WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy-metal polluted soil

  1. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  2. Dendroremediation of heavy metal polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Oreja, J A; Rozas, M A; Alkorta, I; Garbisu, C

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common and harmful pollutants reaching the soil ecosystem all over the world. Phytoextraction is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, highly promising phytotechnology for the remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. To overcome the so-called 'Achilles' heel' of phytoextraction, namely, the long time needed for effective remediation, this phytotechnology should be combined with other profit-making activities such as forestry or bioenergy production. Dendroremediation, or the use of trees to clean up polluted soil and water, appears of great potential for metal phytoextraction, especially when using fast-growing tree species, for example, willows (Salix sp. pl.) and poplars (Populus sp. pl.). Most important, the ecologic and environmental risks of dispersing heavy metals into the ecosystems by dendroremediation strategies should be minimized by selecting the right tree species, properly managing/disposing the polluted plant material, or a combination of both options.

  3. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  4. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Heavy metal contamination, roadside soils, enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution load index ... The objectives of the present work were to: (1) Assess heavy metal ..... the basis of Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser.

  5. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Amouei A.1 PhD,; Tashakkorian H.1 PhD,; Naghipour D.2 PhD,; Mohammadi P.3 MSc

    2015-01-01

    Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild a...

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  7. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  9. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; Obiora, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  10. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.* PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild amaranth was investigated in alkaline (pH=8 and acidic (pH=5 soils and also using three substances such as EDTA, ammonium citrate and phosphate. The concentrations of these metals in leachate were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry method. Findings Lead, cadmium and zinc levels in leachate in treatments with plants were less than unplanted ones. The concentrations of these metals in the produced leachate of treatments with acidic soils were higher than those with alkaline soils. In the treatments of soil polluted with additives, treatments containing ammonium phosphate and EDTA had the lowest and highest concentrations of heavy metals, respectively. Concentrations of these metals in treatments without plants were higher than those with plants. Conclusion Increasing of soil pH is effective on stabilization of heavy metals in soil. Ammonium phosphate plays an important role in stabilizing and EDTA and ammonium citrate increase the mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium in soil and groundwater.

  11. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1997-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  12. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  14. Sorption of Heavy Metal and Organic Pollutants on Modified Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhao-Fu; ZHANG Yi-Ping; WANG Guo-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Sorption characteristics of both an organic pollutant(phenol)and a heavy metal(cadmium ion)on the clay layer of a Lou soil(Eum-orthic Anthrosol in Chinese Soil Taxonomy)along with the sorption mechanism were investigated using three soil treatments:modification with a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide added at an amount equivalent to 50%and 100%of the soil CEC (50%CB and 100%CB),modification with an amphoteric surface-modifying agent dodecyldimethylbetaine(commercially known as BS-12)added at an amount equivalent to 50%and 100%of the soil CEC(50%BS and 100%BS),and an unmodified control(CK).Results showed that the BS soil treatments increased sorption of both the heavy metal Cd2+ and the organic pollutant phenol.The equilibrium sorption amount of Cd2+decreased in the order:50%BS>100%BS>CK>50%CB>100%CB,with the BS soil treatments being about 1.3 to 1.8 times higher and the CB soil treatments about 23%to 41%lower than CK.Both the single-site and two-site Langmuir models could be applied to describe the sorption of Cd2+ in each soil treatment.The equilibrium sorption amount of phenol on the soil samples decreased in the order:100%CB>50%CB>100%BS>50%BS>CK,with the CB soil treatments being 41.0 to 79.6 times higher and the BS soil treatments 4.0 to 8.3 times higher than CK.The Freundlich equation could also be used to describe the sorption characteristics of phenol.In the BS soil treatments,both an organophobic long carbon chain and hydrophilic charged groups resulted in a relatively strong sorption ability for both heavy metals and organic pollutants.In addition.the sorption ratio K,the ratio of phenol sorption amount of the modified soil to that of CK,increased initially and decreased later with the amount of phenol added,and the critical sorption ratio Kc,the peak value of the sorption ratio curve plotted against the added phenol concentration.was a good index for evaluating the sorption ability of phenol in the soil.

  15. Current Situation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Farmland Soil and Phytoremediation Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfei HUANG; Guifen CHEN; Liumei XIONG; Yuyi HUANG

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation technology is a newly-developed way of soil heavy metal pollution repair with high efficiency and good ecological comprehensive benefit. This paper briefly introduces the soil heavy metal pollution status at home and abroad,and focuses on the analysis of harm,sources and current situation of soil heavy metal pollution at home and abroad as well as mechanism and application of phytoremediation.Finally it discusses the key problems in phytoremediation technology that need to resolve in the future.

  16. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines. © 2013.

  17. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  18. Effects of heavy metal pollution on soil microbial biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass in metal-polluted soils. Laboratory and field investigations where metals were applied ass inorganic or organic salts demonstrated a significant decline in the size of s oil microbial biomass. In most of the cases, negative effects were evident at metal concentrations below the European Community's (EC) current permissible metal levels in the soil. Application of metal-enriched sludges and composts caused significant inhibition of microbial biomass at surprisingly modest concentrations of metals in the soil that were indeed smaller than those likely to decrease the growth of sensitive crop species. On the whole, relative toxicity of metals decreased in the order of Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb, but a few exceptions to this trend also existed. A significant decline in the biomass carbon to organic carbon ratio(Cmin/Corg) in metal-polluted soils indicated that this parameter can serve as a good indicator of the toxicity of metals on soil microflora. The knowledge regarding the response of soil biota to metal interactions and the factors affecting metal toxicity to soil microorganisms is still very limited and warrants further study.

  19. The possible use of soluble humic substances for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.; Jensen, Julie Katrine; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2008-01-01

    Polluted soil is a common and serious environmental problem. While reliable methods exist for cleaning soil contaminated by organic compounds through degradation, remediation of heavy metal polluted soils awaits an appropriate solution. This is because heavy metals are nondegradable and generally....... Therefore, the potential of soluble natural humic substances (HS) to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils is tested as an environmental friendly substitute for EDTA. A strongly polluted urban soil and a moderately polluted agricultural soil were extracted at neutral pH in batch mode by three HS...... extraction. Heavy metal extraction with dissolved HS is compared with EDTA at the same concentration and sequential extraction has been performed to identify extracted pools. The results indicate a clear potential of using HS solutions for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils, which is fortunate...

  20. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjun; DENG; Yan; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this paper analyzed content of heavy metals,including arsenic(As),mercury(Hg),lead(Pb),cadmium(Cd),and chromium(Cr) in soil.After Pb,Cd,Cr,Hg and As content in soil is determined,it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard for soil pollution.Analysis results indicate that As,Hg,Pb,Cd,Cr content is different in pollution-free agricultural product bases,but all conform to related standards and there is no standard exceeding problem.It is concluded that the quality of soil in pollution-free agricultural product bases is excellent,not polluted and completely meet requirements of evaluation standards,and suitable for developing pollution-free agricultural products.

  1. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and

  2. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    Full Text Available Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1. A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the

  3. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

    2012-04-01

    the landscape - Modonkul river flood plain, were transferred by its waters and redeposited in an estuary, forming a cone of carrying out with capacity of up to 2 meters or more. The presence of large number of private houses with garden plots, in which the population grew potatoes, vegetables and fruit-berry trees cultures for food purposes, is the feature of many Siberian towns, including Zakamensk. The biogeochemical assessment of the town territory current status has shown a high level of contamination of soils and plants by heavy metals that poses a threat to the health of townsmen. In this connection search of effective ways of clearing up of the polluted soils by phytoextraction and selection of plants, capable to extract high quantities of heavy metals from soil in concrete ecological conditions, is actual. For this purpose we had been made experiments with 8 species of plants. Modeling of various conditions of pollution carried out by addition of following quantities of TS (%): 0; 25; 33; 50; 67; 75 and 100. In the report results of the experiments and the recommendations on using of plants as extractors on soils polluted by technogenic sand will be presented.

  4. Progress in the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils by natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-yu; Shao, Hong-bo; Li, Hua; Shao, Ming-an; Du, Sheng

    2009-10-15

    Hazardous heavy metal pollution of soils is an increasingly urgent problem all over the world. The zeolite as a natural amendment has been studied extensively for the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils with recycling. But its theory and application dose are not fully clear. This paper reviews the related aspects of theory and application progress for the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils by natural zeolite, with special emphasis on single/co-remediation. Based on the comments on hazardous heavy metal behavior characteristics in leaching and rhizosphere and remediation with zeolite for heavy metal-polluted soils, it indicated that the research of rhizosphere should be strengthened. Theory of remediation with natural zeolite could make breakthroughs due to the investigation on synthetic zeolite. Co-remediation with natural zeolite may be applied and studied with more prospect and sustainable recycling.

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  6. Studies on Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil-Plant System: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiyan; Sun Xiangyang

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in soil-plant system is of major environmental concern on a world scale and in China in par-ticular with the rapid development of industry. The heavy metal pollution status in soil-plant system in China, the research progresson the bioavailability of heavy metals (affecting factors, extraction methods, free-ion activity model, adsorption model, multivariateregression model, Q-I relationship, and compound pollution), and soil remediation are reviewed in the paper. Future research andmonitoring is also discussed.

  7. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Waseem; Jahanzaib Arshad; Farhat Iqbal; Ashif Sajjad; Zahid Mehmood; Ghulam Murtaza

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food c...

  8. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  9. Interaction of soil heavy metal pollution with industrialisation and the landscape pattern in Taiyuan city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Su, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaoting; Pei, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies indicated that industrialization and urbanization caused serious soil heavy metal pollution from industrialized age. However, fewer previous studies have conducted a combined analysis of the landscape pattern, urbanization, industrialization, and heavy metal pollution. This paper was aimed at exploring the relationships of heavy metals in the soil (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn) with landscape pattern, industrialisation, urbanisation in Taiyuan city using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis included correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent-sample T test, and principal component analysis (PCA). Geographic information system (GIS) was also applied to determine the spatial distribution of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution maps showed that the heavy metal pollution of the soil was more serious in the centre of the study area. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the correlations among heavy metals were significant, and industrialisation could significantly affect the concentrations of some heavy metals. Landscape diversity showed a significant negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations. The PCA showed that a two-factor model for heavy metal pollution, industrialisation, and the landscape pattern could effectively demonstrate the relationships between these variables. The model explained 86.71% of the total variance of the data. Moreover, the first factor was mainly loaded with the comprehensive pollution index (P), and the second factor was primarily loaded with landscape diversity and dominance (H and D). An ordination of 80 samples could show the pollution pattern of all the samples. The results revealed that local industrialisation caused heavy metal pollution of the soil, but such pollution could respond negatively to the landscape pattern. The results of the study could provide a basis for agricultural, suburban, and urban planning.

  10. Combined Pollution and Pollution Index of Heavy Metals in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and As coexisting in red soil on growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.), mung bean (Vigna rabiata (Linn.) Wilczek), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and aspen (Populus L.). Results showed that rice, mung bean and alfalfa were significantly influenced by combined pollution of the heavy metals. The contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice grains greatly exceeded the National Standards for Food Hygiene of China. Heavy metals at a high concentration seriously retarded growth of mung bean and alfalfa, but not so obviously with slash pine and aspen. The composite index is suggested for evaluating the relativity of combined pollution with heavy metals in soil.

  11. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil Samples in China: A Graphical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiannan; Lee, Jianchao; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Han; Hu, Huanyu

    2016-09-01

    Soil pollution in China is one of most wide and severe in the world. Although environmental researchers are well aware of the acuteness of soil pollution in China, a precise and comprehensive mapping system of soil pollution has never been released. By compiling, integrating and processing nearly a decade of soil pollution data, we have created cornerstone maps that illustrate the distribution and concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and chromium in surficial soil across the nation. These summarized maps and the integrated data provide precise geographic coordinates and heavy metal concentrations; they are also the first ones to provide such thorough and comprehensive details about heavy metal soil pollution in China. In this study, we focus on some of the most polluted areas to illustrate the severity of this pressing environmental problem and demonstrate that most developed and populous areas have been subjected to heavy metal pollution.

  12. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices.

  13. Streptomyces communities in soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

    2009-02-01

    The contents of differently mobile heavy metal compounds and their influence on the formation of microbial cenoses (particularly, streptomyces communities) in technogenically disturbed soils are considered. Elevated concentrations of mobile Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Fe compounds are shown to determine structural-functional changes in microbial cenoses that are displayed in a decreasing number of microorganisms and a narrower spectrum of the streptomyces species. Some specific features of the formation of streptomyces communities in technogenic soils were revealed on the basis of the analysis of their species structure with the use of the Margalef, Berger-Parker, and Sorensen indices of biodiversity.

  14. Characterisation of actinomycetes community from the heavy metals polluted soil

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    Monika Vítězová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of actinomycetes was performed from soil samples influenced by car-traffic. The acute toxicity of soil leaches was tested by the help of Microtox® bioassay testing system which uses freeze dried luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum as the test organisms. The content of heavy metals in biomass of soil microorganisms and in whole soil samples was determinate. 115 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and their total numbers in soil samples were estimated. The acute toxicity of soil influenced the total numbers of actinomycetes. By the help of DNA-DNA reassociation procedure the generic diversity of bacteria was estimated. The identification and differentiation of streptomycetes from the total isolated actinomycetes was made using specific morphological criteria and the gas chromatography-fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME analysis. FAME method is adequate only for differentiation of members of genus Streptomyces from other actinomycetes because of their characteristical profile of fatty acids.

  15. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM. This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  16. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  17. Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  18. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd.

  20. Pollution evaluation of heavy metals in soil near smelting area by index of geoaccumulation (Igeo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. H.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, C. Y.; Li, Q.; Ouyang, K.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z. X.

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the heavy metal pollution conditions of soil of smelting area in Zijiang of Chenzhou, Hunan province, 42 samples were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals As, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in the soil were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry(AFS). Then the potential pollution risks of heavy metal in the soil were evaluated by method of geological acumination index (Igeo). The results indicated that the average concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were 187.79, 2074.52, 15.72, 2178.89, 39.69 mg/kg respectively. The geological evaluation of the cumulative index results showed that the contamination degree of 5 heavy metals follow the sequence of Cd> Zn >Pb > As >Cu. The results show that Cd reached extremely pollution degree, Zn reached strong pollution-extremely pollution levels, the pollution of Pb in the soil is classified as strong pollution degree, Cu and As of no pollution according to the results of Igeo based on the background value of heavy metals in the soil of Hunan Province.

  1. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Dazhai Mellow-soil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing ZHANG; Yongqing ZHANG; Hua ZHANG; Wenjuan ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the pollution condition of heavy metal in Dazhai mellow-soil field,the content of Zn,Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb,As,Cd and Hg in this area were analyzed,the content of heavy metals in soils in Shanxi Soil Environment Quality Standard and the secondary standard of National Soil Environment Quality Standard were used as evaluation standard. Based on the single factor index method,the result showed that the content of 8 heavy metals in soil didn’t exceed the secondary standard of National Soil Environment Quality Standard,while the content of As,Hg,Ni,Pb exceeded Shanxi Soil Environment Quality Standard. The soil in the study areas reached high pollution of As,Hg,Pb,and the pollution index of Cu,Ni,Zn,Cd reached a high level. The potential ecological risk index order was Hg ﹥ Cd ﹥ As ﹥ Pb ﹥ Ni﹥ Cu ﹥ Zn ﹥ Cr. The pollution level risk intensity was mild. The correlation analysis indicated that Cr,Ni,Zn,Cu,Cd and As were probably from the same source,while Hg and other heavy metals were not correlated. Heavy metals with high levels of pollution were closely related to agricultural fertilization,tourism,transportation,construction,daily life and production activities.

  2. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  3. Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Lu, H.; Fu, S.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are resulting in an increase of the use and extraction of heavy metals. Heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence accumulate in the environment, having the potential to contaminate the food chain. This pollution threatens soil quality, plant survival and human health. The remediation of heavy metals deserves attention, but it is impaired by the cost of these processes. Phytoremediation and biochar are two sound environmental technologies which could be at the forefront to mitigate soil pollution. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the scientific research on phytoremediation and biochar application to remediate heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Research to date has attempted only in a limited number of occasions to combine both techniques, however we discuss the potential advantages of combining both, and the potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between phytoremediators and biochar. We identified specific research needs to ensure a sustainable use of phytoremediation and biochar as remediation tools.

  4. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  5. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  6. Form finding of heavy metals in technogenic soil contamination at polyelement pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The forms compounds with heavy metals pollution enterprises in various fields: coal, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, machine building and metalworking. Found that the initial ratio of elements forms varies with pollution. The degree of toxicity of soil contaminated with heavy metals, is determined not so much the total content elements as mobile forms, and forms related to the organic matter, oxides, hydroxides of Fe, Al, are involved in the biogenic migration of elements and admission to the neighboring environment. Investigated the soil in the immediate vicinity of the industrial enterprises in various fields, as well as soil health and recreational areas. Samples were collected from a depth of 0-20 cm. The analysis found that, in contaminated soils, the total content of metals above background. The content of heavy metals in soils located near the concentrating factory in Makeyevka, in almost all the investigated samples above background, it is noted in the soils of the private sector (garden plots. Most of the soil contaminated with heavy metals and industrial areas the neighborhood of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, areas of residential areas and garden plots. Less prone to technogenic pollution with heavy metals territories located near the production association "Azot". It should be noted that the background of element content in soil sediments depend on the content of their parent rocks in the underlying, by landscape-geochemical factors on themselves and physico-chemical properties of soils

  7. Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingkui; Pu, Jincheng

    2011-01-01

    Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper, zinc and lead were selected and amended in the laboratory with the mineral materials) for 12 months. Results indicated that application of the mineral materials reduced exchangeable metals in the sequence of Pb, Cd > Cu > Zn. The reduction of exchangeable fraction of heavy metals in the soils amended with different mineral materials followed the sequence of CMP, PG > AL > RP. Reductions of heavy metals leached were based on comparison with cumulative totals of heavy metals eluted through 12 pore volumes from an untreated soil. The reductions of the metals eluted from the calcareous soil amended with the RP, AL, PG and CMP were 1.98%, 38.89%, 64.81% and 75.93% for Cd, 8.51%, 40.42%, 60.64% and 55.32% for Cu, 1.76%, 52.94%, 70.00% and 74.12% for Pb, and 28.42%, 52.74%, 64.38% and 49.66% for Zn. Those from the acidic soil amended with the CMP, PG, AL, and RP were 25.65%, 68.06%, 78.01% and 79.06% for Cd, 26.56%, 49.64%, 43.40% and 34.68% for Cu, 44.44%, 33.32%, 61.11% and 69.44% for Pb, and 18.46%, 43.77%, 41.98% and 40.68% for Zn. The CMP and PG treatments were superior to the AL and RP for stabilizing heavy metals in the polluted urban soils.

  8. [Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-qi; Bai, Yi-ru; Wang, Jian-yu

    2016-02-15

    Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74.87, 0.15, 29.02, 553.55, 40.37 and 80.79 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy.

  9. The Extent and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Shahrood and Damghan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2015-12-01

    The levels of 12 heavy metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) were considered in 229 soil samples in Semnan Province, Iran. To discriminate between natural and anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals, factor analysis was used. Seven factors accounting for 90.5 % of the total variance were extracted. The mining and agricultural activities along with geogenic sources have been attributed as the main causes of the levels of heavy metals in the study area. The partial least squares regression was utilized to predict the level of soil pollution index (SPI) considering the concentrations of 12 heavy metals. The eigenvectors from the first three PLS represented more than 98 % of the overall variance. The correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted SPI was 0.99 indicating the high efficiency of this method. The resultant coefficient of determination for three PLS components was 0.984 confirming the predictive ability of this method.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE DEGREE OF POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS OF SOILS OF TIMISOARA TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela URUIOC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Timisoara town as other urban centres is exposed to some possible dangers that soil and plant contamination with heavy metals can produce. The our studies has been realised on ten soil samples and three plant samples gathered from important areas regarding pollution with heavy metals of Timisoara city. The samples have been analyzed through atomic absorption spectrometry with a device type Varian 2, that has a double beam. The content in cobalt, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, nickel, lead, magnesium and iron from soil is changeable under maximum admission. The content in iron, manganese, copper, lead, cadmium from Tilia cordata leaves is situated in normal limits, but higher than in soil.

  11. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  12. Influence of the soil sealing on the geoaccumulation index of heavy metals and various pollution factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyński, Przemysław; Plak, Andrzej; Hanaka, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Soil sealing belongs to the most destructive and damaging processes to the soil environment. Soil sealing interrupts or greatly restricts the exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) of Ekranic Technosols by applying indicators such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI), which allowed to determine quantitatively the impact of the soil sealing degree on the content of heavy metals and to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of origin of heavy metals. In general, 42 soils from different parts of the city of Toruń (NW Poland) were sampled and divided into three groups according to the degree of soil sealing: completely sealed with asphalt or concrete (A), semi-permeable (partially sealed with cobblestones and concrete paving slabs (B)), and reference (non-sealed) (C). The results indicate that the artificial sealing in urban areas slightly affects the content of heavy metals in soils. However, based on PLI, I geo, and EF, it was found that the sealing has influence on soil properties and unsealed soil is the most exposed to the accumulation of pollutants.

  13. Efficiently Evaluating Heavy Metal Urban Soil Pollution Using an Improved Entropy-Method-Based Topsis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Han, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Urban soil pollution is evaluated utilizing an efficient and simple algorithmic model referred to as the entropy method-based Topsis (EMBT) model. The model focuses on pollution source position to enhance the ability to analyze sources of pollution accurately. Initial application of EMBT to urban soil pollution analysis is actually implied. The pollution degree of sampling point can be efficiently calculated by the model with the pollution degree coefficient, which is efficiently attained by first utilizing the Topsis method to determine evaluation value and then by dividing the evaluation value of the sample point by background value. The Kriging interpolation method combines coordinates of sampling points with the corresponding coefficients and facilitates the formation of heavy metal distribution profile. A case study is completed with modeling results in accordance with actual heavy metal pollution, proving accuracy and practicality of the EMBT model.

  14. Soil quality changes in response to their pollution by heavy metals, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchavariani, Lia; Kalandadze, Besik; Lagidze, Lamzira; Gokhelashvili, Nino; Sulkhanishvili, Nino; Paichadze, Nino; Dvalashvili, Giorgi

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the composition, migration and accumulation of heavy metals in irrigated soils, plants and partially natural waters; and also, establishing the possible sources of pollution and their impact on environmental situation. The content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining and processing enterprise were studied. Content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining, showed that more than half of territory was seriously polluted by copper and zinc. Some part of the area were considered catastrophically polluted. Expressed technogenesis taking place influenced irrigation. Heavy metals like copper, zinc and manganese negative by effected the properties of soil, thus composition and soil-forming processes taking place in the soil. It was especially well represented in the deterioration of hydro-physical potential of the soil. Irrigation of agricultural land plots by water, polluted with heavy metals changed the pH. Balanced correlation among solid, liquid and gas phases was disrupted. In highly polluted soil, the cementing processes took place that sharply increased the bulk density of the soil, deteriorated the porosity of soil and reduced water permeability critically.

  15. Spatial Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution for Soils in Coimbatore, India based on universal kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. gandhimathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coimbatore is a fast growing city, Manchester of Tamil Nadu, India. In Coimbatore Industry effluents and wastes being discharged randomly on soil, river, lake and road side without any treatment. They pollute productive soil, natural water system as well as ground water. Assessment of heavy metal content in soil and wetland from various localities of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu was undertaken. Heavy metal pollution generally a non-stationary variable, the technique of universal kriging is applied in preference to ordinary kriging as the interpolation method. Topsoil samples (0-20 cm were taken at various locations with reference to latitude and longitude. The concentration of heavy metal As, Hg, and Cd were analyzed in the Atomic Absorption spectrometer. Universal Kriging model was developed with suitable empirical semivariogram model. The model having the least error was selected by comparing the observed water-table values with the values predicted by empirical semivariogram models. It was determined that the presence of As is high at SIDCO. Presence of Hg is high in Sanganur road. Presence of Cd is high at Sanganur and townhall were because of electroplating industries. The aim of this analysis is to investigate the level, causes of heavy metal contamination in soil and prediction of heavy metal at various locations in the vicinity of industries and around Coimbatore city.

  16. Toxicity testing of heavy-metal-polluted soils with algae Selenastrum capricornutum: a soil suspension assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoja, Villem; Kurvet, Imbi; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kahru, Anne

    2004-08-01

    A small-scale Selenastrum capricornutum (Rhapidocelis subcapitata) growth inhibition assay was applied to the toxicity testing of suspensions of heavy-metal-polluted soils. The OECD 201 standard test procedure was followed, and algal biomass was measured by the fluorescence of extracted chlorophyll. The soils, which contained up to (per kilogram) 1390 mg of Zn, 20 mg of Cd, and 1050 mg of Pb were sampled around lead and zinc smelters in northern France. The water extractability of the metals in suspensions (1 part soil/99 parts water w/v) was not proportional to the pollution level, as extractability was lower for soil samples that were more polluted. Thus, the same amount of metals could be leached out of soils of different levels of pollution, showing that total concentrations of heavy metals in soil (currently used for risk assessment purposes) are poor predictors of the real environmental risk via the soil-water path. Despite high concentrations of water-extracted zinc (0.6-1.4 mg/L of Zn in the test), exceeding by approximately 10-fold the EC(50) value for S. capricornutum (0.1 mg Zn/L), 72-h algal growth in the soil extracts was comparable or better than growth in the standard control OECD mineral medium. The soil suspension stimulated the growth of algae up to eightfold greater than growth using the OECD control medium. Growth stimulation of algae was observed even when soil suspensions contained up to 12.5 mg Zn/L and could not be explained by supplementary nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbonate leached from the soil. However, if the growth of algae in suspensions of clean and polluted soils was compared, a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of metals on algal growth was demonstrated. Thus, as soil contains nutrients/supplements that mask the adverse effect of heavy metals, a clean soil that has properties similar to the polluted soils should be used instead of mineral salt solution as a control for analysis of the ecotoxicity of soils. Copyright 2004 Wiley

  17. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  18. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhang

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995 in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  19. Survey and Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Paddy Soil in West Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuyi; HUANG; Guifen; CHEN; Liumei; XIONG; Yuning; WANG; Kaifu; YE; Lan; ZHANG; Qizhan; TANG; Jin; WANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the current situation of heavy metal pollution in paddy soil in West Guangxi,to provide a reference for heavy metal pollution control. The content of Cd,Pb and As of 50 soil samples of cultivation layer( 0- 20 cm),taken from main rice producing areas in West Guangxi,is determined. The environment quality of soil is assessed with the single factor index and the potential ecological risk of paddy soil is evaluated with the potential ecological risk index of Hakanson. The results show that the mean content of Cd,Pb,and As in paddy soil samples is 0. 941,26. 46 and 10. 16 mg / kg,respectively. The Cd content of 54. 0% soil samples and the As content of 2. 0% soil samples are higher than the standard II National Soil Environment Quality,and Cd in paddy soil has high potential ecological risk. Heavy metal pollution in paddy soil in West Guangxi is mainly Cd pollution.

  20. Response of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity to heavy metal co-pollution in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linjing; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Xunfeng; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to heavy metals, concern about the soil quality of farming lands near manufacturing district is increasing. Investigating the function of soil microorganisms exposed to long-term heavy metal contamination is meaningful and important for agricultural soil utilization. This article studied the potential influence of several heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, abundance, and community composition in arable soil near industrial estate in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China. The results showed that soil organic contents (SOC) were significantly positive correlated with heavy metals, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was greatly depressed by the heavy metal stress. Negative correlation was found between heavy metals and basal soil respiration (BSR), and no correlation was found between heavy metals and microbial biomass content (MBC). The quantitative PCR (QPCR) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis could suggest that heavy metal pollution has significantly decreased abundance of bacteria and fungi and also changed their community structure. The results could contribute to evaluate heavy metal pollution level in soil. By combining different environmental parameters, it would promote the better understanding of heavy metal effect on the size, structure, and activity of microbial community in arable soil.

  1. Diversity of Penicillium species isolated from heavy metal polluted soil in Guizhou Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing-Xin, Zhou; Houbraken, J.; Li, Qi-Rui; Hyde, K.D.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seven Penicillium strains were isolated from soil samples polluted by heavy metals in different zones of Guizhou Province, China. Phenotypic identification proved to be difficult and this data was therefore supplemented with ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and partial β-tubulin sequence

  2. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  3. Dual augmentation for aerobic bioremediation of MTBE and TCE pollution in heavy metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, V C; Albergaria, J T; Oliva-Teles, T; Delerue-Matos, C; De Marco, P

    2009-06-01

    In this work we isolated from soil and characterized several bacterial strains capable of either resisting high concentrations of heavy metals (Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) or Pb(2+)) or degrading the common soil and groundwater pollutants MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl ether) or TCE (trichloroethylene). We then used soil microcosms exposed to MTBE (50 mg/l) or TCE (50 mg/l) in the presence of one heavy metal (Cd 10 ppm or Hg 5 ppm or Pb 50 or 100 ppm) and two bacterial isolates at a time, a degrader plus a metal-resistant strain. Some of these two-membered consortia showed degradation efficiencies well higher (49-182% higher) than those expected under the conditions employed, demonstrating the occurrence of a synergetic relationship between the strains used. Our results show the efficacy of the dual augmentation strategy for MTBE and TCE bioremediation in the presence of heavy metals.

  4. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  5. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in surface soils of Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinmei, Bai; Xueping, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is an increasing environmental problem in Chinese regions undergoing rapid economic and industrial development, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. We determined heavy metal concentrations in surface soils from the PRD. The soils were polluted with heavy metals, as defined by the Chinese soil quality standard grade II criteria. The degree of pollution decreased in the order Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn > As > Cr > Hg > Pb. The degree of heavy metal pollution by land use decreased in the order waste treatment plants (WP) > urban land (UL) > manufacturing industries (MI) > agricultural land (AL) > woodland (WL) > water sources (WS). Pollution with some of the metals, including Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, was attributed to the recent rapid development of the electronics and electroplating industries. Cd, Hg, and Pb (especially Cd) pose high potential ecological risks in all of the zones studied. The soils posing significantly high and high potential ecological risks from Cd covered 73.3 % of UL, 50 % of MI and WP land, and 48.5 % of AL. The potential ecological risks from heavy metals by land use decreased in the order UL > MI > AL > WP > WL > WS. The control of Cd, Hg, and Pb should be prioritized in the PRD, and emissions in wastewater, residue, and gas discharges from the electronics and electroplating industry should be decreased urgently. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides should also be decreased.

  7. Heavy Metal Soil Content as an Indicator of Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Rusu

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Two soil sample series were collected from 7 contaminated sites situated along a transect from the pollutant source, Zlatna copper ore-processing plant, and analyzed using different analytical methods. The soils collected in 1998 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES after extraction with DTPA for trace metals and those collected in 1999 were analyzed with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following two acid digestion procedures. The DTPA extraction procedure produced lower results than the acid digestions. Also, the pH values for all samples was measured and the results obtained during autumn compared with those in spring after a long winter with heavy snow falls. The correlation between Cu, Pb, Zn (for samples collected in May 1999 and pH was investigated. The pattern of chemical abundance of contaminants (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd and Ni was determined in soil at 0-50 cm depth. This study indicates that Pb is the most polluting element up to 25 km downwind from Zlatna town.

  8. [Effect of Recycled Water Irrieation on Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-qi; Liu, Yun-xia; Fu, Hui-min

    2016-01-15

    With acceleration of urbanization, water shortages will become a serious problem. Usage of reclaimed water for flushing and watering of the green areas will be common in the future. To study the heavy metal contamination of soils after green area irrigation using recycled wastewater from special industries, we selected sewage and laboratory wastewater as water source for integrated oxidation ditch treatment, and the effluent was used as irrigation water of the green area. The irrigation units included broad-leaved forest, bush and lawn. Six samples sites were selected, and 0-20 cm soil of them were collected. Analysis of the heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the soil showed no significant differences with heavy metals concentration in soil irrigated with tap water. The heavy metals in the soil irrigated with recycled water were mainly enriched in the surface layer, among which the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were below the soil background values of Beijing. A slight pollution of As and Cd was found in the soil irrigated by recycled water, which needs to be noticed.

  9. Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingkui Zhang; Jincheng Pu

    2011-01-01

    Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils.Two urban softs (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper, zinc and lead were selected and amended in the laboratory with the mineral materials) for 12 months.Results indicated that application of the mineral materials reduced exchangeable metals in the sequence of Pb, Cd > Cu > Zn.The reduction of exchangeable fraction of heavy metals in the soils amended with different mineral materials followed the sequence of CMP, PG > AL > RP.Reductions of heavy metals leached were based on comparison with cumulative totals of heavy metals eluted through 12 pore volumes from an untreated soil.The reductions of the metals eluted from the calcareous soil amended with the RP, AL, PG and CMP were 1.98%, 38.89%, 64.81% and 75.93% for Cd, 8.51%, 40.42%, 60.64% and 55.32% for Cu, 1.76%, 52.94%, 70.00% and 74.12% for Pb, and 28.42%, 52.74%, 64.38% and 49.66% for Zn.Those from the acidic soil amended with the CMP, PG, AL, and RP were 25.65%, 68.06%, 78.01% and 79.06% for Cd, 26.56%, 49.64%, 43.40% and 34.68% for Cu, 44.44%, 33.32%, 61.11% and 69.44% for Pb, and 18.46%, 43.77%, 41.98% and 40.68% for Zn.The CMP and PG treatments were superior to the AL and RP for stabilizing heavy metals in the polluted urban soils.

  10. Rapid ecotoxicological assessment of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su-hua; ZHOU Qi-xing; SUN Tie-heng; LI Pei-jun

    2003-01-01

    Quick, simple to perform, and cheap biomarkers were combined in a rapid assessment approach to measure the effects of metal pollutants, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in meadow burozem on wheat. Analysis of orthogonal design showed that the significant zinc factor indicated both the inhibition rate of shoot mass and that of root elongation were affected by zinc( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The first toxicity canonical variable (TOXI), formed from the toxicity data set, explained 49% of the total variance in the toxicity data set; the first biological canonical variable(BIOL) explained 42% of the total variation in the biological data set. The correlation between the first canonical variables TOXI and BIOL (canonical correlation) was 0.94 ( P < 0.0001). Therefore, it is reliable and feasible to use the achievement to assess toxicity of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis. Toxicity of soil combined polluted by heavy metals to plant community was estimated by comparing the IC50 values describing the concentration needed to cause 50% decrease with grow rate compared to no metal addition. Environmental quality standard for soils prescribe that all these tested concentration of heavy metals in soil should not cause hazard and pollution ultimately, whereas it indicated that the soils in second grade cause more or less than 50% inhibition rates of wheat growth. So environmental quality standard for soils can be modified to include other features.

  11. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis of Soil in the Vicinity of Industrial Areas and Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V.; Joshi, G. C.; Bisht, D.

    2017-05-01

    The soil of two agricultural sites near an industrial area was investigated for heavy metal pollution using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The concentration values for 17 elements were determined in the soil samples including eight heavy metal elements, i.e., Fe, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Zn. The soil near a pulp and paper mill was found to be highly polluted by the heavy metals. The concentration data obtained by EDXRF were further examined by calculating the pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index.

