and protein tyrosine nitration [nitrotyrosine (NO2-Tyr)] were analysed. Among the stress conditions studied, mechanical wounding was the only one that caused a down-regulation of NOS and GSNOR activities, which in turn provoked an accumulation of SNOs. The analyses of the cellular content of NO, GSNO, GSNOR, and NO2-Tyr by confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed these biochemical data. Therefore, it is proposed that mechanical wounding triggers the accumulation of SNOs, specifically GSNO, due to a down-regulation of GSNOR activity, while NO2-Tyr increases. Consequently a process of nitrosative stress is induced in sunflower seedlings and SNOs constitute a new wound signal in plants. PMID:21172815

  5. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  6. Relocation of a rust resistance gene R 2 and its marker-assisted gene pyramiding in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Qi, L L; Ma, G J; Long, Y M; Hulke, B S; Gong, L; Markell, S G

    2015-03-01

    The rust resistance gene R 2 was reassigned to linkage group 14 of the sunflower genome. DNA markers linked to R 2 were identified and used for marker-assisted gene pyramiding in a confection type genetic background. Due to the frequent evolution of new pathogen races, sunflower rust is a recurring threat to sunflower production worldwide. The inbred line Morden Cross 29 (MC29) carries the rust resistance gene, R 2 , conferring resistance to numerous races of rust fungus in the US, Canada, and Australia, and can be used as a broad-spectrum resistance resource. Based on phenotypic assessments and SSR marker analyses on the 117 F2 individuals derived from a cross of HA 89 with MC29 (USDA), R 2 was mapped to linkage group (LG) 14 of the sunflower, and not to the previously reported location on LG9. The closest SSR marker HT567 was located at 4.3 cM distal to R 2 . Furthermore, 36 selected SNP markers from LG14 were used to saturate the R 2 region. Two SNP markers, NSA_002316 and SFW01272, flanked R 2 at a genetic distance of 2.8 and 1.8 cM, respectively. Of the three closely linked markers, SFW00211 amplified an allele specific for the presence of R 2 in a marker validation set of 46 breeding lines, and SFW01272 was also shown to be diagnostic for R 2 . These newly developed markers, together with the previously identified markers linked to the gene R 13a , were used to screen 524 F2 individuals from a cross of a confection R 2 line and HA-R6 carrying R 13a . Eleven homozygous double-resistant F2 plants with the gene combination of R 2 and R 13a were obtained. This double-resistant line will be extremely useful in confection sunflower, where few rust R genes are available, risking evolution of new virulence phenotypes and further disease epidemics.

  7. Influence of thiourea application on some physiological and molecular criteria of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants under conditions of heat stress.

    Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2014-05-01

    High temperature is a major factor limiting the growth of plant species during summer. Understanding the mechanisms of plant tolerance to high temperature would help in developing effective management practices and heat-tolerant cultivars through breeding or biotechnology. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of thiourea in enhancing the tolerance of sunflower plants to heat stress. Sunflower plants were subjected to temperature stress by exposing plants to 35 or 45 °C for 12 h. Two levels of thiourea (10 and 20 mM) were applied before sowing (seed treatment). The results indicated that the plants exposed to temperature stress exhibited a significant decline in growth parameters, chlorophylls, relative leaf water content, oil content, leaf nutrient status, and nitrate reductase activity. Treatment with thiourea, especially when applied at 10 mM, improved the above parameters and induced non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants responsible for antioxidation. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that high-temperature treatments alone or in combination with thiourea were associated with the disappearance of some bands or the appearance of unique ones. The result of RAPD analysis using five primers showed variable qualitative and quantitative changes. These findings confirm the effectiveness of applying thiourea on alleviating heat injuries in sunflower plants.

  8. Acyl carrier proteins from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and their influence on FatA and FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase activities.

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-08-01

    The kinetics of acyl-ACP thioesterases from sunflower importantly changed when endogenous ACPs were used. Sunflower FatB was much more specific towards saturated acyl-ACPs when assayed with them. Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are small (~9 kDa), soluble, acidic proteins involved in fatty acid synthesis in plants and bacteria. ACPs bind to fatty acids through a thioester bond, generating the acyl-ACP lipoproteins that are substrates for fatty acid synthase (FAS) complexes, and that are required for fatty acid chain elongation, acting as important intermediates in de novo fatty acid synthesis in plants. Plants, usually express several ACP isoforms with distinct functionalities. We report here the cloning of three ACPs from developing sunflower seeds: HaACP1, HaACP2, and HaACP3. These proteins were plastidial ACPs expressed strongly in seeds, and as such they are probably involved in the synthesis of sunflower oil. The recombinant sunflower ACPs were expressed in bacteria but they were lethal to the prokaryote host. Thus, they were finally produced using the GST gene fusion system, which allowed the apo-enzyme to be produced and later activated to the holo form. Radiolabelled acyl-ACPs from the newly cloned holo-ACP forms were also synthesized and used to characterize the activity of recombinant sunflower FatA and FatB thioesterases, important enzymes in plant fatty acids synthesis. The activity of these enzymes changed significantly when the endogenous ACPs were used. Thus, FatA importantly increased its activity levels, whereas FatB displayed a different specificity profile, with much high activity levels towards saturated acyl-CoA derivatives. All these data pointed to an important influence of the ACP moieties on the activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis.

  9. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan.

    Jabeen, Nusrat; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2013-05-01

    Salt tolerance is a complex trait which involves the coordinated action of many genes that perform a variety of functions, such as ion sequestration, metabolic adjustment, osmotic adjustment and antioxidative defence. In this article, the growth and the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under normal (ECiw [Electrical conductivity of irrigation water] = 0.5 dS m(-1)) and salt stress conditions (ECiw = 3.4, 6.1, 8.6 and 10.8 dS m(-1) ) in relation to the priming of seeds of the two important oil yielding crops, i.e. safflower and sunflower, with different concentrations of chitosan [0% (control), 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%] is discussed. Induced salinity stress significantly decreased germination percentage, germination rate, length and weight of root and shoot, and protein content. Proline content, malondialdehyde content (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activity increased at 10.8 dS m(-1). Under control conditions there were no significant differences in germination percentage among different concentrations of chitosan, whereas CAT and POX activity were increased by low concentrations of chitosan. With increasing salt stress, low concentrations of chitosan increased germination percentage but decreased MDA and proline contents and CAT and POX activity. Generation of ROS seems to be unavoidable under normal conditions and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants varies in terms of ROS generation under salt stress. However, the data indicate that plants subjected to salt stress-induced oxidative stress and the low concentrations of chitosan exhibited positive effects on salt stress alleviation through the reduction of enzyme activity in both crops. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Polymorphism among RFL-PPR homologs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines with varying ability for the suppression of the cytoplasmic male sterility phenotype].

    Anisimova, I N; Alpatieva, N V; Rozhkova, V T; Kuznetsova, E B; Pinaev, A G; Gavrilova, V A

    2014-07-01

    A complex comparative genetic approach was used for the investigation of the structural and functional diversity of genes for the restoration of sunflower pollen fertility. It includes (i) hybridological analysis; (ii) analysis of polymorphism among EST fragments.homologous to the known Rf genes that contain repeated motives of 35 amino acids (RFL-PPR); (iii) the development of molecular markers. Monogenic segregation in three interline cross combinations and the results of molecular marker analysis confirmed the allelic differences of parental lines in the Mendelian locus for CMS PET1 pollen fertility restoration. Introns were found in two RFL-PPR fragments. Two allelic variants of the QHL12D20 fragment were detected among the sixty lines of the sunflower genetic collection. An intron of QHL12D20 fragment was homologous to an intron of the AHBP-1B gene; the product of this gene-has a similarity with the transcription factor of the bZIP-family of Arabidopsis. A relationship between the QHL12D20 polymorphism and the functional state of the Rfl locus was revealed.

  12. High-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing facilitates molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene, R 15 , in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Ma, G J; Song, Q J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2018-03-21

    A novel rust resistance gene, R 15 , derived from the cultivated sunflower HA-R8 was assigned to linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. SNP markers closely linked to R 15 were identified, facilitating marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. The rust virulence gene is co-evolving with the resistance gene in sunflower, leading to the emergence of new physiologic pathotypes. This presents a continuous threat to the sunflower crop necessitating the development of resistant sunflower hybrids providing a more efficient, durable, and environmentally friendly host plant resistance. The inbred line HA-R8 carries a gene conferring resistance to all known races of the rust pathogen in North America and can be used as a broad-spectrum resistance resource. Based on phenotypic assessments of 140 F 2 individuals derived from a cross of HA 89 with HA-R8, rust resistance in the population was found to be conferred by a single dominant gene (R 15 ) originating from HA-R8. Genotypic analysis with the currently available SSR markers failed to find any association between rust resistance and any markers. Therefore, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis to achieve better genomic coverage. The GBS data showed that R 15 was located at the top end of linkage group (LG) 8. Saturation with 71 previously mapped SNP markers selected within this region further showed that it was located in a resistance gene cluster on LG8, and mapped to a 1.0-cM region between three co-segregating SNP makers SFW01920, SFW00128, and SFW05824 as well as the NSA_008457 SNP marker. These closely linked markers will facilitate marker-assisted selection and breeding in sunflower.

  13. Effect of Planting Date and Weed Control Methods on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in Khoy Region

    M. Akbari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planting dates and weed control methods on yield and agronomic traits of sunflower was investigated. A factorial experiment based on a complete randomized blocks design with four replications was conducted in 2009. Treatments consisted of three planting date (April 4th, May5th and Juns5th and five weed control methods, Trifluralin (2 Lit/ha + Fokus (1.5 Lit/ha, Trifluralin+Nabu-s (3Lit/ha, Trifluralin, Hand weeding and without control. Results indicated that planting dates and weed control methods significantly affected head diameter, 100 grain weight, seed number per head and grain yield. Harvest index and oil percent was affected only by planting dates. The highest grain yield (630.1 g/m2, was produced in the second planting date (May 5 by using Trifluralin+Fokus. Delaying sowing date (after May 5 significantly decreased grain yield. The most important weeds in the experimental site were common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album, field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis, bastard cabbage (Rapistrum rugosum, flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum, cockspur grass (Echinochloa colorum and green bristle grass (Setaria verticillata. It was observed that the dry matter weight sharply varied in all weed species in different planting dates, that is, in the 4th April the dry matter production of common lambsquarter and bastard cabbage, in June 5th planting date were maximum. Dry matter of broad leaf and narrow leaf weeds in the date of May 5th was lower than the other two planting dates. The interaction of planting date ×control methods on head diameter, seed number per head, grain yield and weeds dry matter was significant.