  12. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and predict the trend of soil heavy metal pollution around a~coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980 was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in an order of E(Cd > E(Pb > E(Cu > E(Cr > E(Zn have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor led to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, and the fixed number of years exceeding standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metal, and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provide some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent and decrease heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump in Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  13. Modern approaches to remediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-07-01

    The main principles and approaches to remediation of in situ polluted soils aimed at the removal or control of heavy metals (washing, stabilization, phytoremediation, and natural restoration) are analyzed. The prospects of gentle methods of stabilization oriented at the reduction of the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals due to the processes of adsorption, ionic exchange, and precipitation are emphasized. The use of sorbents and the traditional application of liming and phosphates to fix metal pollutants in soils is considered. The necessary conditions for successful soil remediation are the assessment of its economic efficiency, the analysis of the ecological risks, and confirming the achievement of the planned purposes related to the content of available metals in the soils.

  14. Relationship between Magnetic Susceptibility and Heavy Metals Concentration in Polluted Soils of Lenjanat Region, Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi M. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between soil magnetic susceptibility and the content of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Fe on 233 samples from polluted soils of Lenjanat Region in the Isfahan. The aim was to investigate the suitability of such measurements for indicating heavy metal pollution. Heavy metal contents were determined after extraction with nitric acid. Basic soil characteristics were determined using common methods. Geochemical analysis of soil samples showed close correlation between Cd, Ni and Fe. Cd concentration was the highest of all the elements studied. The correlation between the analyzed metals and magnetic susceptibility are positive and significant for Fe and Cu. Results suggests that magnetic susceptibility can be used as a guideline to find contaminated urban areas with Fe and Cu in this region.

  15. Effects of heavy metal pollution of highway origin on soil nematode guilds in North Shenyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dechang; ZHANG Xiaoke; TOMAR Vijay Vikram Singh; LI Qi; WEN Dazhong; LIANG Wenju

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected with distance at 5, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 m from the Shen-Ha Highway, Northeast China, to investigate the effect of heavy metals of highway origin on soil nematode guilds. The contents of soil Pb, Cu and Zn and the nematode community structure in this investigation were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of total and available Pb, Cu and Zn varied significantly with the different distances from the highway. Pb was the main pollutant in the soils in the vicinity of Shen-Ha Highway and the zone from 20 to 40 m away from the highway was the most polluted area. The highest abundance of soil nematodes was found at 5 m while the lowest at 20 m away from the highway. Thirty six genera of nematodes belonging to 23 families were identified. Nematode guilds having different responses to soil heavy metals were classified into four types. Soil nematode guilds may act as a prominent indicator to heavy metal pollution of highway origin.

  16. Identification of Heavy Metal Pollution Derived From Traffic in Roadside Soil Using Magnetic Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingguo; Ge, Jing; Yang, Miao

    2017-06-01

    The study integrates surface and vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents (Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe) to characterize the signature of vehicle pollutants in roadside soils at Linfen city, China. Sites with reforestation and without vegetation cover were investigated. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents were higher at the roadside without trees than in the reforest belt. The variations of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents decreased both with distance and with depth. The maximum value was observed at 5-10 m away from the roadside edge. The vertical distribution in soil revealed accumulation of pollutants in 0-5 cm topsoils. The average contents were higher than the background values and in the order Fe (107.21 g kg(-1)), Zn (99.72 mg kg(-1)), Pb (90.99 mg kg(-1)), Cu (36.14 mg kg(-1)). Coarse multi domain grains were identified as the dominating magnetic particles. Multivariate statistical and SEM/EDX analyses suggested that the heavy metals derived from traffic sources. Trees act as efficient receptors and green barrier, which can reduce vehicle derived pollution.

  17. Residual impact of aged nZVI on heavy metal-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, C; Gil-Díaz, M; Costa, G; Alonso, J; Guerrero, A M; Nande, M; Lobo, M C; Martín, M

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the residual toxicity and impact of aged nZVI after a leaching experiment on heavy metal (Pb, Zn) polluted soils was evaluated. No negative effects on physico-chemical soil properties were observed after aged nZVI exposure. The application of nZVI to soil produced a significant increase in Fe availability. The impact on soil biodiversity was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A significant effect of nZVI application on microbial structure has been recorded in the Pb-polluted soil nZVI-treated. Soil bacteria molecular response, evaluated by RT-qPCR using exposure biomarkers (pykA, katB) showed a decrease in the cellular activity (pykA) due to enhanced intracellular oxidative stress (katB). Moreover, ecotoxicological standardised test on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) showed a decrease in the growth endpoint in the Pb-polluted soil, and particularly in the nZVI-treated. A different pattern has been observed in Zn-polluted soils: no changes in soil biodiversity, an increase in biological activity and a significant decrease of Zn toxicity on C. elegans growth were observed after aged nZVI exposure. The results reported indicated that the pollutant and its nZVI interaction should be considered to design soil nanoremediation strategies to immobilise heavy metals.

  18. Integrated approach to assessing the effects of soils polluted with heavy metals on a plant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses the effects of soil polluted with more than one heavy metal in a grass species. A 16-week bioassay with Avena sativa L. was conducted in microcosms using soils from two abandoned mines in central Spain that contained levels above World Health Organization (WHO) reference limits for soils of more than three heavy metals. Pollution effects were examined at cell, tissue, organ, plant and population levels. For this purpose, dry weight, maximum height and number of leaves were determined; leaf tissues were observed by low temperature scanning electron microscopy; the metal contents of roots and shoots were determined by plasma emission spectroscopy and their distribution in different tissues was analyzed by X-ray microanalysis using an environmental scanning electron microscope. The results explain the accumulation and translocation of soil metals by this plant species; their effects in cells, tissues and growth of plants; and allow inference on population effects. The discussion of the methodological approach leads us to propose a valid protocol to assess the effects of a set of heavy metals present in the topsoil of polluted sites on a plant population. We recommend its use for an ecotoxicological diagnosis and risk analysis of similarly polluted sites.

  19. Decontamination of Heavy Metals in Polluted Soil by Phytoremediation Using Bryophyllum Pinnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwumemgbo P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is the use of specially selected or engineered living green plants for in situ risk reduction and/or removal of pollutants from contaminated media. This process is one of the most rapidly developing components of environmentally friendly (green and cost-effective technology to abate environmental pollution. The risk reduction could be through the process of removal, degradation, containment of a contaminant or a combination of any of these factors. Bryophyllum pinnatum a herbally-accepted plant in some parts of the world was cultivated in ten different plastic buckets containing heavy metal polluted soil and nurtured for 20 months. The plants were left in ambient conditions and watered periodically. After the first 2 weeks, the plant and soil samples were collected and analysed for total concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb V and Zn. Subsequently, the plant and soil samples were collected monthly and analysed for the total concentrations of these heavy metals, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Maximum extracted heavy metals from soil by plant were Cd (3.12±1.03 mg/kg, Cr (32.48±3.21 mg/kg, Cu (81.01±2.3 mg/kg Ni (11.91±2.32 mg/kg, Pb (399.90 ±4.32 mg/kg V (5.81±0.08 mg/kg and Zn (150.51± 0.33 and this occurred in the 4th month of study. This study confirms B. pinnatum as one of the plants that could be employed in phytoremediation of soil polluted by heavy metals.

  20. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Julie K. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Copenhagen Recycling Center, Selinevej 2, DK-2300 Kobenhavn S (Denmark)], E-mail: jje@life.ku.dk; Holm, Peter E. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Nejrup, Jens [Copenhagen Recycling Center, Selinevej 2, DK-2300 Kobenhavn S (Denmark); Larsen, Morten B. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Borggaard, Ole K. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2009-03-15

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber uptakes. Despite high concentrations of cadmium ({>=}80 mg/kg) and zinc ({>=}3000 mg/kg) in leaves of willow grown on strongly polluted soil with up to 18 mg Cd/kg, 1400 mg Cu/kg, 500 mg Pb/kg and 3300 mg Zn/kg, it is unsuited on strongly polluted soils because of poor growth. However, willow proved promising on moderately polluted soils (2.5 mg Cd/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg), where it extracted 0.13% of total Cd and 0.29% of the total Zn per year probably representing the most mobile fraction. Cu and Pb are strongly fixed in calcareous soils. - Willow is suited for remediation of moderately heavy metal polluted calcareous soils.

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of some parameters for the efficiency of electrodialytic soil remediation are evaluated. The parameters investigated are pH, the limiting current density and the addition of desorbing agents to the soil. These three parameters are found to be of the greatest importance....... results show that electrodialytic soil remediation can be optimized by understanding and adjusting these parameters. For scaling up the remediation method, these parameters are of crucial importance....

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of some parameters for the efficiency of electrodialytic soil remediation are evaluated. The parameters investigated are pH, the limiting current density and the adding of desorbing agents to the soil. Three parameters are found to be of greatest importance. Results ...

  3. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in surface layers of Roztocze National Park forest soils (SE Poland) by indices of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Ryszard; Kowalska, Joanna; Gąsiorek, Michał; Zadrożny, Paweł; Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Kępka, Wojciech; Tymczuk, Maryla; Orłowska, Kalina

    2017-02-01

    In most cases, in soils exposed to heavy metals accumulation, the highest content of heavy metals was noted in the surface layers of the soil profile. Accumulation of heavy metals may occur both as a result of natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. The quality of the soil exposed to heavy metal contamination can be evaluated by indices of pollution. On the basis of determined heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Cr) in the soils of Roztocze National Park the following indices of pollution were calculated: Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI). Additionally, we introduced and calculated the Biogeochemical Index (BGI), which supports determination of the ability of the organic horizon to accumulate heavy metals. A tens of times higher content of Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn was found in the surface layers compared to their content in the parent material. This distribution of heavy metals in the studied soils was related to the influence of anthropogenic pollution (both local and distant sources of emission), as well as soil properties such as pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen content.

  4. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  6. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Heavy Metal-Polluted Soils in Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2013-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil faces different challenges in relation to implementation. One challenge is to cope with the nonlinear and transient geochemical changes in the soil and another is to increase the remediation rate. Both these challenges are met when treating...... is necessary to meet the goal. The good results were obtained even without optimization of processing parameters, but the investigation underlined that the optimal parameters are highly soil and pollution specific....... the soil in a suspension in an electrodialytic cell. The soil suspension is stirred and uniform during treatment. Previously, it has been shown that a faster remediation can be obtained when remediating a stirred soil suspension compared to a stationary water saturated soil (all other parameters the same...

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution of Surface Soil in Thrace Region (Turkey)

    CERN Document Server

    Cocskun, M; Frontasyeva, M V; Munevver, C; Eidhammer Sjobakk, T; Demkina, S V

    2004-01-01

    Samples of surface soil were collected at 73 sites in the Thrace region, northwest part of Turkey. Two complementary analytical techniques, epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame and graphite furnace atomization were used to determine 37 elements in the soil samples. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Co, Pb, and As were determined using AAS and GF AAS and ENAA was used for the remaining 29 elements. Results for As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, and V are reported for the first time for soils from this region. The results show that concentrations of the most elements were little affected by the industrial and other anthropogenic activities performed in the region. Except for distinctly higher levels of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn in Istanbul district than the median values for the Thrace region, the observed distributions seem to be mainly associated with lithogenic variations. S...

  8. Surface Soil Pollution By Heavy Metals A Case Study Of Two Refuse Dumpsites In Akure Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anietie Olayemi Victoria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heavy metals can be harmful to the biota and human beings when present above certain tolerable levels in the ecosystem. This lead to the study of the accumulation contamination and pollution of these metals in soils of two refuse dumpsites within and outskirts of Akure Township capital city of Ondo State Nigeria. The dumpsites are where wastes such as industrial wastes automobile wastes municipal wastes agricultural wastes etc were dumped. At each site soil samples were collected randomly from nine different points of about 1m part at depth of about 0-30cm and analyzed for heavy metals and pH. The metals analyzed include Zn Fe Co Cu Ni As Ba Pb Cr and Cd using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AAS with HFAqua regia wet digestion method. The pH of the soils ranged between 7.49 and 8.66. The results revealed heavy metal presence and implicated wastes as the major sources of the heavy metals in the soils of the dumpsites. All the metals were detected in all the soil samples except Arsenic that was not detected in three points at site A. Fe had the highest concentrations while Ni had the least concentration in both sites. The trend in concentration was Fe Zn Pb Cu Cd Co Cr AsBaNi in site A While the trend in concentration was Fe Cr Zn Cu PbCd Co As Ba Ni in site B. The mean metal concentrations were compared with Department of Petroleum Resources DPR Standard values for soils in Nigeria all the metals except Cr and Cu are below the DPR target values while Cd and Arsenic are above the DPR intervention values for the two sites and this calls for immediate remediation.

  9. Effects of Wastewater Discharge on Heavy Metals Pollution in Fadama Soils in Kano City, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. MASHI; M. M. ALHASSAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To present the results of a research project on 6 heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Cr) at 30 Fadama fields scattered around Kano. Methods Following a reconnaissance conducted, 30 representative Fadama lands being irrigated with wastewater were selected from zones of the city under residential, industrial, commercial, and mixed but argely residential landuses. Five additional Fadama lands not being irrigated with wastewater were selected to serve as control. Using grid sampling procedure, soil samples were selected from 0-15 cm and 20-30 cm depths and analyzed for the above listed heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. T-test was used to compare the mean alues of the metals for the Fadama lands under different landuse zones with those of the control. Results Analyses of the soil data collected showed that the metals were concentrated in higher amounts in the lower (20-30 cm) than the upper (0-15 cm) depths, which was an indication of downward movement of the metals in profile of the soils. In the wosoil epths, Zn was generally the most abundant,followed by Cr, then Pb, Cu, and Cd while Hg was the least. The Fadama soils in areas of mixed landuses with industrial as the dominant ones maintained the highest concentrations of the various metals. Conclusions These results indicate clearly that the Fadama soils are significantly polluted by industrial and household wastewater and that there is a particular threat from Cr and Pb pollution. There is also evidence that the metals are accumulating at lower layers of the soil profile, suggesting that not only plants and soil, but even water bodies could be under the threat of heavy metal pollution in the area.

  10. Migration, speciation and distribution of heavy metals in an oil-polluted soil affected by crude oil extraction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowen; Cui, Zhaojie; Zang, Guolong

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals are among the major pollutants in the worldwide soil environment. In oilfields, the crude oil extraction process results in the simultaneous contamination of the soil with petroleum and heavy metals. In this work, we investigated the influence of oil extraction on the migration, speciation, and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and Mn) in soils of an oil region of Shengli Oilfield, China. The results showed that oil-polluted soils were contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, with mean concentrations of 27.63, 67.12, 0.185 and 33.80 mg kg(-1), respectively (greater than the background values of local surface soils). Compared with the control profile, the vertical distributions of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and V were affected in oil-polluted soils, particularly those of Cd and Ni. The concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni, V, and Mn in oil-polluted soils increased with the duration of oil well development, which indicated the levels of these metals in the oil field were enhanced by human activities. Fractionation analysis revealed that the mobility potential of heavy metals in oil polluted soil decreased in the sequence Cd > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > V. The most important proportion of Cd is ion exchangeable and acid soluble, which indicates that Cd is the most labile, available, and harmful heavy metal among the elements that damage the soil environment in oil-polluted soil.

  11. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  12. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in alluvial soils and sediments of the Grote Beek river (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    Consoil 2003 RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN ALLUVIAL SOILS AND SEDIMENTS OF THE GROTE BEEK RIVER (BELGIUM) Valérie Cappuyns, Rudy Swennen and Katrien De Nil Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Fysico-chemische Geologie, Celestijnenlaan 200C, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel. +3216327297, Fax. +3216327981, e-mail: 1. Introduction Wastewater discharge from the processing of phosphate ores has contributed to pollution by heavy metals ...

  13. Spatial distribution of soil heavy metal pollution estimated by different interpolation methods: accuracy and uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunfeng; Chen, Tong-bin; Lei, Mei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Qing-jun; Song, Bo; Zhou, Xiao-yong

    2011-01-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of contaminants in soils is the basis of pollution evaluation and risk control. Interpolation methods are extensively applied in the mapping processes to estimate the heavy metal concentrations at unsampled sites. The performances of interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, local polynomial, ordinary kriging and radial basis functions) were assessed and compared using the root mean square error for cross validation. The results indicated that all interpolation methods provided a high prediction accuracy of the mean concentration of soil heavy metals. However, the classic method based on percentages of polluted samples, gave a pollution area 23.54-41.92% larger than that estimated by interpolation methods. The difference in contaminated area estimation among the four methods reached 6.14%. According to the interpolation results, the spatial uncertainty of polluted areas was mainly located in three types of region: (a) the local maxima concentration region surrounded by low concentration (clean) sites, (b) the local minima concentration region surrounded with highly polluted samples; and (c) the boundaries of the contaminated areas.

  14. Pollution in the urban soils of Lianyungang, China, evaluated using a pollution index, mobility of heavy metals, and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Li, Hong-Guan; Liu, Fu-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Soil samples from 16 urban sites in Lianyungang, China were collected and analyzed. A pollution index was used to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and a sequential extraction procedure was used to evaluate the relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn oxide, organic/sulfide, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals and urease (URE) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and invertase (INV) activity of soils was determined. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in Lianyungang soils were much higher than those in the coastal city soil background values of Jiangsu and China. Among the five studied regions (utilities, commercial, industrial, tourism, and roadside), the industrial region had the highest metal concentrations demonstrating that land use had a significant impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils. Compared to the other metals, Cd showed the highest ecological risk. According to chemical partitioning, Cu was associated with the organic/sulfides and Pb and Zn were mainly in the carbonate and the Fe/Mn oxide phase. The greatest amounts of Cd were found in exchangeable and carbonate fractions, while Cr and As were mainly in the residual fraction. Cd had the highest mobility of all metals, and the order of mobility (highest to lowest) of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils was Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr. Soil urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity varied considerably in different pollution degree sites. Soil enzyme activities had the lowest levels in roadside and industrial regions. Across all the soil data in the five regions, the total Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As level was negatively correlated with urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity, but the relationship was not significant. In the industrial region, alkaline phosphatase activity had

  15. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  16. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida - bioindicators of forest soils pollution with heavy metals and fluorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the effects of pollution with heavy metals and fluorine on the oribatid mite communities populating the forest soils, on the basis of the researches carried on in three oak-type forests, situated at different distances from the Phosphoric Fertilizers Plant of Valea Călugărească (the Prahova county, Romania. In the forest strongly affected by pollution, the heavy metals concentrations were 2-9 times higher than the maximum allowable limits (MAL. In the perimeter with medium level of pollution, the content of Pb, Cr and Ni were over the MAL, while Co and Cd concentrations are closed to these limits. Two years after closing of this industrial unit, a decrease of soil loading with heavy metals was to be found, mostly in the surface sub-horizon. In the control perimeter, the oribatids constitute a complex community with a large specific diversity. The characteristic species for this zone (South-Eastern of Romania are frequent and/or abundant, having a high ecological significance. In the affected forests, the oribatid mites' densities are 6-476 times lower than in the control perimeter. Their communities are constituted of a small number of tolerant species (euryplastic, unspecific fauna, being characterized by a low specific diversity and a marked structural instability. The analysis of the oribatid species distribution in the control and polluted ecosystems has evidenced that certain elements can be considered bioindicators for this type of pollution. Our researches carried out two years after the production stopping, have not evidenced a favourable evolution of the oribatid mites communities. It is probably that the recovery of the decomposers' trophic chains requires a longer time.

  17. Application of reconstructed background in assessing heavy metal pollution of soils near Jilin Section of the Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Libo; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Xinyun; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The distinguishing and evaluation of natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in soils have always been the important issues in the field of environmental science. In this research, natural sources of heavy metals in soils are calculated according to the relationships between major oxides and heavy metals. The individual sample has independent backgrounds of heavy metals, which is more reasonable. If the single environmental background is used as baseline, anomalies in regions with low background might be decreased or hided and those in regions with high background will be overstated. In this study, enrichment factor is defined as the ratio of measured concentration and reconstructed background of heavy metals, which is of specific significance in practical applications with no assumptions. The agricultural soils near Jilin section of the Songhua River are polluted by Hg seriously with more than half samples polluted greatly. And the soils are polluted by Cd moderately. A few samples are polluted by Zn moderately. The other heavy metals in soils are almost in the level of background with little human disturbance.

  18. Evaluation on Soil Heavy Metal Pollution around Tailing Areas: A Case Study of Ag-Sb Deposit in Northeastern Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deliang; LIU; Kaifeng; WANG; Qihe; YANG; Qin; Zhu

    2015-01-01

    In October 2012,an evaluation using potential ecological hazard risk index was carried out on soil heavy metal pollution around AgSb deposit tailing areas in northeastern Guangdong. Results indicate that( i) soil heavy metal pollution is mainly Cd-Ni compound pollution,including Cd content 0. 31- 2. 66 mg / kg( average content is 1. 11 mg / kg),the situation of exceeding standard is serious( the rate of exceeding standard is 100%); the total potential ecological hazard risk index( RI) is between 50 and 300,and it is moderate pollution;( ii) in soil heavy metal content,only Ni and Cu are positively correlated. Since there is certain degree of Ni pollution in this deposit,the synergetic effect of Cu and Ni may deteriorate Ni pollution.

  19. STUDY OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION INDEX IN PLANTS USED IN POLLUTED SOILS PHYTOREMEDIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mine tailings have a high content in heavy metals, especially Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cr and others. In phytoremediation activities of mine tailings dumps were used plant species with high capacity to adapt to the physical-chemical properties of this inorganic waste. During the vegetation period, on any soil type, the cultivated plant species extract and accumulate high amounts of heavy metals in roots and terrestrial parts. Metal translocation rate from soil and accumulation in tissues is dependent to metal species biodisponibility capacity from soil organic-mineral structures in correlation with a series of factors like: pH, ionic change capacity, temperature, water retention a.o. Through this experiment was studied the metals amount of accumulation in plants, in roots and also in terrestrial parts. So, in case of Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinaceea, using the Zn, Cu and Mn uptake coefficient was analyzed the rate of translocation in order to monitor the accumulations dynamic. It turned out that Medicago sativa plants registered a higher uptake coefficient value on Cu and Mn. Festuca arundinaceea plants have a higher rate of accumulation in case of Zn. Also, in case of mine tailings polluted soils, the Zn, Cu and Mn translocation degree is higher and in case of soils polluted with mine tailings and with biosolids addition is lower.

  20. Problems and prospects concerning the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-09-01

    The current state, problems, and prospects of phymoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most widespread and alternative methods of soil phytoremediation. The efficiency of phymoremediation is related to the natural capability of plants for the accumulation and translocation of metals, their tolerance to a high content of metals, the plant biomass, and the amendments applied. The advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation as compared to other methods of remediation of polluted soils in situ are considered. Examples of successful phytoextraction and phytomining for cleaning up of contaminated soils in Rasteburg (South Africa) and the phytostabilization of technogenic barrens nearby the copper-nickel plants in Sudbury (Ontario, Canada) and in the Kola Subarctic (Russia) are presented.

  1. Migration of radionuclides and heavy metals during the bioremediation of a polluted cinnamonic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

    2013-04-01

    A fresh sample of cinnamonic soil polluted with radionuclides (U, Ra) and toxic heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) was subjected to bioremediation in large-scale lysimeters by means of moulching. The aim of soil treatment was solubilization of pollutants located in horizon A, the migration of their dissolved complexes through the soil profile, and the pollutants` precipitation in the rich-in-clays below-lying horizons. The solubilization was due to the joint action of natural soil microflora and leach waters containing ammonium and phosphate ions, and in some variants-hydrocarbonate ions. The precipitation of pollutants was due to the enhanced activity of the indigenous microflora in which iron- and sulphate-reducing bacteria were the prevalent groups. After 24 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the relevant soil layers (horizon A and the sub-horizons B1, B2, B3, and B4). The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the obtained data were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of soil bioremediation. It was found that considerable portions of the pollutants were removed from the horizon A and were migrated to the sub-horizons B3 and B4, mainly. In these sub-horizons the non-ferrous metals were precipitated mainly as the relevant sulphides, uranium was precipitated as uraninite (UO2), and radium-mainly as adsorbed ions and complexes.

  2. [Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in soil of relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Shi, Yao; Han, Chao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the pollution level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The contents and spatial distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were analyzed. The integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the contamination degree and potential ecological risk of these elements. The results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in the samples were 0.61, 23.11, 58.25, 22.65, 58.99 and 16.95 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Compared with the background value of soils from Henan province, all these 6 elements except Zn were enriched to some extent, especially Cd. Similar patterns were observed for the spatial distribution of Cu, Zn, and Pb. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface sediments of the typical domestic reservoirs, Cd and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were heavily accumulated. The correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations among Pb, Cu, and Zn. And there was also significant positive correlation between Cr and Pb. In contrast, negative correlation was found between Cr and As. To sum up, the comprehensive assessment results showed that Cd was the primary element with high ecological risk.

  3. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  4. Environmental risk of heavy metal pollution and contamination sources using multivariate analysis in the soils of Varanasi environs, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubhra; Raju, N Janardhana; Nazneen, Sadaf

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were collected from different locations covering dumping, road and agricultural area. The average concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits according to soil quality guidelines except Cu (copper) and Pb (lead) in dumping and road soils. Soil heavy metal contamination was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). The IPI of the metals ranged from 0.59 to 9.94, with the highest IPI observed in the dumping and road soils. A very significant correlation was found between Pb and Cu. The result of principal component analysis suggested that PC1 was mainly affected by the use of agrochemicals, PC2 was affected by vehicular emission and PC3 was affected by dumping waste. Meanwhile, PC4 was mainly controlled by parent material along with anthropogenic activities. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize the heavy metal levels in soils and thus protect human health.

  5. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  6. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  7. Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals - Specific Issues for Baia Mare Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Mirela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mining activity, practices in Baia Mare for over 100 years, has led to pollution and economic sealing oflarge areas of land; it has adversely affected the environment and now poses a significant risk to human health. Theactual sources of pollution, current or historical, in Baia Mare Depression are SC Romplumb SA, SC Cuprom SA andCNMPN Remin SA. The mining activities left over wide areas ponds, mine waste dumps and the underground watersthat come across the existing mine galleries spring out contaminated and sometimes in an uncontrolled manner. Heavymetals are present in the environmental factors from this area and significantly affect local ecosystems and humanhealth. The paper presents details on soil pollution with heavy metals, problem that has gradually found a solution in theenvironmental rehabilitation projects, activities that requiring investment of time and specialists in this field.

  8. Effect of combined pollution by heavy metals on soil enzymatic activities in areas polluted by tailings from Pb-Zn-Ag mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Cheng-li; LIAO Min; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Some enzymatic activities were determined in the areas polluted by tailings from Tiantai Pb-Zn-Ag Mine in Zhejiang Province of China. The results indicated the soil enzymatic activities decreased significantly with increase of concentrations of heavy metals or the distance away from mining tailing center, especially dehydrogenase and urease activities. Multivariate regression analysis between heavy metal contents and soil enzymatic activities indicated that single dehydrogenase activity was very significantly correlated to combined effect of soil heavy metals in mine area. Moreover, single urease, protease and acid phosphatase activities were significantly related to the combined effect of heavy metals. The results suggest it is feasible to use soil enzymatic activities to indicate the pollution situation by combined heavy metals in the soil of mine area.

  9. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF.

  10. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  11. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil.

  12. Evaluating the potential use of Tamarix gallica L. for phytoremediation practices in heavy-metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Jaoudé, R.; Pricop, A.; Laffont-Schwob, I.; Prudent, P.; Rabier, J.; Masotti, V.; de Dato, G.; De Angelis, P.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid growth of population, the increased urbanisation and the expansion of industrial activities have provoked an augmented occurrence of soil contamination by heavy-metals. Important sources of contamination are industrial, mining and military infrastructures, which are often abandoned without performing the appropriate reclamation work. In the Mediterranean Basin, where coastal areas are largely affected by human overexploitation, the use of species able to tolerate heavy-metals and other abiotic stresses may represent a low-cost solution for phytoremediation in these harsh environments. Tamarix gallica L. is a widespread species in coastal Mediterranean areas, showing a high adaptability to different environments and a high tolerance of adversity. With the objective of testing local species as candidates for phytoremediation practices in heavy-metal contaminated coastal soils, cuttings of T. gallica from a wild population around Marseille (France) were planted in pots containing: 1) control soil (loamy soil and sand (2/1)), 2) half-polluted soil (loamy soil, sand and heavy-metal polluted soil (1/1/1)), and 3) polluted soil (sand and heavy-metal polluted soil (1/2)). The contaminated soils were collected in the surrounding of a former lead industry of Marseille littoral and characterised by the presence of Fe, Pb, Zn, As and Al. After three months from planting, leaf functionality was evaluated by measuring leaf gas exchanges, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and, chlorophyll, phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins contents. SEM observations coupled to EDXS analysis were used to determine elements (Pb, As and Al) presence and location on the leaf surface and in leaf and root tissues. T. gallica was moderately affected by the presence of heavy-metals in the soil treatments. In fact, a reduction in stomatal conductance was only observed in plants grown in the polluted soil. This reduction did not cause a significant decrease in CO2 assimilation rates. Moreover, the

  13. Experimental Study on the Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil Irrigated by Reclaimed Water from Sewage Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xing; Luo, Gang; Cao, Jian; Xu, Jiawen; Wang, Shuang; YE, Weihai; Liang, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    Reclaimed water irrigation is one of the potential ways of solving the shortage of water resources, and the pollution risk on migration behavior of heavy metals in the soil which are irrigated by reclaimed water and the related soil surface is still short of research. Through the experimental study of different kinds of water irrigation methods on vegetable, it can be concluded that compared with sewage irrigation and tap water irrigation, reclaimed water irrigation does not pollute the soil,...

  14. Plant diversity reduces the effect of multiple heavy metal pollution on soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang GAO; Chiyuan MIAO; Jun XIA; Liang MAO; Yafeng WANG; Pei ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether certain plant species and plant diversity could reduce the impacts of multiple heavy metal pollution on soil microbial structure and soil enzyme activities. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyze the genetic diversity and microbial similarity in planted and unplanted soil under combined cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution. A metal hyper- accumulator, Brassica juncea, and a common plant, Festuca arundinacea Schreb, were used in this research. The results showed that microorganism quantity in planted soil significantly increased, compared with that in unplanted soil with Cd and Pb pollution. The order of microbial community sensitivity in response to Cd and Pb stress was as follows: actinomycetes 〉 bacteria 〉 fungi. Respiration, phosphatase, urease and dehydrogenase activity were significantly inhibited due to Cd and Pb stress. Compared with unplanted soil, planted soils have frequently been reported to have higher rates of microbial activity due to the presence of additional surfaces for microbial colonization and organic compounds released by the plant roots. Two coexisting plants could increase microbe population and the activity of phosphatases, dehydrogenases and, in particular, ureases. Soil enzyme activity was higher in B. juncea phytoremediated soil than in F. arundinacea planted soil in this study. Heavy metal pollution decreased the richness of the soil microbial community, but plant diversity increased DNA sequence diversity and maintained DNA sequence diversity at highlevels. The genetic polymorphism under heavy metal stress was higher in B. juncea phytoremediated soil than in F. arundinacea planted soil.

  15. Spatial Distribution and Pollution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soil of Mentougou Mining Area of Beijing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Yu-xin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution characteristics and spatial distribution of soil heavy metals around mine-concentrated area in Mentougou were comprehensive studied using ArcGIS carried by inverse distance weighted interpolation mathematical model and SPSS multivariate statistical analysis. The ecological risk assessment was carried out by the potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentrations increased gradually from the west to the east of study area. Harmful degrees of heavy metals decreased in the order of Hg > Cd > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni > As. Combination of coal mining and human activity caused the strongest risk, while the risks caused by heavy metals from sandstone minerals was relatively weak. The potential ecological risk indexes(RI of eight heavy metals were between 67.81 and 668.53. The order of the potential ecological risk was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn. In summary, the heavy metals in soil of the study area were harmful. Because the study area is located in the ecological conservation district of Beijing, the ecological harm should not be overlooked, and needs to be evaluated and repaired.

  16. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  17. Origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in polluted ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of heavy metals result in pollution of the soil, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and this pollution is a potential threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. Biesbosch National Park (the Netherlands) is exposed to chronic and diffuse pollution of heavy metals. The park is the flo

  18. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution in soil and lichen in the Meric-Ergene Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanedar, Asude

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, accumulations of airborne heavy metals in lichen and soil samples were determined on the basis of pollutant source groups by conducting Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) analyses on a total of 48 samples collected in the periods of May 2014 and August 2014 from 12 sampling points in a heavily industrialized area, a mixed industrial and residential area, an agricultural area and a background area in the Meric-Ergene Basin, and pH and total organic carbon determination was carried out on soil samples. With the obtained data, heavy metal levels were statistically assessed in detail by being associated with each other and with their probable sources; the accumulations found in soil and lichen samples were compared and spatial variances were set forth. Based on the results, it was observed that heavy metal pollution is at high levels particularly in industrialized areas, and that the differences between the cleanest and most polluted levels determined from soil samples for As, Cr, Cd and Pb reach 10 folds. The highest levels of all heavy metals were determined in both the soil and lichen samples collected from the areas in the south-east part of the region, where industrial activities and particularly leather and chemical industries are concentrated. With the comparison of the indication properties of soil and lichen, it was determined that significant and comparable results can be observed in both matrices.

  19. Lithological and land-use based assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils surrounding a cement plant in SW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-15

    We study the influence of phasing out a cement plant on the heavy metal (Hg, Pb and Cr) content in the surrounding soils, taking into account factors often neglected, such as contributions due to local lithology or land use. The range of total Hg was 10-144µg kg(-1), reaching up to 41 and 145mgkg(-1) for total contents of Pb and Cr, respectively. Forest soils showed higher concentration of Hg than prairie soils, indicating the importance of land use on the accumulation of volatile heavy metals in soils. In forest soils, total Hg showed a trend to decrease with soil depth, whereas in prairie soils the vertical pattern of heavy metal concentrations was quite homogeneous. In most cases, the distance to the cement plant was not a factor of influence in the soils content of the analyzed heavy metals. Total Pb and Cr contents in soils nearby the cement plant were quite similar to those found in the local lithology, resulting in enrichment factor values (EF's) below 2. This suggests that soil parent material is the main source of these heavy metals in the studied soils, while the contribution of the cement plant to Pb and Cr soil pollution was almost negligible. On the contrary, the soils surrounding the cement plant accumulate a significant amount of Hg, compared to the underlying lithology. This was especially noticeable in forest soils, where Hg EF achieved values up to 36. These results are of relevance, bearing in mind that Hg accumulation in soils may be an issue of environmental concern, particularly in prairie soils, where temporal flooding can favor Hg transformation to highly toxic methyl-Hg. In addition, the concurrence of acid soils and total-Cr concentrations in the range of those considered phytotoxic should be also stressed.

  20. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban soils of Havana city, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, O Díaz; Castillo, F Echeverría; López, J O Arado; Merlo, M Hernández

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the top-soils (0-10 cm) from urbanized and un-urbanized areas of Havana city were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples (13.9 ± 4.1, 66 ± 26, 101 ± 51, 240 ± 132 and 101 ± 161 mg kg(-1), respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. The results revealed the highest concentrations of metals in topsoil samples from industrial sites. Lowest metal contents were determined in the un-urbanized areas. The comparison with Dutch soil quality guidelines showed a slight contamination with Co, Ni Cu and Zn in all studied sites and with Pb in industrial soils. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation using Earth crust contents as background showed that soils from urbanized areas in Havana city (industrial sites, parks and school grounds) are moderately enriched with zinc, moderately to severe enriched (city parks and school grounds) and severe enriched (industrial sites) with lead. The values of integrated pollution index (IPI) indicated that industrial soils are middle and high contaminated by heavy metals (1.19 ≤ IPI ≤ 7.54), but enrichment index values (EI) shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are not above the permissible levels for urban agriculture, except soils from power and metallurgical plants surroundings. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  1. Total and Available Heavy Metal Concentrations and Assessment of Soil Pollution Indices in Selected Soils of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil is a hardly renewable natural resource. Although soil degradation, caused by either human activities and natural processes is a relatively slow procedure, but its effects are long lasting and most often, irreversible in the time scale of man's life. Among the most significant soil contaminants resulting from both natural and human sources, heavy metals are more important due to their long- term toxicity effects. For evaluating soil's enrichment rate by heavy metals, a wide and full study of soils background values, including total and available fractions of heavy metal contents should be done. Zanjan province has some great mines and concentrating industries of lead and zinc especially in Angoran, Mahneshan. Unfortunately produced waste materials of these industries spread over the adjacent areas. Investigations showed that accumulation of some heavy metals in vegetables and crops planted in this region had occurred. Therefore, performing some investigations in these polluted areas and assessing pollution rate and heavy metals distribution in arable lands had prime importance. Our goals were: 1 determining the total and available amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the soils of arable lands in polluted areas of Zanjan city, 2 producing the distribution map for the metals mentioned above and 3 calculating pollution indices in the soils. Materials and Methods: The study area was in south west of Zanjan city. For soil sampling, a 1 Km by 1 Km grid defined in ArcGIS software on landuse layer and totally 144 points that placed on agricultural lands, due to our goals, were sampled. For sampling, in a 5m radius around the point we collected some subsamples from depth of 0 - 15 cm, and after mixing the subsamples, finally a 1Kg soil sample prepared and sent to the laboratory. Sampled soils were air dried and were passed through a 2mm sieve. Soils organic matter (OM content and texture were determined by Walkely-Black and Bouyoucos

  2. The identification of 'hotspots' of heavy metal pollution in soil-rice systems at a regional scale in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanlu; Xu, Binbin; Song, Qiujin; Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2014-02-15

    Chinese agricultural soils and crops are suffering from increasing damage from heavy metals, which are introduced from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and especially the flourishing private metal recycling industry. In this study, 219 pairs of rice grain and corresponding soil samples were collected from Wenling in Zhejiang Province to identify the spatial relationship and pollution hotspots of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the soil-rice system. The mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 0.316 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 47.3 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 31.7 mg kg(-1) for Ni and 131 mg kg(-1) for Zn, and the metal concentrations in rice grain were 0.132 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 2.46 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 0.223 mg kg(-1) for Ni and 17.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn. The coefficient of variability (CV) of soil Cd, Cu and rice Cd were 147%, 146% and 180%, respectively, indicating an extensive variability. While the CVs of other metals ranged from 23.4% to 84.3% with a moderate variability. Kriging interpolation procedure and the Local Moran's I index detected the locations of pollution hotspots of these four metals. Cd and Cu had a very similar spatial pattern, with contamination hotspots located simultaneously in the northwestern part of the study area, and there were obvious hotspots for soil Zn in the north area, while in the northeast for soil Ni. The existence of hotspots may be due to industrialization and other anthropogenic activities. An Enrichment Index (EI) was employed to measure the uptake of heavy metals by rice. The results indicated that the accumulation and availability of heavy metals in the soil-rice system may be influenced by both soil heavy metal concentrations and soil physico-chemical properties. Cross-correlograms quantitatively illustrated that EIs were significantly correlated with soil properties. Soil pH and organic matter were the most important factors controlling the uptake of heavy metals by rice. As results, positive measures should be taken into

  3. Spatial Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution for Soils in Peri-Urban Beijing, China Based on Fuzzy Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Man-Zhi; XU Fang-Ming; CHEN Jie; ZHANG Xue-Lei; CHEN Jing-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy classification combined with spatial prediction was used to assess the state of soil pollution in the peri-urban Beijing area. Total concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined in 220 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) collected using a grid design in a study area of 2 600 km2. Heavy metal concentrations were grouped into three classes according to the optimum number of classes and fuzziness exponent using the fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm. Membership values were interpolated using ordinary kriging. The polluted soils of the study area induced by the measured heavy metals were concentrated in the northwest corner and eastern part, especially the southeastern part close to the urban zone, whereas the soils free of pollution were mainly distributed in the southwestern part. The soils with potential risk of heavy metal pollution were located in isolated spots mainly in the northern part and southeastern corner of the study region. The FCM algorithm combined with geostatistical techniques, as compared to conventional single geostatistical kriging methods,could produce a prediction with a quantitative uncertainty evaluation and higher reliability. Successful prediction of soil pollution achieved with FCM algorithm in this study indicated that fuzzy set theory had great potential for use in other areas of soil science.

  4. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  5. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  6. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shirkhanloo Hamid; Mirzahosseini Seyed Alireza Hajiseyed; Shirkhanloo Nasrin; Moussavi-Najarkola Seyyed Ali; Farahani Hadi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the leve...

  7. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  8. Heavy metal pollution of road dust and roadside soil near a major rural highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, C; Rémy, N; Legret, M; Le Cloirec, P

    2001-03-01

    The concentrations of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel and chromium were measured in road dust and roadside soils from a French major highway. The profiles of total levels in the soil as a function of distance from the road edge and as a function of depth were investigated. Lead, zinc, copper and, to a lesser extent, cadmium contamination were found in samples taken on the surface and in the immediate vicinity of the road. The observed concentrations decreased rapidly with distance and depth. Soil samples appeared to exhibit little nickel and chromium pollution. The geochemical phases on which heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and chromium) were fixed preferentially, as well as the potential mobility of the different metals under certain physical and chemical conditions were evaluated. Sequential extractions and single extractions with different reagents were performed. Chromium, which was present mostly in residual form, was mainly of natural origin in the studied samples and was not highly mobilisable. Cadmium was the most easily exchangeable element in case of variations in the physical and chemical conditions but the quantities involved remained small. Lead and copper did not appear to be highly mobile. Only drastic conditions, such as those that may be produced by accidental spillage of a chemical product (acid or complexing agent), mobilised them quantitatively. A significant risk of mobilisation was to be feared only in the case of zinc, which is very sensitive to acid pH.

  9. A feasibility test to estimate the duration of phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Japenga, J.; Koopmans, G.F.; Song, J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The practical applicability of heavy metal (HM) phytoextraction depends heavily on its duration. Phytoextraction duration is the main cost factor for phytoextraction, both referring to recurring economic costs during phytoextraction and to the cost of the soil having no economic value during

  10. A feasibility test to estimate the duration of phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Japenga, J.; Koopmans, G.F.; Song, J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The practical applicability of heavy metal (HM) phytoextraction depends heavily on its duration. Phytoextraction duration is the main cost factor for phytoextraction, both referring to recurring economic costs during phytoextraction and to the cost of the soil having no economic value during phytoex

  11. Experimental Study on the Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil Irrigated by Reclaimed Water from Sewage Treatment Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; YAN; Gang; LUO; Jian; CAO; Jiawen; XU; Shuang; WANG; Weihai; YE; Yicheng; LIANG

    2015-01-01

    Reclaimed water irrigation is one of the potential ways of solving the shortage of water resources,and the pollution risk on migration behavior of heavy metals in the soil which are irrigated by reclaimed water and the related soil surface is still short of research. Through the experimental study of different kinds of water irrigation methods on vegetable,it can be concluded that compared with sewage irrigation and tap water irrigation,reclaimed water irrigation does not pollute the soil,and it greatly saves the cost of water resources,and even provides a large number of growth elements for vegetables. The results show that after leaching by reclaimed water for 60 days,Cr,Cd,As,Hg,Pb,Ni,Zn and Cu from reclaimed water are enriched in soil to a certain degree,but with the leaching time extending,concentrations of the heavy metal remain stable. The variation of heavy metal content in soil irrigated by reclaimed water is small in vertical depth,basically showing a horizontal trend. According to Soil Environmental Quality Standards( GB15618- 1995),soil irrigated by reclaimed water does not exceed the standard,better than soil quality standard of planting vegetables.

  12. On the quantitative relationships between environmental parameters and heavy metals pollution in Mediterranean soils using GIS regression-trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bou Kheir, Rania; Shomar, B.; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2014-01-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution has been and continues to be a worldwide phenomenon that has attracted a great deal of attention from governments and regulatory bodies. In this context, our study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and regression-tree modeling (196 trees) to precisely quantify...... as weighted input data in soil pollution prediction models. The developed strongest relationships were associated with Cd and As, variance being equal to 82%, followed by Ni (75%) and Cr (73%) as the weakest relationship. This study also showed that nearness to cities (with a relative importance varying...... the relationships between four toxic heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cd and As) and sixteen environmental parameters (e.g., parent material, slope gradient, proximity to roads, etc.) in the soils of northern Lebanon (as a case study of Mediterranean landscapes), and to detect the most important parameters that can be used...

  13. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.

  14. Effects of heavy metal pollution from mining and smelting on enchytraeid communities under different land management and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Paweł; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    We studied enchytraeid communities in several habitats polluted by heavy metals from Zn-Pb mining and smelting activities. We sampled 41 sites that differed in the type of substratum (carbonate rock, metal-rich carbonate mining waste, siliceous sand) and land management (planting Scots pine, topsoiling, leaving to natural succession), and the distance from the smelter. Our main aims were to determine which pollution variables and natural factors most influenced enchytraeid species composition, richness and density, and examine what was the effect of planting Scots pine (reclamation) on enchytraeid communities. The soils harboured on average 1 to 5 enchytraeid species and 700 to 18,300 individuals per square metre, depending on the habitat. These figures were generally lower than those reported from unpolluted regions. Redundancy and multiple regression analyses confirmed the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on both enchytraeid community structure and abundance. Among pollution variables, the distance from the smelter best explained the variation in enchytraeid communities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil had less (e.g. total Pb and exchangeable Zn) or negligible (water-soluble forms) explanatory power. Natural soil properties were nearly irrelevant for enchytraeids, except for soil pH, which determined the species composition. Plant species richness was an important explanatory variable, as it positively affected most parameters of enchytraeid community. The results of two-by-two factorial comparisons (planting Scots pine vs. natural succession; carbonate mining waste vs. siliceous sand) suggest that reclamation can improve soil quality for biota, since it increased the diversity and abundance of enchytraeids; this effect was not dependent on the type of substratum. In conclusion, enchytraeids responded negatively to heavy metal pollution and their response was consistent and clear. These animals can be used as indicators of metal toxicity

  15. Heavy metal uptake and leaching from polluted soil using permeable barrier in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Shen, Zhiping; Duo, Lian

    2015-04-01

    Application of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture is an alternative technique of disposing this waste. But unreasonable application of SS leads to excessive accumulation of heavy metals in soils. A column experiment was conducted to test the availability of heavy metals to Lolium perenne grown in SS-treated soils following diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) application at rates of 0, 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil. In order to prevent metal leaching in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction process, a horizontal permeable barrier was placed below the treated soil, and its effectiveness was also assessed. Results showed that DTPA addition significantly increased metal uptake by L. perenne shoots and metal leaching. Permeable barriers increased metal concentrations in plant shoots and effectively decreased metal leaching from the treated soil. Heavy metals in SS-treated soils could be gradually removed by harvesting L. perenne many times in 1 year and adding low dosage of DTPA days before each harvest.

  16. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  17. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-an Zheng

    Full Text Available Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV, thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6 and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5 were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects.

  18. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  20. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i) the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Zerbi; Guido Fellet; Luca Marchiol

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextra...

  1. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-07-15

    The water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) between the elevations of 145-175 m in China's Three Gorges Reservoir has experienced a novel hydrological regime with half a year (May-September) exposed in summer and another half (October-April) submerged in winter. In September 2008 (before submergence) and June 2009 (after submergence), soil samples were collected in 12 sites in the WLFZ and heavy metals (Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were determined. Enrichment factor (EF), factor analysis (FA), and factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) were employed for heavy metal pollution assessment, source identification, and source apportionment, respectively. Results demonstrate spatial variability in heavy metals before and after submergence and elements of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn are higher in the upper and low reaches. FA and FA-MLR reveal that As and Cd are the primary pollutants before submergence, and over 45% of As originates from domestic sewage and 59% of Cd from industrial wastes. After submergence, the major contaminants are Hg, Cd, and Pb, and traffic exhaust contributes approximately 81% to Hg and industrial effluent accounts about 36% and 73% for Cd and Pb, respectively. Our results suggest that increased shipping and industrial wastes have deposited large amounts of heavy metals which have been accumulated in the WLFZ during submergence period.

  2. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, spatial distribution and origin in agricultural soils along the Sinú River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-04-01

    The presence of metals in agricultural soils from anthropogenic activities such as mining and agricultural use of metals and metal-containing compounds is a potential threat for human health through the food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals in 83 agricultural soils irrigated by the Sinú River, in northern Colombia, affected by mining areas upstream and inundated during seasonal floods events were determined to evaluate their sources and levels of pollution. The average concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg and Zn were 1149, 661, 0.071, 0.040, 0.159 and 1365mg/kg respectively and exceeded the world normal averages, with the exception of Pb and Cd. Moreover, all values surpassed the background levels of soils in the same region. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and a risk assessment code (RAC). According to these indexes, the soils show a high degree of pollution of Ni and a moderate to high contamination of Zn and Cu; whereas, Pb, Cd and Hg present moderate pollution. However, based on the RAC index, a low environmental risk is found for all the analysed heavy metals. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that soil contamination was mainly derived from agricultural practices, except for Hg, which was caused probably by atmospheric and river flow transport from upstream gold mining. Finally, high concentrations of Ni indicate a mixed pollution source from agricultural and ferronickel mining activities.

  3. Mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals from polluted soils by humic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fuentes, Bárbara; Letelier, María Victoria; Cuevas, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    The existence of soils contaminated with harmful elements by mining activities is a global environmental concern. The northern part of Chile has several heavy metal contaminated sites due to former copper and gold artisanal mining activities. Therefore, a complete characterization of abandoned sites and the implementation of remediation technologies are of interest for regulators, the industry, and the population. The objective of the study was to test the use of humic acid as a washing treatment to reduce the heavy metal concentration of soil samples impacted by mine waste material. A stratified random sampling was conducted on the target site to determine the physical and chemical composition of mine waste and soil material. The sampling consisted of taking 37 samples at 0-20 cm depths in a 10,000 square-meter area. The samples were dried and sieved at 2 mm. The batch washing experiments were conducted in triplicate at pH 7.0. A 1:10 solid to liquid ratio and three humic acid dose (0, 50, and 100 mg/l) were used. After shaking (24 h, room temperature) and subsequently filtration (0.22 μm), the supernatants were analyzed for heavy metals, redox potential and pH. The heavy metals mobility was assessed using extraction methods before and after treatments. The soils had alkaline pH values, conductivity ranged between 8 and 35 mS/cm, with low organic matter. Total concentrations of Vanadium (V) (10.80 to 175.00 mg/kg), Lead (Pb) (7.31 to 90.10 mg/kg), Antimonium (Sb) (0.83 to 101.00 mg/kg), and Arsenic (As) (9.53 to 2691.00 mg/kg) exceeded several times the EPA`s recommended values for soils. At 100 mg/L HA the removal efficiencies for V, Pb, Sb, and As were 32, 68, 77, and 82% respectively. According to the extraction procedure V, Pb, Sb, and As species are mainly as oxidizable and residual fractions. According to the results, the target mine site is contaminated with harmful elements. It can be concluded that the use of humic acid is a good alternative as a

  4. Assessment of bioavailability of heavy metal pollutants using soil isolates of Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, Gummuluru S R; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Biotests conducted with plants are presently used to estimate metal bioavailability in contaminated soils. But when plants are grown in soils, especially the plants with fine roots, root collection is easily biased and tedious. Indeed, at harvest, small amounts of soil can adhere to roots, resulting in overestimation of root metal content, and the finest roots are often discarded from the analysis because of their difficult and almost impossible recovery. This report presents a novel method for assessing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils using microalgae. Two species of green unicellular microalgae were isolated from two highly contaminated soils and identified by phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses as Chlorella sp. RBM and Chlorella sp. RHM. These two cultures were used to determine the metal uptake from metal-contaminated soils of South Australia as a novel, cost-effective, simple and rapid method for assessing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. The suggested method is an attempt to achieve a realistic estimate of bioavailability which overcomes the inherent drawback of root metal contamination in the bioavailability indices so far reported.

  5. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  6. 土壤重金属污染与人体健康%Soil heavy metal pollution and human health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向宏; 郑国璋

    2016-01-01

    Soil heavy metals mainly through the "soil- crop - the human body" or "soil-crop- animals-the human food chain system into the human body, endanger human body health. Through the analysis of soil heavy metal mercury ( Hg) , cadmium ( Cd) , lead ( Pb) , chromium ( Cr) , arsenic ( As) contamination in food and vegetables accumulation and its harm to human body health, that is close to the soil heavy metal pollution and human health.%土壤重金属主要通过“土壤-农作物-人体”或“土壤-农作物-动物-人体”食物链系统进入人体,危害人体健康。通过分析土壤重金属汞( Hg)、镉( Cd)、铅( Pb)、铬( Cr)、砷( As)在粮食和蔬菜中积累及其对人体健康的危害,表明土壤重金属污染与人体健康关系密切。

  7. Heavy metal pollution in soil associated with a large-scale cyanidation gold mining region in southeast of Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Different gold mining and smelting processes can lead to distinctive heavy metal contamination patterns and results. This work examined heavy metal pollution from a large-scale cyanidation gold mining operation, which is distinguished from artisanal and small-scale amalgamation gold mining, in Jilin Province, China. A total of 20 samples including one background sample were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings pond in June 2013. These samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and degree of pollution as well as sources of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, and Hg. The mean concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cu (819.67, 0.12, and 46.92 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil samples from the gold mine area exceeded local background values. The mean Hg content was less than the first-class standard of the Environmental Quality for Soils, which suggested that the cyanidation method is helpful for reducing Hg pollution. The geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor results indicated clear signs that enrichment was present for Pb, Cu, and Hg, with the presence of serious Pb pollution and moderate presence to none of Hg and Cu pollution. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there were three metal sources: (1) Pb, Cd, Cu, and As came from anthropogenic sources; (2) Cr and Zn were naturally occurring; whereas (3) Hg and Ni had a mix of anthropogenic and natural sources. Moreover, the tailings dam plays an important role in intercepting the tailings. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk assessment results showed that the study area poses a potentially strong risk to the ecological health. Furthermore, Pb and Hg (due to high concentration and high toxicity, respectively) are major pollutants on the risk index, and both Pb and Hg pollution should be of great concern at the Haigou gold mines in Jilin, China.

  8. Preliminary Study on Heavy Metal Pollution Status of Farmland Soil at Two Sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli; DUAN; Shuangyan; WANG; Zumin; ZHANG; Zhouping; YANG; Hua; ZHEN

    2013-01-01

    The heavy metal content of the farmland soil at two sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway is measured to make a preliminary evaluation on its heavy metal pollution status.After digestion and volume fixation of the soil samples collected,measure the Cu,Zn,Cd,Pb and Cr content with atomic absorption spectrophotometry and evaluate the measured data according to Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard to obtain the contamination status.Cu,Zn and Cd content of the farmland soil for sections of Cheng-Guan Expressway goes beyond Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard,while the Pb and Cr content meets Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard.Pb and Cr content of the farmland soil at two sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway is in safe state,while the Cu,Zn and Cd content is in a mild contamination state.Cu,Zn and Cd are the main pollution elements.

  9. Removal of heavy metals from polluted soil using the citric acid fermentation broth: a promising washing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjiao; Gao, Yuntao; Xiong, Huabin

    2017-04-01

    The citric acid fermentation broth was prepared and it was employed to washing remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. A well-defined washing effect was obtained, the removal percentages using citric acid fermentation broth are that 48.2% for Pb, 30.6% for Cu, 43.7% for Cr, and 58.4% for Cd and higher than that using citric acid solution. The kinetics of heavy metals desorption can be described by the double constant equation and Elovich equation and is a heterogeneous diffusion process. The speciation analysis shows that the citric acid fermentation broth can effectively reduce bioavailability and environmental risk of heavy metals. Spectroscopy characteristics analysis suggests that the washing method has only a small effect on the mineral composition and does not destroy the framework of soil system. Therefore, the citric acid fermentation broth is a promising washing agent and possesses a potential practical application value in the field of remediation of soils with a good washing performance.

  10. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchiol

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextraction. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoextraction of metals from soils and their accumulation in plants.

  11. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (i the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has a strong potential as a natural, solar-energy driven remediation approach for the treatment of soils and sediments polluted. Research has focused several aspects of the process of uptake, translocation and storage of heavy metals in plants. However we can not predict when the technique could find practical application on large scale. Beyond the evaluation of the best suited species, little has been inquired on the multiple aspects of the agronomic management of phytoextraction. This review provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoextraction of metals from soils and their accumulation in plants.

  12. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides.

  13. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray. The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg. In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.

  14. Multivariate Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals Pollution Along Irbid – Zarqa Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana’a Odat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, selected statistical methods (Correlation analysis, Principal component analysis and Multivariate analysis were used to determine the heavy metal accumulation and itscontrolling factor and to identify the origin of these metals in soil samples collected from sediment of Irbid, Jordan. Approach: Twenty one soil samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for some heavy metals by atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method and multivariate statistical techniques. Results: The overall decreasing metal concentration order was: Fe > K > Mg > Mn >Na > Cu >Pb > Zn . Significantly positive correlation was only found between Cu, Mn and Zn in one hand and between PH and NO3 in the other hand. Factor analysis shows that sediment quality data consists of four major components accounting for 74.982% of cumulative variance of the contamination: Conclusion: This study concluded that the concentrations of all metals measured in Irbid can be considered to present a low level of contamination and that multivariate statistical analysis is a useful tool in understanding contaminants relationships.

  15. Heavy metal accumulation and ecosystem engineering by two common mine site-nesting ant species: implications for pollution-level assessment and bioremediation of coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shbbir R; Singh, Satish K; Rastogi, Neelkamal

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the abundance, heavy metal content, and the impact of ecosystem engineering activities of two coal mine site-inhabiting ant species, Cataglyphis longipedem and Camponotus compressus. The abundance of Ct. longipedem increased while that of C. compressus decreased, with increasing soil pollution. Correspondence analysis reveals a close association between soil heavy metal concentrations and Ct. longipedem abundance, but this association is lacking in the case of C. compressus. Cataglyphis ants which occupy stress-characterized niches appear to be pre-adapted to tolerate heavy metal pollution. Higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in Ct. longipedem may contribute to the strengthening of the cuticular structures, necessary for nest excavation in the hard, arid soil and for single load carrying. C. compressus ants appear to be pollution sensitive. Their higher Fe content may be related to metal uptake via plant-derived liquids and species-specific regulatory mechanisms. The metal pollution index and biota-to-soil accumulation factors, calculated by using the ant body metal content of the two species, indicate an overall decrease of soil heavy metal concentrations with increase of the site age, which reflects the degree of pollution related to the mine site age. The concentrations of total and available heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu) were significantly lower in the ant nest debris soil as compared to the reference soil. The results of the present study highlight the role of ants as bioindicators and in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  16. 关中地区农业土壤重金属污染评价%Assessment on heavy metals pollution of agricultural soil in Guanzhong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国璋; 岳乐平; 李智佩

    2006-01-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from Heihui irrigated area, Jiaokou irrigated area, Qianhe river valley and Jinghe river valley (hereafter Heihui, Jiaokou, Qianhe and Jinghe for short respectively) of Guanzhong District. According to the Environment Quality Standard for Soil (GB15618-1995II), we evaluated the pollution status of heavy metals (Cd, As, Cr and Pb) that could seriously endanger soil environment and human health by using single-factor index and synthetic pollution index methods. The results indicate that the synthetic pollution indices P of soil heavy metals are less than 0.7 in Heihui, Jiaokou, Qianhe and Jinghe of Guanzhong, the single-factor indices Pi of soil heavy metals of most soil samples are less than 0.7, so the soil environmental quality is in a good condition in Guanzhong on the whole; the enrichment degree of soil heavy metals is in the order of Heihui, Jinghe, Qianhe and Jiaokou; the contaminated degree of soil heavy metals has the feature of Cd > As > Cr > Pb; heavy metals contents in the cultivated horizon soil are generally higher than those in its underlayer soil, heavy metals contents of soil have the characteristic of enriching towards the cultivated horizon; Cd exceeds standard in the soil samples HS07a, b and HS08a, b at the Yangtao orchard in Heihui and in the soil sample QHS01a at the suburban vegetable plot in Qianhe, which was mainly caused by the long-term irrational use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide.

  17. Genetically modified plants in phytoremediation of heavy metal and metalloid soil and sediment pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrba, Pavel; Najmanova, Jitka; Macek, Tomas; Ruml, Tomas; Mackova, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation to clean up metal- and metalloid-contaminated soil or sediments has gained increasing attention as environmental friendly and cost effective. Achievements of the last decade suggest that genetic engineering of plants can be instrumental in improving phytoremediation. Transgenic approaches successfully employed to promote phytoextraction of metals (mainly Cd, Pb, Cu) and metalloids (As, Se) from soil by their accumulation in the aboveground biomass involved mainly implementation of metal transporters, improved production of enzymes of sulphur metabolism and production of metal-detoxifying chelators - metallothioneins and phytochelatins. Plants producing bacterial mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase can covert the toxic ion or organomercury to metallic Hg volatized from the leaf surface. Phytovolatization of selenium compounds was promoted in plants overexpressing genes encoding enzymes involved in production of gas methylselenide species. This paper provides a broad overview of the evidence supporting suitability and prospects of transgenic research in phytoremediation of heavy metals and metalloids.

  18. PILLARED ZEOLITES AMENDMENTS INFLUENCE FROM POLLUTED SOIL ON HEAVY METALS BIOACCUMULATION IN TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMARANDA MASU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropic activities, the presence of metals in polluted soils has effects on plants development and metals bioaccumulation into trophic levels. In this paper, were followed experiments regarding the tomatoes development into polluted soils with 43.4 – 58.4 mg Cd/kg d.s. and 500- 633 mg Pb/kg d.s. Nickel, zinc and copper content in soils are in the range of diffuse pollution values. Comparatively, an experiment was realized with polluted soils and amended with pillared zeolites. Pillared zeolites change metals distribution in soil fractions and their solubility. Tomato plants grew onto polluted soils, but did not present fruits. Tomatoes from polluted and amended soils presented fruits and metals in tissues (Zn  Cu  Ni. Zinc concentration was five times greater then Ni. Fruits do not accumulate cadmium and lead.

  19. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  20. [Concentrations and pollution assessment of soil heavy metals at different water-level altitudes in the draw-down areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye-Chun; Lei, Bo; Yang, San-Ming; Zhang, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of 175 m trial impounding (2008 and 2009) of the Three Gorges Reservoir on soil heavy metals, three draw-down areas with similar geological environment and history of land-use in Zhongxian County were chosen. Altogether 36 surface soil samples (including 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer) from water-level altitude of 160 m and 170 m were obtained, and their heavy metals concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index were applied to assess the heavy metals pollution status and potential ecological risk, respectively. Results indicated that although the inundation period of 160 m was 224 d longer than that of 170 m, significant difference in concentrations of heavy metals were not found between the two water-level altitudes. Except for Cd, most of the heavy metals highly related with each other positively. According to the geoaccumulation index, the pollution extent of the heavy metals followed the order: As > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn = Pb > Cr. The I(geo) value of As, Cd and Cu were 0.45, 0.39 and 0.06, respectively, indicating that the soil was only lightly polluted by these heavy metals. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index followed the order: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn. Cd with E(i) values of 59.10, had a medium potential for ecological risk,while As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn only had a light potential. Consequently, although As, Cd and Cu were the major heavy metals with potential ecological risk for surface soil pollution in the draw-down areas in Zhongxian County, the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  1. Enhancing cleanup of heavy metal-polluted landfill soils and improving soil microbial activity using green technology with ferrous sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfills have led to some of the most intense battles over pollution that has ever been seen. With the population skyrocketing worldwide, these landfills will only become more of a public issue as time goes on. Heavy metals from several sources especially in landfills are an increasingly urgent pro...

  2. Combining a finite mixture distribution model with indicator kriging to delineate and map the spatial patterns of soil heavy metal pollution in Chunghua County, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Cheng, Bai-You; Shyu, Guey-Shin; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the natural background, anthropogenic background and distribution of contamination caused by heavy metal pollutants in soil in Chunghua County of central Taiwan by using a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM). The probabilities of contaminated area distribution are mapped using single-variable indicator kriging and multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) with the FMDM cut-off values and regulation thresholds for heavy metals. FMDM results indicate that Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn can be individually fitted by a mixture model representing the background and contamination distributions of the four metals in soil. The FMDM cut-off values for contamination caused by the metals are close to the regulation thresholds, except for the cut-off value of Zn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve validates that indicator kriging and MVIK with FMDM cut-off values can reliably delineate heavy metals contamination, particularly for areas lacking background information and high heavy metal concentrations in soil.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF SEDIMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    KEY WORDS: Fosu lagoon, Heavy metal, Enrichment, Pollution ... Both anthropogenic pressures and natural processes account for degradation in surface water ... only play an important role in river water pollution but can also provide a ...

  4. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil ...

  5. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  6. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-03-22

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution.

  7. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study’s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution. PMID:28327541

  8. Changes in the biological activity of heavy metal- and oil-polluted soils in urban recreation territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, T. A.; Zabelina, O. N.

    2017-04-01

    Urban recreation areas of different sizes were investigated in the city of Vladimir. The degree of their contamination with heavy metals and oil products was revealed. The content of heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible concentrations by more than 2.5 times. The total content of heavy metals decreased in the sequence: Zn > Pb > Co > Mn > Cr > Ni. The mass fraction of oil products in the studied soils varied within the range of 0.016-0.28 mg/g. The reaction of soils in public gardens and a boulevard was neutral or close to neutral; in some soil samples, it was weakly alkaline. The top layer of all the soils significantly differed from the lower one by the higher alkalinity promoting the deposition of heavy metals there. As the content of Ni, Co, and Mn increased and exceeded the background concentrations, but did not reach the three-fold value of the maximum permissible concentrations, the activity of catalase was intensified. The stimulating effect of nickel on the catalase activity was mostly pronounced at the neutral soil reaction. The urease activity increased when heavy metals and oil products were present together in the concentrations above the background ones, but not higher than the three-fold maximal permissible concentrations for heavy metals and 0.3 mg/g for the content of oil products. The nitrifying activity was inhibited by oil hydrocarbons that were recorded in the soils in different amounts.

  9. Heavy metals pollution in soil profiles from seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in a Chinese delta: Levels, distributions and toxic risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangliang; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Jia, Jia; Wen, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    Soil profile samples were collected in seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China in autumn and spring to investigate the levels, distributions and toxic risks of heavy metals in soil profiles. Total elemental contents of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS). Results indicated that the contents of determined heavy metals showed non-negligible depth variations (coefficient of variation > 10%), and their distribution patterns were irregular. Compared with other heavy metals, both As and Cd presented higher enrichment factors (EF) based on the classification of EF values (moderate enrichment for As while significant enrichment for Cd). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn might derive from the common source, while As and Cd shared another similar source. The toxic unit (TU) values of these heavy metals did not exceed probable effect levels (PEL) except for Ni. Both As and Ni showed higher contributions to the sum of TU (∑TUs), which indicated they were the primary concerns of heavy metals pollution. Generally, As, Cd and Ni should be paid more attention for wetlands managers and policy makers to avoid potential ecotoxicity in the study area. The findings of this study could contribute to the prevention and control of heavy metals pollution in estuarine wetlands.

  10. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: progresses and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-03-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.

  11. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Iqbal LONE; Zhen-li HE; Peter J. STOFFELLA; Xiao-e YANG

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.

  12. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources. PMID:18357623

  13. [Pollution and Potential Ecology Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in River Water, Top Sediments on Bed and Soils Along Banks of Bortala River, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-yong; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Jiang, Feng-qing

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the sources, pollution status and potential ecology risks of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in the surface water, top sediment of river bed and soil along banks of Bortala River, which locates in the oasis region of Xinjiang, northwest China. Results showed that: (1) As a whole, contents of 7 tested heavy metals of Bortala River were low, while the maximum values of Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr in the river water were significantly higher than those of Secondary Category of the Surface Water Quality Standards of People's Republic of China (GB 3838-2002) and Drinking Water Guideline from WHO. Analysis showed that the heavy metals contents of top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks were significantly higher than those of the river water. (Correlation analysis and enrichment factor (EF) calculation showed that in the river water, top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks, Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr mainly originated from industrial emissions, urban and rural anthropogenic activities, transportation and agricultural production activities; While Cu, Zn, and As mainly originated from natural geological background and soil parent materials. (3) Pollution assessment showed that in three matrices, the single factor pollution index(Pi) and the integrated pollution index (Pz) of 7 heavy metals were all lower than 1, and they all belonged to safe and clean levels. (4) Potential ecology risk evaluation showed that as a whole the single factor potential ecological risk (Eir) and the integrated potential ecology risks (RI) of 7 heavy metals were relatively low, and would not cause threats to the health of water and soil environment of river basin, while the potential ecology risks of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr were significantly higher than those of other heavy metals.

  14. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil and Restoration Technology%土壤重金属污染及其修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄占斌; 焦海华

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution was an important problem influencing on agricultural production and threatening people's health and safety in China. The authors introduced the definition, resources, harming and the main restoration technology of heavy metal in farmland soil, and discussed the development of restoration technology for heavy metal pollution soil and its application.%重金属污染已经成为影响中国农业生产和威胁人民健康安全的重要环境问题.笔者借此对重金属污染,农田重金属的来源、危害及其主要的修复技术进行分析,并对重金属污染土壤的修复技术的发展进行探讨.

  15. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yongtao [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou (China); Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Universite Paris-Diderot - IPGP, Case 7052, Batiment Lamarck, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becquer, Thierry [UMR 137 Biodiversite et Fonctionnement des Sols, IRD/Universites Paris VI and XII, SupAgro - Bat. 12, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 2 (France); Dai Jun [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou (China); Quantin, Cecile [UMR 8148 IDES, Universite Paris Sud XI - CNRS, Bat. 504, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Benedetti, Marc F. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Universite Paris-Diderot - IPGP, Case 7052, Batiment Lamarck, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)], E-mail: benedetti@ipgp.fr

    2009-04-15

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils. - First evidence of the real free metal ion concentrations in acid mine drainage context in tropical systems.