  14. Solid phase fermentation of Helianthus tuberosus for ethanol

    Baerwald, G.; Hamad, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The direct fermentation of pure inulin and hammer mill crushed Helianthus tuberosus tubers (topinambur, Jerusalem artichoke) was studied using two heat-tolerant yeasts, namely Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida kefyr. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae was included in the study so as to compare the yields of these two yeasts with that of a commercial distiller's yeast. The inulin fermentation was carried out in an 18-L bioreactor using the fed-batch and the batch-fermentation methods. The final ethanol concentration was 6.1% (L/L) which represents 82% of the theoretical yield. Commercial scale experiments with hammer mill crushed tubers gave yields lower than those found in the laboratory: 69% of the theoretical yield for direct fermentation without enzyme addition, and about 91% when cellolytic enzymes were added.

  15. Ultrastructure and autoradiography of dormant and activated parenchyma of Helianthus tuberosus

    Favali, M.A.; Sartorato, P.; Serafini-Fracassini, D.

    1984-01-01

    Parenchyma cells of dormant tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. OB 1 (Jerusalem artichoke) contain a very low amount of hormones, therefore they respond to 2.4-D or IAA treatment by dividing and synthesizing RNA, DNA, and polyamines. In particular the activation of the dormant tissues induces an early synthesis of DNA, which reaches the maximum at 3 hours, much before the beginning of the S phase (12 hours). By supplying [6- 3 H] thymidine and carrying out electron microscopic autoradiography, we were able to determine that plastids and mitochondria were the organelles responsible for this early synthesis while the DNA in the nucleus first appeared labeled at 15 hours. In addition, ultrastructural observations carried out to compare the dormant cells with activated ones, showed an increase in the nucleolar volume, a different organization of the tubular complex of the plastids and several other ultrastructural changes which indicate that at 3 hours some fundamental metabolic processes are already active; they become even more evident later on. The implication of these results in the physiology of the tuber cells during activation are discussed. (Author)

  16. Ultrastructure and autoradiography of dormant and activated parenchyma of Helianthus tuberosus

    Favali, M.A.; Sartorato, P. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Serafini-Fracassini, D. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1984-01-01

    Parenchyma cells of dormant tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. OB/sup 1/ (Jerusalem artichoke) contain a very low amount of hormones, therefore they respond to 2.4-D or IAA treatment by dividing and synthesizing RNA, DNA, and polyamines. In particular the activation of the dormant tissues induces an early synthesis of DNA, which reaches the maximum at 3 hours, much before the beginning of the S phase (12 hours). By supplying (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine and carrying out electron microscopic autoradiography, we were able to determine that plastids and mitochondria were the organelles responsible for this early synthesis while the DNA in the nucleus first appeared labeled at 15 hours. In addition, ultrastructural observations carried out to compare the dormant cells with activated ones, showed an increase in the nucleolar volume, a different organization of the tubular complex of the plastids and several other ultrastructural changes which indicate that at 3 hours some fundamental metabolic processes are already active; they become even more evident later on. The implication of these results in the physiology of the tuber cells during activation are discussed.

  17. Vulnerability of photosynthesis and photosystem I in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) exposed to waterlogging.

    Yan, Kun; Zhao, Shijie; Cui, Mingxing; Han, Guangxuan; Wen, Pei

    2018-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important energy crop for utilizing coastal marginal land. This study was to investigate waterlogging tolerance of Jerusalem artichoke through photosynthetic diagnose with emphasis on photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) performance. Potted plants were subjected to severe (liquid level 5 cm above vermiculite surface) and moderate (liquid level 5 cm below vermiculite surface) waterlogging for 9 days. Large decreased photosynthetic rate suggested photosynthesis vulnerability upon waterlogging. After 7 days of severe waterlogging, PSII and PSI photoinhibition arose, indicated by significant decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and PSI (△MR/MR 0 ), and PSI seemed more vulnerable because of greater decrease in △MR/MR 0 than Fv/Fm. In line with decreased △MR/MR 0 and unchanged Fv/Fm after 9 days of moderate waterlogging, the amount of PSI reaction center protein rather than PSII reaction center protein was lowered, confirming greater PSI vulnerability. According to positive correlation between △MR/MR 0 and efficiency that an electron moves beyond primary quinone and negative correlation between △MR/MR 0 and PSII excitation pressure, PSI inactivation elevated PSII excitation pressure by depressing electron transport at PSII acceptor side. Thus, PSI vulnerability induced PSII photoinhibition and endangered the stability of whole photosynthetic apparatus under waterlogging. In agreement with photosystems photoinhibition, elevated H 2 O 2 concentration and lipid peroxidation in the leaves corroborated waterlogging-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, Jerusalem artichoke is a waterlogging sensitive species in terms of photosynthesis and PSI vulnerability. Consistently, tuber yield was tremendously reduced by waterlogging, confirming waterlogging sensitivity of Jerusalem artichoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and phenology of jerusalem artichoke (helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Paungbut, D.; Vorasoot, N.; Patanothai, A.; Jogloy, S.

    2015-01-01

    A standardized, accurate, and easy system is needed to describe Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plant development. Therefore, this study was designed to define stages of development descriptions for Jerusalem artichoke. Field experiments were conducted during early rainy season and the post rainy season of 2011 and 2012. Data were collected and uniform growth stage descriptions, based on visually observable events, were developed for the vegetative (V), reproductive (R) and tuberization (T) stages. The V stage was determined by counting the number of developed nodes on the main axis of the Jerusalem artichoke, beginning with emergence of the sprout seedling and ending with the initial visual appearance of the inflorescence. The proposed R stages include R1 (Floral bud formation), R2 (beginning bloom), R3 (flowering), R4 (beginning of anthesis), R5 (seed set) and R6 (seed maturity). The T stage include T1 (stolonization), T2 (tuber initiation), T3 (tuber formation), T4 (tuber bulking), T5 (skin set) and T6 (tuber maturity). The V, R and T stages can be measured separately and concurrently and apply to populations or single plants. The present study revealed that reproductive and tuberization development occurred more rapidly in the post-rainy season than in the early-rainy season. The proposed standard descriptions of Jerusalem artichoke development will help research and extension personnel better communicate results and recommendations related to this crop. (author)

  19. Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser (Asteraceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We document the naturalization of the New World Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser in central Taiwan. A taxonomic treatment, line drawings, and color photographs of this species from the wild are provided to aid in identification. This represents the first report of Helianthus species in Taiwan. The colony of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius was first observed in Taiwan in 1999. During our field survey in 2007 we witnessed the significant range expansion though the coast of Changhua County. The potential of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius to become an invasive species in Taiwan is worthy of attention.

  20. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e retardamento da senescência foliar em girassol de vaso (Helianthus annuus L.: fontes e doses de nitrogênio Growth, development and delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: sources and rates of nitrogen

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O girassol é a quarta oleaginosa em produção de grãos no mundo e alguns genótipos são usados com finalidade ornamental para flor de corte e de vaso (girassol de vaso. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de nitrogênio sobre alguns parâmetros de crescimento, desenvolvimento e no retardamento da senescência das folhas basais em girassol de vaso. Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram: uréia, nitrato de amônio e nitrato de cálcio nas doses de 0, 50, 100 e 150mg L-1 de N na solução de fertirrigação, com duas aplicações semanais. O experimento foi um bi-fatorial (fontes e doses de N no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Cada repetição foi um vaso no 15 (1,3L, 15cm de altura com uma planta por vaso. As variáveis analisadas foram: número final de folhas, altura final de plantas, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no ponto de venda, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no final de vida de vaso, área foliar total da planta, filocrono e a soma térmica acumulada da emergência ao botão visível e da emergência ao ponto de venda. A fonte de N tem influência sobre a área foliar do girassol de vaso, sendo a uréia recomendável para o maior crescimento das folhas. A dose de N em torno de 100mg L-1 aplicada duas vezes por semana via fertirrigação favorece características desejáveis para a comercialização, como precocidade e retardamento da senescência das folhas.Sunflower is the fourth oil grain crop grown worldwide and some genotypes are used with ornamental purpose as cut and pot-grown flower. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and rates of nitrogen on some growth and developmental parameters, and on the delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower. An experiment was carried out inside a greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were: urea, ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150mg L-1 of N in the fertigation solution, with two weekly applications. The experiment was a two-factorial (sources and rates of N in a completely randomized design with six replications. Each replication was a number 15 pot (1.5L, 15cm height with one plant/pot. The variables analyzed were: final leaf number, final plant height, percentage of senescent leaves at selling stage and at the end of vase life, total leaf area per plant, phyllochron, and the thermal time from emergency to visible bud and from emergency to selling stage. The N source influences leaf area of pot-grown sunflower, with urea being recommend for higher leaf growth. The rate of around 100mg L-1 of N applied twice a week through fertigation promoted desirable characteristics for commercialization such as earliness and delay of leaf senescence.

  1. Qualidade de sementes de Helianthus annuus L. em função da adubação fosfatada e da localização na inflorescência Quality of Helianthus annuus L. seeds as a function of phosphate and location in the inflorescence

    Humberto Pereira da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a expansão da cultura do girassol promoveu uma busca por material genético mais competitivo, além de sementes com uma máxima qualidade física, fisiológica e sanitária. No campo, a época de colheita e a nutrição das plantas são de fundamental importância na expressão dessas qualidades. Com isso, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes de girassol submetidas a diferentes doses de fósforo e suas localizações dentro da inflorescência. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (3x2, sendo o primeiro fator a localização da semente na inflorescência (periferia, meio e centro e, o segundo, doses de fósforo (zero e 70kg ha-1 de super-simples, sendo sua aplicação realizada durante a implantação da cultura. As sementes foram submetidas à determinação do teor de água, peso de mil sementes, peso das sementes por localização na inflorescência e a testes de germinação e vigor (primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. A adubação fosfatada proporciona aumento na qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes de girassol. A região da periferia junto com o meio contribui em maior parte para a obtenção de uma melhor qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes de girassol. A qualidade física é afetada pela localização das sementes na inflorescência, cujas mais pesadas se encontram na periferia, seguidas das do meio e tendo o centro com as sementes mais leves.In recent years, the expansion of sunflower promoted a search for genetic material more competitive, and for seeds with a maximum physical, physiological and health quality. In the field, harvesting time and plant nutrition are essential in the expression of these qualities. With this objective, this research aimed to evaluate the physical and physiological quality of sunflower seeds under different phosphorus levels and locations within the same inflorescence. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial (3x2, being the first factor, the location of the seed in the inflorescence (outside, middle and center and the second phosphorus levels (zero and to 70kg ha-1 super-simple. Its application was performed during the culture deployment . Seeds were subjected to the moisture content determination, thousand seed weight, seed weight per inflorescence location in germination and vigor (first count and index of germination rate. Phosphorus fertilization allowed an increase in physical and physiological quality of sunflower seeds. The region along the periphery with the environment contributes in most to obtain a better physical and physiological quality of sunflower seeds. The physical quality is affected by the location of seeds in inflorescences, which are heavier in the periphery, followed by middle and having the center with lighter seeds.

  2. Sugar yield and composition of tubers from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) irrigated with saline waters

    Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar “White Fuseau” grow...