  16. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Tao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai, Jun; Quantin, Cécile; Benedetti, Marc F

    2009-04-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils.

  17. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution Around the Dabaoshan Mine, Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinity of the Dabaoshan Mine, Guangdong Province, China, was studied through determination of total concentrations and chemical speciation of the toxic metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that over the past decades, the environmental pollution was caused by a combination of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ph, with tailings and acid mine drainage being the main pollution sources affecting soils.Significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were found in the tailings as compared with paddy, garden,and control soils, with averages of 1486, 2516, 6.42, and 429 mg kg-1, respectively. These metals were continuously dispersed downstream from the tailings and waste waters, and therefore their concentrations in the paddy soils were as high as 567, 1 140, 2.48, and 191 mg kg-1, respectively, being significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) as compared with those in the garden soils. The results of sequential extraction of the above metals from all the soil types showed that the residual fraction was the dominant form. However, the amounts of metals that were bound to Fe-Mn oxides and organic matter were relatively higher than those bound to carbonates or those that existed in exchangeable forms. As metals could be transformed from an inert state to an active state, the potential environmental risk due to these metals would increase with time.

  18. Ecotoxicological characteristic of a soil polluted by radioactive elements and heavy metals before and after its bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, P.; Groudev, S.; Spasova, I.; Nikolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon soils from southeastern Bulgaria are heavily polluted with radionuclides (uranium, radium) and toxic heavy metals (copper and lead) due to the winds transportation of fine particles from flotation dumps to the soil surface. As a result of this, the polluted soils are characterized by a slightly alkaline pH (7.82) and positive net neutralization potential (+136.8 kg CaCO3/t). A fresh sample of cinnamon soil was subjected to remediation under laboratory conditions in four lysimeters each containing 70 kg of soil. The preliminary study revealed that most of the pollutants were presented as carbonate, reducible and oxidisable mobility fractions, i.e. pollutants ions were specifically adsorbed by carbonate and ferric iron minerals or were capsulated in sulfides. The applied soil treatment was connected with leaching of the pollutants located mainly in the horizon A, their transportation through the soil profile as soluble forms, and their precipitation in the rich-in-clay subhorizon B3. The efficiency of leaching depended on the activity of the indigenous microflora and on the chemical processes connected with solubilization of pollutants and formation of stable complexes with some organic compounds, chloride and hydrocarbonate ions. These processes were considerably enhanced by adding hay to the horizon A and irrigating the soil with water solutions containing the above-mentioned ions and some nutrients. After 18 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in the different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the different soil layers. The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the data obtained were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of the experiment. The best leaching of pollutants from horizon A was measured in the variants where soil mulching was applied. For example, the best leaching of lead (54.5 %) was found in the variant combining this technique and irrigation with solutions

  19. Geofractionation of heavy metals and application of indices for pollution prediction in paddy field soil of Tumpat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Ai Yin; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigates the concentration of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu in the paddy field soils collected from Tumpat, Kelantan. Soil samples were treated with sequential extraction to distinguish the anthropogenic and lithogenic origin of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu. ELFE and oxidizable-organic fractions were detected as the lowest accumulation of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu. Therefore, all the heavy metals examined were concentrated, particularly in resistant fraction, indicating that those heavy metals occurred and accumulated in an unavailable form. The utilization of agrochemical fertilizers and pesticides might not elevate the levels of heavy metals in the paddy field soils. In comparison, the enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index for Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu suggest that these heavy metals have the potential to cause environmental risk, although they present abundance in resistant fraction. Therefore, a complete study should be conducted based on the paddy cycle, which in turn could provide a clear picture of heavy metals distribution in the paddy field soils.

  20. Soil pollution in Mitrovica town surroundings and absorption of heavy metals by carrot plant

    OpenAIRE

    , Afete Musliu; Seit Shallari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper is studied a heavy meal presence in soil in industrial zone surroundings in Mitrovica town and its impact on the vegetable species, referring on this paper to a carrot. The town of Mitrovica, has the largest complex metallurgy and mining in Europe known as "Trepca", known for exploitation of lead, zinc and cadmium, which town is one of the most polluted cities in Kosovo as in air, soil and water, in particular neighbourhood of industrial zone. The purpose of this work is to make...

  1. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  2. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W

    2010-09-01

    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  3. Application of stochastic models in identification and apportionment of heavy metal pollution sources in the surface soils of a large-scale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-16

    As heavy metals occur naturally in soils at measurable concentrations and their natural background contents have significant spatial variations, identification and apportionment of heavy metal pollution sources across large-scale regions is a challenging task. Stochastic models, including the recently developed conditional inference tree (CIT) and the finite mixture distribution model (FMDM), were applied to identify the sources of heavy metals found in the surface soils of the Pearl River Delta, China, and to apportion the contributions from natural background and human activities. Regression trees were successfully developed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, and Hg in 227 soil samples from a region of over 7.2 × 10(4) km(2) based on seven specific predictors relevant to the source and behavior of heavy metals: land use, soil type, soil organic carbon content, population density, gross domestic product per capita, and the lengths and classes of the roads surrounding the sampling sites. The CIT and FMDM results consistently indicate that Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr in the surface soils of the PRD were contributed largely by anthropogenic sources, whereas As, Ni, and Hg in the surface soils mostly originated from the soil parent materials.

  4. Heavy metal stress detection and monitoring via LED-induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of Zea mays L. seedlings aimed at polluted soil phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; da Silva, Airon José; do Nascimento, Clístenes W. A.

    2012-03-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy is employed to detect and study the time evolution of metal stress of Zea mays L. seedlings aiming polluted soil phytoremediation. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of intact leaves are analyzed using 405 nm LED excitation. Red (Fr) and far-red (FFr) emissions around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, are examined as a function of the heavy metal concentration. The fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr was employed to monitor the effect of heavy metal upon the physiological state of the plants before signs of visual stress became apparent. The chlorophyll fluorescence analysis permitted detection and evaluation of the damage caused by heavy metal soil contamination in the early stages of the plants growing process, which is not feasible using conventional in vitro spectral analysis.

  5. Chemical Speciation and Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Hazards in Two Army Shooting Range Backstop Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    The chemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in two shooting range backstop soils in Korea were studied. Both soils were highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Sb. The chemical speciation of heavy metals reflected the present status of contamination, which could help in promoting management practices. We-rye soil had a higher proportion of exchangeable and carbonate bound metals and water-extractable Cd and Sb than the Cho-do soil. Bioavailable Pb represented 42 % of the total Pb content in both soils. A significant amount of Sb was found in the two most bioavailable fractions, amounting to ~32 % in the soil samples, in good agreement with the batch leaching test using water. Based on the values of ecological risk indices, both soils showed extremely high potential risk and may represent serious environmental problems.

  6. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Liu, Xueping; Bai, Jinmei; Shih, Kaimin; Zeng, Eddy Y; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-09-01

    Heavy metals in the surface soils from lands of six different use types in one of the world's most densely populated regions, which is also a major global manufacturing base, were analyzed to assess the impact of urbanization and industrialization on soil pollution. A total of 227 surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for major heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate analysis combined with enrichment factors showed that surface soils from the region (>7.2 × 10(4) km(2)) had mean Cd, Cu, Zn, and As concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, with Cd, Cu, and Zn clearly contributed by anthropogenic sources. Soil pollution by Pb was more widespread than the other heavy metals, which was contributed mostly by anthropogenic sources. The results also indicate that Mn, Co, Fe, Cr, and Ni in the surface soils were primarily derived from lithogenic sources, while Hg and As contents in the surface soils were controlled by both natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollution level and potential ecological risk of the surface soils both decreased in the order of: urban areas > waste disposal/treatment sites ∼ industrial areas > agricultural lands ∼ forest lands > water source protection areas. These results indicate the significant need for the development of pollution prevention and reduction strategies to reduce heavy metal pollution for regions undergoing fast industrialization and urbanization.

  7. Influence of Heavy Metals and PCBs Pollution on the Enzyme Activity and Microbial Community of Paddy Soils around an E-Waste Recycling Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin Tang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m. The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg−1 and Cu (69.2 mg·kg−1 were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg−1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination.

  8. Influence of heavy metals and PCBs pollution on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils around an e-waste recycling workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Litao; Khan, Muhammad I; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-03-14

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m). The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg-1) and Cu (69.2 mg·kg-1) were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg-1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination.

  9. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

  10. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. ... in intensive research aiming at understanding metal interactions in soil and their removal in an efficient way. ... This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal ...

  11. Research Progress of Artificial Forest in the Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiafang, MA; Guangtao, MENG; Liping, HE; Guixiang, LI

    2017-01-01

    (1) Remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metals has become a hot topic in the world, and phytoremediation technology is the most widely used. (2) In addition to traditional economic benefits, ecological benefits of artificial forest have been more and more important, which are very helpful to soil polluted with heavy metals in the environment. (3) The characteristics of heavy metal pollution of soil and plantations of repair mechanism have been reviewed, and the current mining areas, wetlands, urban plantations on heavy metal elements have enriched the research results. The purpose is to find a new path for governance of heavy metal soil pollution.

  12. Combining a finite mixture distribution model with indicator kriging to delineate and map the spatial patterns of soil heavy metal pollution in Chunghua County, central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Yupin, E-mail: yplin@ntu.edu.t [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng Baiyou [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China); Shyu, G.-S. [Department of Environmental Management, Tungnan University, 152, Section 3, PeiShen Road, ShenKeng, Taipei 222, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-K. [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    This study identifies the natural background, anthropogenic background and distribution of contamination caused by heavy metal pollutants in soil in Chunghua County of central Taiwan by using a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM). The probabilities of contaminated area distribution are mapped using single-variable indicator kriging and multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) with the FMDM cut-off values and regulation thresholds for heavy metals. FMDM results indicate that Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn can be individually fitted by a mixture model representing the background and contamination distributions of the four metals in soil. The FMDM cut-off values for contamination caused by the metals are close to the regulation thresholds, except for the cut-off value of Zn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve validates that indicator kriging and MVIK with FMDM cut-off values can reliably delineate heavy metals contamination, particularly for areas lacking background information and high heavy metal concentrations in soil. - Effectively determine pollution threshold and map contaminated areas.

  13. Effect of polluted water on soil and plant contamination by heavy metals in El-Mahla El-Kobra, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem Mahmoud, Esawy; Ghoneim, Adel Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The discharge of untreated waste water in Zefta drain and drain no. 5 is becoming a problem for many farmers in the El-Mahla El-Kobra area, Egypt. The discharged water contains high levels of contaminants considered hazardous to the ecosystem. Some plants, soil, water, and sediment samples were collected from the El-Mahla El-Kobra area to evaluate the contamination by heavy metals. The results showed that the heavy metals, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water of Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded permissible limits for irrigation. In rice and maize shoots grown in soils irrigated by contaminated water from Zefta drain and drain no. 5, the bioaccumulation factors for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn were higher than 1.0. The heavy metals content of irrigated soils from Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded the upper limit of background heavy metals. In this study, the mean contaminant factor values of the drain no. 5 sediments revealed that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni > 6, indicating very high contamination. The bioaccumulation coefficient values of Cynodon dactylon, Phragmites australis, and Typha domingensis aquatic plants growing in Zefta drain are high. These species can be considered as hyperaccumulators for the decontamination of contaminated water.

  14. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention was paid

  15. Modeling of Heavy Metal Transformation in Soil Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, Kira; Nikovskaya, Galina N.

    2017-04-01

    The intensification of industrial activity leads to an increase in heavy metals pollution of soils. In our opinion, sludge from biological treatment of municipal waste water, stabilized under aerobic-anaerobic conditions (commonly known as biosolid), may be considered as concentrate of natural soil. In their chemical, physical and chemical and biological properties these systems are similar gel-like nanocomposites. These contain microorganisms, humic substances, clay, clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds, and so on involved into heteropolysaccharides matrix. It is known that microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of different nature substances in soil and its health maintenance. The regularities of transformation of heavy metal compounds in soil ecosystem were studied at the model of biosolid. At biosolid swelling its structure changing (gel-sol transition, weakening of coagulation contacts between metal containing nanoparticles, microbial cells and metabolites, loosening and even destroying of the nanocomposite structure) can occur [1, 2]. The promotion of the sludge heterotrophic microbial activities leads to solubilization of heavy metal compounds in the system. The microbiological process can be realized in alcaligeneous or acidogeneous regimes in dependence on the type of carbon source and followed by the synthesis of metabolites with the properties of flocculants and heavy metals extragents [3]. In this case the heavy metals solubilization (bioleaching) in the form of nanoparticles of hydroxycarbonate complexes or water soluble complexes with oxycarbonic acids is observed. Under the action of biosolid microorganisms the heavy metals-oxycarbonic acids complexes can be transformed (catabolised) into nano-sizing heavy metals- hydroxycarbonates complexes. These ecologically friendly complexes and microbial heteropolysaccharides are able to interact with soil colloids, stay in the top soil profile, and improve soil structure due

  16. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of heavy metals pollution in the water, soil and sediments environment of the Lean River-Poyang Lake Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Min-Fei; Li, Ling-Yu; Xu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Pu-Qing; Xiong, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Xue-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Overlying water, sediments, surface soils in the typical wetland areas of Lean River and Poyang Lake which were rich in non-ferrous metal mineral resources on both sides of the river, were chosen for monitoring heavy metals including copper, lead and cadmium of base flow in average season, flood season, and dry season in 2012. Statistical analysis methods were coupled to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of heavy metals pollution and identify the main sources. The results indicated that the concentrations of copper were the highest in all samples of each sampling sites in the Lean River-Poyang Lake wetland. And the content values of copper, lead and cadmium in different samples of different sampling sites also showed that the content values of copper were higher than those of lead, and the content values of lead were also higher than those of cadmium. The results also showed that the heavy metals pollution of copper, lead and cadmium in flood season was the heaviest whereas the heavy metals pollution in dry season was comparatively light. The results of the contents of the three kinds of heavy metals elements in different sampling sites of the watersheds of lean River showed that the contents of copper in the samples from the upstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. And the contents of lead in the samples from the downstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sampling sites. The contents of cadmium in the samples from the midstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. The first principal component representing copper pollution explained 36. 99% of the total variance of water quality. The second principal component concerning representing lead pollution explained 30. 12% of the total variance. The correlation analysis results showed that there were significant positive correlations among the contents of copper

  17. Review: Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yan-de; HE Zhen-li; YANG Xiao-e

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes.

  18. Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes. PMID:17323432

  19. The associations of heavy metals with crystalline iron oxides in the polluted soils around the mining areas in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui; Tan, Nianhao; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Juju; Liang, Xiaoliang; Qu, Mingkai; Feng, Xionghan; Qiu, Guohong; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan

    2016-10-01

    In current selective sequential extraction (SSE) methods, heavy metals associated well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides are not well defined and considered, and usually fall into residual forms, which actually make their mobility and environmental risk underestimated. This study compared various fractions of heavy metals in samples of mining tailings and nearby soils under different land uses in Guangdong Province of China. Iron oxides in these soils were mainly Al-substituted goethites and/or hematites. Independent of the land uses, the percentages of various Cd fractions in the soils decrease in the order of well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated (27.2-91.2%) > residual (2.1-37.0%) > reducible FeMn oxides (3.2-45.7%) > exchangeable (1.0-28.2%) > organic-associated form (0-5.1%). Pb mainly existes in the residual fraction (25.9-74.5%), followed by crystalline iron oxyhydroxides-associated (0.4-69.0%) and reducible fractions (2.4-40.4%). Zn mainly exists in the residual fraction (25.4-85.9%), followed by the well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated fraction (6.4-55.0%). However, Cu mainly existes in the residual form and the fractionation of Cu varies obviously between samples. The association of these metals with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides in the soils decreases in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. These results suggest that in heavy-metal-polluted weathered soils in tropical and subtropical areas enriched with iron oxides, it is essential to assess potential bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals bound to well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides with appropriate procedures in the fractionation measurement. The modified Tessier method present here can be used to quantify the fractions of heavy metals in such areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of soil heavy metal pollution based on GCM_CB model%基于GCM_CB模型的土壤重金属污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何厅厅; 赵艳玲; 李建华; 付馨; 王亚云; 曾纪勇

    2012-01-01

    Grey clustering method has been applied to the evaluation of soil heavy metal pollution.However,in the process of drawing clustering weights,this method only considers the heavy metal concentration and ignors its biotoxicity index which is an important indicator to measure the toxicity intensity of the heavy metal.In order to reflect the pollution levels of soil heavy metal more objectively and accurately,biotoxicity index was introduced into the clustering weights to build the GCM_CB soil heavy metal pollution evaluation model.Soil heavy metal data of 10 areas in eastern China were estimated,appraised and compared with other results evaluated by common evaluation methods.The conclusion is that the majority results are basically same except for sample 4 and sample 9.Their pollution level is changed from level I to level II for the element Hg with high toxicity,which improves the sensitivity of the evaluation method and makes it more coincided with the actual soil contamination of the area.%灰色聚类法已经运用于土壤重金属污染评价中,然而此法在确定聚类权重时仅考虑重金属浓度,忽略了衡量重金属毒性强弱的重要指标生物毒性指数。为了更客观和准确地反映土壤重金属的污染程度,将生物毒性指数引入到聚类指标权重中,构建GCM_CB(grey clustering method_concentration and biotoxicity)土壤重金属污染评价模型。通过对华东某地区的10个区域土壤重金属污染进行分析评价,并与常用评价方法对比研究,表明:其多数样点的评价结果基本一致,但针对样品4和样品9中的元素Hg,因其强毒性,使得评价等级由I级定为II级,从而提高了评价方法的灵敏度,更加符合该区域的实际土壤污染情况。

  1. Uptake of heavy metals by plants from airborne deposition and polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. YLÄRANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of sulphur, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in spring wheat grain and straw, Italian rye grass, timothy and lettuce were studied in a three-year field experiment conducted in southern Finland near a copper-nickel smelter and at nonpolluted control sites. A pot experiment with copper- and nickel-contaminated soils and with a nonpolluted soil as the control was conducted to determine the copper and nickel concentrations in soils phytotoxic for plants. Forty, 200 or 1000 mg of copper or nickel as cloride was added to 2 litres of soil. The nickel and copper concentrations in the shoots of oats were measured. The zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and nickel concentrations varied between different plant species and also between experimental years. Near the smelter, the uptake of nickel by different plant species was very effective, as was copper uptake by lettuce, timothy and Italian rye grass. The same applied to the zinc and cadmium uptake of plants grown on plots. Nickel, cadmium and copper were easily accumulated by plants from air deposition. In the pot experiment, high nickel concentrations in soil were more phytotoxic for oats than were high copper concentrations. In acidic soil, nickel and copper concentrations lower than 20 and 100 mg/kg of soil, respectively, decreased the dry matter yield of oats shoots. Liming clearly decreased copper and nickel phytotoxity. In the most highly contaminated soil, the addition of Cu 20 mg/kg of soil decreased the yield of oats shoots.;

  2. Application of synthetic principal component analysis model to mine area farmland heavy metal pollution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-lu; WU Chao; WANG Wei-jun

    2008-01-01

    Referring to GB5618-1995 about heavy metal pollution, and using statistical analysis SPSS, the major pollutants of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution were identified by variable clustering analysis. Assessment and classification were done to the mine area farmland heavy metal pollution situation by synthetic principal components analysis (PCA). The results show that variable clustering analysis is efficient to identify the principal components of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution. Sort and clustering were done to the synthetic principal components scores of soil sample, which is given by synthetic principal components analysis. Data structure of soil heavy metal contaminations, relationships and pollution level of different soil samples are discovered. The results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution quality assessed and classified with synthetic component scores reflect the influence of both the major and compound heavy metal pol-lutants. Identification and assessment results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution can provide reference and guide to propose control measures of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution and focus on the key treatment region.

  3. Magnetic evidence for heavy metal pollution of topsoil in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Jiao; Ren, Feifan; Chen, Yuying; Ye, Fangzhou; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the results obtained from magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr) concentration measurements of soil profiles collected from arable land and urban parks in Baoshan District, an industrial district of Shanghai, China. The study focuses on the investigation of vertical variations in magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations and on correlations between magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations in soil profiles. The results demonstrate that magnetic enhancement in the surface layer of the soil profile is associated with increased heavy metal pollution. The enrichment factors (EF) and the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI-EF) are calculated for estimating the level of heavy metal pollution of soil profiles in the study. The significant positive correlations between heavy metal contents, enrichment factors (EF), Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-CF), modified Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-EF), and magnetic susceptibility (c) indicate that much of the heavy metal contamination in the study area is linked to combustion derived particulate emissions. The results confirm that the combined magnetic measurement and heavy metal concentration analysis could provide useful information for soil monitoring in urban environments. However, the use of magnetic technique to locate the heavy metal pollution boundary in the soil profile of this studied area should be confirmed by further geochemical analysis.

  4. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  5. Multi-criteria analysis of soil pollution by heavy metals in the vicinity of the Copper Smelting Plant in Bor (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVENKA PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the consequences on soil pollution of one hund­red years of manufacturing in the Copper Mining and Smelting Complex RTB-Bor (Serbia. Soil sediments were taken via a probe from the surface layer of the soil at twelve different measuring points. The measuring points were all within 20 km of the smelting plant, which included both urban and rural zones. Soil sampling was performed using a soil core sampler in such way that a core of a soil of radius 5 cm and depth of 30 cm was removed. Subsequently, the samples were analyzed for pH and heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni and Hg using different spectrometric methods. The obtained results for the heavy metal contents in the samples show high values: 2,540 mg kg-1 Cu; 230 mg kg-1 Pb; 6 mg kg-1 Cd; 530 mg kg-1 Ni; 1,300 mg kg-1 Mn; 260 mg kg-1 As and 0.3 mg kg-1 Hg. In this study, critical zones of polluted soil were iden­tified and ranked according to their metal contents by the multi-criteria deci­sion method Preference Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation/Geo­metrical Analysis for Interactive Assistance – PROMETHEE/GAIA, which is the preferred multivariate method commonly used in chemometric studies. The ranking results clearly showed that the most polluted zones are at locations holding the vital functions of the town. Therefore, due to the high bioavail­abi­lity of heavy metals through com­plex reactions with organic species in the sediments, consequences for human health could drastically emerge if these metals enter the food chain.

  6. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Agricultural Soils of Siling Reservoir Watershed in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveedullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metals in agriculture soils above the permissible limit poses threats to public health. In this study, concentrations of seven metals were determined in agricultural soils from Yuhang county, Zhejiang, China. Multivariate statistical approaches were used to study the variation of metals in soils during summer and winter seasons. Contamination of soils was evaluated on the basis of enrichment factor (EF, geoaccumulation index (Igeo, contamination factor (Cf, and degree of contamination (Cdeg. Heavy metal concentrations were observed higher in winter as compared to summer season. Cr and Cd revealed random distribution with diverse correlations in both seasons. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu in the soils. Enrichment factor revealed significant enrichment (EF>5 of Zn, Cd, and Pb, whereas geoaccumulation index and contamination factor exhibited moderate to high contamination for Zn, Cr, Cd, and Pb. In light of the studied parameters, permissible limit to very high degree of contamination (Cdeg>16 was observed in both seasons.

  7. Progress of Phytoremediation on Soil Polluted by Heavy Metal%植物修复土壤重金属污染的研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩; 黄运新; 秦云; 邓少华

    2016-01-01

    植物修复技术被认为是治理重金属污染最为绿色的方法,因为此技术成本低、实施方便、无污染。超富集植物的研究是重金属污染植物修复的重点,然而一种植物由具有富集重金属特性到应用于现实的重金属污染修复并非易事。研究表明,在现实条件下,植物修复技术应用于治理土壤重金属污染中存在一些约束。本文系统地总结了目前超富集植物的研究方法和研究现状,通过分析超富集植物在现实条件下修复土壤重金属污染的不足,提出土壤重金属污染植物修复的方向。%Phytoremediation is considered to be the most green way to control heavy-metal pollution,because the tech-nology is low cost,easy to implement,and non-polluting.Hyperaccumulator applied in phytoremediation is the focus of remediation of heavy-metal pollution,but applyinging the heavy-metal enrichment plant in the reality is not easy.A lot of research found that,under realistic conditions,there are some constraints on phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy. We summarizes the studying methods and current status in hyperaccumulator.By analyzing the shortcomings on remedia-tion on soils polluted by heavy metal by under realistic conditions,we provided the studying direction on phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metal.

  8. Soil Contamination with Heavy Metals around Jinja Steel Rolling Mills in Jinja Municipality, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Namuhani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The concentration levels of heavy metals around the steel rolling mills did not appear to be of serious concern, except for copper and cadmium, which showed moderate pollution and moderate to strong pollution, respectively. All heavy metals were within the limits of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA residential soil standards and the Dutch intervention soil standards. Overall, soils around the Jinja steel rolling mills were slightly polluted with heavy metals, and measures therefore need to be taken to prevent further soil contamination with heavy metals.

  9. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in soil from San Luis Potosí, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier; Flores-Ramirez, Rogelio; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Orta-Garcia, Sandra Teresa; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Carrizalez-Yañez, Leticia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in soil from the city of San Luis Potosí in Mexico. In order to confirm the presence of the previously mentioned compounds, outdoor surface soil samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer for PBDEs, PCBs, DDT, and DDE. Meanwhile, heavy metals were quantified using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The total PBDEs levels ranged from 5.0 to 134 μg/kg dry weight (dw), with a total mean PBDEs level of 22.0 ± 32.5 μg/kg dw (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the total mean level in the studied soil was 21.6 ± 24.7 μg/kg dw (range, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and lead in soil samples were 7.20 ± 10.7 (range, 15.0 to 265 mg/kg dw), 0.45 ± 0.48 (range, San Luis Potosi is necessary.

  10. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  11. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and radioactivity in the urban soil of Priština City, Kosovo and Metohija.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulan, Ljiljana; Milenkovic, Biljana; Zeremski, Tijana; Milic, Gordana; Vuckovic, Biljana

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals content and radioactivity levels were measured in 27 soil samples collected from Priština, the capital of Kosovo and Metohija. The sixteen PAHs, twelve OCPs and six PCBs congeners were determined by gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. Although the use of PCBs and OCPs was prohibited decades ago residues of those compounds still existed in measurable concentrations in soils of Priština. PAHs were also present in analyzed samples but their mean concentration was significantly lower than mean concentrations of PAHs previously reported in urban areas in the world. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by the EDTA extraction protocols, along with their extractable concentrations. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The Shapiro-Wilk normality test found that activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were normally distributed. Radiological risk was estimated through the annual effective dose, gonadal dose equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes. Spearman correlation coefficient was used for analysis of correlations between physicochemical properties, heavy metal contents and radionuclide activity concentrations. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found, as well as among pairs of As-Cd and Co-Mn. Very strong positive correlation (0.838) at the 0.01 significance level was noted for Pb-Zn pair. Strong correlations indicate common occurrence of these elements in the nature, as well as geogenic association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of map similarity to magnetic pre-screening for heavy metal pollution assessment in top soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Roesler, W.; Ojha, G.

    2013-12-01

    From numerous published results, the link between magnetic concentration and heavy metal (HM) concentrations is well established. However, bivariate correlation analysis does not imply causality, and if there are extreme values, which often appear in magnetic data, they can lead to seemingly excellent correlation. It seems clear that site selection for chemical sampling based on magnetic pre-screening can deliver a superior result for outlining HM pollution, but this conclusion has only been drawn from qualitative evaluation so far. In this study, we use map similarity comparison techniques to demonstrate the usefulness of a combined magnetic-chemical approach quantitatively. We chose available data around the 'Schwarze Pumpe', a large coal burning power plant complex located in eastern Germany. The site of 'Schwarze Pumpe' is suitable for a demonstration study as soil in its surrounding is heavy fly-ash polluted, the magnetic natural background is very low, and magnetic investigations can be done in undisturbed forest soil. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) of top soil was measured by a Bartington MS2D surface sensor at 180 locations and by a SM400 downhole device in ~0.5m deep vertical sections at 90 locations. Cores from the 90 downhole sites were also studied for HM analysis. From these results 85 sites could be used to determine a spatial distribution map of HM contents reflecting the 'True' situation of pollution. Different sets comprising 30 sites were chosen by arbitrarily selection from the above 85 sample sites (we refer to four such maps here: S1-4). Additionally, we determined a 'Targeted' map from 30 sites selected on the basis of the pre-screening MS results. The map comparison process is as follows: (1) categorization of all absolute values into five classes by the Natural Breaks classification method; (2) use Delaunay triangulation for connecting the sample locations in the x-y plane; (3) determination of a distribution map of triangular planes with

  14. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  15. Study on Diffusion of Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Surface Soil%城市表层土壤重金属污染扩散研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一凡; 李敏; 张南

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid economic development and booming of population,the influence of human activities on urban environment is becoming increasingly prominent.People paid much more attentions to the issues of investigations into abnormalities of urban soil environment and environmental quality assessment based on these investigations so as to decide the evolution modes of urban soil environment.Taking the pollution data of eight heavy metals as example,this paper provides theory and methodology support to the construction of heavy metal pollution diffusion mode via investigations on spatial distribution of heavy metal,pollution degree evaluation,diffusion characteristics pollution mechanism and pollution source tracking,among others.%随着城市经济的快速发展和城市人口的不断增加,人类活动对城市环境质量的影响日显突出。对城市土壤地质环境异常的查证,以及如何应用查证获得的海量数据资料开展城市环境质量评价,研究人类活动影响下城市地质环境的演变模式,日益成为人们关注的焦点。本文以某城市城区土壤地质环境调查获得的8种主要重金属污染物数据为例,通过建立重金属污染扩散数理模型,开展重金属空间分布、污染程度评价、传播特征研究,剖析重金属污染机理,追踪污染源,为城市土壤地质环境保护提供理论和方法依据。

  16. Magnetic mapping of fly-ash pollution and heavy metals from soil samples around a point source in a dry tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul Prakash; Tripathi, B D

    2008-03-01

    The Singrauli region in the southeastern part of Uttar Pradesh, India is one of the most polluted industrial sites of Asia. It encompasses 11 open cast coal mines and six thermal power stations that generate about 7,500 MW (about 10% of India's installed generation capacity) electricity. Thermal power plants represent the main source of pollution in this region, emitting six million tonnes of fly-ash per annum. Fly-ash is deposited on soils over a large area surrounding thermal power plants. Fly-ashes have high surface concentrations of several toxic elements (heavy metals) and high atmospheric mobility. Fly ash is produced through high-temperature combustion of fossil fuel rich in ferromagnetic minerals. These contaminants can be identified using rock-magnetic methods. Magnetic susceptibility is directly linked to the concentration of ferromagnetic minerals, primarily high values of magnetite. In this study, magnetic susceptibility of top soil samples collected from surrounding areas of a bituminous-coal-fired power plant were measured to identify areas of high emission levels and to chart the spatial distribution of airborne solid particles. Sites close to the power plant have shown higher values of susceptibility that decreases with increasing distance from the source. A significant correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal content in soils is found. A comparison of the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility with heavy-metal concentrations in soil samples suggests that magnetic measurements can be used as a rapid and inexpensive method for proxy mapping of air borne pollution due to industrial activity.

  17. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in water wells and soil using common leafy green plant indicators in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of eight heavy metals in irrigation well water and soil and to assess the suitability of some leafy green plants that are commonly cultivated in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, for human consumption using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of metals ranged from 0.0001 to 0.436 mg/L in well water and from 0.248 to 164.52 mg/kg in soil. The heavy metal concentrations showed significant differences among the different leafy green plants studied. Parsley (4.98 mg/kg) exhibited higher levels of Pb than other leafy green plants, whereas mallow (0.097 mg/kg) revealed greater amounts of Cd than other plants. All of the leafy green plants retained essential metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) more than the toxic metals (Pb and Cd). The levels of some of the metals in the leafy green plants were found to meet the FAO/WHO-recommended limits. The monitoring of heavy metals in leafy green plants must be continued because these plants are the main source of food for humans in many parts of the world and are considered to be bio-indicators for environmental pollution.

  18. The Effects of Organic Wastes on Soil and Cotton Quality with respect to the Risk of Boron and Heavy Metal Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Seçer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on soil and cotton quality of organic wastes from medicinal and aromatic plant factories were investigated with regard to the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution. Oily cumin, oregano, oilless oregano wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to cotton in two field experiments performed in the years 2003 and 2006. The Pb content of the soil differed significantly in the 2003 experiment and oregano wastes had significantly decreasing effect. Boron of soil to which oily cumin wastes had been applied reached a toxic limit value in 2006. Boron in soil adversely affected long fibres; B in leaves had a positive effect on the fineness of fibres in 2006. Soil Ni adversely affected plant height in 2006 and seed cotton yield in 2003. Leaf Ni had an adverse effect on fibre elasticity in 2006. Soil Co increased ginning out-turn and Cr decreased the fibre fineness of cotton in 2003.

  19. Recovery of soil properties after seedlings Inoculation with AM fungi and addition of composted olive mill waste in the regeneration of a heavy metal polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) on the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal polluted soil. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96% and 60% respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soils properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided G-mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs; because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy-metal contaminated soils derived from mining process, and also can be a good way for olive mill wastes disposal.

  20. Research Progress in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soils%重金属污染土壤的植物修复研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊宁

    2012-01-01

    Soil pollution is a major global environmental problem to be solved.In recent years,the rapid development of phytoremediation technology is mainly used for cleaning the soil heavy metal pollution ecological technology.The paper introduced the characteristics of soil heavy metal pollution,harm and control method.Introduced the plant repair technology,and explored the future development prospect of phytoremediation technology.%土壤污染是全球面临的一个亟待解决的环境问题。近年来,植物修复技术迅速发展为主要用于清除土壤重金属污染的生态技术。文章介绍了土壤重金属污染的特性、危害及其治理方法。重点介绍了植物修复技术,并探讨了今后植物修复技术的发展前景。

  1. Environmental impact of heavy metal pollution in natural aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tayab, Muhammad Rehan

    1991-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The distribution of heavy metals between soil and soil solutions is a key issue in evaluating the environmental impact of long term applications of heavy metals to land. Contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported by many workers. Metal adsorption is affected by many factors, including soil pH, clay mineralogy, abundance of oxides and organic matter, soil composition and solution...

  2. Plant response to air pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Mitsuki, H.; Takata, N.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of air pollutants on the concentration of heavy metals in leaves of trees in the neighborhood of a steel factory was studied. Paulownia trees, which absorb and accumulate heavy metals better than other trees, were sampled in the middle of November. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil was measured for every 10 cm vertically downward to a depth of 80 cm near the roots of the sample trees. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the dust were 34.6 to 57.8% and 0.41 to 3.21%, respectively, mainly in oxidized form. The amounts of these metals discharged from the factories were calculated from the concentrations in the atmosphere. Tree leaves in the polluted area were analyzed to determine the route of atmospheric iron from the source to the atmosphere to the soil, where it is absorbed by the roots to accumulate in the leaves. The concentration of Mn in soil exponentially decreases with distance from the source, but its concentration in tree leaves increases with distance. 4 figures.

  3. Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Claudia; Berendonk, Thomas U

    2012-01-01

    The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance,...

  4. Chemometric interpretation of heavy metal patterns in soils worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrbić, Biljana; Durisić-Mladenović, Natasa

    2010-09-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on data sets containing levels of six heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr) in soils from different parts of the world in order to investigate the information captured in the global heavy metal patterns. Data used in this study consisted of the heavy metal contents determined in 23 soil samples from and around the Novi Sad city area in the Vojvodina Province, northern part of Serbia, together with those from the city of Banja Luka, the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the ones reported previously in the relevant literature in order to evaluate heavy metal distribution pattern in soils of different land-use types, as well as spatial and temporal differences in the patterns. The chemometric analysis was applied on the following input data sets: the overall set with all data gathered in this study containing 264 samples, and two sub sets obtained after dividing the overall set in accordance to the soil metal index, SMI, calculated here, i.e. the set of unpolluted soils having SMIs100%. Additionally, univariate descriptive statistics and the Spearman's non-parametric rank correlation coefficients were calculated for these three sets. A Box-Cox transformation was used as a data pretreatment before the statistical methods applied. According to the results, it was seen that anthropogenic and background sources had different impact on the data variability in the case of polluted and unpolluted soils. The sample discrimination regarding the land-use types was more evident for the unpolluted soils than for the polluted ones. Using linear discriminant analysis, content of Cu was determined as a variable with a major discriminant capacity. The correct classification of 73.3% was achieved for predefined land-use types. Classification of the samples in accordance to the pollution level expressed as SMI was necessary in order to avoid the "masking" effect of the polluted soil patterns over the non-polluted ones.

  5. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  6. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Potassium Behavior in Typic Udic Ferrisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The indirect influence of heavy metal contamination of soil on nutrient availability, an important aspect of soil quality, may need to be taken into consideration when determining overall effects of heavy metals. Alaboratory experiment was performed to study the effects of combined pollution of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd on soil K status as indicated by chemical fractions, adsorption-desorption and quantity/intensity (Q/I) relationship of K in a Typic Udic Ferrisol (generally called red soil), by employing uniform design and single factor design. Compared to the control, content of exchangeable K was decreased, but that of soluble K increased in the samples contaminated with heavy metals. Due to heavy metal pollution, potassium adsorption was reduced by 5% to 22%, whereas the desorption percentage of adsorbed K increased by 2% to 32%. The Q/I curves shifted downward, potassium buffering capacity (PBCK) decreased, and equilibrium activity ratio values (AROK) increased with increasing heavy metal pollution. These influences followed the sequences of Pb>Cu>Zn and combined pollution>single one. Displacement of K from cation exchange sites and decrease in soil CEC due to heavy metals should be responsible for the changes of soil K behaviours. The findings suggest that heavy metal pollution of soil might aggravate the degradation of soil K fertility by decreasing K adsorption and buffering capacity and increasing desorption.

  7. Progress in Soil Heavy Metal Pollution Monitoring via Remote Sensing Technology%土壤重金属污染遥感监测研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文娟; 蒋超群; 侍昊; 王春红; 李明诗

    2014-01-01

    本文总结了基于样点地面实测光谱分析和基于遥感影像的多光谱和高光谱定量化监测方法在土壤重金属污染中应用的优劣势,分析出现有研究数据和方法的不足与需改进之处,并指出整合多源数据和多变量方法用于连续动态监测并制图土壤重金属污染将是遥感定量化监测新的发展趋势。尺度的变化和定量遥感的不确定性影响土壤重金属污染遥感监测的精度。%How to map the pollution quality and severity in an accurate,timely,and large scale manner has definitely been recognized as the crux of bringing the pollution under control.Remote sensing technology,with the monitoring advantages of wide coverage,expeditiousness,affordable price and suitable revisit frequency remains irreplaceable in monitoring large-scale soil pollution.In this paper,the advantages and disadvantages of monitoring methods for soil heavy metal pollution evaluation based on the measured spectral analysis of the samples as well as the quantitative detection by the multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery were summarized and the deficiency of the existing research data and methods and which need to be improved were analyzed.Finally,it pointed out that the continuous dynamic monitoring and mapping soil heavy metal pollution by the integration of multi-source data and multivariate methods will be the new development trend of quantitative monitoring via remote sensing technology.Scale changes in detection and the uncertainty of quantitative remote sensing affect the accuracy of remote sensing monitoring on soil heavy metal pollution.

  8. Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

    2014-01-21

    90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil.

  9. Nematodes as bioindicators of soil degradation due to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalamún, Peter; Renčo, Marek; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Papajová, Ingrid; Miklisová, Dana; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2012-11-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community was investigated on four sampling sites along an 4 km transect originating at the Kovohuty a.s. Krompachy (pollution source). The soil nematode communities were exposed to heavy metal influence directly and through soil properties changes. We quantified the relative effects of total and mobile fraction of metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) on soil ecosystem using the nematode community structure (trophic and c-p groups,) and ecological indices (Richness of genera, H', MI2-5, etc.). Pollution effects on the community structure of soil free living nematodes was found to be the highest near the pollution source, with relatively low population density and domination of insensitive taxa. A decrease in heavy metals contents along the transect was linked with an increase in complexity of nematode community. The majority of used indices (MI2-5, SI, H') negatively correlated (P bioindication of contamination and could be used as an alternative to the common approaches based on chemical methods.

  10. Active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution using Rosa rugosa plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: gianlorenzo.calzoni@unibo.it; Antognoni, Fabiana [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: fabiana.antognoni@unibo.it; Pari, Elena [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: epari@csaricerche.com; Fonti, Paolo [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: pfonti@csaricerche.com; Gnes, Antonio [ARPA - Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambientale, Sez. Provinciale di Ravenna, via Alberoni 17, Ravenna (Italy)], E-mail: agnes@ra.arpa.emr.it; Speranza, Anna [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.it

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of a rural area near Faenza (Italy) by using an active biomonitoring approach, i.e., by placing homogeneous individuals of the perennial shrub Rosa rugosa in different sites throughout the area. Further sites, within the city or its environs, were used for comparison. Soil and leaves of R. rugosa were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The total heavy metal pattern of leaves closely paralleled the pattern registered in soil, with the highest content (both in total and assimilable forms) at the site in the urban area, which is exposed to heavy traffic. Pollen quality (abortiveness and viability) was also tested as a potential indicator of pollution. Pollen abortiveness was strictly related to Pb levels in leaves, while viability was inversely related to leaf Cr content. Our results suggest that R. rugosa has the potential to be a good biomonitoring system. - Rosa rugosa leaves and pollen are - to different extents - suitable monitoring tools for heavy metal pollution.

  11. Forest Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu in the Area of the “French Mines” on the Medvednica Mountain, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Perković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper deals with the results of the investigation of the selected heavy metal contents in forest soil in the region of an abandoned mine. The analysis of the forest ecosystem soil on the Medvednica Mountain was conducted in the region of the so-called “French Mines” (FM. The elements selected for analyses were cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn because of their toxicological characteristics. Material and Methods: In the investigated area - five entrances of the FM - composite topsoil samples (0–5 cm were taken. Those samples were compared to the control samples which were taken outside the area affected by mines. The soil samples were analysed for the following parameters: pH, particle size distribution, organic C content and pseudo-total mass fractions of the selected heavy metals. The heavy metals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS. Results and Conclusion: The results reveal that the soil is locally polluted, i.e. the highest mass fraction values of these four heavy metals were found in the area of the FM. Average pseudo-total fraction of Cd in the analysed topsoil samples was in the range of 0.17–4.41 mg·kg−1 (median: 0.97 mg·kg−1. Cu was found in the range of 4.54–1260 mg·kg−1 (median: 45.7 mg·kg−1. In the case of Zn, mass fraction values were found in the range of 36.8–865 mg·kg−1 (median: 137 mg·kg−1. Finally, average values of the pseudo-total fraction of Pb were found in the range of 58.4–12000 mg·kg−1 (median: 238 mg·kg−1. The results reveal that mining activities leave consequences on soil for a long time.

  12. [Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution by edible fungi: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Fei; Hu, Liu-Jie; Liao, Dun-Xiu; Su, Shi-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Ke; Zhang, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Bioremediation is the method of using organisms and their derivatives to absorb heavy metals from polluted environment, with the characteristics of low cost, broad sources, and no secondary pollution. Heavy metals enrichment by edible fungi is an important research focus of bioremediation, because it can decrease the eco-toxicity of heavy metals via the uptake by edible fungi, and thereby, take a definite role in heavy metal remediation. This paper reviewed the research progress on the enrichment of heavy metal copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, and chromium by edible fungi and the possible enrichment mechanisms, and prospected the development and applications of heavy metal enrichment by edible fungi in the management of polluted environment.

  13. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated saline soils using halophytes: current progress and future perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Yuebing; Liang, Lichen; Huo, Xiaohui; Zhou, Qixing; Li, Song; Liu, Weitao

    2017-01-01

    .... Phytoremediation, defined as the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (or) to render them harmless, is a low cost, environmentally friendly, and effective method for the decontamination of soils polluted by heavy metals...

  14. [Distribution of soil heavy metal and pollution evaluation on the different sampling scales in farmland on Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia: a case study in Xingqing County of Yinchuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Qi; Bai, Yi-Ru; Wang, Jian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Determining spatial distributions and analyses contamination condition of soil heavy metals play an important role in evaluation of the quality of agricultural ecological environment and the protection of food safety and human health. Topsoil samples (0-20 cm) from 223 sites in farmland were collected at two scales of sampling grid (1 m x 1 m, 10 m x 10 m) in the Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial variability of total copper (Cu), total zinc (Zn), total chrome (Cr), total cadmium (Cd) and total lead (Pb) on the two sampling scales by the classical and geostatistical analyses. The single pollution index (P(i)) and the Nemerow pollution index (P) were used to evaluate the soil heavy metal pollution. The classical statistical analyses showed that all soil heavy metals demonstrated moderate variability, the coefficient of variation (CV) changed in the following sequence: Cd > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu. Geostatistical analyses showed that the nugget coefficient of Cd on the 10 m x 10 m scale and Pb on the 1 m x 1 m scale were 100% with pure nugget variograms, which showed weak variability affected by random factors. The nugget coefficient of the other indexes was less than 25%, which showed a strong variability affected by structural factors. The results combined with P(i) and P indicated that most soil heavy metals have slight pollution except total copper, and in general there were the trend of heavy metal accumulation in the study area.

  15. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  16. Research on Spatial Distribution and Pollution Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soils Around a Thermal Power Plant%电厂周围土壤重金属空间分布与风险评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付亚宁; 范秀华; 邹璐; 刘娟

    2011-01-01

    对宁夏地区大武口电厂周围土壤中铜、锌、铅和铬进行测定分析,利用不同的评价标准来评价其环境质量状况,同时借助GIS软件研究了污染指数的空间分布状况并解析了其重金属污染来源.结果表明,以自然背景值为评价标准,则大武口电厂周围土壤中的重金属都超过污染指标,其中铅和铬的污染较重;以国标二级为评价标准,则四种重金属的单项污染指数值全都小于1,其综合污染指数小于0.7,尚未受到污染.大武口电厂、大武口市区的公路交通及人为活动等可能是主要污染源.%The contents of heavy metals( Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr) in soils around Dawukou thermal power plant which locates in Ningxia Province were investigated to evaluate soil environmental pollution of heavy metals by using different evaluation standards of heavy metal pollution for comparison, furthermore, the spatial distribution of pollution index was analyzed with the aid of geographical information system (GIS) technology and potential sources of heavy metal pollutants in soils were also elucidated. The results showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr according to natural background values as evaluation standard. While using National Standard(GB 15618-1995)as evaluation standard,soils were not polluted with heavy metals. The pollution of Pb and Cr was more serious. Integrated pollution index of soil heavy metals is less than 0. 7 so that the whole studied soils were unpolluted. It was preliminarily concluded that the Dawukou thermal power plant, the traffics and human activities may be the major causes leading to soil heavy metal pollution.

  17. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  18. Consolidation and Using Oriented Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Soils of Hollowed Villages of Plain Agricultural Zones:A Case Study of Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yu-rui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hollow village renovation is an important content of rural land comprehensive consolidation. Under the core goal of sustainable utilization of land, revealing heavy metal pollution in typical soils of hollow village is the guiding link of the consolidation work, especially the reconstruction of farmland. Taking Yucheng City of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain as an example, this paper aims to analyze the content of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in seven kinds of typical soils, namely the village roads, sunning grounds, pit-pond sediments, woodland topsoils, courtyard farmlands, courtyard soils and clay wall soils which may be involved in the reconstruction of typical hollow village. Individual pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were used to evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution according to the relevant national standards in order to provide the basis for safe and rational soil utilization during the hollow village consolidation. The results showed that in the above 7 types of tested soils, except for the pollution index of courtyard farmland was 0.85(pollution level Ⅱ, belong to "less clean" soil, other six types were <0.7(pollution level Ⅰ, belong to "clean" soil, which could be directly used in the hollow village consolidation for reconstruction of topsoil for agriculture. This study revealed the heavy metal pollution condition in the typical soils of plain agricultural areas. It has important reference value to the consolidation of hollow villages scientifically and the reconstruction of safe and high standard farmland.

  19. Water and Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Ereniku River of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    FATON MALOKU; AMELINA AHMETI; ALBERT KOPALI; ADRIAN DOKO; JAMARBER MALLTEZI; FERDI BRAHUSHI; SULEJMAN SULÇE

    2015-01-01

    Soil, water and sediment samples were collected in 13 sampling stations along Erenik River, in the western part of Kosovo in order to assess heavy metal pollution. The concentration of hevy metals as Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn were determinated in water, soil and sediment samples. The concentration of heavy metals in water samples was measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), while for sediment and soil samples was used inductively coupled plasma mass spec...

  20. Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    pectinatus, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas armata); (floating species: ... good tools for heavy metal pollution markers, in the biological treatment of the polluted water and in ... from water and wetlands sediments (Gulati et al., 1979).

  1. Assessment of the risk of pollution by sulfur compounds and heavy metals in soils located in the proximity of a disused for 20 years sulfur mine (SE Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Kaleta, Dorota

    2016-09-15

    The study assessed the long-term effects of anthropogenic pressure of the sulfur industry on turf-covered soils located in the vicinity of the sulfur mine Grzybów. The study assumes that 20 years which elapsed since the end of the exploitation of sulfur is a period sufficiently long for the content of sulfur compounds in soils not to exceed the permissible level and that soil of the region can be classified as not contaminated. A part of the study involved identification of changes in the contents Stot. and SSO4(2-) in soils collected in the 1970s and early twenty-first century. It was also traced the relationship between the content of sulfur compounds and selected soil properties and estimated risk of soil environment pollution by heavy metals. Mean contents of trace elements studied amounted to 10.2-10.8 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 14.3-39.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 0.2-0.4 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 3.8-32.2 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 2.7-15.1 mg kg(-1) for Cu and 2.9-18.7 mg kg(-1) for Ni. Based on the results of SSO4(2-) content in soils collected at a distance of 1 km from the mine, it was found out that despite the passage of years, the amount of this type of sulfur still is increased and exceeds 0.14 g kg(-1). As the distance from the mine grew lower (from 0.017 to 0.03 g kg(-1)) average content of the sulfur form was observed. In the studied soil material we found generally positive, strong correlation between the Stot. and SSO4(2-) content and analyzed trace elements. The degree of contamination of examined soils with heavy metals was estimated on the basis of the integrated pollution index, which pointed to a moderate and low level of antropogenization of this area. In addition, the relationship between the determined characteristics of soils (Corg. contents, the fraction soils do not occur in mobile forms in the soil solution.

  2. Contribution of heavy metals and As-loaded lupin root mineralization to the availability of the pollutants in multi-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, S. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra Colmenar Km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: saul.vazquez@uam.es; Carpena, R.O. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra Colmenar Km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bernal, M.P. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Apartado 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual crop that has been used for phytostabilization of acidified multi-contaminated soils. Once the culture cycle is over, after shoot harvesting, a progressive transference of contaminants from roots to soil may take place as decomposition of roots occurs. An incubation experiment with Cu, Zn, Cd, and As-loaded roots of white lupin and soils with different pH values and concentrations of these contaminants from the area affected by a mine spill at Aznalcollar (near Seville, Spain) was performed in order to assess the effect of the decomposition of the roots to the pH and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable levels of these pollutants in the soils. Pollutants loaded-roots were mineralized (56 d) at a ratio similar to animal manures (15.8-19.4% of total organic carbon) in soil. The estimated root inputs of contaminants in comparison to their extractable concentrations in soil were high, especially in the control, non-contaminated and neutral contaminated soils. However, the extractable concentrations of the toxic elements in the soil were mainly governed by soil pH. Hence, the correction and maintenance of the soil pH within the range 5-6 after lupin culture is essential for long-time phytostabilization of acidified multi-contaminated soils. - Maintaining soil pH close to/around 5.5 after lupin culture will be essential for long-time phytostabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals and arsenic.

  3. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (wastes were studied: SW-NS, SW-S, LR-NS, and LR-S. After 24 hours of irrigation on the first day of each week, the leachates were taken and analyzed the heavy metal content (AAS-ES espectometer). The environmental risk due to the presence of heavy metals associated with the use of these materials was very low in general (under 0.1 mg/L). The use of sewage sludge favoured the presence of these metals in the lecheates and no effect was observed in the case of limestone residue. The presence of metals in SW was the main source (although the composition was under the UE legislation for its use in agricultural purpouses). Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were detected in leachates from SW and salinity slightly favoured their presence. Cd was not detected

  4. 重金属污染土壤修复技术进展研究%Soil Heavy Metal Pollution Repair Technology Progress in the Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛秀炜; 罗千植

    2016-01-01

    Soil is the material foundation to the survival of humans and non-renewable natural resources. However, in recent years, with the rapid development of industry and agriculture, soil pollution has become a problem that nots allow to ignore. Many Persistent Toxic substances (Persistent Toxic Substance, PTS) including organic pollutants, heavy metals, such as through different channels into the soil, resulting in decreased quality of agricultural products, and also will let the crops absorb harmful substances, resulting in damage to the human body. So, for the soil pollution control, management, repair, highly appreciated.%土壤是人类赖以生存的物质基础和不可再生的自然资源。然而,近几年随着工农业的迅速发展,土壤污染已成为不容忽视的问题。许多持久性有毒物质包括有机污染物、重金属等通过不同途径进入到土壤内,造成农产品质量下降,并且还会让农作物吸收有害物质,最后导致人体的损伤。所以,对于土壤染污的控制、治理、修复,倍受人们重视。

  5. Understanding molecular mechanisms for improving phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Bo, Shao; Li-Ye, Chu; Cheng-Jiang, Ruan; Hua, Li; Dong-Gang, Guo; Wei-Xiang, Li

    2010-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem with a negative potential impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plants, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria or mycorrhizas have received more and more attention. In addition, some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, and they manage to survive under metal stresses. High tolerance to heavy metal toxicity could rely either on reduced uptake or increased plant internal sequestration, which is manifested by an interaction between a genotype and its environment.A coordinated network of molecular processes provides plants with multiple metal-detoxifying mechanisms and repair capabilities. The growing application of molecular genetic technologies has led to an increased understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants and, subsequently, many transgenic plants with increased heavy metal resistance, as well as increased uptake of heavy metals, have been developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. This article reviews advantages, possible mechanisms, current status and future direction of phytoremediation for heavy-metal-contaminated soils.

  6. Influence of heavy metal pollution on lichens and bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.N.; Robitaille, G.; LeBlanc, F.

    1977-05-01

    A close correlation was observed between metal accumulation levels and phytosociological and physiological changes produced in lichens and bryophytes in a sulfur dioxide and heavy metal polluted area around a copper smelter in Murdochville, Canada. This observation has prompted a discussion of some of the past and present research on ecology, phytosociology, and physiology of lichens and bryophytes with respect to heavy metal pollution. Hopefully this will lead to a better understanding of the use of these plants in the diagnosis of heavy metal pollution. Data are received on the accumulation of Ba, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in certain mosses and their corresponding substrates.

  7. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  8. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF LAKE VICTORIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam,. P. O. Box ... parameters. The study ..... chemical wastes containing heavy metals and organochlorides. During ... In Mwanza South, samples were collected near a fish processing industry,.

  9. Simultaneous decontamination of cross-polluted soils with heavy metals and PCBs using a nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the use of nano-metallic calcium (Ca) and calcium oxide (CaO) dispersion mixture for the simultaneous remediation of contaminated soils with both heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Regardless of soil moisture content, nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture achieved about 95-99% of heavy metal immobilization by a simple grinding process. During the same treatment, reasonable PCB hydrodechlorination efficiencies were obtained (up to 97%), though higher hydrodechlorination efficiency by preliminary drying of soil was observed.

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risks in the Soil-Plant-Human System in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Jia, Xiaolin; Hu, Jie; Xu, Dongyun; Xia, Fang; Li, Yan

    2017-09-10

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination and accumulation is a serious problem around the world due to the toxicity, abundant sources, non-biodegradable properties, and accumulative behaviour of HMs. The degree of soil HM contamination in China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, is prominent. In this study, 1822 pairs of soil and crop samples at corresponding locations were collected from the southern Yangtze River Delta of China, and the contents of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Hg, and Pb were measured. The single pollution index in soil (SPI) and Nemerow composite pollution index (NCPI) were used to assess the degree of HM pollution in soil, and the crop pollution index (CPI) was used to explore the degree of HM accumulation in crops. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was used to investigate the translocation of heavy metals in the soil-crop system. The health risks caused by HMs were calculated based on the model released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The SPIs of all elements were at the unpolluted level. The mean NCPI was at the alert level. The mean CPIs were in the following decreasing order: Ni (1.007) > Cr (0.483) > Zn (0.335) > Cd (0.314) > As (0.232) > Cu (0.187) > Hg (0.118) > Pb (0.105). Only the mean content of Ni in the crops exceeded the national standard value. The standard exceeding rates were used to represent the percentage of samples whose heavy metal content is higher than the corresponding national standard values. The standard exceeding rates of Cu, Hg, and Cd in soil were significantly higher than corresponding values in crops. Meanwhile, the standard exceeding rates of Ni, As, and Cr in crops were significantly higher than corresponding values in soil. The chronic daily intake (CDI) of children (13.8 × 10(-3)) was the largest among three age groups, followed by adults (6.998 × 10(-4)) and seniors (5.488 × 10(-4)). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of all crops followed the order Cd (0.249) > Zn (0.133) > As (0.076) > Cu (0.064) > Ni

  11. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (ii early results from the in situ experiment of torviscosa (udine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two annual high biomass yield crops – Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus – were grown in a soil polluted by pyrite cinders. Specific aims of this work were: to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removal by the crops. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.90, Co 50.9, Cu 1527, Pb 233 and Zn 980 mg kg-1. The crops received respectively mineral fertilization and organic amendment while plants in control soil did not receive any input. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle; the concentration of the metals in the plant roots and in the harvestable biomass and two bioconcentration factors are reported. The amelioration of the nutritive status of soil resulted highly effective for the biomass yield but not in the concentration of metals in plant fractions. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal, was positive. Sorghum performed better than sunflower removing from the soil 220 g ha-1 of As, 5.6 g ha-1 of Cd, 30.2 g ha-1 of Co, 820 g ha-1 of Cu, 107 g ha-1 of Pb and 1944 g ha-1 of Zn.

  12. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (ii early results from the in situ experiment of torviscosa (udine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchiol

    Full Text Available Two annual high biomass yield crops – Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus – were grown in a soil polluted by pyrite cinders. Specific aims of this work were: to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removal by the crops. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.90, Co 50.9, Cu 1527, Pb 233 and Zn 980 mg kg-1. The crops received respectively mineral fertilization and organic amendment while plants in control soil did not receive any input. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle; the concentration of the metals in the plant roots and in the harvestable biomass and two bioconcentration factors are reported. The amelioration of the nutritive status of soil resulted highly effective for the biomass yield but not in the concentration of metals in plant fractions. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal, was positive. Sorghum performed better than sunflower removing from the soil 220 g ha-1 of As, 5.6 g ha-1 of Cd, 30.2 g ha-1 of Co, 820 g ha-1 of Cu, 107 g ha-1 of Pb and 1944 g ha-1 of Zn.

  13. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming

    2008-01-01

    of Zhejiang province, Fuyang county. We addressed the questions: 1) how do different collembolan life-forms respond to heavy metals in long-time pollution field site. 2) Are laboratory toxicity testing of field collected polluted soil predictable for the population effects observed in aged heavy metal......We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area...... pollutions. Effects of the heavy metals in the soil from the paddy fields were assessed for growth, survival and reproduction under laboratory conditions. For the tests we used two soil arthropod species: the parthenogenetic, Folsomia candida Willem 1902, and the sexually reproducing, Sinella curviseta Brook...

  14. Effects of heavy metal (Pb) concentration on some growth parameters of plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ojo M Oseni; Adekunle A Adelusi; Esther O Dada; Abdulfatai B Rufai

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated morphological variation and biomass accumulation that occurred inSida acuta andChromolaena odorata plants grown in lead polluted soil under organic fertilizer amendment. The study was carried out in the screen house at the Biological Gardens of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. The experiment was a factorial combination of one heavy metal (Pb) at five levels of concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1,000 mg/kg) in a completely randomized design, and were replicated three times for each of the two plants and two levels (0 g/kg and 9.4 g/kg) of organic fertilizer (OBD-Plus). Each pot was filled with 5 kg of air-dried and sieved soil and placed on a plastic tray for the collection of excess water. Two weeks after planting, seedlings of uniform height were transplanted from the nursery to experimental pots at the rate of one seedling per pot and grown for 10 weeks. The growth parameters of the plants were biomonitored for 7 weeks. After 10 weeks of treatment, the plants were harvested and dried to calculate the biomass accumulation. The two plant species performed better under fertilizer application than without it. For each of the plant species the growth parameters decreased as the levels of Pb concentration increased. Furthermore, the plants' biomass decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the levels of Pb concentration increased. The organic fertilizer helped to improve the plants' performance in lead-polluted soil.

  15. Chemical dynamics of acidity and heavy metals in a mine water-polluted soil during decontamination using clean water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A; Lin, C; Lu, W; Ma, Y; Bai, Y; Chen, H; Li, J

    2010-03-15

    A column leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical dynamics of the percolating water and washed soil during decontamination of an acidic mine water-polluted soil. The results show that leaching of the contaminated soil with clean water rapidly reduced soluble acidity and ion concentrations in the soils. However, only water over a long period of time. During the column leaching, dissolved Cu and Pb were rapidly leached out, followed by mobilization of colloidal Cu and Pb from the exchangeable and the oxide-bound fractions as a result of reduced ionic strength in the soil solution. The soluble Fe contained in the soil was rare, probably because the soil pH was not sufficiently low; marked mobility of colloidal Fe took place after the ionic strength of the percolating water was weakened and the mobilized Fe was mainly derived from iron oxides. In contrast with Cu, Pb and Fe, the concentration of leachate Zn and Mn showed a continuously decreasing trend during the entire period of the experiment.

  16. Analytical techniques for estimation of heavy metals in soil ecosystem: a tabulated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodan, Rajneet Kour; Pakade, Yogesh B; Nagpal, Avinash; Katnoria, Jatinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Soil, an important environmental medium, is exposed to a number of pollutants including toxic heavy metals by various natural and anthropogenic activities. Consequently heavy metal contaminated soil has the potential to pose severe health risks and hazards to humans as well as other living creatures of the ecosystem through various routes of exposure such as direct ingestion, contaminated drinking ground water, food crops, contact with contaminated soil and through food chain. Therefore, it is mandatory to explore various techniques that could efficiently determine the occurrence of heavy metals in soil. A number of methods have been developed by several regulatory agencies and private laboratories and are applied routinely for the quantification and monitoring of soil matrices. The present review is an initiative to summarize the work on pollution levels of soil ecosystem and thus pertains to various extraction and quantification procedures used worldwide to analyze heavy metals in soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization of heavy metals in polluted soils by the addition of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Moreno, Natàlia; Alvarez-Ayuso, Esther; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carles; Simón, Mariano

    2006-01-01

    The use of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash for the immobilization of pollutants in contaminated soils was investigated in experimental plots in the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain). This area was affected by a pyrite slurry spill in April 1998. Although reclamation activities were completed in a few months, residual pyrite slurry mixed with soil accounted for relatively high leachable levels of trace elements such as Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Sb, Co, Tl and Cd. Phytoremediation strategies were adopted for the final recovery of the polluted soils. The immobilization of metals had previously been undertaken to avoid leaching processes and the consequent groundwater pollution. To this end, 1100 kg of high NaP1 (Na6[(AlO2)6(SiO2)10] .15H2O) zeolitic material was synthesized using fly ash from the Teruel power plant (NE Spain), in a 10 m3 reactor. This zeolitic material was manually applied using different doses (10000-25000 kg per hectare), into the 25 cm topsoil. Another plot (control) was maintained without zeolite. Sampling was carried out 1 and 2 years after the zeolite addition. The results show that the zeolitic material considerably decreases the leaching of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The sorption of metals in soil clay minerals (illite) proved to be the main cause contributing to the immobilization of these pollutants. This sorption could be a consequence of the rise in pH from 3.3 to 7.6 owing to the alkalinity of the zeolitic material added (caused by traces of free lime in the fly ash, or residual NaOH from synthesis).

  18. Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia strain LD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process.

  19. Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Waste Mining by Using Forage Plants in Successive Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During two years, was studied the phytoextraction potential of some perennial species (Medicago sativa and Trifolium pretense, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, for Zn, Cd, and Pb from soils polluted with waste mining. The experiment was done on kernozem soil with adding of 20 kg waste mining/m2 and 8 kg biosolid/m2. The results showed that in all experiments, rye-grass is a good extractor for Zn and Cd, and leguminous species for Pb. Both leguminous species, especially M. sativa, presented a high tolerance for lead toxicity, even with 3-4 times greater values than maximum allowable level from actual legislation. In all cases, regardless of the experimental variant, raygrass (Lolium perenne is a good accumulator of Zn and Cd, and red clover (Trifolium pratense of Pb. The values of metal bioaccumulation increase gradually with their concentration in soil. Quality of very good extractor of Pb displayed by Trifolium pratense species are kept even in case of excessive pollution with Pb, when it exceed 3.4 times the maximum permissible norms. This proves, as Medicago sativa species, a good tolerance and resistance to toxicity of this metal. In case of addition of natural zeolite-volcanic tuff there was no increase in the rate of Zn bioaccumulation. Only in case of Cd at Lolium perenne and Pb at Trifolium pratense appear the favourable effect of metallic ions bioavailability in soil for plants.

  20. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  1. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical met...

  2. Common plants as alternative analytical tools to monitor heavy metals in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Malizia, Daniela; Giuliano, Antonella; Ortaggi, Giancarlo; Masotti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants are common vegetal species generally exposed, for a limited period of time, to bioavailable environmental pollutants. Heavy metals contamination is the most common form of environmental pollution. Herbaceous plants have never been used as natural bioindicators of environmental pollution, in particular to monitor the amount of heavy metals in soil. In this study, we aimed at assessing the usefulness of using three herbaceous plants (Plantago major L., Taraxacum off...

  3. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

  4. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland.

  5. Patent bibliometric analysis on the remediation techniques of soil heavy metal pollution%中国土壤重金属污染修复技术的专利文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴耀楣

    2013-01-01

    The major soil remediation techniques at home and abroad were reviewed. The technical and economic comparison analysis was performed. Using the patent search system of State Intellectual Property Office and applying keywords search, the patent application and license status of soil heavy metal pollution remediation techniques were analyzed from the categories of heavy metal pollutants and technical types. Results show that soil heavy metal pollution remediation focus on phytoremediation and microbial techniques, followed by fixed restoration techniques. The number of patent application of the remediation techniques of Cd, Pb, Cu, As is significantly more than other heavy metals. The number of patent application in agricultural soil is dramatically higher than that in the venues. Heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil could be remedied by reducing the content of soil heavy metals. Further, the content of heavy metals in agricultural products can be decreased by plant nutrition regulation and soil conditioning agents. Last but not least, the industrial policy on soil remediation was analyzed.%  综述了国内外主要土壤修复技术,进行了技术经济比较分析。利用国家知识产权局专利检索系统,采用主题词检索,从重金属污染物种类、技术类型两个方面分析了中国土壤重金属污染修复技术的专利申请与授权状态。结果表明:土壤重金属污染修复技术以植物修复与微生物技术为主,其次为固定修复技术;土壤镉、铅、铜、砷的修复技术专利申请量明显高于其余重金属的;农田土壤重金属污染修复技术专利申请量明显高于场地重金属修复技术的;农田土壤重金属污染修复除降低土壤中重金属含量外,还可以从植物营养调控与土壤调理剂的角度降低农产品中重金属含量。最后,进行了土壤污染修复产业政策分析。

  6. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments; a case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Goedhart, P.W.; Vandecasteele, B.

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects

  7. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments; a case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Goedhart, P.W.; Vandecasteele, B.

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects

  8. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil Due to Road Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Athanasopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Particles coming from the pavement’s maintenance or from the traffic on it enter the soil carried by water. More pollutants transferred by air are dispersed in different distances, also polluting the soil. Precautionary and remedial measures are suggested for urban, peri-urban, and rural zones crossed by roadways, as a function of the plants' species and the level of the road. The proposed measures are based on the soil's chemical composition and draining conditions. Iron and the non-volatile heavy metals, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, are often found in roadside topsoil, as well as in roots and leafage of vegetables and trees. Manganese is found in combination with iron in many minerals and not as free element. The reasons and frequency of existence of metals have to be examined so as to take measures against contamination and possible health hazards. Heavy metal concentrations of soils have been seldom studied in Greece and there is a lack of data sources for the environmental impact of these elements in soil and dust from the pavements and the traffic. The impacts of road construction and service on the surrounding soil masses are studied and analyzed in view of their quality as nutrient materials

  9. Evaluation on environmental quality for heavy metal elements of Xihe soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun WU

    2008-01-01

    According to "Environmental quality standard for soil" and using As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn elements as evaluation index, the author evaluated soil environmental quality in Xihe area of Shenyang. The results show that the soil in Xihe area is polluted rifely by heavy metal elements. The polluted areas are mainly distributed near the upstreams of Xihe River, Shenxin River and Shenliao irrigation canal. There exist large distinctions among the heavy metal elements to the pollution degree. Cd pollution area is the biggest and the most serious in pollution degree.

  10. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod R; Gupta, Rakhi; Gajghate, Daulat Ghilagi; Wate, Satish R

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals released from different sources in urban environment get adsorbed on respirable particulate matter less than 10 μm in size (PM(10)) and are important from public health point of view causing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the ambient air quality monitoring was carried out to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM(10) and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM(10) fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM(10) was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during nighttime also. Six heavy metals were analyzed and were observed to occur in the order Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in 2006, similar to the trend in other metro cities in India. Lead and Nickel were observed to be within the stipulated standards. Poor correlation coefficient (R(2)) between lead and PM(10) indicated that automobile exhaust is not the source of metals to air pollution. Commercial and industrial activity as well as geological composition may be the potential sources of heavy metal pollution. Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.

  11. Polluted soils with heavy metals. Stabilization by magnesium oxide. Ex-situ and in-situ testings; Suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Estabilizacion con oxido de magnesio. Ensayos ex situ-in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenoz, S.; Hernandez, J.; Gangutia, N.