  3. The importance of competition in the isolation and establishment of Helianthus paradoxus (Asteraceae)

    Oscar W. Van Auken; Janis. K. Bush

    2007-01-01

    Helianthus paradoxus (the Pecos or puzzle sunflower) is a threatened, federally listed annual species that is found in a few locations in west Texas and New Mexico. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of H. paradoxus to compete with its progenitors and a with potential ecosystem competitor, ...

  4. PERENNIAL HELIANTHUS TAXA IN TÂRGU-MURES CITY AND ITS SURROUNDINGS

    FILEP RITA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although in the neighbouring countries several perennial Helianthus taxa have been recorded in the last decade, in Romania only three have been identified so far. The literature and herbaria data of Târgu-Mures date back to the end of the XIXth century, and only refer to H. × multiflorus and H. tuberosus. The aim of this study was to identify the perennial Helianthus taxa in this region and to prepare their current distribution map. The survey was conducted in Târgu Mures city and the neighbouring villages: Livezeni, Sântana de Mures, Sâncraiu de Mures, Sângeorgiu de Mures, and Corunca. Four taxa were identified: H. pauciflorus Nutt., H. × laetiflorus Pers., H. tuberosus L. s.str., and Helianthus tuberosus L. s.l. The first two taxa are cultivated as ornamental plants, H. tuberosus s. str. is cultivated in a few farms, whereas H. tuberosus s. l. is an invasive species that spreads along the rivers.

  5. Possibilities of the management of Helianthus tuberosus species in Poodri PLA (Czech Republic)

    Svehlakova, H.; Janikova, A.; Kupka, J.; Sotkova, N.; Rajdus, T.

    2017-10-01

    This article deals with the possibilities of population management of invasive and in Czech Republic no - native species Helianthus tuberosus. We have chosen study areas in Poodri PLA, it is located near the industrial city Ostrava (Moravian-Silesian region). Invasive Helianthus tuberosus forms monodominant vegetation, excludes the original and often rare plant species and reduces biodiversity. It is a risk for the further development of the landscape of Poodri PLA. There is no known effective way to dispose of invasive Helianthus tuberosus so far. We have applied the proposed management works on 15 monitoring areas and then evaluated their effectiveness. We have used chemical (herbicides) and mechanical (mowing, digging up) methods and their combinations. The most effective was the combination of 3 interventions: manual mowing - spraying - mowing by mechanization, just mowing itself rather promotes the spread of the population. We can say this is a pilot study from a long-term project dealing with the effectiveness of different ways of invasive plants management.

  6. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhiza contribution to the growth performance and ...

    hope&shola

    2009-06-12

    Jun 12, 2009 ... performance and heavy metal uptake of Helianthus ... growth performance and heavy metals (Cd and Pb) uptake of Helianthus annuus L. from polluted soils. Cadmium sulfate ..... Phytoextraction of Toxic Metals: A review of.

  8. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals...

  9. Role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in Sunflower (helianthus annusl.)

    Iqbal, A.; Iftikhar, I.I.; Nawaz, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The potted experiment was conducted to determine the exogenous role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Salinity levels (0, 60 and 120 mmol) were created according to the saturation percentage of soil. Different levels (0, 30, 60 mmol) of proline were applied as a foliar spray on sunflower under saline and non saline conditions. Application of proline as a foliar spray ameliorated the toxic effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower. Among different levels of proline, 60 mmol was found to be the most effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of salinity on sunflower. (author)

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus, at two sites in Georgia

    Helianthus verticillatus, the whorled sunflower, is an endangered species endemic to only a few locations in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. This sunflower is an aggressive grower and attractive to both plant enthusiasts and pollinators with its multiple, small yellow flowers in late fall. There is...

  11. High genetic diversity and low population structure in Porter's sunflower (Helianthus porteri).

    Gevaert, Scott D; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Granite outcrops in the southeastern United States are rare and isolated habitats that support edaphically controlled communities dominated by herbaceous plants. They harbor rare and endemic species that are expected to have low genetic variability and high population structure due to small population sizes and their disjunct habitat. We test this expectation for an annual outcrop endemic, Helianthus porteri (Porter's sunflower). Contrary to expectation, H. porteri has relatively high genetic diversity (H e = 0.681) and relatively low genetic structure among the native populations (F ST = 0.077) when compared to 5 other Helianthus species (N = 288; 18 expressed sequence tag-SSR markers). These findings suggest greater gene flow than expected. The potential for gene flow is supported by the analysis of transplant populations established with propagules from a common source in 1959. One population established close to a native population (1.5 km) at the edge of the natural range is genetically similar to and shares rare alleles with the adjacent native population and is distinct from the central source population. In contrast, a transplant population established north of the native range has remained similar to the source population. The relatively high genetic diversity and low population structure of this species, combined with the long-term success of transplanted populations, bode well for its persistence as long as the habitat persists.

  12. Seasonal variability of the parameters of the Ball-Berry model of stomatal conductance in maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions.

    Miner, Grace L; Bauerle, William L

    2017-09-01

    The Ball-Berry (BB) model of stomatal conductance (g s ) is frequently coupled with a model of assimilation to estimate water and carbon exchanges in plant canopies. The empirical slope (m) and 'residual' g s (g 0 ) parameters of the BB model influence transpiration estimates, but the time-intensive nature of measurement limits species-specific data on seasonal and stress responses. We measured m and g 0 seasonally and under different water availability for maize and sunflower. The statistical method used to estimate parameters impacted values nominally when inter-plant variability was low, but had substantial impact with larger inter-plant variability. Values for maize (m = 4.53 ± 0.65; g 0  = 0.017 ± 0.016 mol m -2 s -1 ) were 40% higher than other published values. In maize, we found no seasonal changes in m or g 0 , supporting the use of constant seasonal values, but water stress reduced both parameters. In sunflower, inter-plant variability of m and g 0 was large (m = 8.84 ± 3.77; g 0  = 0.354 ± 0.226 mol m -2 s -1 ), presenting a challenge to clear interpretation of seasonal and water stress responses - m values were stable seasonally, even as g 0 values trended downward, and m values trended downward with water stress while g 0 values declined substantially. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F 2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  14. Relative efficiency of mustard (Brassica juncea l.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus l.) in utilizing soil phosphorous in presence of P, 2n and FYM under normal and saline soil conditions

    Dravid, M.S.; Goswami, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies with 32 P labelled fertilizer on mustard and sunflower showed a marked reduction in drymatter accumulation, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization at 10.6 dSm -1 level of salinity over normal one. Except drymatter accumulation, the extent of reduction in total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization was of higher magnitude in sunflower as compared to mustard. Application of P either alone or in conjunction with Zn/FYM gave significantly higher values of drymatter yield, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization in both the crops. Data further, revealed that application of P in conjunction with FYM was found more beneficial as compared to zinc. It was also observed that the per cent P utilization of applied fertilizer in these crops decreased at higher (80 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) level of P. Amongst the varieties of mustard and sunflower, tested, PR-45 of mustard and EC-69874 of sunflower showed higher yield potential and utilization of native soil phosphorus more efficiently, while Pusa Bold of mustard and Surya of sunflower utilized fertilizer phosphorus more efficiently. (author). 24 refs., 2 tables

  15. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten Rahr

    2013-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory...... evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated...... enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical...

  16. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of culinary preparation on carbohydrate composition, texture and sensory quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Kidmose, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber is a root vegetable with excellent gastronomic qualities, however the culinary properties are underexploited. Carbohydrate content, instrumental texture analysis and sensory profiling were used to study the effects of culinary preparation...... in three different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers at two different harvest times. Texture attributes and sweetness were the best sensory attributes to discriminate between varieties, although differences in texture and taste were somewhat evened out during boiling and baking. Instrumentally...

  18. Electronics

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  19. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  20. Sorption characteristics of pectin isolated from Jerusalem Artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    N. Toshkov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study is the isolation of pectin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. and the analysis of its sorption characteristics Materials and methods. Research was carried out on the pectin content of the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke plants cultivated in Bulgaria. The polyuronide content (PUC was determined via the МсCready method. The static gravimetric method was used for analysis of the sorption characteristics of pectins. Results and discussion. The polysaccharide was extracted. The isolated pectins were analyzed in physical terms: the equilibrium sorption isotherms, belonging to type II in Brunauer’s classification, were obtained experimentally. The entire isotherm length demonstrated statistically significant hysteresis. The Henderson and Chung-Pfost models provided adequate isotherm description. The pectin content of the three Jerusalem artichoke samples is 14.8, 9.2 and 11.9 % a.d.m., respectively. The monomolecular moisture content of pectin was within the 7.42 – 7.92% dry basis range, its corresponding water activity value –within the 0.14 –0.16 range. Conclusion. The resultsof research are advisablefor use indevelop of functional food ingredient which is used pectin as a gelling agent and a stabilizer.

  1. Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Darby, Brian J; Ungerer, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850 275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length. Reads were assembled, postprocessing, into 16 681 unique contigs with an N50 of 898 bp and a total length of 13.6 Mb. A majority (67%) of these contigs were annotated based on comparison with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome (TAIR10). Contigs were identified that exhibit high similarity to genes associated with natural variation in flowering time and freezing tolerance in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of clinal life history variation and adaptive differentiation in H. maximiliani. Large numbers of gene-associated simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also were identified that can be deployed in mapping and population genomic analyses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The 134Cs uptake by sunflower (Helianthus anuus, Less) cultivated on soil contaminated with 134Cs

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana

    2008-01-01

    One of the methods for remediation of contaminated environment is phytoremediation techniques, i.e. the environmental remediation using plants. In this research the bioavailability of sunflower plant (Helianthus anuus, Less) in radiocaesium uptake from soil was studied for being considered as a phytoremediator later. Sunflower plants were cultivated on soil contaminated with 134 Cs with the concentrations of 29,3 kBq/kg ; 117,2 kBq/kg ; 557 kBq/kg for 45 days. As control the sunflowers were also cultivated on non contaminated soil. Observation was carried out every 5 days by sampling 3 plants and soils. The plant and soil samples were dried using infra red lamp for 24 hours, and then counted using gamma spectrometer. The counting results i.e. 134 Cs concentration on soil and plant parts were then analyzed to obtain transfer factor (TF) values. The highest TF values was reached on 26 th day, i.e. 0,87; 1,89 ; 2,82 for initial soil 134 Cs concentrations of 29,3 Bq/g ; 117,2 Bq/g ; 557 Bq/g, respectively. The TF values obtained expressed the capability of plants to accumulate 134 Cs from soils. The observation to the plants growth showed that the plants grew normally on the 134 Cs contaminated soil until the concentration of 557 Bq/g. The sunflower can be considered to be phytoremediator of andosol soil contaminated with Cs radionuclides. (author)

  3. Evidence of correlated evolution and adaptive differentiation of stem and leaf functional traits in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus.

    Pilote, Alex J; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Patterns of plant stem traits are expected to align with a "fast-slow" plant economic spectrum across taxa. Although broad patterns support such tradeoffs in field studies, tests of hypothesized correlated trait evolution and adaptive differentiation are more robust when taxa relatedness and environment are taken into consideration. Here we test for correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits and their adaptive differentiation across environments in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus. Stem and leaf traits of 14 species of Helianthus (28 populations) were assessed in a common garden greenhouse study. Phylogenetically independent contrasts were used to test for evidence of correlated evolution of stem hydraulic and biomechanical properties, correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits, and adaptive differentiation associated with source habitat environments. Among stem traits, there was evidence for correlated evolution of some hydraulic and biomechanical properties, supporting an expected tradeoff between stem theoretical hydraulic efficiency and resistance to bending stress. Population differentiation for suites of stem and leaf traits was found to be consistent with a "fast-slow" resource-use axis for traits related to water transport and use. Associations of population traits with source habitat characteristics supported repeated evolution of a resource-acquisitive "drought-escape" strategy in arid environments. This study provides evidence of correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits consistent with the fast-slow spectrum of trait combinations related to water transport and use along the stem-to-leaf pathway. Correlations of traits with source habitat characteristics further indicate that the correlated evolution is associated, at least in part, with adaptive differentiation of Helianthus populations among native habitats differing in climate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species.

    Bowsher, Alan W; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments.

  5. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.

  6. Sugar yield and composition of tubers from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) irrigated with saline waters.

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Kothari, Ninad; Nunez, Angelica; Liu, Xuan; da Silva Dias, Nildo; Suarez, Donald L; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar "White Fuseau" grown under five salinity levels were evaluated for tuber yield. Results indicated that this cultivar is moderately salt-tolerant if the goal is tuber production. Hydraulic pressings of the tubers produced juice that contained 15% (wet weight) or 55% (dry weight) free sugars, with 70% of these in the form of inulin and the rest as fructose, sucrose, and glucose. Importantly, salinity did not affect the total free sugar or inulin content of the tubers. Tubers were composed of about 12% dry washed bagasse (wet weight) or 44% (dry matter basis) and bagasse retained such high quantities of free sugars after pressing that washing was required for complete sugar recovery. Chemical composition analysis of tuber bagasse suggested that it had low lignin content (11-13 wt%), and its structural sugar composition was similar to chicory root bagasse. Because of the high hemicellulose and pectin content of the bagasse, adding xylanase and pectinase to cellulase substantially improved sugar yields from enzymatic hydrolysis compared to at the same protein loading as cellulase alone. In addition to the high total sugar yield of tuber, these first findings on the sugar and lignin content and enzymatic hydrolysis of tuber bagasse can lead to low-cost production of ethanol for transportation fuels. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Fujia Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu. Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals.

  8. effect of gamma irradiation, antitranspirants and packages on the storage ability of jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus Tuberosus,L.)

    Abd-Elhak, T.S.F.E.

    2005-01-01

    two experiments were carried out in the summer seasons of 2001 and 2002 on the cultivar Fuseau of jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus Tuberosus,L.) to follow the models of changes that occurred in the vegetative growth and tubers during development to determine the most suitable age for harvesting . irradiation, antitranspirant and package size either provided with polyethylene sheets or not were examined to improve the storage ability of tubers. studies on the models of developmental stages showed that the plant height and fresh weight increased till the last examined age of 180 days while the number of stems increased till the age of 150 days. the total carbohydrates and inulin contents accumulated up to the age of 120 days then decreased till the age of 180 days whereas the protein percentage increased up to the age of 180 days

  9. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposon diversity and its impact on the evolution of the genus Helianthus (L.).

    Mascagni, Flavia; Giordani, Tommaso; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2017-08-18

    Genome divergence by mobile elements activity and recombination is a continuous process that plays a key role in the evolution of species. Nevertheless, knowledge on retrotransposon-related variability among species belonging to the same genus is still limited. Considering the importance of the genus Helianthus, a model system for studying the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation, we performed a comparative analysis of the repetitive genome fraction across ten species and one subspecies of sunflower, focusing on long terminal repeat retrotransposons at superfamily, lineage and sublineage levels. After determining the relative genome size of each species, genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to Illumina sequencing. Then, different assembling and clustering approaches allowed exploring the repetitive component of all genomes. On average, repetitive DNA in Helianthus species represented more than 75% of the genome, being composed mostly by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Also, the prevalence of Gypsy over Copia superfamily was observed and, among lineages, Chromovirus was by far the most represented. Although nearly all the same sublineages are present in all species, we found considerable variability in the abundance of diverse retrotransposon lineages and sublineages, especially between annual and perennial species. This large variability should indicate that different events of amplification or loss related to these elements occurred following species separation and should have been involved in species differentiation. Our data allowed us inferring on the extent of interspecific repetitive DNA variation related to LTR-RE abundance, investigating the relationship between changes of LTR-RE abundance and the evolution of the genus, and determining the degree of coevolution of different LTR-RE lineages or sublineages between and within species. Moreover, the data suggested that LTR-RE abundance in a species was affected by the annual or perennial

  10. The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety Rote Zonenkugel.

    Cieślik, Ewa; Gębusia, Agnieszka; Florkiewicz, Adam; Mickowska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety--Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36%) in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans) and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine) in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones).

  11. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    Evaluation of SAR effects on budding, flowering, leaf abscission and pollen development revealed that ... Keywords: Simulated acid rain, Helianthus annuus, flowering, leaf abscission, pollen germination, sunflower. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. a phosphorus hyperaccumulator to high phosphorus and poultry ...

    priya

    Priya Padmanabhan, Daniel L Starnes and Shivendra V Sahi*. Department of Biology ... squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo), and sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) ... well as from hydroponic media (Sharma et al., 2004;. Sharma and Sahi ...

  13. Rend Lake, Illinois (Operation and Maintenance).

    1976-12-01

    Lippia lanc6Tahta Foxtail, Bristly Setaria Faberfi Foxtail, Green Setaria viridis Foxtail, Yellow Setaria lutescens Galingale C Verus strigosus Garlic...Stickseed, Virginian Hackelia virginiana Stink-Grass Lraqrostis cilialensis Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Sunflower, Common Helianthus annuus Swamp

  14. Evaluation of the influence of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing ...

    Three biofertilizers nitrobein, phosphorein, and potash, containing nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing, and potash mobilizing microorganisms, respectively were studied in peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Amendment with each of these biofertilizers enhanced different growth ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08228-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ianthus annuus isolate Mexico-M... 42 0.011 FJ373728_1( FJ373728 |pid:none) Helia...23_1( FJ373723 |pid:none) Helianthus annuus cultivar Mandan ... 42 0.011 FJ373709_1( FJ373709 |pid:none) Hel

  16. Effects of Azospirillum lipoferum on seedling characteristics derived from sunflower (Helianthus annus L. seed water deficit conditions

    H. Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Seedling characteristics of different sunflower (Helianthus annus L. cultivars under drought stress and inoculation with the Azospirillum lipoferum in a spilt-factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications were evaluated. Treatments included dehydration stress (seed produced on maternal plants which irrigated after 60 (desirable irrigation, 120 (medium stress, 180 mm (severe stress evaporation from evaporation pan class A, different sunflower cultivars (Lakomka, Master, Favorite, Soor and Armavirosky and inoculation with bacteria (Azospirillum lipoferum and control. Bacteria allocated in the main plots and seeds which derived from dehydration stress conditions and different cultivars were allocated in sub plots as a factorial layout. Results showed that the time of seedling emergence, seedling vigor index, leaf petiole, stem and seedling dry weight were increased 14, 44, 30, 31, 22 and 27 percent by inoculating with bacteria, respectively. The percent of Seedling emergence of seeds derived from medium stress 48 percent was more than optimal irrigation conditions. Final appearance, speed of emergence, emergence index, dry weight and stamina seedling resulting from severe stress conditions were decreased compared with optimal irrigation. Seedling emergence of seeds derived from medium stress which inoculated with bacteria increased by 9 percent. Emergence speed index, appearance, stamina and seedling dry weights of seeds which inoculated with bacteria increased at medium and sever water stress. With consideration of the effect of dehydration stress on germination and seedling emergence, seed inoculation with bacteria improved seedling emergence and seedling vigor of seeds derived from dehydration stress conditions.

  17. Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-β-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural β-bisabolene.

  18. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on diazotrophic communities in the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Meng, Xianfa; Wang, Lin; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zed, Rengel

    2012-06-01

    Diazotrophs in the soil may be influenced by plant factors as well as nitrogen (N) fertilization. In this study, we investigated potential diazotrophic communities in the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) supplied with differing amounts of N. The community structure of N(2)-fixing bacteria was profiled using the length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on a variation in the nifH gene. Higher numbers of diazotrophs were detected by T-RFLP compared to LH-PCR. The lowest number of N(2)-fixing bacteria was observed in the rhizosphere soil with high N fertilization. T-RFLP was a better method than LH-PCR for profiling microbial diversity of diazotrophs using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) of fingerprints as well as diversity measures. The supply of N fertilizer appeared to negatively influence the abundance of diazotrophs in the rhizophere of the Jerusalem artichoke. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  19. Cultivar and Metal-Specific Effects of Endophytic Bacteria in Helianthus tuberosus Exposed to Cd and Zn

    Blanca Montalbán

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPB isolated from Brassica napus were inoculated in two cultivars of Helianthus tuberosus (VR and D19 growing on sand supplemented with 0.1 mM Cd or 1 mM Zn. Plant growth, concentrations of metals and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reactive compounds were determined. Colonization of roots of H. tuberosus D19 by Pseudomonas sp. 262 was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 significantly enhanced growth of H. tuberosus D19 exposed to Cd or Zn. Pseudomonas sp. 228 significantly increased Cd concentrations in roots. Serratia sp. 246, and Pseudomonas sp. 256 and 228 resulted in significantly decreased contents of TBA reactive compounds in roots of Zn exposed D19 plants. Growth improvement and decrease of metal-induced stress were more pronounced in D19 than in VR. Pseudomonas sp. 262-green fluorescent protein (GFP colonized the root epidermis/exodermis and also inside root hairs, indicating that an endophytic interaction was established. H. tuberosus D19 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 holds promise for sustainable biomass production in combination with phytoremediation on Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  20. 2,3-butanediol production from Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, by Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 12321. Optimization of k/sub L/ a profile

    Fages, J.; Mulard, D.; Rouquet, J.J.; Wilhelm, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    Optimization of D-(-)-2,3-butanediol production from the Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, by Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 12 321 is described. The effects of initial sugar concentration and oxygen transfer rate were examined. The latter appears to be the most important parameter affecting the kinetics of the process. The best results (44 g.l/sup -1/ 2,3-butanediol, productivity of 0.79 g.l/sup -1/.h/sup -1/) were obtained by setting an optimal k/sub L/a profile during batch culture.