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the use of Low-Grade MgO as a stabiliser agent for polluted soil reclaim. Low-Grade MgO may be an economically feasible alternative in the stabilisation of heavy metals from heavily contaminated soils. The effectiveness of Low-Grade MgO has been studied in three ex-situ stabilisation of heavily polluted soils contaminated by the flue-dust of pyrite roasting. LG-MgO provides an alkali reservoir guaranteeing long-term stabilisation without varying the pH conditions. The success of the ex-situ stabilisation was corroborated with the analysis of heavy metals in the leachates collected from the landfill o ver a long period of time. The study also includes the results obtained in an in-situ pilot scale stabilisation of contaminated soil. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  13. Effect of soil properties, heavy metals and emerging contaminants in the soil nematodes diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Carmen; Fernández, Carlos; Escuer, Miguel; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Beltrán Rodríguez, M Eulalia; Carbonell, Gregoria; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Among soil organisms, nematodes are seen as the most promising candidates for bioindications of soil health. We hypothesized that the soil nematode community structure would differ in three land use areas (agricultural, forest and industrial soils), be modulated by soil parameters (N, P, K, pH, SOM, CaCO3, granulometric fraction, etc.), and strongly affected by high levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Hg) and emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products, PPCPs). Although these pollutants did not significantly affect the total number of free-living nematodes, diversity and structure community indices vastly altered. Our data showed that whereas nematodes with r-strategy were tolerant, genera with k-strategy were negatively affected by the selected pollutants. These effects diminished in soils with high levels of heavy metals given their adaptation to the historical pollution in this area, but not to emerging pollutants like PPCPs.

  14. Major Problem and Legal Regulation of Soil Heavy Metals Pollution Prevention and Control%防治土壤重金属污染面临的主要问题及法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元吉; 王有强

    2015-01-01

    近几年新闻媒体曝光了“毒大米”、“血铅超标”等一批土壤重金属污染致害事件。我国在土壤重金属污染防治工作中,长期以来没有重视土壤重金属污染的特性以及针对这些特性制定相应的法律规范,因此,现如今面临两大困扰:一是历史遗留问题全面爆发;二是缺乏相应法律规制。可以通过借鉴美国“超级基金”制度来建设我国自己的“超级基金”以解决受污染土地的治理问题,同时转变立法导向,重新制定符合重金属污染特征的环境保护标准以实现对土壤重金属污染的规制。%“Poison rice”and “Lead poisoning”was caused by soil heavy metals pollution is exposed by news media recently. Our country does not pay attention to the characteristic of soil heavy metals pollution and establishment law in soil heavy metals pollution prevention and control,which caused two problems:problems left over by history and pollution is the lack of regulation.Our country need learning from the USA Superfund program and set up our Superfund to improvement contaminated land,and regulate the pollution through new legislative direction and new environmental standard which conform to the characteristic of soil heavy metals pollution.

  15. The influence of heavy metals on soil microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution was to ascertain an influence of heavy metals on quantitative and qualitative composition of soil microflora. Our experiment was directed to quantitative isolation of culturable bacteria from individual soil samples and to the comparison of the amounts and colony morphology of the isolates from various soil samples. These soil samples were characteristic by a difference in pH, heavy metals and humus contents. Despite the differences between individual soil samples, the most of bacterial isolates were represented by Bacillus genus (especially Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides which belongs to the heavy metal resistant bacterial kinds.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  17. 蚯蚓在土壤重金属污染及其修复中的应用研究进展%Review on Application of Earthworm in Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Remediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐浩; 朱江; 黄沈发; 邱江平

    2013-01-01

    蚯蚓作为主要的大型土壤动物类群,对土壤环境改善起到了重要的作用,本文在系统分析、归纳总结国内外相关领域研究成果的基础上,综述了蚯蚓在土壤重金属污染及其修复中的应用研究进展,主要包括:蚯蚓作为土壤重金属污染的指示生物,蚯蚓对重金属的富集与释放,重金属对蚯蚓生理生态的影响研究,蚯蚓在土壤重金属污染修复中的作用机制,蚯蚓与植物、微生物的协同作用,以及蚯蚓粪作为重金属污染修复剂的潜力分析等.在此基础上,概括提出了蚯蚓在重金属污染土壤修复领域面临的主要问题.%As the major soil macro-fauna, earthworm plays an important role in the improvement of soil environment. Based on the systematic analysis and summarizing on the researches in related fields, the application of earthworm in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil was reviewed, which included: earthworm as the biological indicator of heavy metal contaminated soil, the enrichment and release of heavy metals in earthworms, the physiological and ecological impact of heavy metals on earthworms, the mechanism of the remediation by earthworm for heavy metal polluted soil, the synergy between earthworms and plants, microbial activities, and the potential of vermin-compost applied in the remediation of heavy metal polluted soil. The main problems encountered in remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by earthworms were also proposed.

  18. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available River Ganga is considered sacred by people of India for providing life sustenance to environment and ecology. Anthropogenic activities have generated important transformations in aquatic environments during the last few decades. Advancement of human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of river water for drinking and other purposes. The river water pollution due to heavy metals is one of the major concerns in most of the metropolitan cities of developing countries. These toxic heavy metals entering the environment may lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. These heavy metals are not readily degradable in nature and accumulate in the animal as well as human bodies to a very high toxic amount leading to undesirable effects beyond a certain limit. Heavy metals in riverine environment represent an abiding threat to human health. Exposure to heavy metals has been linked to developmental retardation, kidney damage, various cancers, and even death in instances of very high exposure. The following review article presents the findings of the work carried out by the various researchers in the past on the heavy metal pollution of river Ganga.

  19. Humus-assisted cleaning of heavy metal contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggaard, Ole K.; Rasmussen, Signe B.

    2016-04-01

    Contamination of soils with non-degradable heavy metals (HMs) because of human acticities is globally a serious problem threatening human health and ecosystem functioning. To avoid negative effects, HMs must be removed either on-site by plant uptake (phytoremediation) or off-site by extraction (soil washing). In both strategies, HM solubility must be augmented by means of a strong ligand (complexant). Often polycarboxylates such as EDTA and NTA are used but these ligands are toxic, synthetic (non-natural) and may promote HM leaching. Instead naturally occurring soluble humic substances (HS) were tested as means for cleaning HM contaminated soils; HS samples from beech and spruce litter, compost percolate and processed cow slurry were tested. Various long-term HM contaminated soils were extracted with solutions of EDTA, NTA or HS at different pH by single-step and multiple-step extraction mode. The results showed that each of the three complexant types increased HM solubility but the pH-dependent HM extraction efficiency decreased in the order: EDTA ≈ NTA > HS. However, the naturally occurring HS seems suitable for cleaning As, Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated soils both in relation to phytoremediation of moderately contaminated soils and washing of strongly contaminated soils. On the other hand, HS was found unsuited as cleaning agent for Pb polluted calcareous soils. If future field experiments confirm these laboratory results, we have a new cheap and environmentally friendly method for solving a great pollution problem, i.e. cleaning of heavy metal contaminated soils. In addition, humic substances possess additional benefits such as improving soil structure and stimulating microbial activity.

  20. HEAVY METAL LOADS IN THE SOIL OF DEBRECEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNDOR SZEGEDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy metal content of the soils have been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the forested area of the Nagyerd were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, Calcium- Carbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds, recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Vegetation around Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The mean concentrations of zinc in soil and vegetations along the transect ... wastes contributed to the levels of heavy metals in soils and vegetation. ...... Current Topics in Toxicology. Vol. ... seminar on collaborative Agricultural Research.

  2. Extraction of heavy metals from soils using biodegradable chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, Susan; Bossart, Karin; Mueller, Roland; Ritschel, Jens; Hauser, Lukas; Schulin, Rainer; Nowack, Bernd

    2004-02-01

    Metal pollution of soils is widespread across the globe, and the clean up of these soils is a difficulttask. One possible remediation technique is ex-situ soil washing using chelating agents. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a very effective chelating agent for this purpose but has the disadvantage that it is quite persistent in the environment due to its low biodegradability. The aim of our work was to investigate the biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), iminodisuccinic acid (IDSA), methylglycine diacetic acid (MGDA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as potential alternatives and compare them with EDTA for effectiveness. Kinetic experiments showed for all metals and soils that 24 h was the optimum extraction time. Longer times only gave minor additional benefits for heavy metal extraction but an unwanted increase in iron mobilization. For Cu at pH 7, the order of the extraction efficiency for equimolar ratios of chelating agent to metal was EDDS > NTA> IDSA > MGDA > EDTA and for Zn it was NTA > EDDS > EDTA >MGDA > IDSA. The comparatively low efficiency of EDTA resulted from competition between the heavy metals and co-extracted Ca. For Pb the order of extraction was EDTA > NTA >EDDS due to the much stronger complexation of Pb by EDTA compared to EDDS. At higher concentration of complexing agent, less difference between the agents was found and less pH dependence. There was an increase in heavy metal extraction with decreasing pH, but this was offset by an increase in Ca and Fe extraction. In sequential extractions EDDS extracted metals almost exclusively from the exchangeable, mobile, and Mn-oxide fractions. We conclude that the extraction with EDDS at pH 7 showed the best compromise between extraction efficiency for Cu, Zn, and Pb and loss of Ca and Fe from the soil.

  3. The use of dialdehyde starch derivatives in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Para, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Products of the reaction between dialdehyde starch and Y-NH2 compounds (e.g. semicarbazide or hydrazine) are effective ligands for metal ions. The usefulness of these derivatives was tested in the experiment, both in terms of the immobilization of heavy metal ions in soil and the potential application in phytoextraction processes. The experimental model comprised maize and the ions of such metals as: Zn(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II). The amount of maize yield, as well as heavy metal content and uptake by the aboveground parts and roots of maize, were studied during a three-year pot experiment. The results of the study indicate the significant impact of heavy metals on reduced yield and increased heavy metal content in maize. Soil-applied dialdehyde starch derivatives resulted in lower yields, particularly disemicarbazone (DASS), but in heavy metal-contaminated soils they largely limited the negative impact of these metals both on yielding and heavy metal content in plants, particularly dihydrazone (DASH). It was demonstrated that the application of dihydrazone (DASH) to a soil polluted with heavy metals boosted the uptake of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd from the soil, hence there is a possibility to use this compound in the phytoextraction of these metals from the soil. Decreased Ni uptake was also determined, hence the possibility of using this compound in the immobilization of this metal. The study showed that dialdehyde starch disemicarbazone was ineffective in the discussed processes.

  4. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  5. [APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F

    2015-01-01

    Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.

  6. Water and Heavy Metal Transport in Roadside Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. KOCHER; G. WESSOLEK; H. STOFFREGEN

    2005-01-01

    Roads with very high traffic loads in regions where soils are low in both pH and sorption capacity might be a source of percolation water loaded with heavy metals. Looking at some "worst case" scenarios, this study focused on the input of traffic related pollutants and on Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr concentrations in the soil matrix and soil solution, respectively.The analysis also included pH and electrical conductivity and at some sites DOC. The investigations were carried out on sandy soils with more or less low pH values at four motorway sites in Germany. The average of daily traffic was about 50 000 up to 90 000 vehicles. Soil pore water was collected in two soil depths and at four distances from the road. The pH in general decreased with increasing distance from the roadside. The elevated pH near the roadside was presumably caused by deposition of dust and weathering residues of the road asphalt, as well as by infiltration of salt that was used during winter time. At these road sites, increased heavy metal concentrations in the soil matrix as well as in the soil solution were found. However, the concentrations seldom exceeded reference values of the German Soil Protection Act. The soil solution concentrations tended to increase from the road edge to 10 m distance, whereas the concentration in the soil matrix decreased. Elevated DOC concentrations corresponded with elevated Cu concentrations but did not substantially change this tendency. High soil water percolation rates were found near the roads. Thus, even low metal concentrations of percolation water could yield high metal loads in a narrow area beside the road.

  7. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from....... Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were...

  8. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus populations in heavy-metal-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Val, C.; Barea, J.M.; Azcon-Aguilar, C. [CSIC, Granada (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals have been shown to adversely affect the size, diversity, and activity of microbial populations in soil. The aim of this work was to determine how the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is affected by the addition of sewage-amended sludge containing heavy metals in a long-term experiment. Due to the reduced number of indigenous AM fungal (AMF) propagules in the experimental soils, several host plants with different life cycles were used to multiply indigenous fungi. Six AMF ecotypes were found in the experimental soils, showing consistent differences with regard to their tolerance to the presence of heavy metals. AMF ecotypes ranged from very sensitive to the presence of metals to relatively tolerant to high rates of heavy metals in soil. Total AMF spore numbers decreased with increasing amounts of heavy metals in the soil. However, species richness and diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index increased in soils receiving intermediate rates of sludge contamination but decreased in soils receiving the highest rate of heavy-metal-contaminated sludge. Relative densities of most AMF species were also significantly influenced by soil treatments. Host plant species exerted a selective influence on AMF population size and diversity. The authors conclude based on the results of this study that size and diversity of AMF populations were modified in metal-polluted soils, even in those with metal concentrations that were below the upper limits accepted by the European Union for agricultural soils.

  9. Heavy metal pollution of soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province%湘江中下游农田土壤和蔬菜的重金属污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉霞; 郭朝晖; 肖细元; 陈同斌; 廖晓勇; 宋杰; 武斌

    2008-01-01

    A total of 219 agricultural soil and 48 vegetable samples were collected from the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River (the Hengyang-Changsha section) in Hunan Province. The accumulation characteristics, spatial distribution and potential risk of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and vegetables were depicted. There are higher accu- mulations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural soils, and the contents of Cd (2.44 mg kg-1), Pb (65.00 mg kg-1) and Zn (144.13 mg kg-1) are 7.97, 3.69 and 1.63 times the corresponding background contents in soils of Hunan Province, respectively. 13.2% of As, 68.5% of Cd, 2.7% of Cu, 2.7% of Ni, 8.7% of Pb and 15.1% of Zn in soil sam- ples from the investigated sites exceeded the maximum allowable heavy metal contents inthe China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, Grade II). The pollution characteristics of multi-metals in soils are mainly due to Cd. The contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in vegetable soils are significantly higher than the contents in paddy soils. 95.8%, 68.8%, 10.4% and 95.8% of vegetable samples exceeded the Maximum Levels of Contami- nants in Foods (GB2762-2005) for As, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations, respectively. There are significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in vegetables and the concentrations in the corresponding vegetable soils (p<0.01). It is very necessary to focus on the potential risk of heavy metals for food safety and human health in agricultural soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province of China.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in plants and soils at roadside locations and parks of urban Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Dong-sheng; M. R. Peart

    2006-01-01

    Levels of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr were measured in soils and trees in urban Guangzhou, China. Tree and soil samples were collected from the roadside, urban parks and a university campus. Mean concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr in tree leaves were28.3, 7.7, 142.1, 23.4, and 195.1 mg/kg respectively. In a comparison of heavy metal concentrations in tree leaves between roads and park locations, only Pb concentrations were significantly higher in the former. Heavy metal concentrations were lower in the roots compared to leaves. It indicated that heavy metal pollution of trees is mainly from air pollution. For all top soil samples the mean concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr were 24.3, 17.3, 121.5, 63.9 and 88.7 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils were higher and their coefficient of variation was higher than those in urban parks. Comparing heavy metal concentrations in trees and soil between urban Guangzhou and Hainan Island, China, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr levels in soils and plants in urban Guangzhou were evidently affected by the human impact. However the heavy metal content in the soil compared to some international standards do not give cause for concern. Some observations on the implications of the data for environmental monitoring are made.

  11. Characterization and mobility of arsenic and heavy metals in soils polluted by the destruction of arsenic-containing shells from the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Hugues; Le Forestier, Lydie; Gautret, Pascale; Hube, Daniel; Laperche, Valérie; Dupraz, Sebastien; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne

    2016-04-15

    Destruction of chemical munitions from World War I has caused extensive local top soil contamination by arsenic and heavy metals. The biogeochemical behavior of toxic elements is poorly documented in this type of environment. Four soils were sampled presenting different levels of contamination. The range of As concentrations in the samples was 1937-72,820mg/kg. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Pb reached 90,190mg/kg, 9113mg/kg and 5777mg/kg, respectively. The high clay content of the subsoil and large amounts of charcoal from the use of firewood during the burning process constitute an ample reservoir of metals and As-binding materials. However, SEM-EDS observations showed different forms of association for metals and As. In metal-rich grains, several phases were identified: crystalline phases, where arsenate secondary minerals were detected, and an amorphous phase rich in Fe, Zn, Cu, and As. The secondary arsenate minerals, identified by XRD, were adamite and olivenite (zinc and copper arsenates, respectively) and two pharmacosiderites. The amorphous material was the principal carrier of As and metals in the central part of the site. This singular mineral assemblage probably resulted from the heat treatment of arsenic-containing shells. Microbial characterization included total cell counts, respiration, and determination of As(III)-oxidizing activities. Results showed the presence of microorganisms actively contributing to metabolism of carbon and arsenic, even in the most polluted soil, thereby influencing the fate of bioavailable As on the site. However, the mobility of As correlated mainly with the availability of iron sinks.

  12. Fracionamento de metais pesados em solo contaminado antes e após cultivo de arroz Fractionation of heavy metals in polluted soil before and after rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia de Souza Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the distribution of Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn among the different fractions of contaminated soil, before and after rice cultivation. Seven soil samples with different degrees of contamination were studied using a randomized experimental design, with four replicates. Using an ICP-OES we analyzed the contents of heavy metals in fractions of soil, the organic matter therein, the oxides and the residual content before and after rice cultivation. The largest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in the soil are found in the fractions with stable chemical bonds.

  13. Nematodes as sentinels of heavy metals and organic toxicants in the soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekschmitt, K.; Korthals, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory research has repeatedly shown that free-living soil nematodes differ in their sensitivity to soil pollution. In this paper, we analyze whether nematode genera proved sensitive or tolerant toward heavy metals and organic pollutants in six long-term field experiments. We discuss o

  14. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area.

  15. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  16. 江西省农田重金属污染现状及防治对策研究%Status of Heavy Metal Pollution in Farmland Soil of Jiangxi Province and Its Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文建; 徐昌旭; 刘增兵; 王萍; 刘佳; 王少先; 曾晓安; 张全市; 刘光荣

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the heavy metal pollution in the farmland soils of Jiangxi province is serious, and mining, excre-ments of livestocks, and sewage sludge are the main sources of heavy metal pollution.The author analyzed and summed up the status and regional characteristics of heavy metal pollution in the farmland soils of Jiangxi province, pointed out the existent main problems in the control of this pollution, and put forward some corresponding control countermeasures and suggestions.%近年来,江西省农田土壤重金属污染严重,采矿、畜禽粪便、污水是主要的重金属污染源。笔者分析总结了江西省农田重金属污染的状况、区域特征及其防治中存在的主要问题,并提出了相应的防治对策和建议。

  17. Spreading and accumulation of heavy metals in soils of railway-side areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bobryk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the landscape-environmental survey of the lands adjoining the single-track railway No. 193 Chop – Uzhhorod – Sianky – Lviv within Zakarpatska oblast (Transcarpathia, we have identified certain regularities in the spreading, accumulation and dispersion of some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni in soils. For the purpose of study, the soils were taken at different distances from the railway (0, 25, 50 and 100 m within the following key points of the railway under study: Chop, Uzhhorod, Perechyn, Velyky Berezny, and Volosianka. The soil samples taken at the distance of 250 m from the railway were assumed the control group. Mass concentration of acid-soluble forms of heavy metals, considered as the main anthropogenic constituent of heavy metal stock in soils, was determined by means of atomic absorption analysis. Content of heavy metals in soils under study was compared with background data available in scientific literature. The results were evaluated by calculation of concentration factor commonly considered as a reliable and self-descriptive ecological constituent. In general, increased content of heavy metals was shown to be peculiar for soils that directly adjoin the railways (to 25 m; their content in remoter soils decreases considerably. In the control soils (250 m from the railway, the content of heavy metals reportedly significantly decreases as compared with other soils; however partial accumulation of lead, zinc and nickel compounds does take place there too. Dependence between the accumulations of heavy metals and the distance from the railway was described by polynomial equations. Such deviation from the linear distribution can be explained by the height of the railway embankments, absorbing properties of the railway-side plants, migration processes in soils, and direction of prevailing winds. Zinc was established to have the highest value of concentration factor (Кс = 1.04–10.54. Pollutant accumulation was most

  18. Immunotoxicology in wood mice along a heavy metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tersago, Katrien [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: katrien.tersago@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Scheirs, Jan [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vermeulen, Katrien [Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bockstaele, Dirk van[Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    We carried out an immunotoxicological field study of wood mice in three populations along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Heavy metal concentrations in liver tissue indicated that exposure to silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and lead decreased with increasing distance from a non-ferrous smelter. Host resistance to the endoparasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus decreased with increasing exposure, while the abundance of tick larvae and the nematode Syphacia stroma was unrelated to heavy metal exposure. Spleen mass was increased at the intermediate and the most polluted sites and was positively correlated with the number of H. polygyrus and tick larvae. Proportion of early apoptotic leukocytes increased towards the smelter and was positively related to cadmium exposure. Red and white blood cell counts and lysozyme activity showed no relationship with metal exposure. All together, our observations suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune function of wood mice under field conditions. - Capsule: Complex interactions among metal burden, immune response and parasite burden suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune system of wood0011 mi.

  19. Heavy metal pollution in selected sewage farm soils in the south of Berlin; Schwermetalle in Boeden der Rieselfelder Berlin-Sued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burhenne, M. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Schneider, I. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie und Naturschutz; Bukowsky, H. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1997-05-01

    Soils of the large sewage farm area south of Berlin are contaminated with heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn. Based on earlier studies the total amount and the bioavailable proportions of heavy metals in soils samples were analysed. In some samples very high levels of total heavy metal concentrations were detected. For Pb, Cd, Cu and Hg the maximum values were 1360, 29.7, 817 and 40.8 mg/kg soil dry matter, respectively. The biovailable fractions of heavy metals which were found primarily in the acetate and EDTA fractions and to a lesser degree in the water extract account for about 50% (Pb, Ni), 70% (Cd) or 90% (Zn) of their total amount and may therefore pose a considerable environmental risk. (orig.) [Deutsch] Boeden der Rieselfelder Berlin-Sued sind teilweise erheblich mit den Schwermetallen Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink kontaminiert. In Bodenproben aus den Rieselfeldern im Sueden Berlins wurden sowohl die Gesamtgehalte als auch die bioverfuegbaren Anteile der Schwermetalle Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb und Zn bestimmt. Die maximalen Konzentrationen lagen bei 1 360 mg/kg TS fuer Blei, 29,7 mg/kg TS fuer Cadmium, 817 mg/kg TS fuer Kupfer und 40,8 mg/kg TS fuer Quecksilber. Die bioverfuegbaren Anteile waren besonders in der Acetat- und EDTA-Fraktion aber weniger im Wasserextrakt vorhanden. Mit Anteilen bis zu 50% (Pb, Ni), 70% (Cd) oder 90% (Zn) am jeweiligen Gesamtgehalt stellen sie ein nicht vernachlaessigbares Gefaehrdungspotential dar. (orig.)

  20. Mutagenic activity of heavy metals in soils of wayside slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, A. I.; Kalaev, V. N.; Prosvirina, Yu. G.; Goryainova, S. A.

    2007-08-01

    The genotoxic properties of soils polluted with heavy metals were studied on two wayside slopes covered with trees in the city of Voronezh. The nucleolar test in cells of the apical meristem of Zebrina pendula Schnizl. roots was used. The genotoxic effect of the soils was revealed according to the increased number of 2-and 3-nucleolar cells (from 41 to 54% and from 19 to 23% in the upper part of the first and second slopes, respectively; in the control, their number was 18 and 7%). The mean number of nucleoli per cell increased from 1.7 to 1.95 in the experiment and 1.31 in the control. The increased vehicle emissions, especially when cars go up the slopes (mainly in the upper and middle parts), correlated with the elevated heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) contents in the soil. The mutagenic substances may be removed to the Voronezh Reservoir, where they may be accumulated in some living organisms.

  1. Multivariate analysis combined with GIS to source identification of heavy metals in soils around an abandoned industrial area, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Feng, Ke; Pei, Zongping; Meng, Fang; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metals in soils polluted by industrial production are a meaningful topic worldwide. The purpose of this study is to understand the pollution status and spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils. The result can help decision-makers apportion possible soil heavy metals sources and formulate effective pollution control policies. In this paper, 155 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected and analyzed for eight heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni) from an abandoned industrial area of Tong County, located in Jiangsu Province of Eastern China. The multivariate analysis (including I(geo), Ei/RI, EF, PCA, and CA) and geostatistics (GIS) were used to assess the enrichment level and pollution level of soil heavy metals and identify their sources. The results indicated that eight heavy metals in soils had moderate variations, with CVs ranging from 19.63 to 63.34%. The pollution level of I(geo) of soil heavy metals decreased in the order of Cd~Zn > Cu > Hg~As~Pb~Cr~Ni. The enrichment level of soil heavy metals decreased in the order of Cd > Zn > Hg > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Cr. According to the Ei, except Cd and Hg were in the significant and moderate ecological risk levels respectively, other soil heavy metals were in the clean or light ecological risk levels, the level of potential ecological risk (RI) of the whole industrial area was moderate. Finally, the source identification of soil heavy metals indicated that Cd and Zn were primarily controlled by human activities, and Hg and Cu were controlled by natural and anthropogenic sources, and As, Pb, Cr, and Ni were mainly controlled by soil parent materials.

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and accumulation in plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... An auto battery manufacturing company dumped slag containing proportion of heavy metals in ... their shoot over a wide range of soil concentrations. They ... capacity of plants that grew naturally on metalliferous wastes and ...

  3. 土壤重金属污染现状及植物修复研究进展%Research Progress on the Soil Heavy Metal Pollution Status and Phytoremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蝶; 陈文清

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the soil heavy metal pollution status in China, summarizes the types, typical cases and limitations of the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil, gives a detailed description of the research progress of the hyperaccumulators which are the core of phytoremediation, and at last forecasts the development trend of phytoremediation.%综述了我国土壤重金属的污染现状,总结了重金属污染土壤植物修复的类型、典型案例及局限性,重点概括了植物修复的核心--超富集植物的研究现状,并对植物修复的发展方向进行了展望.

  4. 模糊数学模型在土壤重金属污染评价中的应用%Application of Fuzzy Model in Evaluation of Heavy Metal Soil Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红; 吴世洋; 李卫东; 杜晓亮; 王丽苑

    2013-01-01

    针对传统的土壤环境重金属受污染程度评价标准不统一、定性指标难以定量化的问题,建立了适用于土壤中Cd等重金属污染状况评价的模糊数学模型。应用Matlab软件的Matlab-FIS工具分析了白银市白银区附近的土壤中重金属污染情况,评价结果显示该区域土壤受到了一定程度的重金属污染,采样点中层土壤受污染程度高于表层土壤,远离工业区的土壤质量好于工业区附近的土壤。研究表明,模糊评价法可以精确地对土壤中重金属综合污染进行评价,解决了传统的单因子指数评价法存在的不足之处,比单因子指标评价法更为客观、准确。%Fuzzy model has been established which suits for Cadmium in the soil and some serious heavy metal pollution , in view of lack of unity and quantification for quantitative indicators for the evaluation standard of heavy metal pollution .Mat-lab-FIS in the Matlab model was used in analyzing the soil heavy metal polluton in Baiyin nearby .The evaluation result showed that a certain degree of soil heavy metal pollution has been suffered in this area .The degree of the contamination in the middle soil was higher than in the surface , the soil quality away from the industrial area was better than the nearby are-a.Studies also showed that ,Fuzzy evaluation method can accurately evaluate the comprehensive pollution of heavy metals in soil,which overcomed the shortcomings in the traditional single index evaluation method .It is more objective and accurate than the single factor index evaluation method .

  5. [Mapping Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soil Based on Different Environmental Effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-xing; Wu, Shao-hua; Zhou, Sheng-lu; Wang, Chun-hui; Chen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    China's rapid development of industrialization and urbanization causes the growing problem of heavy metal pollution of soil, threatening environment and human health. Therefore, prevention and management of heavy metal pollution become particularly important. Critical loads of heavy metals are an important management tool that can be utilized to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution. Our study was based on three cases: status balance, water environmental effects and health risks. We used the steady-state mass balance equation to calculate the critical loads of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn at different effect levels and analyze the values and spatial variation of critical loads. In addition, we used the annual input fluxes of heavy metals of the agro-ecosystem in the Yangtze River delta and China to estimate the proportion of area with exceedance of critical loads. The results demonstrated that the critical load value of Cd was the minimum, and the values of Cu and Zn were lager. There were spatial differences among the critical loads of four elements in the study area, lower critical loads areas mainly occurred in woodland and high value areas distributed in the east and southwest of the study area, while median values and the medium high areas mainly occurred in farmland. Comparing the input fluxes of heavy metals, we found that Pb and Zn in more than 90% of the area exceeded the critical loads under different environmental effects in the study area. The critical load exceedance of Cd mainly occurred under the status balance and the water environmental effect, while Cu under the status balance and water environmental effect with a higher proportion of exceeded areas. Critical loads of heavy metals at different effect levels in this study could serve as a reference from effective control of the emissions of heavy metals and to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution.

  6. Heavy metal pollution of soils and sediments at the historical smelting site of the Rudawy Janowickie Mountains (Lower Silesia, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierczak, Jakub; Néel, Catherine; Pietranik, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Multidisciplinary studies of historical slags are mostly focused on exploring how metallurgy evolved through human history. Another purpose for studying historical slags are potentially harmful interactions between slags, surrounding soils, sediments and waters. Metallurgical slags generally concentrate potentially toxic elements (PTE) such as arsenic, copper and lead. These elements may be mobilized and transferred into immediate surroundings. The main aim of our work is to identify factors controlling migration of metals at the historical smelting site of the Rudawy Janowickie Mountains. This study involves detailed analyzes of historical slags (older than 300 years) containing PTE, as well as surrounding soils and sediments. The Rudawy Janowickie Mountains represented an important centre of copper mining and smelting in Poland until 1925 with metallurgical activities being documented as early as in the XIV century. The exploitation of Cu ores has left large amounts of mine tailings and slags extending over ca. 35ha. The slags were deposited on ground and no barriers between the slags and environment were set. Therefore, they were continuously affected by variable factors, for example, changing weather conditions. Soils located in the study area are derived from granitic rocks. They are shallow ( 50 wt. % of coarse fragments). Their pHw is acidic and varies from 3.4 to 4.5 from the topsoil to the deeper horizons in which slags are widespread. Mineral composition of soils and sediments is dominated by quartz, alkali feldspar, plagioclase and biotite. However, some samples may contain additionally numerous slag fragments. At present, the slags occur within three types of environments: (1) at the surface, (2) in soils and (3) in sediments from two streams: Janówka and Smelter Stream. Studied slags were sampled in the vicinity of both streams from (1) surface, (2) soil profiles and (3) streambeds. Furthermore, samples of soils and stream sediments were collected at

  7. Methods to calculate critical loads for heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Bakker, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Basic principles of methods for calculating critical loads of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for soils and surface waters are described briefly. The methods are basedon the implicit assumption that environmental

  8. Heavy metal speciation and risk assessment in dry land and paddy soils near mining areas at Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guannan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Erxi; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils has been a long-standing environmental problem in many parts of the world, and poses enormous threats to ecosystem and human health. Speciation of heavy metals in soils is crucial to assessing environmental risks from contaminated soils. In this study, total concentrations and speciation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured for agricultural soils near mines along the Diaojiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomy Region, China. The sources of heavy metals in soils also were identified to assess their effect on speciation distribution of soil heavy metals. Furthermore, the speciation distribution of Cd and Zn, main soil heavy metal pollutants, in dry land and paddy soils were compared. Results showed that there were two severely polluted regions near mine area reaching alarming pollution level. As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were more affected by mining activities, showing very strong pollution level in soils. The mean percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fraction was highest and up to 46.8 % for Cd, indicating a high environmental risk. Greater bioavailable fractions of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were found in soils heavily polluted by mining activities, whereas Cr and Ni as geogenic elements in the stable residual fraction. In addition, in the dry land soils, reducible fraction proportion of Cd was higher than that in the paddy soils, whereas exchangeable and carbonate fraction of Cd was lower than that in the paddy soils. Oxidizable fraction of Zn was higher in the paddy soils than that in the dry land soils. The results indicate that the sources of soil heavy metals and land types affect heavy metal speciation in the soil and are significant for environmental risk assessment of soil heavy metal pollutions.

  9. Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Arable Soils in Bijiang Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wei-heng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been paid much attention to soil heavy metal pollution in the Bijiang watershed caused by the Lanping lead-zinc mine. We collected 35 arable soil samples along Bijiang, then sampled and tested the contents of As, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg. And then with Nemerow Multi-Factor Index and the Potential Ecological Risk Index method, we evaluated the heavy metal pollution risk. The results showed:(1The accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cd was in a relatively high level, the average was 1 146.97, 579.15, 4.85 mg·kg-1 respectively, which was seriously polluted; the average accumulation of As was 26.85 mg·kg-1; but Cu, Hg was slightly polluted. (2Statistical analysis showed that Lanping area was a main point source pollution of As, Zn, Pb, Cd, while Cu, Hg was pollution caused by different non-point source pollution.(3Within this basin, the Nemerow index was 17.69, which was serious heavy metal pollution, while the comprehensive potential ecological risk index was 773.38, which was a strong potential ecological risk. The contribution of pollutants was Cd > Pb > Zn> As> Hg > Cu. (4As a whole, the soil heavy metal pollution of paddy field was higher than of the dry land.

  10. Effects of phytoremediation and application of organic amendment on the mobility of heavy metals in a polluted soil profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubillaga, Marta Susana; Bressan, Emiliano; Lavado, Raúl S

    2012-03-01

    This research aims to assess the effect of the application of biosolids compost and phytoremediation on the mobility of total and biodisponibles (DTPA) fractions of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from different horizons of a superficially contaminated soil. Leaching experiment in soil columns was proposed. Treatments contemplated application of compost biosolid and phytoremediation. Two destructive samplings were performed. Total and DTPA trace metals were identified in each horizon. The overall performance of the various elements in its total and DTPA forms show greater concentration in horizon A and fewer gradients between horizons Bt and BC, thus assuming that the high content of clay in horizon Bt (62.9%) limits its movement through the horizons. In the mobile nutrients, a greater mobility was evidenced in DTPA fractions if compared to Total fractions. In the horizon A, the more mobile metals, such as Zn and Cd, evidenced a greater percentage of DTPA/Total fractions in all treatments. The application of compost with or without plant diminished the mobilization of Zn, Cu, and Cd Total, thus limiting a potential leaching to inferior horizons. However, this effect was not observed in the DTPA fraction.