  1. Effect of Chlorocholine Chloride (CCC on the Plants’ Height and Inulin Content in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Mikołaj Wawrzyniak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is herbaceous perennial plant rich in inulin and useful source of biomass. Due to its low agricultural requirements and high adaptability, it can provide very high biomass yields even on low quality sites. The plant is used in food industry, bio-fuel production, forage, pharmacy and nutrition. Its tubers accumulate approx. 10-20% of inulin in fresh weight. Currently, the use of the Helianthius tuberosus L. as a potential dietary strategy in patients affected by type 2 Diabetes is challenge. Moreover, deep understanding of the relationship between diet and composition of gut microbiota can bring the new insight in the treatment of inflammatory dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine an effect of plant growth retardant Chlorocholine Chloride (CCC on the plants’ height of H. tuberosus and inulin content in the tubers. We examined in the field a procedure for its shoots reduction. Material for the experiment were bought in a Polish commercial company and 528 tubers were planted in field in the middle of April 2014. Then, half of them were sprayed with 0.75% retardant of CCC . Furthermore, every week for 12 following weeks, the plants’ heights were measured. After the vegetation was over, 6 tubers for each treatment were dug out and chemically analyzed for inulin content using High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography. After first week of CCC use, 16% decrease of the heights plants was observed. Height of plants sprayed with CCC were significantly different comparing to Control. Weekly growth was significantly  slower in plants sprayed with CCC on first three weeks after applying retardant. Differences in plants height sustain to the end of measurements. Used retardant and its concentration did not affect the inulin content of the tubers.

  2. Development and characterization of novel EST-SSR markers and their application for genetic diversity analysis of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Mornkham, T; Wangsomnuk, P P; Mo, X C; Francisco, F O; Gao, L Z; Kurzweil, H

    2016-10-24

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is a perennial tuberous plant and a traditional inulin-rich crop in Thailand. It has become the most important source of inulin and has great potential for use in chemical and food industries. In this study, expressed sequence tag (EST)-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from 40,362 Jerusalem artichoke ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. Among 23,691 non-redundant identified ESTs, 1949 SSR motifs harboring 2 to 6 nucleotides with varied repeat motifs were discovered from 1676 assembled sequences. Seventy-nine primer pairs were generated from EST sequences harboring SSR motifs. Our results show that 43 primers are polymorphic for the six studied populations, while the remaining 36 were either monomorphic or failed to amplify. These 43 SSR loci exhibited a high level of genetic diversity among populations, with allele numbers varying from 2 to 7, with an average of 3.95 alleles per loci. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.096 to 0.774, with an average of 0.536; polymorphic index content ranged from 0.096 to 0.854, with an average of 0.568. Principal component analysis and neighbor-joining analysis revealed that the six populations could be divided into six clusters. Our results indicate that these newly characterized EST-SSR markers may be useful in the exploration of genetic diversity and range expansion of the Jerusalem artichoke, and in cross-species application for the genus Helianthus.

  3. Elicitation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cell suspension culture for enhancement of inulin production and altered degree of polymerisation.

    Ma, Chunquan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Haitao; Han, Dongming; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell suspension cultures have emerged as a potential source of secondary metabolites for food additives and pharmaceuticals. In this study inulin accumulation and its degree of polymerisation (DP) in the treated cells in the same medium were investigated after treatment with six types of elicitors. An in vitro cell suspension culture of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was optimised by adding an extra nitrogen source. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 5.48 g L -1 was obtained from the optimal cell suspension medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog basic medium (MS) + 1.0 mg L -1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg L -1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg L -1 proline + 1.0 mg L -1 glutamine. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 µmol L -1 ) treatment for 15 days led to the highest levels of inulin (2955.27 ± 9.81 mg L -1 compared to control of 1217.46 ± 0.26 mg L -1 ). The elicited effect of five elicitors to the suspension cells of Jerusalem artichoke is as follows: AgNO 3 (Ag, 10 µmol L -1 ), salicylic acid (SA, 75 µmol L -1 ), chitosan (KJT, 40 mg L -1 ), Trichoderma viride (Tv, 90 mg L -1 ), yeast extract (YE, 0.25 mg L -1 ), and the corresponding content of inulin is increased by 2.05-, 1.93-, 1.76-, 1.44- and 1.18-fold compared to control, respectively. The obvious effect on the percentage of lower DP in inulin was observed in cells treated with 40 mg L -1 KJT, 0.25 mg L -1 YE and 10 µmol L -1 Ag. Among the six types of elicitors, the descending order of inulin content is MeJA > Ag > SA > KJT > Tv > YE. For the purpose inulin with lower DP and its application to prebiotic food, three elicitors, including KJT, YE and Ag, can be used for the elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Electron beam agrobionanotechnologies for agriculture and food industry enabled by electron accelerators

    Pavlov, Y. S.; Revina, A. A.; Souvorova, O. V.; Voropaeva, N. L.; Chekmar, D. V.; Abkhalimov, E. V.; Zavyalov, M. A.; Filippovich, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Electron beam (EB) radiation technologies have been employed to increase efficiency of biologically active nanochips developed for agricultural plants seed pre-treatment with purpose of enhancing crop yield and productivity. Iron-containing nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized in reverse micelles following known radiation-chemical technique, have served as a multifunctional biologically active and phytosanitary substance of the chips. Porous chip carriers activation has been performed by EB ionization (doze 20kGy) of the active carbons (AC) prepared from agricultural waste and by-products: Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) straw, rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg) straw, camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) straw, wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw. Three methods, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) have been used for process control and characterization of radiation-activated and NPs-modified ACs. The results show a notable effect of ACs activation by electron beam radiation, evidenced by FeNPs-adsorption capacity increase. Studies of the impact of Fe NPs-containing nanochip technology on enhancement of seeds germination rate and seedlings vigour suggest that reported electron beam radiation treatment techniques of the ACs from selected agricultural residues may be advantageous for industrial application.

  5. Effect of polyethylene and organic mulches in different intervals of irrigation on morphological characteristics and grain yield of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.

    R. Mahdipour Afra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of polyethylene and organic mulches in different Irrigation intervals on morphological characteristics and seed grain of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. hybrid Azrgol, an experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications at research farm of college of Aboureihan, University of Tehran during year of 2009. Main factor was three irrigation interval including of 7, 12 and 17 days and sub-factors were treatments without mulch as control and different types of mulch (polyethylene, cow manure including of 8.5 t.ha-1,17 t.ha-1, 25 t.ha-1, wheat stubble mulch in three levels of 2.5, 5.5 and 7.5 t.ha-1. Plant height, head diameter, seed number in each head, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil yield, harvest index were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of irrigation period and the effect of mulches for all measured traits were significant. Highest seed yield with average of 2.965 t.ha-1 was obtained from 7 days irrigation and also polyethylene mulch and stubble mulch level three in different irrigation periods, had the highest yield. The overall results showed that, using mulches by reducing irrigation water use can increases the quality and quantity seed yield. Regarding the results of the study and non-toxic effects of stubble mulches in agriculture, we suggest their usage.

  6. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Electronics and electronic systems

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  8. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  9. Environmental Fate and Transport of a New Energetic Material, CL-20

    2006-03-01

    fifteen terrestrial plants exposed to concentrations up to 4,000 mg kg-1, Winfield et al. (2004) determined that the sunflower Helianthus annuus L. was...are 43, 3.3 and 3.2 mg l-1 at 20°C, respectively (Monteil-Rivera et al., 2004). For phytoremediation purposes, Groom et al. (2002) compared the...seedlings and embryos of sunflower Helianthus annuus, Winfield (2001) calculated much higher BAFs of 310.8 and 381.5 after 6-weeks of exposure to

  10. Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation, intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response.

    Samal, Lipismita; Chaturvedi, Vishwa Bandhu; Saikumar, Guttula; Somvanshi, Ramesh; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals, but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus L.). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Seventy-two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tubers at 0 (control), 20, 40 and 60 g kg(-1) levels. Enhanced cell-mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P = 0.082) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population (P = 0.002) was observed in the JA-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Blood haemoglobin (P = 0.017), glucose (P = 0.001), urea (P = 0.004) and calcium (P = 0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P = 0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA-fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P = 0.069) and colon (P = 0.003) was increased in the JA-supplemented groups, accompanied by higher (P = 0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and those of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA-fed groups. The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Study of qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response of seed inoculation with PGPR in various levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    H. Nazarly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response to seed inoculation with PGPR under various levels of nitrogen fertilizer, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in field experimental University of Mohaghegh Ardabili during growing season of 2009-2010. Factors were nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1 as urea and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in four levels containing, without inoculation (as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5, Azospirillum lipoferum strain OF, Psedomunas strain 186. Results indicated that nitrogen levels and seed inoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR had significant effects on all of characteristics studied (except grain 1000 weight and stem diameter. Grain yield, plant height, head diameter, seed number per head, , yield and oil percentage, yield and protein percentage increased with increasing of nitrogen fertilizer and application of seed inoculation with PGPR. Response of grain yield wasn't the same for various levels of nitrogen fertilizer and seed inoculation with PGPR. The highest grain yield belonged to application of 160 kg N ha-1 and seed inoculation with Azotobacter. Means comparison showed that treatment compounds N160 × without inoculation with PGPR and N80 × seed inoculation with PGPR Azotobacter had similar grain yields. Thus, it can be suggested that in order to increasing of grain yield seed should be inoculated with Azotobacter bacteria × 80 kg N/ha in conditions of Ardabil region.

  12. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  13. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  14. Measured soil water evaporation as a function of the square root of time and reference ET

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a drought-adapted crop with a short growing season that reduces irrigation requirements and makes it ideal for regions with limited irrigation water supplies. Our objectives were a) to evaluate the yield potential of sunflower under deficit irrigation and b) det...

  15. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    The distribution of microsatellites in exons, and their association with gene ontology (GO) terms is explored to elucidate patterns of microsatellite evolution in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The relative position, motif, size and level of impurity were estimated for each microsatellite in the unigene database ...

  16. Synergistic effect of Glomus fasciculatum and Trichoderma ...

    Firdaus-e-Bareen

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The effect of two soil amendments of tannery sludge (10% and 20%) on growth and metal uptake of. Helianthus annuus L. ... heavy metal polluted soils (Terry and Bañuelos, 2000). Although it is ..... remediation unit to treat contaminated soils containing a .... such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Rev.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhiza contribution to the growth performance and ...

    ... heavy metals (Cd and Pb) uptake of Helianthus annuus L. from polluted soils. Cadmium sulfate (CdSO4.8H2O) and lead acetate ((CH3COO)2Pb.3H2O) were ... 0.05 mg Cd kg-1 and 0.23 mg Pb kg-1 were remediated with GM application.

  18. Temporal dynamics of light and nitrogen vertical distributions in canopies of sunflower, kenaf and cynara

    Archontoulis, S.V.; Vos, J.; Yin, X.; Bastiaans, L.; Danalatos, N.G.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    To enhance eco-physiological and modelling studies, we quantified vertical distributions of light and nitrogen in canopies of three Mediterranean bio-energy crops: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and cynara (Cynara cardunculus). Field crops were grown with and without

  19. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in varieties of sunflower ...

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... The effect of single treatment with gamma-rays, sodium azide and combination treatments of gamma- rays and sodium azide on seed germination, seedling survival, pollen fertility and seed set in sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) M2 generation was studied in the varieties of USH-430 and SHSF-333.

  20. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  1. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower ...

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl priming with KNO3 on the germination traits and seedling growth of four Helianthus annuus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of four spring sunflower (Armawireski, Airfloure, Alestar and Ismailli) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 M Pa) for 24 h in ...

  2. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    Two field experiments were established at Research Farm, Bahauddin Zakariya University, (BZU) Multan, Pakistan, during the spring season of 2009 to study the interactive effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in terms of growth, fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), intercepted photo-synthetically active ...

  3. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  4. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  5. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Barbosa Justino, F.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different

  6. Cross reaction between P-61 sunflower seedlings oleosomal protein ...

    A true triacylglycerol lipase was detected in germinating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings associated to oleosomes. This enzyme that has not yet been identified was partially purified as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) (10%); two protein bands, P-61 and P-66 ...

  7. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  8. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  9. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.), etc. The total edible oil ... hybrids with high fertilizer requirements. The farmers are applying ... Crop growth and productivity can be discussed in terms of biomass ... the interactive effects of hybrids, planting geometries and nitrogen rates on ...

  10. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and ...

  11. Mesophyll conductance to CO2 transport estimated by two independent methods: effect of variable CO2 concentration and abscisic acid

    Vrábl, D.; Vašková, M.; Hronková, Marie; Flexas, J.; Šantrůček, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 8 (2009), s. 2315-2323 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Carbon dioxide * mesophyll conductance * Helianthus annuus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.271, year: 2009

  12. Electronic technology

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  13. The Electron

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  14. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Electron radiography

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  16. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  17. Electron detector

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  18. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  19. Electronic emission and electron guns

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  20. Sticker electronics

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  1. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  2. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. Understand electronics

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  4. Electronic Commerce

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  5. Electronic Publishing.

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  6. Sticker electronics

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  7. Basic electronics

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  8. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  9. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  10. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  11. Electron Tree

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  12. `Twisted' electrons

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  13. Plant growth promotion properties of bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) adapted to saline-alkaline soils and their effect on wheat growth.

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Xiangyue; Li, Yan; Li, Runzhi; Xie, Zhihong

    2017-03-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus), known to be tolerant to saline-alkaline soil conditions, has been cultivated for many years in the Yellow River delta, Shandong Province coastal zone, in China. The aim of our study was to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of JA and to characterize other plant growth promotion properties. The ultimate goal was to identify isolates that could be used as inoculants benefiting an economic crop, in particular for improving wheat growth production in the Yellow River delta. Bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of JA on the basis of growth on nitrogen-free Ashby medium. Identification and phylogenetic analysis was performed after nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Plant-growth-promoting traits, such as nitrogen fixation activity, phosphate solubilization activity, indole-3-acetic acid production, were determined using conventional methods. Eleven strains were isolated and 6 of them were further examined for their level of salt tolerance and their effect on plant growth promotion. Inoculation of Enterobacter sp. strain N10 on JA and wheat led to significant increases in both root and shoot dry mass and shoot height. Enterobacter sp. strain N10 appeared to be the best plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria to increase wheat productivity in future field applications.

  14. Electronic Commerce

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  15. Advanced Electronics

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  16. Electron spectroscopy

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  17. Polymer electronics

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  18. Electronics Industry

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  19. Microfluidic electronics.

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  20. Electron holography

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  1. The electron

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Printed Electronics

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  3. Digital electronics

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  4. Electronic diagrams

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  5. Polymer electronics

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  6. Starting electronics

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  7. Stretchable electronics

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  8. Electron optics

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  9. Electronic identity

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  10. Power Electronics

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  11. Paper electronics.

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electron Microprobe

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  13. Electronic Aggression

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  14. Electron Emitters

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2002-01-01

    When two carbon-nanotube coated electrodes are placed at a small distance from each other, electron emission from carbon nanotubes allows a DC or AC electrical current to flow between these two electrodes...

  15. Electronic plants

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  16. Electronic Elections

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  17. Electronic commerce

    Zvolánková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  18. Printed Electronics

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  19. Molecular Electronics

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  20. Electron tube

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  1. Spin electronics

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  2. Electronic Commerce

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  3. Electron accelerator

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  4. Electronic cigarette

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  5. Electronic School.

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  6. Electronic Government

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  7. Electronics department

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  8. Power electronics

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  9. Electron linacs

    Loew, G A; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for x-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a c-w, 1 GeV, 100..mu..A electron linac is raised, and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of rf superconductivity is summarized. A review is given of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e/sup +-/ storage rings, and recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC, is described.

  10. Greening Electronics

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  11. Electronic seal

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  12. Nuclear electronics

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  13. Electron linacs

    Loew, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field, we have classified these machines according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for X-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. The section on industrial machines includes linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a C.W., 1 GeV, 100 μA electron linac is raised and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of RF superconductivity is summarized. Following, there is a review of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e +- storage rings. The paper ends with a description of recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC. (author)

  14. Pest risk analysis for Conogethes punctiferalis (Yellow peach moth or castor capsule borer)

    Food and Environment Research Agency

    2012-01-01

    This is a highly polyphagous pest, the larvae boring into fruit, seeds and stems of plants in many different families. Economic hosts grown in the UK include Allium cepa (onion), Malus (apple), Prunus (plum, cherry), Pyrus (pear), Vitis vinifera (grape vine), and Zea mays (maize). Other recorded hosts include Castanea (chestnut), Citrus, Curcuma longa (tumeric), Durio zibethinus (durian), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Punica granatum (po...

  15. Diversity of sunflower pollinators and their effect on seed yield in Makueni District, Eastern Kenya

    Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Kasina, M.; Oronje, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in 2004 and 2005 to identify the diversity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollinators and their influence on seed yield in Makueni district, a semi-arid area in Eastern Kenya. Insect flower visitors were recorded, pollen counted from their body and pollination efficiency index for each visitor determined. Seed yield from plots where insect visitors had access to and where they were denied access was compared. The proportional difference of yield from th...

  16. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    Okada, Satoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Masami

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  17. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability

    Karuppanapandian, T.; Geilfus, C.M.; Muehling, K.H.; Novák, Ondřej; Gloser, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 255, FEB (2017), s. 51-58 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : xylem sap constituents * abscisic-acid * stomatal conductance * leaf apoplast * helianthus-annuus * plant-responses * intact plants * nacl stress * drying soil * guard-cells * Drought stress * Abscisic acid * Soil drying * Xylem sap * Osmolality * Water relations * Leaf water potential Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  18. Změny metabolomu slunečnice roční vlivem těžkých kovu - nový ukazatel účinnosti fytoremediačních technologií

    Kryštofová, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the possibility of using sunflower for phytoremediation technologies of soil polluted with over-limiting concentrations of heavy metals. Helianthus annuus L.was selected for our experiments due to its phytoremediation properties. As heavy metals, cadmium, which is abundantly contained in fertilizers, lead, of which concentrations in the environment greatly increased thanks to the using of leaded fuels, and silver, which can be considered as an environment...

  19. Enhanced Cadmium (Cd Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soil using Cd-Resistant Bacterium

    Kunchaya Setkit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium (Cd-resistant bacterium, Micrococcus sp. MU1, is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid and promotes root elongation and plant growth. The potential of this bacterium on enhancement of Cd uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd in Helianthus annuus L. planted in Cd-contaminated soil was evaluated in greenhouse condition. The results showed that Micrococcus sp. MU1promoted the growth of H. annuus L. by increasing the root length, stem height, dry biomass, root to shoot ratio and also significantly increased Cd accumulation in the root and above-ground tissues of H. annuus L. compared to uninoculated control. Re-inoculation with Micrococcus sp. MU1in contaminated soil helped in promoting plant growth and Cd phytoextraction throughout the cultivation period. In addition, phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor (TF of H. annuus L. inoculated with Micrococcus sp. MU1were higher than that of uninoculated control and TF continuously increased with time. Our results suggested that Micrococcus sp. MU1 has an ability to enhance plant growth and Cd uptake in H. annuus L. Synergistic interaction between Micrococcus sp. MU1 and H. annuus L. could be further applied for Cd phytoextraction in polluted areas.

  20. Uptake of radiocesium by three plants grown in 134Cs contaminated soil under pot experiment condition

    Zheng Jiemin; Li Hongyan; Niu Tianxin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong

    2009-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the accumulation dynamics of 134 Cs in shoots of Rumex acetosa, Rumex hastatus and Helianthus annuus grown in 134 Cs contaminated soil under greenhouse condition. Results showed that shoot biomass of H. annuus was significantly higher than that of R. acetosa and R. hastatus; among 3 plant species, 13 '4Cs specific activity in shoots was the highest in H. annuus after treatment for 50 days, however after treatment for 70 days, that in R. acetosa was the highest. Bioaccumulation ratio reached 1.5, 1.4 and 1.3 in R. acetosa, R. hastatus and H. annuus at the end of experiment, respectively, and the former two plants kept with trend of continuously increasing during the experiment period. Three plants were tolerant to 134 Cs contaminated slil and capable to translocate 134 Cs from soil to plants. Among them, H. annuus removed greatest 134 Cs amount in the above ground part, and R. acetosa, R. hastatus showed higher tranclocation factor of Cs than H. annuus. Three plants are promising for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with radiocesium, and also could be used for phytoremediation of radiocesium and heavy metals complex contamination, potentially. (authors)

  1. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  2. Electronics Industry

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  3. Electronic banking

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  4. Electronic Aggression

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  5. ELECTRON GUN

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  6. Electronic sputtering

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  7. Detectors - Electronics

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  8. Electronic materials

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  9. Electronic wastes

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  10. Electron gun

    Chen, H.-Y.; Hughes, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to cathode ray tubes, and particularly to color picture tubes of the type useful in home television receivers and therefore to electron guns. The invention is especially applicable to self-converging tube-yoke combinations with shadow mask tubes of the type having plural-beam in-line guns disposed in a horizontal plane, an apertured mask with vertically oriented slit-shaped apertures, and a screen with vertically oriented phosphor stripes. The invention is not, however, limited to use in such tubes and may in fact be used, e.g., in dot-type shadow mask tubes and index-type tubes. (Auth.)