  11. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  12. Heavy metals in urban soils of the Granada city (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Gabriel; Sánchez-Marañón, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Sartini, Alessandra; Martín-García, Juan Manuel; Delgado, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    Urban soils (Anthrosols, Technosols, and the remaining natural patches) are essential components of the city ecosystems influencing the quality of life for people. Unfortunately, because of the high concentration of matter and energy that occurs in any city, these soils might accumulate potentially toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and soluble salts. Contamination by heavy metals has been considered especially dangerous because they can affect human health via inhalation of dust, ingestion, or skin contact with soils. Children are the more exposed citizens in gardens and parks. Accordingly, our objective was to analyze the content of heavy metals in soils of the two most emblematic, extensive, and visited landscaped areas of the Granada city (Salón Garden, which dates back to 1612, and Federico García Lorca Park, opened since 1993) for assessing the health hazard. Using a composite sampling of 20-30 points chosen at random, we collected the upper soil (10 cm) of five representative plots for each landscaped area. We determined soil characteristics by routine procedures and metal elements using ICP-mass. From high to low concentration we found Mn, Ba, Pb, Zn, V, Sn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sb, Y, As, Sc, Co, Th, Au, U, Mo, Be, Bi, Tl, Cd, and In; the first 10 metals ranging between 478 and 22 ppm. Mn, Ba, and other trace elements were strongly correlated with soil properties suggesting the inheritance as a possible source of metal variation, especially in the soils of younger Park, where the materials used to build gardens in the five sampled plots seemed to be more variable (carbonates: 10-40%, clay: 18-26%, pH: 7.6-7.9, organic matter: 3-7%, free iron 0.5-1.1%). The content of many other metals measured in the sampled plots, however, were independent of soil material and management. On the other hand, compared to agricultural and native soils of the surroundings, our urban soils had obviously greater content in organic

  13. Comparison of the multifractal characteristics of heavy metals in soils within two areas of contrasting economic activities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Xiangling; Yuan, Feng; Jowitt, Simon M.; Zhou, Taofa; Yang, Kui; Zhou, Jie; Hu, Xunyu; Li, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Industrial and agricultural activities can generate heavy metal pollution that can cause a number of negative environmental and health impacts. This means that evaluating heavy metal pollution and identifying the sources of these pollutants, especially in urban or developed areas, is an important first step in mitigating the effects of these contaminating but necessary economic activities. Here, we present the results of a heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, and Hg) soil geochemical survey in Hefei city. We used a multifractal spectral technique to identify and compare the multifractality of heavy metal concentrations of soils within the industrial Daxing and agricultural Yicheng areas. This paper uses three multifractal parameters (Δα, Δf(α), and τ''(1)) to indicate the overall amount of multifractality within the soil geochemical data. The results show all of the elements barring Hg have larger Δα, Δf(α), and τ''(1) values in the Daxing area compared to the Yicheng area. The degree of multifractality suggests that the differing economic activities in Daxing and Yicheng generate very different heavy metal pollution loads. In addition, the industrial Daxing area contains significant Pb and Cd soil contamination, whereas Hg is the main heavy metal present in soils within the Yicheng area, indicating that differing clean-up procedures and approaches to remediating these polluted areas are needed. The results also indicate that multifractal modelling and the associated generation of multifractal parameters can be a useful approach in the evaluation of heavy metal pollution in soils.

  14. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  15. Roadside Rhododendron pulchrum leaves as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas of Okayama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Yabuki, Toru; Ono, Yoshiro

    2009-02-01

    The leaves of roadside Rhododendron pulchrum Sweet were examined as a bioindicator of traffic-related heavy metal pollution in Okayama. Total contents of heavy metals in roadside soil and the R. pulchrum leaves were determined. Results of correlation analyses showed significant correlations among Pb, Ni, and Zn contents of roadside soil and leaf samples. These results suggest that R. pulchrum is a useful bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas. To identify traffic-related heavy metal pollution sources, traffic-related materials such as tires, asphalt pavement, and road paint were collected and analyzed. The results of analyses of our data show that Zn is emitted mainly from the abrasion of tires; Cr is emitted mainly from wear of the asphalt pavement. Furthermore, the respective lead isotope ratios in R. pulchrum leaves, soil, roadside dust, and traffic-related materials were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The isotopic compositions of lead in R. pulchrum leaves were 207Pb/206Pb = 0.861-0.871 and 208Pb/206Pb = 2.093-2.127, which agrees well with ratios in automobile wheel balance weights, suggesting that lead-containing products associated with automobiles, such as wheel balance weights, contribute to traffic-related lead pollution.

  16. 重金属污染土壤修复及其对作物效应%The Remediation of Heavy Metals Polluted Soil by Washing with Chemicals and its Effects on Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫良玉; 范稚莲; 梁俊; 范业赓

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨不同的淋洗剂修复重金属污染的土壤效果,笔者研究利用水、石灰水、EDTA溶液、水+石灰水(即先用水淋洗后,再用石灰水淋洗)、水+石灰水+EDTA溶液(即先用水淋洗后,再用石灰水淋洗,最后用EDTA溶液淋洗)等5种淋洗方法处理尾矿重金属严重污染的土壤.结果表明:水、石灰水以及EDTA溶液等均能提取污染土壤中的重金属,其中EDTA提取的能力最强,水其次,而石灰水最弱;水稻、玉米、大豆和南瓜等4种作物在不经过修复的污染土壤上不能正常发芽生长,而在修复后的土壤上都能正常发芽,但水处理和EDTA溶液处理的土壤,种子发芽后很快死亡,而其他处理的作物仍可继续生长;石灰水或水+石灰水处理的土壤,作物生物量较高;在污染土壤上生长的作物均能吸收重金属,其中大豆和水稻吸收能力较强.这些结果表明,可以利用石灰来修复重金属尾矿污染的土壤,在修复的土壤上生长的大豆和水稻重金属含量较高,在作物布局上要尽量避免种植这2种作物.%In order to research the effects of remedying heavy metal polluted soil with washing chemicals, the heavy metal polluted soil, on where plants were not able to grow, was remedied by chemical washing. The washing chemicals of water, lime solution and EDTA solution were used single or combinational to sequential wash soil. Four crops of rice, soybean, corn and pumpkin were planted on treated soil in order to assess effects of chemical. The results indicated that water, lime solution and EDTA solution could extract heavy metals from soil, but their ability were different, with EDTA solution>water>lime solution. The four crops were able to germinate on treated soils, but all crops were all phytotoxic and died after germination on the soil washed by water or EDTA solution. The biomass of plants grown on the soils washed by lime solution or water +lime solution was higher than that

  17. Water and Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Ereniku River of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATON MALOKU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil, water and sediment samples were collected in 13 sampling stations along Erenik River, in the western part of Kosovo in order to assess heavy metal pollution. The concentration of hevy metals as Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn were determinated in water, soil and sediment samples. The concentration of heavy metals in water samples was measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS, while for sediment and soil samples was used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Obtained results showed that the concentrations in soil of heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were under the proposed limit values by the European guideline for “soil background", while the obtained values of Cr in all stations were higher than proposed limit values. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediment were often higher than the values determined with low action on the biological systems of the river ecosystem (ERL Effect Range Low but smaller than the values that negatively affecting the extent > 50% of organisms on core Effect Medium Range - ERM (Cu, Pb and Ni. The total values of Cr were higher than ERM but its origin is mainly geological more than human activities, thus the biological effect of this element can be probably low. Our results indicated that heavy metals as Pb, Zn and Cu were found in high portion in fine sediment fraction (<0.2 mm, while Cr, Ni and Co were in low amount in this sediment fraction. The concentrations of all analyzed heavy metals in the water were generally low at the beginning of the flow, average in middle stations and higher in secondary stations. Furthermore, the values for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were higher than international standards in some stations, showing the influence of highly polluted streams that join Erenik River flow in these stations.

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhao Sun

    Full Text Available The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  19. The effects of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Hu, Zhongjun

    2012-11-15

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai-Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0-10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment by Partial Geochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    sediments geochemical anomalies has been applied with success in .... pure exploration geological to environmental pollution studies as well as remote sensing ..... erosion of the amorphous phase to the sea in the form of suspension while ...

  1. 土壤重金属污染及其植物修复研究综述%Research Summary on Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Its Phytoremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彦

    2016-01-01

    综述土壤了镉、镍、铜、砷、汞、铅污染,及利用超富集植物修复重金属污染土壤研究的最新进展,分析了植物修复技术的研究方向。%This paper summarizes the present situation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Cadmium,Nickel,Copper, Arsenic,Mercury and Plumbum,also illustrates the latest study on the hyperaccumulator plant and the hyperaccumulator plants used phytoremediation in our country,and put forwards the application potential of phytoremediation technology in the future.

  2. Heavy metal pollution model of tailings and the pollution simulation by visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song; WU Chao; YANG Fu-qiang; BAO Rui-xue

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of whole mining process in metal mines,it was pointed out that the investigation of the heavy metal pollution of railings should be taken as an important project for a metal mine.Combined with the anlysis of the characteristics of tailings,it is found that the transformation of the heavy metal dissolution process,the heavy metal ions migration with groundwater and the heavy metal transport in porous media are three key aspects.Accordingly,the models of heavy metal pollution were established with providing boundary conditions.Depending upon a case of Tonglushan Copper Mine tailings and its relevant area from Google maps',a three-dimensional grid view of the tailings was set up.By application of Fluent software,the contaminated process of the heavy metal pollutants in the tailings was shown through digital visualization pattern.

  3. Safety Assessment of Heavy Metal in Tea Garden Soil: A Case Study of Specialized Tea Towns in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiushuang; WANG; Caijin; LING; Shumei; LIU; Junxi; CAO; Jinsong; ZHANG; Chaoyi; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    More than 20 soil samples were collected from tea gardens of specialized tea towns in Guangdong,including Fenglang Town and Fengshun Town in Meizhou City,Changshan Town in Lianjiang City,Fenghuang Town in Chaozhou City.Content of 6 types of heavy metal (Cr,Cu,Pb,As,Cd,Hg) in tea garden soil was measured.On the basis of these,the safety was assessed.Results show that the comprehensive pollution index of these 6 types of heavy metal is lower than 0.7.According to Soil Pollution Grading Standard formulated by China Green Food Development Center,the soil is not polluted by heavy metal and remains at safety level.It proves that overall soil condition of specialized tea gardens in Guangdong Province is not polluted by heavy metal.

  4. Comparison of EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction and phytostabilisation strategies with Lolium perenne on a heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Thomas; Gustot, Quentin; Couder, Eléonore; Houben, David; Iserentant, Anne; Lutts, Stanley

    2011-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising and cost-effective strategy to manage heavy metal polluted sites. In this experiment, we compared simultaneously phytoextraction and phytostabilisation techniques on a Cd and Zn contaminated soil, through monitoring of plant accumulation and leaching. Lolium perenne plants were cultivated for 2 months under controlled environmental conditions in a 27.6 dm(3)-pot experiment allowing the collect of leachates. The heavy metal phytoextraction was promoted by adding Na-EDTA (0.5 g kg(-1) of soil) in watering solution. Phytostabilisation was assessed by mixing soil with steel shots (1%) before L. perenne sowing. Presence of plants exacerbated heavy metal leaching, by improving soil hydraulic conductivity. Use of EDTA for phytoextraction led to higher concentration of heavy metal in shoots. However, this higher heavy metal extraction was insufficient to satisfactory reduce the heavy metal content in soil, and led to important heavy metal leaching induced by EDTA. On the other hand, addition of steel shots efficiently decreased both Cd and Zn mobility, according to 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction, and leaching. However, improvement of growth conditions by steel shots led to higher heavy metal mass in shoot tissues. Therefore, soil heavy metal mobility and plant metal uptake are not systematically positively correlated.

  5. Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination on Microbial Biomass and Community Structure in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元根; 刘丛强; 徐磊; 吴攀; 张国平

    2004-01-01

    Zinc smelting near Magu Town, Hezhang County, Guizhou Province, resulted in vegetation destruction and the accumulation of heavy metals, to varying extent, in adjacent soils, where up to 162.2-877.9 mg·kg+-1 Zn, 37.24-305.6 mg·kg+-1 Pb, and 0.50-16.43 mg·kg+-1 Cd, were detected. These values greatly exceed the background levels of these elements in soils. The concentrations of heavy metals (particularly Pb, Zn) were positively correlated with the contents of Fe-2O-3 and Al-2O-3 in the soils, showing that Fe and Al oxides play an important role in retaining heavy metals. Chemical fractionation indicates that Pb and Zn were associated mainly with Fe and Mn oxides and minerals, whereas Cd was dominated by exchangeable form. Microbial biomass in the soils was relatively low, in the range of 57.00-388.0μg C·g+-1, and was negatively correlated with heavy metal concentrations in the soils. The correlation coefficient of microbial biomass C to Zn concentrations in the soils was as high as -0.778 (p<0.01), indicating that the heavy metal contamination has toxic effects on microorganisms in soil. The results of Biolog measurements demonstrated that there were no significant changes in microbial community structure in the heavy metal contaminated soils. Gene fragments were similar to one another after the DNA was extracted from soil microbes and experienced PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) reactions. These results indicated that light heavy-metal pollution may not result in any change in soil microbial community structure.

  6. Speciation analysis and pollution risk assessment of heavy metals in the soils surrounding mine area%矿区周边土壤中重金属形态分析及污染风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海洋; 王维生; 韦月越; 应成璋; 黄雪芬; 蒙敏

    2016-01-01

    为了解某矿区周边土壤的重金属污染状况及污染程度,以广西河池市某矿区周边6处矿山和农田土壤为研究对象,采用湿法消解和BCR连续提取法研究了土壤中重金属( Cd、Zn、Pb和Cu)的总量及形态分布,并用次生相与原生相比值法( RSP)评价了土壤中重金属潜在的生态风险。结果表明,样品中重金属呈现一定的富集效应,总量超过当地土壤背景值和土壤环境质量标准值,从总量超标倍数看,其污染程度为Cd>Zn>Pb抑Cu。 BCR结果显示,离矿山较近的5个采样点的可提取态重金属均占总量的50%以上,有较强的生物有效性和毒性,最远的采样点的重金属主要存在于残渣态中(>60%),可提取态低于40%。 RSP结果显示,离矿山较近的两个采样点的重金属污染风险最高( RSP在1.62~3.20),矿山周边3个采样点有轻度或中度的的污染风险(RSP在1.11~2.16),离矿山最远的采样点几乎没有污染风险(RSP在0.42~0.67)。说明该矿区周边土壤重金属活性较大,离矿区越近,污染风险越高。%In order to understand the pollution condition and level of heavy metals in a mining area and surrounding soils, the contents and speciation distribution of heavy metals ( Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu) in six mine/farmland soils surrounding mine area in Hechi city of Guangxi province were stud-ied by the wet digestion method and BCR sequential extraction procedure . The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the soils was evaluated by the ratio of secondary phase and primary phase ( RSP) . The results showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in the soils was observed, and the contents of heavy metals were higher than the background values of the local soils, and the values of soil environmental quality standard ( SEQS) . According to the total contents of heavy metals in the soil, the sequence of heavy metal pollution level was obtained as Cd>Zn>Pb-Cu. The results of

  7. 土壤重金属复合污染整体模型研究%Study on the Heavy Metal Combined Pollution Model in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 王志忠; 肖国光

    2014-01-01

    在重金属迁移建模研究成果的基础上,考虑土壤对重金属的吸附特性,推导出土壤重金属复合污染物迁移转化整体模型。为求解该模型,分别引进 Langmuir 等温竞争吸附模型与土壤水分迁移模型。最后,以重金属 Zn 和 Cd 为例,数值模拟其在土壤中的垂向迁移过程,并利用 MATLAB 画出相关图形。%Based on the previous achievements and considering the soil’s adsorption characteristics of heavy metal,this paper proposed an overall migration model of heavy metal compound contaminants in soil.In order to solve the problem,the Langmuir isotherm competitive adsorption model and water migration model in soil were applied.Finally,an numerical simula-tion example of Zn and Cd was shown as heavy metal’s vertical migration in soil and displayed by MATLAB.

  8. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  9. Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiyang [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Teng, Yanguo, E-mail: Teng1974@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao [China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Jinsheng [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-04-15

    China faces a big challenge of environmental deterioration amid its rapid economic development. To comprehensively identify the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in Chinese soils on a national scale, data set of the first national soil pollution survey was employed to evaluate the pollution levels using several pollution indicators (pollution index, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor) and to quantify their exposure risks posed to human health with the risk assessment model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that, due to the drastically increased industrial operations and fast urban expansion, Chinese soils were contaminated by heavy metals in varying degrees. As a whole, the exposure risk levels of soil metals in China were tolerable or close to acceptable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Cadmium and mercury have been identified as the priority control metals due to their higher concentrations in soils or higher health risks posed to the public, as well as, arsenic, lead, chromium and nickel. Spatial distribution pattern analysis implied that the soil metal pollutions in southern provinces of China were relatively higher than that in other provinces, which would be related to the higher geochemical background in southwest regions and the increasing human activities in southeast areas. Meanwhile, it should be noticed that Beijing, the capital of China, also has been labeled as the priority control province for its higher mercury concentration. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention and control in China. - Highlights: • Soil contamination with heavy metals in China was systematically studied. • Spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in Chinese soils were identified. • Monte

  10. Evaluation on Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Soil from Penglai Fairyland Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen YANG; Di WU; Zhun XIANG; Chao KANG; Fang WANG; Zhu HUANG; Lin ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the heavy metals pollution in soil collected from Penglai Fairyland Park in Guiyang,and predicting the harm of heavy metals to human health. Based on the background value of soil in Guizhou and Soil Environment Quality Standard( GB15618-1995),by using the geoaccumulation index method and Hakanson potential ecological risk assessment method,we research pollution characteristics and ecological risk of heavy metals in soil from the study area. The results show that from the index of geoaccumulation,the pollution level of heavy metals in agricultural soil from Penglai Fairyland Park is in the order of Ni > Cu > Hg > Cd > As > Zn > Cr > Pb. From the potential ecological harm index evaluation,soil is at slight ecological risk level in the park and the potential ecological hazard degree is in the order of Hg > Cd > Ni > As > Cu > Cr > Pb > Zn. The soil ecological environment in research area is only mildly damaged. Thus,the soil in research area is at the level of security,and it is suitable for cultivation of crops and less harmful to human health.

  11. 钝化剂对土壤重金属污染修复研究进展%Passivating Agents on Remediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐露露; 马友华; 马铁铮; 付欢欢; 聂静茹; 何晓红; 王强

    2013-01-01

    总结了常见的钝化剂包括石灰性物质、炭材料、粘土矿物、含磷材料、有机肥和农业废弃物等对土壤重金属污染修复的原理、技术和方法。介绍了钝化剂对土壤重金属修复的效果和注意事项,并对钝化剂进行土壤重金属污染修复的前景和目前存在的问题进行了展望。%This article reviewed the principles, techniques and methods of the common passivating agents on heavy metal contaminated soil, including calcareous sub stances, carbon materials, clay minerals, phosphorus materials, organic fertilizer and agricultural waste. It also de-scribed the effects and precautions of those passivating agents. The outlook of the passivating agent remediation technology and the existing problems of heavy metal contaminated soil were prospected.

  12. HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION OF SOIL IN THE REGIONAL CITY PLAYGROUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Tsuzuki, Megumi; Asakura, Hiroshi

    It seems important to examine heavy metal concentration in playgrounds, to evaluate potential risk for heavy metal ingestion by children. In this study, heavy metal concentrations of soil samples in 40 playgrounds in K-city were investigated by the voltammetric method. To visualize heavy metal concentration distribution in playgrounds, free GIS software MANDARA was used. According to the comparison between the 1 N HCl dissolved concentration and the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), playgrounds in K-city may not have intake risk of lead. Even if the possibility of the risk was very low, there are differences of the intensities. As for the specific playground where concentration is high, investigating continuously may be desirable hereafter.

  13. Critical Loads of Heavy Metals in a Highly Polluted Catchment Area in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed A. Melegy; T. Paces

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals in different environmental compartments can be hazardous to ecosystems. Budgets of Cd, Pb and Zn in small ecosystems of the Shubra El-Kheima area in Egypt are presented. The budgets are not in steady state because they change with time. So the concentrations of the metals are a function of time. The critical loads of heavy metals to soils can be calculated from an inventory of inputs and outputs of the trace components in the catchment area. Critical time is an important parameter for critical load evaluation because it can indicate which of the heavy metals may be the most acute threat to the soils. Egyptian soil in the Shubra El-Kheima area seems to be in danger of heavy metal pollution by Zn, Cd and Pb. The calculated critical loads and their exceedances are approximate indicators of the hazards in the soil system. The critical time is a warning signal to initiate an environmental evaluation of possible pollution hazards.

  14. Changes in soil properties and plant uptake of heavy metals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Full Length Research Paper. Changes in soil ... In a study to evaluate the contributions of open municipal waste dump to soil heavy metals ... Key words: Heavy metal contamination, seasonal changes, soil pH, soil texture, specific adsorption.

  15. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals in oil-contaminated peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Savichev, A. T.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence and X-ray radiometry represent easy and simple methods to determine concentrations of heavy metals in the ash of peat soils contaminated with oil and can be applied for soil monitoring purposes. Oil spills on peat bogs produce two contamination zones differing in the composition of heavy metals. In the zone of primary contamination, the peat surface is covered by a bitumen crust with V, Ni, Sr, Ba, Ce, and La accumulating there. This zone adjoins the zone of secondary peat contamination, where heavy alkaline-earth metals (Sr, Ba) and lanthanides (Ce and La) are accumulated to a lesser extent. Biological preparations recommended for remediation of oil-contaminated peat soils should be tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals, particularly, V, Ni, and Ba that are present in the oil contaminated soils in relatively high amounts.

  17. Soil reclamation by municipal sewage compost: Heavy metals migration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes sorption and transport phenomena of selected heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) in the superficial layer of soil and sewage sludge compost. The main aim of the study was the investigation of possibility of heavy metals contamination in soil profile reclaimed by sewage sludge compost. The column leaching test as well as the sequential Tessier extraction procedure were applied to investigate the mitigation of heavy metals. The results revealed that distribution of metals in specific Tessier fractions was the major factor influencing their transport in the investigated soils profiles. Moreover, sorption capacity of the soil sample studied was substantially greater to prevent transportation of metals into the lower horizons and groundwater.

  18. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  19. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided Glomus mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy metal-contaminated soils derived from the mining process, and also can be a good way for olive-mill waste disposal.

  20. Pollution Risk of Heavy Metals to Soil after Sewage Sludge Land Application%城市污泥土地利用的重金属污染风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高定; 郑国砥; 陈同斌; 刘洪涛; 杨军; 杨苏才; 高伟

    2012-01-01

    土地利用是国内外城市污泥处置的最重要手段.通过分析总结国内外大量的研究结果,显示城市污泥施入土壤后,重金属在土壤中有一定的迁移,但大部分都滞留在土壤表层.重金属进入土壤后会重新分布,使土壤中有效态重金属的含量有所增加.国内外研究的结果一致表明,城市污泥合理施用短期内不会对土壤造成污染.考虑到过去的污泥施用量非常大,并且过去城市污泥中的重金属含量远高于现在的,过去部分研究结果认为长期施用城市污泥可能带来土壤重金属污染风险的结论不符合中国的现实.目前,中国仍缺乏对城市污泥土地利用过程中重金属潜在风险的长期定位研究,今后需要加强此方面的研究工作.%Land application is an important way for treatment of sewage sludge both in China and the world. Many domestic and foreign studies about the effect of sewage sludge land application on the soil were analyzed and summarized. The results showed that the heavy metals in the sewage sludge could migrate to soil after its land application. However, most of the heavy metals were accumulated in the top-soil. The heavy metals could be redistributed in the soil upon entry, which would result in an increase in the contents of available heavy metals. There was no pollution risk to soil if the sewage sludge was applied for a short period with a small quantity. The conclusion that sewage sludge land application for a long period could lead to heavy metals pollution to the soil did not accord with China' s case. The quantities of sewage sludge application and the concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge were notably higher a-broad. In China, there is lack of study on the long-term effect of sewage sludge land application on the potential pollution risk of heavy metals. Study on this field should be strengthened urgently.

  1. Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals and a Metalloid in Agricultural Soils in Tarkwa, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesta Bortey-Sam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and a metalloid in agricultural soils in 19 communities in Tarkwa were analyzed to assess the potential ecological risk. A total of 147 soil samples were collected in June, 2012 and analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Mean concentrations (mg/kg dw of heavy metals in the communities decreased in order of Zn (39 ˃ Cr (21 ˃ Pb (7.2 ˃ Cu (6.2 ˃ As (4.4 ˃ Ni (3.7 ˃ Co (1.8 ˃ Hg (0.32 ˃ Cd (0.050. Correlations among heavy metals and soil properties indicated that soil organic matter could have substantial influence on the total contents of these metals in soil. From the results, integrated pollution (Cdeg in some communities such as, Wangarakrom (11, Badukrom (13 and T–Tamso (17 indicated high pollution with toxic metals, especially from As and Hg. Potential ecological risk (RI indices indicated low (Mile 7 to high risks (Wangarakrom; Badukrom of metals. Based on pollution coefficient (Cif, Cdeg, monomial ecological risk (Eir and RI, the investigated soils fall within low to high contamination and risk of heavy metals to the ecological system especially plants, soil invertebrates and/or mammalian wildlife. This represented moderate potential ecological risk in the study area, and mining activities have played a significant role.

  2. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibao Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water.

  3. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals; La pollution des champignons par la radioactivite et les metaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delatouche, L

    2001-07-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  4. Anomalous values of heavy metals in soil of cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Balestrin Flores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The necro chorume generated by the decomposition of human bodies has a high pollution load and depending on its location, it may reach and contaminate the soil, the surface and underground water resources. The problem is critical because the analyzed cemetery is located in a vulnerable area and the surrounding population makes use of the water under the influence of the necro chorume, and therefore, subjected to water carrying diseases. This study aimed to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals barium, copper, chromium and zinc in soil occupied by necropolis. An auger was used to collect soil samples in 10 different sites and depths. For determining the concentration of metals, the technique of fluorescence X-ray Energy Dispersive with the support of the software Surfer 10 was used to spatially generate concentration data maps. The concentrations of barium and copper indicated contamination of the soil in all sampled sites, while the chrome showed evidence of contamination at various depths between 0 and 300 cm. The lowest topographic point was the only one to have zinc concentration above reference values, indicating a contamination by this element in the surface flow and sub-surface water. With these results we can confirm the potential of metal contamination in soil occupied by the cemetery.

  5. Distribution and source apportionment studies of heavy metals in soil of cotton/wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals enriched agricultural soils have been the subject of great concern because these metals have potential to be transferred to the soil solution and afterward accumulated in food chain. To study the trace metal persistence in crop soil, 90 representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and anions (chloride, nitrates, phosphates and sulfates). Cluster and factor analysis techniques were used for the source identification of these excessive heavy metal levels and ecological risk was determined with potential ecological risk assessment. The degree of enrichment of eight studied heavy metals in comparison with the corresponding background levels decreased in order: Cd > Pb > Fe > Ni > Mn > As > Cu ~ Zn. Arsenic and cadmium exhibited 1.30- and 1.64-fold exceeded levels than threshold limits set by National environment quality standards, respectively. Cd in cotton field's soil may lead to higher potential risk than other heavy metals. On overall basis, the cumulative mean potential ecological risk for the district (207.75) corresponded to moderate risk level with higher contributions from As and Pb especially from Cd. Cadmium formed strong positive correlation with phosphate content of soil at p < 0.01. Cluster analysis indicated that Cluster 1 (extremely polluted) probably originated from anthropogenic inputs of phosphate fertilizer and past usage of arsenical pesticides.

  6. Dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungi isolated from metal polluted soils: their taxonomic position, tolerance, and accumulation of heavy metals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Maojun; Shi, Xiaodong; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2008-12-01

    To understand the possible role of the plant root associated fungi on metal tolerance, their role in the uptake of heavy metals and the potential transfer of these metal ions to the plant, three strains of dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi were isolated from a waste smelter site in southwest China, and one strain was isolated from a non-contaminated site. According to molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ITS 1-5.8S rDNA-ITS 2 gene regions and morphological characteristics, one is identified as Exophiala pisciphila, and the other three are non-sporulating fungi under the experiment condition with the nearest phylogenetic affinities to the Thysanorea papuana strain EU041814. Tolerance and accumulation abilities of the three DSE strains for metals were investigated in liquid culture. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of Pb, Zn, and Cd were determined. It was demonstrated that the tolerance of the DSE strains varied between metal species and strains. The E. pisciphila strain is able to accumulate lead and cadmium over 20% and 5% of dry weight of biomass, respectively. Partial of the sequestrated metals can be washed with CaCh. Morphological and enzyme activity changes taking place in the presence of excessive Pb, Cd, and/or Zn also indicate that the mechanism of heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of the DSE strains would be a complex process. The findings indicated promising tolerance and accumulation of the DSE strains with potential values in metal cycling and restoration of soil and water system.

  7. Soil Microbial Characteristics Under Long-Term Heavy Metal Stress: A Case Study in Zhangshi Wastewater Irrigation Area, Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from Zhangshi Wastewater Irrigation Area in the suburb of Shenyang City,China,an area with a 30-year irrigation history with heavy metal-containing wastewater.The chemical properties and microbial characteristics of the soils were examined to evaluate the present situation of heavy metal pollution and to assess the soil microbial characteristics under long-term heavy metal stress.In light of the National Environmental Quality Standards of China,the soil in the test area was heavily polluted by Cd and to a lesser degree by Zn and Cu,even though wastewater irrigation ceased in 1993.Soil metabolic quotient(qCO2)had a significant positive correlation,while soil microbial quotient (qM)had a negative correlation with content of soil heavy metals.Soil microbial biomass carbon(MBC)had significantly negative correlation with Cd,but soil substrate-induced respiration(SIR),dehydrogenase activity(DHA),cellulase activity,and culturable microbial populations had no persistent correlations with soil heavy metal content.Soil nutrients,except for phosphorous,showed positive effects on soil microbial characteristics,which to a certain degree obscured the adverse effects of soil heavy metals.Soil Cd contributed more to the soil microbial characteristics,but qM and qCO2 were more sensitive and showed persistent responses to heavy metals stress.It could be concluded that qM and qCO2 can be used as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in soils.

  8. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide an...

  9. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  10. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment of Soil Along the Drainage Ditch of a Gold Field in Tongguan County%潼关县某金矿区排水沟附近土壤的重金属污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution status of soil around a gold field in Tongguang County was analyzed and evaluated by mean of single pollution index to explore the heavy metal pollution status of soil around small-scale mining areas. The results showed that the polluted degree of soil samples by heavy metal silver and mercury were very serious, and the mean value of single factor pollution index of silver was 321 and mercury was 252, and the highest index of silver was 466 and mercury was 800 times more than the standard value. Though the pollution of molybdenum, arsenic, zinc and selenium were slight, the mean value of them amount to severe pollution levels. The barium contents don't amount to the pollution level. The correlation relationship exits between molybdenum and silver, and among arsenic, selenium and zinc. The correlation coefficient of the former was 0. 965, and the latter took the second place and their correlation coefficients were more than 0. 85. It might have the same or similar pollution sources around them. And it could be compound pollution very probably.%为弄清小型县镇矿区周围土壤中重金属的污染状况,选取土壤中Ag、Hg和Mo等7种重金属,采用单项污染指数法,对潼关县某金矿区排水沟附近土壤的重金属污染状况进行分析与评价.结果表明:矿区附近土壤中Ag、Hg均已达到极严重污染,单项污染指数平均值分别为321和252,最大值分别超过评价标准的466倍和800倍;Mo、As、Zn和Se污染相对较轻,但其平均值也已达重度污染水平;Ba在矿区内暂无污染.经相关性分析,Mo-Ag间存在极高的相关性,相关系数高达0.965;As-Se-Zn这3种元素间相关性次之,相关系数均>0.85,可能有相近或相同的污染源,复合型污染的可能性很大.

  12. Heavy Metal Pollution and Chemical Profile of Cauvery River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of water, plankton, fish and sediment reveals that the Cauvery River water in the downstream is contaminated by certain heavy metals. Water samples have high carbonate hardness. Concentrations of all elements and ions increase in the downstream. Main ions are in the following order: Na > HCO3 >Mg > K > Ca> Cl > SO4. Heavy metal concentration in water was Cr >Cu ≈ Mn > Co > Ni > Pb > Zn, in fish muscles Cr > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb ≈ Zn, in phytoplanktens Co > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr and in the sediments the heavy metal concentration was Co > Cr > Ni ≈ Cu > Mn > Zn > Pb. Although, the quality of Cauvery River may be classified as very good based on the salt and sodium for irrigation, Zn, Pb and Cr concentration exceeded the upper limit of standards. Metal concentrations in the downstream indicate an increase in the pollution load due to movement of fertilizers, agricultural ashes, industrial effluents and anthropogenic wastes. An immediate attention from the concerned authorities is required in order to protect the river from further pollution.

  13. Multiple metal resistant transferable phenotypes in bacteria as indicators of soil contamination with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.P.; Ryan, D.J.; Dowling, D.N. [Dept. of Science and Health, Inst. of Tech. Carlow, Carlow (Ireland)

    2005-07-01

    Environmental contamination by heavy metals affects microbial communities. The number of single and multiple heavy metal resistant bacteria may be an indicator of the level of contamination. This paper details the isolation and characterisation of metal resistant microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere/soil samples obtained from an abandoned zinc, lead and copper mine and a local unaffected site. This data was compared to the level of heavy metal in the soils to establish the effect of metals on the microbial community and to determine the relationship between pollutant levels and resistant strains. This paper outlines the diversity of transferable resistance determinants between both sites and details the levels of heavy metal resistant bacteria and those expressing transferable multiple heavy metal tolerance. Methods. The sample sites were located in Co. Galway, Ireland. The first sample site (site A) was a former lead, zinc and copper mine, which was closed in 1961 due to exhaustion of ore. The second site (site B) was located two and a half kilometres from the mining site and was not affected by the mining operations. Composite soil samples were characterised for general soil matrix composition, organic content, pH and general chemical parameters. The soil was also enumerated for the total viable heterotrophic counts and tested on Pseudomonas selective agar (PSA) for total Pseudomonas counts and Sucrose Asparagine (SA), which is semi-selective for fluorescent Pseudomonas. (orig.)

  14. [Application of organic agents in remediation of heavy metals- contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming

    2006-06-01

    Organic agents play an important role in the remediation of heavy metals - contaminated soil, and their introduction into practice is a promising strategy to develop an efficient solution for this remediation. This paper summarized the research advances in the application of organic agents to the remediation of heavy metals- polluted soil, including their action mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages, and factors affecting their efficiency. The commonly used organic agents, such as aminopolycarboxylic acid, organic acid, humic acid, biosurfactants, etc., were introduced, and the prospects of organic agents' application were discussed.

  15. Sources and the distribution of heavy metals in the particle size of soil polluted by gold mining upstream of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing: implications for assessing the potential risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Hongbing; Qin, Fei; Tang, Lei; Guo, Xinyue; Feng, Jinguo

    2014-10-01

    Mining has been carried out upstream of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, for several decades, and has caused metal emissions to the environment, threatening human health. We conducted a soil survey to assess metal contamination in this area and to determine distribution of heavy metals in the particle size. We attempted to determine the possible sources of the metals and the significance of metals in the fine particle fractions to soil risk assessments. Thirty-four soil samples were collected, and eight samples were partitioned into seven size fractions. Most of the metal concentrations in the soils were higher than the background levels in Beijing, and the metal concentrations and total organic matter (TOC) contents generally increased as the particle size decreased. Each metal except Hg significantly positively correlated with the TOC. The metals in the coarse-grained soils were mainly derived from parent materials, but the metals in the fine fractions were mostly anthropogenic. Statistical analyses showed that there were three metal sources: Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn had anthropogenic sources; Co, Cr, Ni, and V had mixed anthropogenic and natural sources; and As and Be had natural sources. The trace metals were primarily in the clay and fine silt fractions, and they might pose health risks through the inhalation of resuspended soil particles (PM10 and PM2.5). The elevated accumulation factors, enrichment factors, and ecological risk indices for the metals in the fine fractions suggest that risk assessments should be based on the fine particle size.