  11. Bolometer electronics

    Groenig, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    High quality is required to the electronic which works with bolometer made of metal for measuring the radiation power in plasmaphysical experiments. If the bandwidth is to be 1 kHz, and the time constant of the bolometer is about 160 ms by high overall gain the critical parameters are the noise of the amplifier, pick up to the system, stability and decoupling of common mode signals. The high overall gain is necessary to be able to measure lowest radiation power. The design made is a good approach to the desired property. (orig.) [de

  12. Basic electronics

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  13. Nuclear electronics

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  14. Réponse de deux variétés de tournesol (Helianthus sp. à la fertilisation à base de fiente de poule sur un Hapli-Humic Ferralsol du Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden Park (YWHRGP Nkwen-Bamenda, Cameroun, Afrique centrale

    Yerima, BPK.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of Two Sunflower (Helianthus sp. Varieties to Poultry Manure Fertilization on a Hapli-Humic Ferralsol at the Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden-Park (YWHRGP Nkwen-Bamenda, Cameroon, Central Africa. An experiment on a Hapli-Humic Ferralsol was conducted at the YWHRGP, Nkwen-Bamenda, to evaluate the response of two sunflower varieties (Helianthus sp. to five levels of poultry manure (0; 1.2; 2.8; 4.2 and 5.6 Tons/ha. Italian White and African Giant varieties were used. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three and six replications for African Giant and Italian White varieties, respectively. Poultry manure was analyzed and growth, development and yield parameters were collected. The acid soil (pH≤5.5 showed nutrient deficiencies. The poultry manure (pH=7.8 is rich in essential nutrients and had a significant effect on sunflower growth parameters. The 4.2 Tons/ha manure level maximised growth and yield parameters of the African Giant variety. For the Italian White variety, 5.6 Tons/ha manure level gave a head weight yield (0.74 Tons/ha lower than that of the African Giant (1.33 Tons/ha. Significant differences were also observed between the two varieties. However, the African Giant variety appears to be more adapted for seed production, while the Italian White variety appears to be best indicated for use as an ornamental plant or to produce cut flowers.

  15. Practical electronics handbook

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  16. Electron foreshock

    Klimas, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    ISEE particle and wave data are noted to furnish substantial support for the basic features of the velocity dispersed model at the foreshock boundary that was proposed by Filbert and Kellogg (1979). Among many remaining discrepancies between this model and observation, it is noted that unstable reduced velocity distributions have been discovered behind the thin boundary proposed by the model, and that these are at suprathermal energies lying far below those explainable in terms of an oscillating, two-stream instability. Although the long-theorized unstable beam of electrons has been found in the foreshock, there is still no ready explanation of the means by which it could have gotten there. 16 references

  17. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  18. Advanced electron beam techniques

    Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    After 100 years from the time of discovery of electron, we now have many applications of electron beam in science and technology. In this report, we review two important applications of electron beam: electron microscopy and pulsed-electron beam. Advanced electron microscopy techniques to investigate atomic and electronic structures, and pulsed-electron beam for investigating time-resolved structural change are described. (author)

  19. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  20. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis.

    Earles, J Mason; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Gilbert, Matthew E; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R

    2017-06-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO 2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  2. Electron-electron Bremsstrahlung for bound target electrons

    Haug, E.

    2008-01-01

    For the process of electron-electron (e-e) Bremsstrahlung the momentum and energy distributions of the recoiling electrons are calculated in the laboratory frame. In order to get the differential cross section and the photon spectrum for target electrons which are bound to an atom, these formulae are multiplied by the incoherent scattering function and numerically integrated over the recoil energy. The effect of atomic binding is most pronounced at low energies of the incident electrons and for target atoms of high atomic numbers. The results are compared to those of previous calculations. (authors)

  3. Electron Beam Generation in Tevatron Electron Lenses

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  4. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  5. Interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions

    Roesch, O.; Gunnarsson, O.; Han, J.E.; Crespi, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions for alkali-doped fullerides and high temperature superconductors. Due to the similarity of the electron and phonon energy scales, retardation effects are small for fullerides. This raises questions about the origin of superconductivity, since retardation effects are believed to be crucial for reducing effects of the Coulomb repulsion in conventional superconductors. We demonstrate that by treating the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on an equal footing, superconductivity can be understood in terms of a local pairing. The Jahn-Teller character of the important phonons in fullerides plays a crucial role for this result. To describe effects of phonons in cuprates, we derive a t-J model with phonons from the three-band model. Using exact diagonalization for small clusters, we find that the anomalous softening of the half-breathing phonon as well as its doping dependence can be explained. By comparing the solution of the t-J model with the Hartree-Fock approximation for the three-band model, we address results obtained in the local-density approximation for cuprates. We find that genuine many-body results, due to the interplay between the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, play an important role for the the results in the t-J model. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  7. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance

  8. Membranous appendices of spherosomes (oleosomes) : Possible role in fat utilization in germinating oil seeds.

    Wanner, G; Theimer, R R

    1978-01-01

    Spherosomes (oleosomes) of cotyledons of rape (Brassica napus L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad.) seedlings are delimited by a "half unit membrane" that appears to be continuous with each of the osmiophilic layers of a tripartite unit membrane forming a handlelike appendix of the spherosomes. Prior to any noticeable utilization of the spherosomal storage fat, ribosomes were found to be attached to these "handles". At later stages appendices of the spherosomes are smooth, showing a diameter of about 22 nm that greatly exceeds the thickness of any other unit membrane profiles identical in structure and diameter osomes appears to be continuous with the thick lipid layer of the handles. In intermediate stages of fat depletion the spherosomal bodies become invaginated with cytoplasmic material. Finally vesicles with cytoplasmic contents surrounded by a membrane with a typically thick lipid layer are left in the cells. Membrane profiles indentical in structure and diameter to the spherosomal appendices were also present in electron micrographs of the lipolytic membrane fraction recovered from sucrose density gradients after centrifugation of a microsomal cell fraction. The ultrastructural observations are taken for evidence that the spherosomal appendices represent the lipase-carrying membranes isolated previously (Theimer and Rosnitschek, 1978). A novel hypothesis for development and utilization of fat-storing spherosomes is also proposed.

  9. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  10. Electronics and Information

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  11. Electron-electron coincidence spectroscopies at surfaces

    Stefani, G.; Iacobucci, S.; Ruocco, A.; Gotter, R.

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, a steadily increasing number of electron-electron coincidence experiments on atoms and molecules have contributed to a deeper understanding of electron-electron correlation effects. In more recent years this technique has been extended to the study of solid surfaces. This class of one photon IN two electrons OUT experiments will be discussed with an emphasis on grazing incidence geometry, that is expected to be particularly suited for studying surfaces. The crucial question of which is the dominant mechanism that leads to ejection of pairs of electron from the surface will be addressed. It will be shown that, depending on the kinematics chosen, the correlated behaviour of the pairs of electrons detected might be singled out from independent particle one

  12. The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii.

    Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all

  13. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  14. Different histories of two highly variable LTR retrotransposons in sunflower species.

    Mascagni, Flavia; Cavallini, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Natali, Lucia

    2017-11-15

    In the Helianthus genus, very large intra- and interspecific variability related to two specific retrotransposons of Helianthus annuus (Helicopia and SURE) exists. When comparing these two sequences to sunflower sequence databases recently produced by our lab, the Helicopia family was shown to belong to the Maximus/SIRE lineage of the Sirevirus genus of the Copia superfamily, whereas the SURE element (whose superfamily was not even previously identified) was classified as a Gypsy element of the Ogre/Tat lineage of the Metavirus genus. Bioinformatic analysis of the two retrotransposon families revealed their genomic abundance and relative proliferation timing. The genomic abundance of these families differed significantly among 12 Helianthus species. The ratio between the abundance of long terminal repeats and their reverse transcriptases suggested that the SURE family has relatively more solo long terminal repeats than does Helicopia. Pairwise comparisons of Illumina reads encoding the reverse transcriptase domain indicated that SURE amplification may have occurred more recently than that of Helicopia. Finally, the analysis of population structure based on the SURE and Helicopia polymorphisms of 32 Helianthus species evidenced two subpopulations, which roughly corresponded to species of the Helianthus and Divaricati/Ciliares sections. However, a number of species showed an admixed structure, confirming the importance of interspecific hybridisation in the evolution of this genus. In general, these two retrotransposon families differentially contributed to interspecific variability, emphasising the need to refer to specific families when studying genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasmaspheric electron content

    Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the plasmaspheric electron content are reviewed with particular reference to the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. From the review, it appears likely that measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content is the only one capable of monitoring electron fluxes continuously between L 1 and L 2. Some recent important results deduced from plasmaspheric electron content measurements are discussed

  16. Introduction to electronics

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  17. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  18. Electronics engineer's reference book

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  19. Electron transfer reactions

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  20. Electron-electron interactions in artificial graphene

    Rasanen, Esa

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in the creation and modulation of graphenelike systems are introducing a science of ``designer Dirac materials.'' In its original definition, artificial graphene is a man-made nanostructure that consists of identical potential wells (quantum dots) arranged in an adjustable honeycomb lattice in the two-dimensional electron gas. As our ability to control the quality of artificial graphene samples improves, so grows the need for an accurate theory of its electronic properties, including the effects of electron-electron interactions. Here we determine those effects on the band structure and on the emergence of Dirac points, and discuss future investigations and challenges in this field.

  1. Electronic payment systems

    Mláka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis analysis issue of electronic payment systems. It discusses their use for payments on the internet and sending funds via e-mail. The first part is devoted to the theoretical definition and legislation of the issuance of electronic money and activities of electronic money institutions. The main part of the work clearly focuses on the use of e-wallets, which is an integral part of electronic payment systems. E-wallet of electronic payment system Moneybookers is considered as...

  2. Electronics engineer's reference book

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  3. Practical microwave electron devices

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  4. Neutrinos in the Electron

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    I will show that one half of the rest mass of the electron consists of electron neutrinos and that the other half of the rest mass of the electron consists of the mass in the energy of electric oscillations. With this composition we can explain the rest mass of the electron, its charge, its spin and its magnetic moment We have also determined the rest masses of the muon neutrino and the electron neutrino

  5. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  6. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  7. Practical XHV electron gun

    Urata, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Cho, Boklae; Oshima, Chuhei

    2008-01-01

    We have developed practical XHV chambers of a electron gun, of which the operating pressures are 1x10 -9 Pa in a stainless-steel one and 4x10 -9 Pa in a permalloy one. By mounting a noble single-atom electron source with high brightness and high spatial coherence on the electron gun including electron optics, we demonstrated highly collimated electron-beam emission: ∼80% of the total emission current entered the electron optics. This ratio was two or three orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventional electron sources. In XHV, in addition, we confirmed stable electron emission up to 20 nA, which results in the specimen current high enough for scanning electron microscopes. (author)

  8. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  9. Electronics for dummies

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  10. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  11. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an electron emitting device for use in an electron discharge system. It comprises: a filament having a pair of terminal ends, electrical supply means for supplying electrical power to the terminal ends of the filament for directly heating the filament by the passage of an electrical current along the filament between the terminal ends, the filament being substantially tapered in cross section continuously in one direction from one of its pair of terminal ends to another of its pair of terminal ends to achieve uniform heating of the filament along the length thereof by compensating for the nonuniform current along the filament due to the emission of electrons therefrom

  12. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔE inj =10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  13. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  14. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  15. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  16. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  17. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  18. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  19. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  20. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent

  1. Electronic Signature Policy

    Establishes the United States Environmental Protection Agency's approach to adopting electronic signature technology and best practices to ensure electronic signatures applied to official Agency documents are legally valid and enforceable

  2. Electronics Industry Study Report

    Belt, David; Fellows, John R; Kameru, Philip; Nazaroff, Boris-Frank A; Pauroso, Anthony; Schulz, Frederick; Ballew, Bob; Bond, Thomas; Demers, Stephy; Kirkpatrick, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a national strategy for the US electronics industry. Electronics is one of the largest industries in the US and plays a critical role in almost every aspect of national security...

  3. Electron microscopy for Engineers

    Jones, I P

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of (mainly) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in an engineering context. The first two sections are TEM and chemical in nature; the final three sections are more general and include aspects of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  4. ELSA electron stretcher devices

    1979-10-01

    The use of an electron stretcher ring at the Bonn electron synchrotron is discussed. The construction of the proposed ring is described, and the costs are estimated. Possible experiments using this ring are discussed. (HSI)

  5. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  6. Electronic Science Seminar

    Geidarov P.Sh.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of electronic scientific seminar, which provides a high level of quality of the objectivity in the evaluation of scientific papers, including dissertations, is described. Conditions for the implementation of electronic scientific seminar are also considered.

  7. Copyright of Electronic Publishing.

    Dong, Elaine; Wang, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of copyright, considers the main causes of copyright infringement in electronic publishing, discusses fair use of a copyrighted work, and suggests methods to safeguard copyrighted electronic publishing, including legislation, contracts, and technology. (Author/LRW)

  8. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  9. Extreme environment electronics

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  10. Electronic theodolite intersection systems

    Bingley, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of electronic surveying instruments, such as electronic theodolites, and concurrent advances in computer technology, has revolutionised engineering surveying; one of the more recent examples being the introduction of Electronic Theodolite Intersection Systems (ETISs). An ETIS consists of two or more electronic theodolites and a computer, with peripheral hardware and suitable software. The theoretical principles on which they are based have been known for a long time, but ...

  11. Electron-attachment processes

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  12. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  13. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  14. Syringe injectable electronics

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  15. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  16. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    three freely moving electrons. The value at room temperature is 3.1 k B; the electronic specific heat is missing! The next stage in the electronic theory of solids clears up ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find ...

  17. Arduino electronics blueprints

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  18. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  19. Embracing Electronic Publishing.

    Wills, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Electronic publishing is the grandest revolution in the capture and dissemination of academic and professional knowledge since Caxton developed the printing press. This article examines electronic publishing, describes different electronic publishing scenarios (authors' cooperative, consolidator/retailer/agent oligopsony, publisher oligopoly), and…

  20. Soldering in electronics assembly

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  1. Quantitative secondary electron detection

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi

    2018-05-08

    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  2. Electron distribution function in electron-beam-excited plasmas

    Brau, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    In monatomic plasmas excited by high-intensity relativistic electron beams, the electron secondary distribution function is dominated by elastic electron-electron collisions at low electron energies and by inelastic electron-atom collisions at high electron energies (above the excitation threshold). Under these conditions, the total rate of excitation by inelastic collisions is limited by the rate at which electron-electron collisions relax the distribution function in the neighborhood of the excitation threshold. To describe this effect quantitatively, an approximate analytic solution of the electron Boltzmann equation is obtained, including both electron-electron and inelastic collisions. The result provides a simple formula for the total rate of excitation

  3. Molecular electron affinities

    Fukuda, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Molecular electron affinities have historically been difficult quantities to measure accurately. These difficulties arise from differences in structure between the ion and neutral as well as the existence of excited negative ion states. To circumvent these problems, relative electron affinities were determined in this dissertation by studying equilibrium electron transfer reactions using a pulsed ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometer. Direct measurement of ion and neutral concentrations for reactions of the general type, A - + B = B - + A, allow calculation of the equilibrium constant and, therefore, the free energy change. The free energy difference is related to the difference in electron affinities between A and B. A relative electron affinity scale covering a range of about 45 kcal/mol was constructed with various substituted p-benzoquinones, nitrobenzenes, anhydrides, and benzophenones. To assign absolute electron affinities, various species with accurately known electron affinities are tied to the scale via ion-cyclotron double resonance bracketing techniques. After the relative scale is anchored to these species with well-known electron affinities, the scale is then used as a check on other electron affinity values as well as generating new electron affinity values. Many discrepancies were found between the electron affinities measured using the ICR technique and previous literature determinations

  4. Nonambipolar electron source

    Longmier, B.; Baalrud, S.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2006-01-01

    A radio frequency (rf) plasma-based electron source that does not rely on electron emission at a cathode surface has been constructed. All of the random electron flux incident on an exit aperture is extracted through an electron sheath resulting in total nonambipolar flow within the device when the ratio of the ion loss area to the electron loss area is approximately equal to the square root of the ratio of the ion mass to the electron mass, and the ion sheath potential drop at the chamber walls is much larger than T e /e. The nonambipolar electron source (NES) has an axisymmetric magnetic field of 100 G at the extraction aperture that results in a uniform plasma potential across the aperture, allowing the extraction of all the incident electron flux without the use of grids. A prototype NES has produced 15 A of continuous electron current, using 15 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) Ar, 1200 W rf power at 13.56 MHz, and 6 times gas utilization. Alternatively 8 A of electron current can be produced, using 3 SCCM Ar at 1200 W rf and 20 times gas utilization. NES could replace hollow cathode electron sources in a wide variety of applications

  5. High brightness electron accelerator

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  6. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  7. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  8. Ion plasma electron gun

    Wakalopulos, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the disclosed electron gun positive ions generated by a hollow cathode plasma discharge in a first chamber are accelerated through control and shield grids into a second chamber containing a high voltage cold cathode. These positive ions bombard a surface of the cathode causing the cathode to emit secondary electrons which form an electron beam having a distribution adjacent to the cathode emissive surface substantially the same as the distribution of the ion beam impinging upon the cathode. After passing through the grids and the plasma discharge chamber, the electron beam exits from the electron gun via a foil window. Control of the generated electron beam is achieved by applying a relatively low control voltage between the control grid and the electron gun housing (which resides at ground potential) to control the density of the positive ions bombarding the cathode

  9. Seeing with electrons

    Nellist, P.

    2006-01-01

    Commercially available lens correctors are extending the reach of electron microscopes to unprecedented atomic scales, as Peter Nellist describes. The electron microscope was invented in 1933 and is based on the principle that electrons have a wavelength that is inversely proportional to their momentum. There are two basic types: transmission electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopes, plus a hybrid of the two. The lenses in an electron microscope are provided by electromagnetic fields, but they suffer from spherical aberration. The addition of octupole and quadrupole corrector fields has improved the resolution of the electron microscope to better than 0.1 nm in the last decade. The next step is to correct for chromatic aberration, after which the resolution of the microscope will probably be limited by the size of the atom itself. (U.K.)

  10. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo Torres; Cordero, Marlon Diaz; Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-01-01

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications

  12. Electronic Publishing or Electronic Information Handling?

    Heck, A.

    The current dramatic evolution in information technology is bringing major modifications in the way scientists communicate. The concept of 'electronic publishing' is too restrictive and has often different, sometimes conflicting, interpretations. It is thus giving way to the broader notion of 'electronic information handling' encompassing the diverse types of information, the different media, as well as the various communication methodologies and technologies. New problems and challenges result also from this new information culture, especially on legal, ethical, and educational grounds. The procedures for validating 'published material' and for evaluating scientific activities will have to be adjusted too. 'Fluid' information is becoming a common concept. Electronic publishing cannot be conceived without link to knowledge bases nor without intelligent information retrieval tools.

  13. Electron transfer in proteins

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  14. Electrons in Nanostructures

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    in the possibilities o®ered by the quantum mechanical behavior of electrons when it comes to informa- tion processing. This branch of research is also concerned with fundamental questions in physics. Besides an introduction to the above-mentioned subjects, the thesis con- tains a number of contributions to the ¯elds...... of coherent electron manip- ulation and the statistical description of electron transport through nano- devices. The physics of the electrons are described with a combination of numerical methods, developed and applied in the thesis, and more analytical approaches, which are also discussed. The thesis......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method...

  15. Transition to electronic publishing

    Bowning, Sam

    Previous communications have described some of the many changes that will occur in the next few months as AGU makes the transition to fully electronic publishing. With the advent of the new AGU electronic publishing system, manuscripts will be submitted, edited, reviewed, and published in electronic formats. This piece discusses how the electronic journals will differ from the print journals. Electronic publishing will require some adjustments to the ways we currently think about journals from our perspective of standard print versions. Visiting the Web site of AGU's Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G-Cubed) is a great way to get familiar with the look and feel of electronic publishing. However, protocols, especially for citations of articles, are still evolving. Some of the biggest changes for users of AGU publications may be the lack of page numbers, the use of a unique identifier (DOI),and changes in citation style.

  16. Electron microscopy of surfaces

    Venables, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam techniques used to study clean surfaces and surface processes on a microscopic scale are reviewed. Recent experimental examples and possible future developments are discussed. Special emphasis is given to (i) transmission diffraction and microscopy techniques, including atomic imaging; (ii) Auger microscopy on bulk and thin film samples; (iii) secondary electron microscopy, especially low energy secondaries for work-function imaging and photoelectron imaging; and (iv) reflection electron microscopy and diffraction. (orig.)

  17. New electronics stuff chemistry

    Byeon, Su Il

    2003-04-01

    The first part of this book is about equilibrium electrochemistry on electric thermo dynamic equilibrium state of electrochemistry, crystal defect of solid, thermodynamics on defect electron and election in semiconductor, Gawani potential, volta potential and equilibrium potential and thermodynamics application in Gawani battery. The second part deals with dynamic electrochemistry electrode reaction kinetics and corrosion potential in normal state, diffusion and transport of ion and electron and current impedance spectroscopy. It also mentions industrial electrochemistry and laboratory works in electronics chemistry course.

  18. Ceramic Electron Multiplier

    Comby, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Ceramic Electron Multipliers (CEM) is a compact, robust, linear and fast multi-channel electron multiplier. The Multi Layer Ceramic Technique (MLCT) allows to build metallic dynodes inside a compact ceramic block. The activation of the metallic dynodes enhances their secondary electron emission (SEE). The CEM can be used in multi-channel photomultipliers, multi-channel light intensifiers, ion detection, spectroscopy, analysis of time of flight events, particle detection or Cherenkov imaging detectors. (auth)

  19. Organizing the Electronic Century

    Richard N. Langlois

    2007-01-01

    This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization ...

  20. Introduction to printed electronics

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.