  16. 城区土壤重金属分布的软件仿真与污染评价%Software Simulation and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal Distribution in Urban Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丽娟; 张羡林; 曹洁; 孙成金

    2012-01-01

    以某城区土壤表层中As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Ni、Pb、Zn 8种重金属元素作为评价因子,采用surfer8.0软件对城市5个类别区域中的8种重金属分布特征进行了研究,并根据国家土壤环境质量二级标准为评价标准,以单因子指数法和尼梅罗综合指数法为评价方法,对5个类别的区域污染程度进行了探讨.结果表明:该市工业区、交通区属于严重污染区,生活区属于重污染区,公园绿地属于污染区,山地属于轻污染区.%Taking 8 kinds of heavy metal elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface soil as evaluation factors , the author studied their spatial distribution characteristics in the soil of 5 types of regions in a city by the software surfer 8.0. According to the national soil environment quality secondary standards, the heavy metal pollution degree of 5 types of regions in the city was evaluated by using the methods of single - factor pollution index and Nemerow synthetic pollution index. The evaluation results indicated that the industrial region and traffic region were severely polluted, the living region was heavily polluted, the park and green-belt were polluted, and the mountainous region was mildly polluted.

  17. The study heavy metals in water,soil and Vegatable in Shahroud

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    saied Nazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The arrival of toxic metals by human activities has lead to the contamination of soil. Heavy metals are among the most important pollutants in the environment. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in soils, water and vegetables of Shhnama region in Shahroud. Methods: Vegetables studied included parsley, leek, leaf beet, fenugreek, cress, basil, radish and the coriander. The sampling was performed during 3 months, from September to October, 2008. The collected 180 samples of vegetables, water, soil, after preparation by atomic absorption Spectrophotometers, were analyzed according to standard methods. Results: Mean concentration values of lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic and zinc in vegetable samples were, respectively 23.99, 2.09, 5.4, 5.26, 168.4 micrograms per gram of plant tissue. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in water were, respectively, 7.55, 4.85, 0.78, 12.83 and 347.99 mg per liter in water samples. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil were, respectively, 81.12, 14.43, 134.32, 19.08 and 435 micrograms, per gram of soil sample. Comparing the mean concentration values for heavy metals available in vegetables, water and soil with standard values, significant differences are observed except for Zn. Concentration values of lead, cadmium, chromium and arsenic in vegetables were higher than the common values. Conclusion: The results indicate that due to the use of synthetic fertilizers, unsanitary disposal of sewage and fossil fuel combustion, water, soil and plants of the region are polluted with heavy metals.

  18. Heavy metal pollution in Tianjin Bohai Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Wei; QIN Yanwen; ZHENG Binghui; ZHANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    The contamination levels and distribution characters of heavy metals in coastal waters and sediments from Tianjin Bohai Bay, China were examined, and it was found that the main heavy metal pollutants in the coastal waters of the bay were Pb and Zn. High levels of Pb and Zn appeared especially near the estuary, indicating that river discharge was the main pollution source. Moreover, atmospheric deposition resulted in Pb contamination in the middle of the embayment. Analysis of data for the period 1987-2004 indicated that Pb pollution in coastal waters of Bohai Bay originated primarily from river discharge before 2001. Pb levels did not decrease after 2001 when annual runoff levels declined; indicating that Pb pollution by atmospheric deposition had increased due to the use of leaded petrol in motorcars. Pb, Zn and Cd were the dominant polluting elements in surficial sediments from Tianjin Bohai Bay, with levels in excess of the corresponding upper limits of environmental background values. Higher concentrations of polluting elements were found in tidal sediments near water bodies such as Qikou and Dagu estuaries.

  19. Influence of heavy metals on the activity of oxidoreductases in soil (model experiment

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    T. V. Legostayeva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated action of industrial pollutants on biochemical activity of soils under condition of model experiment was determined. The influence of heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead, manganese on dehydrogenase activity was explored. The metals’ inhibition activity on the enzymatic activity was found. Zinc and copper are most toxic for dehydrogenase activity and manganese is the less toxic metal.

  20. Challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Amanullah; Wang, Ping; Ali, Amjad; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Wang, Quan; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-04-01

    Mining operations, industrial production and domestic and agricultural use of metal and metal containing compound have resulted in the release of toxic metals into the environment. Metal pollution has serious implications for the human health and the environment. Few heavy metals are toxic and lethal in trace concentrations and can be teratogenic, mutagenic, endocrine disruptors while others can cause behavioral and neurological disorders among infants and children. Therefore, remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil could be the only effective option to reduce the negative effects on ecosystem health. Thus, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to review the current status, challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation for remediating heavy metals from contaminated soils. The prime focus is given to phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most promising and alternative methods for soil reclamation.

  1. Analysis on Available Contents and Pollution Source Recognition of Heavy Metals in the Soil along the Highway%公路两侧土壤中重金属有效态分析及污染源识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓艳; 赵纯一; 滕洪辉; 石淑云

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study available contents and pollution source recognition of heavy metals in the soil along the highway. [ Method] The farming soil along two sides of highway of across section of the No. 102 and No. 303 in Siping City was viewed as research objects. The available extract methods of heavy metals contents such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr were studied. At first, the Coefficient Variation (Cv) was put forward by calculation total contents of heavy metals of perpendicular and horizontal direction along the highway, and the major pollution source of heavy metals were determined by Cv method. The soil pollution condition was evaluated by the pollution index of the heavy metals. [ Results] The contents of Zn and Cr of the soil were distilled by mixed acid leaching state, and Pb and Cd were distilled by monomer acid and mixed acid leaching state. The pollution levels of Zn, Pb and Cr were lower, but the Cd content in the area soil seriously exceeded standard. The source of pollution resulted from farming activity such as usage of fertilizer. [ Conclusion] The study provided basis for soil protection , evaluation, pollution sources control of communication-hub type cities.%[目的]研究公路两侧土壤中重金属有效态及其主要污染源.[方法]以经过四平贯穿东北的102和303国道两侧的农用土壤为研究对象,研究了土壤中危害较大的重金属Pb、Zn、Cd、Cr的有效态浸提方法,初次采用变异系数识别法通过计算垂向和轴向重金属元素总量的变异系数,识别土壤中该重金属元素主要污染源,并采用污染指数法评价了土壤污染现状.[结果]公路两侧土壤中Zn、Cr的有效态测定适合采用混酸浸提法,Pb、Cd采用单酸和混酸浸提方法均可;研究区域土壤中Zn、Pb、Cr重金属元素的污染水平较低,而CA含量严重超标,施用化肥等农业活动是主要污染源.[结论]该研究为交通枢纽型城市的土壤保护、评价、土壤污染源控制提供依据.

  2. STUDIES AND RESEARCHES ON TYPHA LATIFOLIA’S (BULRUSH ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF HEAVY METALS FROM THE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA-DANA CHIŢIMUŞ 1*, CRISTIAN RADU 1, 2, VALENTIN NEDEFF 1, EMILIAN MOŞNEGUŢU 1, NARCIS BÂRSAN 1

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine Typha latifolia’s (bulrush absorption capacity of heavy metals from the soil in the industrial area of Piatra Neamt city, Romania. Heavy metals present in ecological systems are available to the absorption process only partially, depending on the type of pH of the environment, their chemical composition, and the quantity of heavy metals in the soil, plants, sediments, water, or air. The choice of sampling points (the industrial area of Piatra Neamt city took into consideration the areas where the pollution sources are located and where the sediment layer is thick and the granularity level is lower than 63 μm. The investigation of Typha latifolia’s absorption capacity showed that, in case of nickel, chromium, copper and arsenic, a very low capacity of heavy metals absorption was detected. Typha latifolia’s highest absorption capacity of heavy metals from the soil was recorded in case of cadmium.

  3. Effects of the deposition of air pollutants on forest litter decomposition - a case study on soil at the feet of old beech trees highly polluted with acids and heavy metal from water running down the tree trunks. Auswirkungen der Deposition von Luftschadstoffen auf die Streuzersetzung in Waldoekosystemen - eine Fallstudie an den durch Stammablaufwasser stark saeure- und schwermetallbelasteten Baumfuss-Bodenbereichen alter Buchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author investigated the effects of high concentrations of acids and heavy metals on the activity of soil microorganisms and on the biological cycles of elements in forest ecosystems. Samples taken from old beech forests were analyzed. An attempt was made to establish pathways towards the destabilisation of forest ecosystems. The need of preventing pollutant emissions is stressed.

  4. [Immobilization impact of different fixatives on heavy metals contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lie-shan; Zeng, Dong-mei; Mo, Xiao-rong; Lu, Hong-hong; Su, Cui-cui; Kong, De-chao

    2015-01-01

    Four kinds of amendments including humus, ammonium sulfate, lime, superphosphate and their complex combination were added to rapid immobilize the heavy metals in contaminated soils. The best material was chosen according to the heavy metals' immobilization efficiency and the Capacity Values of the fixative in stabilizing soil heavy metals. The redistributions of heavy metals were determined by the European Communities Bureau of Referent(BCR) fraction distribution experiment before and after treatment. The results were as follows: (1) In the single material treatment, lime worked best with the dosage of 2% compared to the control group. In the compound amendment treatments, 2% humus combined with 2% lime worked best, and the immobilization efficiency of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn reached 98.49%, 99.40%, 95.86%, 99.21%, respectively. (2) The order of Capacity Values was lime > humus + lime > ammonium sulfate + lime > superphosphate > ammonium sulfate + superphosphate > humus + superphosphate > humus > superphosphate. (3) BCR sequential extraction procedure results indicated that 2% humus combined with 2% lime treatment were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals, better than 2% lime treatment alone. Besides, Cd was activated firstly by 2% humus treatment then it could be easily changed into the organic fraction and residual fraction after the subsequent addition of 2% lime.

  5. Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Jeffrey L., E-mail: jhoward@wayne.edu [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Olszewska, Dorota [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots (12 and 44 years old) and parks (96 and 120 years old), all located within 100 m of a roadway. An A-horizon 16 cm thick with 2% organic matter has developed after only 12 years of pedogenesis. The 12 year-old soil shows accelerated weathering of iron (e.g. nails) and cement artifacts attributed to corrosion by excess soluble salts of uncertain origin. Carbonate and Fe-oxide are immobilizing agents for heavy metals, hence it is recommended that drywall, plaster, cement and iron artifacts be left in soils at brownfield sites for their ameliorating effects. - Research highlights: > An A horizon has developed in these urban soils after only 12 years of pedogenesis. > Iron and cement artifacts have undergone accelerated weathering due to deicing salts. > One soil is contaminated by lead derived from weathered paint. > Artifact weathering can have ameliorating effects on urban soils contaminated by heavy metals. - Weathering of artifacts can have ameliorating effects on heavy metal-polluted soils at brownfield sites.

  6. Bioleaching of heavy metals from a contaminated soil using indigenous Penicillium chrysogenum strain F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinhui; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Tang, Chongjian; Tong, Haixia; Yuan, Pingfu

    2012-09-30

    Bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using Penicillium chrysogenum strain F1 was investigated. Batch experiments were performed to compare leaching efficiencies of heavy metals between one-step and two-step processes and to determine the transformation of heavy metal fractions before and after bioleaching. The results showed that two-step process had higher leaching efficiencies of heavy metals than one-step process. When the mass ratio of soil to culture medium containing P. chrysogenum strain F1 was 5% (w/v), 50%, 35%, 9% and 40% of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were removed in one-step process, respectively. The two-step process had higher removals of 63% Cd, 56% Cu, 14% Pb and 54% Zn as compared with one-step process. The results of the sequential extraction showed that the metals remaining in the soil were mainly bonded in stable fractions after bioleaching. The results of TEM and SEM showed that during bioleaching process, although the mycelium of P. chrysogenum was broken into fragments, no damage was obviously observed on the surface of the living cell except for thinner cell wall, smaller vacuoles and concentrated cytoplasm. The result implied that P. chrysogenum strain F1 can be used to remove heavy metals from polluted soil.

  7. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandong Yao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn

  8. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  9. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  10. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  11. Heavy metals contamination characteristics in soil of different mining activity zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Guo-li; LIAO Da-xue; LI Quan-ming

    2008-01-01

    Depending upon the polluted features of various mining activities in a typical nonferrous metal mine, the contaminated soil area was divided into four zones which were polluted by tailings, mine drainage, dust deposition in wind and spreading minerals during vehicle transportation, respectively. In each zone, soil samples were collected. Total 28 soil samples were dug and analyzed by ICP-AES and other relevant methods. The results indicate that the average contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As in soils are 508.6, 384.8, 7.53, 356 and 44.6 mg/kg, respectively. But the contents of heavy metals in different zone have distinct differences. The proportion of oxidizing association with organic substance is small. Difference of the association of heavy metals is small in different polluted zones.

  12. Analysis of spatial variations and sources of heavy metals in farmland soils of Beijing suburbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Zou

    Full Text Available To understand the effect of intense human activities in suburbs on environmental quality, we obtained 758 measurements of the heavy metals in certain farmland soils of the Beijing suburbs. Multivariate statistical analysis and geostatistical analysis were used to conduct a basic analysis of the heavy metal concentrations, the distribution characteristics and the sources of pollution of the farmland soils in these suburbs. The results showed the presence of eight heavy metals in the agricultural soils at levels exceeding the background values for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. In particular, all the measured Cr concentrations exceeded the background value, while As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were present at 1.13, 1.68, 1.95, 1.43, 1.63, 0.79, 0.92 and 1.36 times their background values, respectively. The results of correlation, factor and spatial structure analyses showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were strongly homologous, whereas Cr and Hg showed a degree of heterogeneity. The analysis further indicated that in addition to natural factors, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soil were mainly associated with distribution from road traffic and land use status. Different agricultural production measures in the various areas were also important factors that affected the spatial distribution of the soil Cr concentration. The major sources of Hg pollution were landfills for industrial waste and urban domestic garbage, while the spatial distribution of As was more likely to be a result of composite pollution. The regional distribution of the heavy metals indicated that except for Cr and Hg, the high heavy metal levels occurred in districts and counties with higher organic matter concentrations, such as the northwestern and southeastern suburbs of Beijing. There was no significant Ni pollution in the agricultural soils of the Beijing suburbs.

  13. Geochemical cartography as a tool for assessing the degree of soil contamination with heavy metals in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymon Borkowski, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Spatial disposition of chemical elements including heavy metals in the soil environment is a very important information during preparation of the thematic maps for the environmental protection and/or spatial planning. This knowledge is also essential for the earth's surface and soil's monitoring, designation of areas requiring improvement including remediation. The main source of anthropogenic pollution of soil with heavy metals are industry related to the mining coal and liquid fuels, mining and metallurgy, chemical industry, energy production, waste management, agriculture and transport. The geochemical maps as a kind of specific thematic maps made on the basis of datasets obtained from the Polish Geological Institute's resources allow to get to know the spatial distribution of different chemical elements including heavy metals in soil. The results of the research carried out by the Polish Geological Institute showed strong contamination in some regions in Poland mainly with arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel. For this reason it was the point to prepare geochemical maps showing contamination of soil with heavy metals, and determine main sources of contamination and zones where heavy metals concentration was higher than acceptable contents. It was also presented a summary map of soil contamination with heavy metals. Additionally, location of highly contaminated zones was compiled with predominant in those areas types of arable soils and then results were thoroughly analyzed. This information can provide a base for further detailed studies on the soil contamination with heavy metals.

  14. Heavy metal pollution in Tianjin, China—its bioavailability prediction and mitigation practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yanfeng; Jiang, Chunxiao; Wang, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Irrigation of sewage water has been applied for agriculture production in Tianjin for over 50 years, for Tianjin is a city lacking water resource. Based on the result of an extensive investigation on heavy metals in the farmland of Tianjin in 2005, 21 samples (including soil and lettuce) were collected from most the polluted areas along the three sewage rivers. Nine of the 21 soil samples exceeded the National Soil Quality Standard for cadmium (0.6 mg/kg) and 7 exceeded the standard for mercury (1.0 mg/kg). However, the heavy metal contents in lettuce did not correlate the heavy metal concentrations in soil. The bioavailability changed with soil properties. The part extracted by diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and another mixed extraction solvent, M3, were used to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals. The solvent extraction gave good prediction on Cd absorbance in lettuce, with correlative coefficient larger than 0.9. However, it failed for Hg. This may be because Hg is relatively volatile, and the absorption patterns are complex for Hg. To set up a mitigation method for heavy metal pollution in farm land, friendly to agricultural production, in-situ fixing strategy was adopted. Bacillus subtilis and Candida tropicalis were induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and HNO2 treatment to get mutated strains that can tolerate and accumulate higher level of cadmium. A strain of B38 from B. subtilis showed the highest Cd tolerance, and was used for further experiment. Though B38 could accumulate Cd from water solution, but it did not fix Cd in soil. This is due to that the amended microorganisms could not propagate well in the polluted soil. Novogro, which is produced from the waste of an enzyme factory, was selected out from several materials to amend together with B38. After the co-amendment of Novogro and B38, the DTPA extractable Cd decreased by 72%, and B38 could propagate efficiently as indicated by DGGE test. Applying conditions, such as amendment

  15. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment. Apart from the fact that cassava effluents contain high cyanide content which has adverse ... cottage industries such as cassava processing in ...... European. Soil Bureau Research Report No. 4. Office of. Official Publication of the ... irrigation using waste water on heavy metal ... Biological Sciences 7(2): 405-408.

  16. Effect of heavy metals on soil nematode communities in the vicinity of a metallurgical factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of Cu and Zn on soil nematode communities was examined along a pollution gradient with increasing distance from a metallurgical factory. Total and available heavy metal contents were used to study the effects of heavy metals on nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices. The results demonstrated significant correlations between the number of total nematodes, bacterivores, plant-parasites and the total and available heavy metals. Bacterivores and plant-parasites were the dominant trophic groups. Significant differences in different sampling sites were found only in the number of bacterivores(P<0.0l).The Shannon-Weaver diversity index(H'), trophic diversity index(TD), evenness index(J ') and dominance index(X) were found to be sensitive to soil pH and C/N ratios. Significant correlations were found between the total nematodes (TNEM), some genera (A crobeloides, A phelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Mesorhabditis, Tetylenchus and Tylenchus ) and distance from the factory.

  17. Soil heavy metal contamination and health risks associated with artisanal gold mining in Tongguan, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Wang, Shuang; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-07-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals due to mining activities poses risks to ecological safety and human well-being. Limited studies have investigated heavy metal pollution due to artisanal mining. The present study focused on soil contamination and the health risk in villages in China with historical artisanal mining activities. Heavy metal levels in soils, tailings, cereal and vegetable crops were analyzed and health risk assessed. Additionally, a botany investigation was conducted to identify potential plants for further phytoremediation. The results showed that soils were highly contaminated by residual tailings and previous mining activities. Hg and Cd were the main pollutants in soils. The Hg and Pb concentrations in grains and some vegetables exceeded tolerance limits. Moreover, heavy metal contents in wheat grains were higher than those in maize grains, and leafy vegetables had high concentrations of metals. Ingestion of local grain-based food was the main sources of Hg, Cd, and Pb intake. Local residents had high chronic risks due to the intake of Hg and Pb, while their carcinogenic risk associated with Cd through inhalation was low. Three plants (Erigeron canadensis L., Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel., and Solanum nigrum L.) were identified as suitable species for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Impact of overland traffic on heavy metal levels in highway dust and soils of Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Onay, Turgut T; Copty, Nadim K

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of overland traffic on the spatial distribution of heavy metals in urban soils (Istanbul, Turkey). Road dust, surface, and subsurface soil samples were collected from a total of 41 locations along highways with dense traffic and secondary roads with lower traffic and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) concentrations. Statistical evaluation of the heavy metal concentrations observed along highways and along the secondary roads showed that the data were bimodally distributed. The maximum observed Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations were 1,573, 522 and 136 mg/kg, respectively, in surface soils along highways and 99.3, 156, and 38.1 mg/kg along secondary roads. Correlation analysis of the metal concentrations in road dust, surface and 20-cm depth soils suggests the presence of a common pollution source. However, metal concentrations in the deeper soils were substantially lower than those observed at the surface, indicating low mobility of heavy metals, especially for Pb and Zn. A modified kriging approach that honors the bimodality of the data was used to estimate the spatial distribution of the surface concentrations of metals, and to identify hotspots. Results indicate that despite the presence of some industrial zones within the study area, traffic is the main heavy metal pollution source.

  19. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Teófilo

    2010-05-01

    Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy

  20. 基于GIS的某训练场土壤重金属污染评价%Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils from a Training Ground Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉通; 方振东; 杨琴; 谢朝新; 王大勇; 毛华军

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a tank shooting range in a training ground in the southwest of China was investigated,and the content of Cu,Pb,Zn,Co and Ni in the soil was monitored and analyzed.Evaluation of pollution in the sampling area was applied through the single factor index method and the composite pollution index Nemrow method,and the pollution index distribution map was worked out by Arcgis software.The evaluation result shows that: Cu,Pb,Zn,Co and Ni in the tank shooting range have different degrees of pollution respectively,the average composite pollution index Nemrow reaches 1.64.The highest single-factor pollution index of Co reaches 3.84,so Co is the priority element to be monitored in the heavy metal pollution control of soil in future.The pollution index distribution map shows that: the heavy metal pollution is particularly serious in the area of dropping bombs.The pollution distributing characters of Cu and Pb are similar,Zn,Co and Ni have similar characters.The author considers that,the migration of Ni and Pb is strong under the combined effect of various conditions in the shooting range,and the migration of Cu is weak.The sources of heavy metal pollution comprise residual cannonballs,bullets,and explosives.The residual shells and bullets in the soil could lead to a permanent soil contamination of heavy metals.%以中国西南地区某训练场的坦克射击区为研究对象,监测并分析了土壤中Pb、Cu、Zn、Co和Ni的含量;采用单因子指数法和内梅罗综合污染指数法评价了采样区的重金属污染状况,同时运用Arcgis软件分析制定出了采样区的污染指数分布图.评价结果表明,坦克射击区Pb、Cu、Zn、Co和Ni分别存在不同程度的污染,重金属内梅罗综合污染指数平均为1.64;Co的单因子指数最高达到了3.84,是未来土壤重金属污染控制中优先关注的元素;污染指数分布图显示,落弹区土壤的重金属污染尤为严重.Cu和Pb污染分布特征较相似,Zn、Co

  1. The effects of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Wang, Zhaofeng [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Yili, E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Hu, Zhongjun [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai-Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0-10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in soils are affected by railway transportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium enrichment is especially high. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The affected area for these pollutants was within 20 m of the railway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distributions of metal presented different characteristics in different sites.

  2. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Ecological risk and pollution history of heavy metals in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Tam, Nora F Y; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Zhou, Xizhen; Fu, Jie; Yao, Bo; Huang, Xuexia; Xia, Lihua

    2014-06-01

    Owing to the Industrial Revolution in the late 1970s, heavy metal pollution has been regarded as a serious threat to mangrove ecosystems in the region of the Pearl River Estuary, potentially affecting human health. The present study attempted to characterize the ecological risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nansha mangrove, South China, by estimating their concentrations in the surface sediment. In addition, the pollution history of heavy metals was examined by determining the concentrations of heavy metals along the depth gradient. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove, namely Sonneratia apetala and Cyperus malaccensis, was also studied. Results found that the surface sediment was severely contaminated with heavy metals, probably due to the discharge of industrial sewage into the Pearl River Estuary. Spatial variation of heavy metals was generally unobvious. The ecological risk of heavy metals was very high, largely due to Cd contamination. All heavy metals, except Mn, decreased with depth, indicating that heavy metal pollution has been deteriorating since 1979. Worse still, the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove had limited capability to remove the heavy metals from sediment. Therefore, we propose that immediate actions, such as regulation of discharge standards of industrial sewage, should be taken by the authorities concerned to mitigate the ecological risk posed by heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selected enzyme activities of urban heavy metal-polluted soils in the presence and absence of an oligochaete, Lampito mauritii (Kinberg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, S., E-mail: ssivaphd@yahoo.com [Department of Health and Environment, Kosin University, Young Do Gu, Busan 606 701 (Korea, Republic of); Nityanandi, D.; Barathi, S.; Prabha, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Rajeshwari, S. [Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam University, Coimbatore 641 021 (India); Son, H.K. [Department of Health and Environment, Kosin University, Young Do Gu, Busan 606 701 (Korea, Republic of); Subbhuraam, C.V. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soils samples were collected from five different electroplating industrial areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples were incubated with and without earthworms for 45 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All enzymes increased with duration of incubation expect phosphatase. - Abstract: Soils samples collected from five different areas (S1-S5) around electroplating industries in the city of Coimbatore were analysed for the activities of selected enzymes (cellulase, phosphatase, amylase, urease, and invertase) in the presence and absence of the earthworm Lampito mauritii (Kinberg). Heavy metal analysis of soils showed that chromium (<504 mg/kg) and copper (<28.1 mg/kg) contents were much higher than cadmium (<10.60 mg/kg) except in S5, where cadmium (10.6 mg/kg) was higher than the copper. Except for phosphatase, the activities of all enzymes increased with increasing period of incubation under laboratory conditions, both with and without earthworms. The results of the three-way ANOVA (effect of three factors- worms-with and without addition, soil and incubation time), however, showed that there was no significant difference between enzyme activities (with and without earthworm) and soil and incubation time for amylase and urease activity. Further, no significant difference was found between soils for cellulase activity and between all the above factors for urease activity. The results concluded that though the earthworms died at the end of the incubation period, the resultant increase or decrease in the enzymatic activity may be attributed to the metabolic activities of the worms during their lifetime in the experimental container. Also, the worms after death may have provided suitable substrate for the growth of the microorganisms thereby influencing enzyme activity.

  5. 贵阳城区土壤重金属的空间分布特征及污染评价%The distributive character and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban soil of Guiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一修; 王济; 张浩

    2011-01-01

    以贵阳市区为研究地点,采集贵阳城区工业区、交通区、商业区、居民区、文教区、公园6个类别共89个采样点的表层土壤,分析土壤重金属在不同区域的分布特征,并分析其可能来源。最后对重金属污染状况进行总体评价。结果表明:重金属在土壤中已有一定程度的积累,在工业区、商业区、居民区的积累程度比较高。As的污染较为严重,达警戒水平,Cu、Ni、Zn在居民区的污染比较严重,均达警戒水平,Cu、Ni、Zn在工业区的污染最为严重,达轻度污染以上。%This study focused on characterization of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Guiyang,89 surface soil samples were collected from 6 land-use types, such as traffic areas, industrial area, commercial area, residential area, education and historical relics, public area. Distribution characterization and possible sources of heavy metals of Hg, Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were analysised, and The overall assessment of heavy metals pollution were analysied. The results indicated that the surface soil was contaminated by heavy metals, especially in industrial area, commercial area and residential area. The concentration of As was high and should be paid more attention, the concentration of Cu ,Ni and Zn in residential area was higher and should be paid more attention, however, the concentration of Cu,Ni and Zn in industrial area was highest and above light pollution.

  6. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  7. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetables from Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELJAN KASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the heavy metals in vegetables cultivated in private gardens in Bregu i Matit, an important agricultural area in the NW Albania.The plant and soil samples taken from irrigated and non-irrigated fields in this area were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, after extraction by HNO3 and H2O2.The transfer factors (TF were used to evaluate the risk of metal transfer from soil to plant and the FAO/WHO safe limits to assess the potential hazards of heavy metals to human health. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations ± standard deviation in vegetable samples were (mg kg- 1: Cu 2.98-12.90 (±3.08, Ni 4.82-35.79 (±7.68, Zn Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb. The TF values indicate that only Cd was accumulated in plants.The contents of Cd in three vegetable samples, Pb in four samples, and Cu in one sample were above the safe limits set by the FAO/WHO for heavy metals in foods and vegetables indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in the studied soils could be dangerous to human health.

  8. Effect of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran

    Contamination of soils and groundwater keep attracting attention of worldwide. The contaminants of concern include a wide range of toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic compounds. The environment and humans are exposed to these pollutants through different exposure...... pathways to unacceptable dosages, leading to intolerable adverse effects on both public health and the environment. In the last decades, soil and water remediation have gained growing awareness, as the necessity becomes clearer for development of such techniques for elimination of the negative impact from...... compartments. Therefore no current is wasted for carrying ions from one electrode compartment to the other. The EDR technique has been tested for decontamination of a variety of different heavy metal polluted particulate materials: mine tailings, soil, different types of fly ashes, sewage sludge, freshwater...

  9. Heavy metal pollution in intertidal sediments from Quanzhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ruilian; YUAN Xing; ZHAO Yuanhui; HU Gongren; TU Xianglin

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of eight heavy metals (Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd,Cr,Ni,Hg,and As) in the intertidal surface sediments from Quanzhou Bay were determined to evaluate their levels and spatial distribution due to urbanization and economic development of Quanzhou region,southeast China.The ranges of the measured concentrations in the sediments are as foilows:24.8-119.7 mg/kg for Cu,105.5-241.9 mg/kg for Zn,34.3-10n9 mg/kg for Pb,0.28-0.89 mg/kg for Cd,51.1-121.7 mg/kg for Cr,16.1-45.7 mg/kg for Ni,0.17-0.74 mg/kg for Hg,and 17.7-30.2 mg/kg for As.The overall average concentrations of above metals exceed the primary standard criteria but meet the secondary standard criteria of the Chinese National Standard of Marine Sediment Quality.Several contents of Cu and Hg exceed the secondary standard criteria at some stations.The results of geoaccumulation index (Igeo) show that Cd causes strong pollution in most of the study area.There are no significant correlations among most of these heavy metals,indicating they have different anthropogenic and natural sources.Some locations present severe pollution by heavy metals depending on the sources,of which sewage outlets,aquatic breeding,and commercial ports are the main sources of contaminants to the area.

  10. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity and diversity in a reclaimed mining wasteland of red soil area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; CHEN Cheng-li; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    The microbial biomass, basal respiration and substrate utilization pattern in copper mining wasteland of red soil area, southern China, were investigated. The results indicated that soil microflora were obviously different compared with that of the non-mine soil.Microbial biomass and basal respiration were negatively affected by the elevated heavy metal levels. Two important microbial ecophysiological parameters, namely, the ratio of microbial biomass C( Cmic )/organic C( Corg ) and metabolic quotient(qCO2 ) were closely correlated to heavy metal stress. There was a significant decrease in the Cmic/Corg ratio and an increase in the metabolic quotient with increasing metal concentration. Multivariate analysis of Biolog data for sole carbon source utilization pattern demonstrated that heavy metal pollution had a significant impact on microbial community structure and functional diversity. All the results showed that soil microbiological parameters had great potential to become the early sensitive, effective and liable indicators of the stresses or perturbations in soils of mining ecosystems.

  11. Effect of humic acid on transformation of soil heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengzhe; Li, Rui; Peng, Shuyang; Liu, Qiuyong; Zhu, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The pattern of transformation among different fractions of heavy metals in soil draws great attention. This article investigated the effect of humic acid on soil heavy metal under different pH and temperature. The results showed that with the increasing of the concentration of humic acid, the concentration of available Cu, Pb decreased greatly, though the decrease of available Cd was light. Also, pH of soil had certain impact on the concentration of available Cu, Pb, Cd while the influence of environmental temperature was minor. The removal efficiency of contaminated soil was 57.283% (Cu), 2.645% (Cd) and 15.485% (Pb) while it could reach more than 98% in contaminated solution.

  12. The relation between heavy metals distribution and particle size fractions in some egyptian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Morad Wahba

    Full Text Available Soil as a part of the environment receives pollutants from all types of human activities. Heavy metals originating from various organic waste sources and industrial activities accumulate in the soil surface, and their fate depends not only on the types and amounts of waste applied, but on soil properties. Furthermore, soils differ in their retention power for various heavy or trace elements. Twelve soil samples were selected from different sites irrigated with industrial and sewage wastes at Helwan city (Cairo Governorate in the north and El-Saff (Giza Governorate in the south. Separation of clay, silt and sand fractions were carried out. Chemical analyses of trace elements in the form of total and available contents (Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb were determined in each fraction. The obtained results show that the average amounts of heavy metals in different fractions are related to the particle size of the soil especially the fine fraction. Heavy metals content was always in the surface layers higher than sub-surface. All metals were highest in clay fraction followed by silt and sand fractions respectively. This investigation discussed the importance of the fine fractions in the accumulation of heavy metals by coordination number in the lattice structure.

  13. Using biopolymers to remove heavy metals from soil and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Frederick, R.M.

    1993-11-19

    Chemical remediation of soil may involve the use of harsh chemicals that generate waste streams, which may adversely affect the soil's integrity and ability to support vegetation. This article reviews the potential use of benign reagents, such as biopolymers, to extract heavy metals. The biopolymers discussed are chitin and chitosan, modified starch, cellulose, and polymer-containing algae. (Copyright (c) Remediation 1994.)

  14. Usefulness of fibroblast culture for testing of cattle tissues polluted with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weglarz, L.; Drozdz, M.Wa.; Wardas, M.; Kula, B.; Pawlaczyk-Szpilowa, M. (Medical Univ. School of Silesia, Katowice (Poland))

    1990-04-01

    Cattle tissues (liver, kidney, brain, and lung) that had been polluted with heavy metals were tested for their ability to alter fibroblast culture growth, cellular protein and DNA content, and fibroblast DNA synthesis. At 72 hr of incubation a significant increase in cellular DNA and (14C)thymidine incorporation was noted in the primary cultures as well as in the subcultures compared to controls. Fibroblast cultures also displayed growth inhibition and reduction in protein content. The measurement of basic biochemical parameters of the fibroblast culture may represent a sensitive means of assessing rapidly the activity of heavy metals deposited in the tissues of cattle as a result of their grazing on polluted soil.

  15. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Wood; Caixian Tang; Franks, Ashley E.; Wuxing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediat...

  16. The Role of Organic and Inorganic Amendments in Carbon Sequestration and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Degraded Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Placek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of organic and inorganic amendments on heavy metal immobilization in soil and organic carbon sequestration, a growth chamber study over a period of 18 months was conducted. Phytoremediation of two degraded soils, smelter-polluted soil and post-mining soil, was carried out using Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L. and Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x Giganteus. The increase in organic carbon content for lake chalk amended soils was noted. In addition, the largest root biomass production after fertilization of heavy metal contaminated soil with lake chalk was observed. This soil additive increases soil pH and reduces heavy metal mobility, which finally minimizes the harmful effect of metals on plant life and growth. Root biomass production of Giant Miscanthus was significantly higher than Scots pine root biomass for both soils. This may indicate better phytosequestration properties of Giant Miscanthus, especially in the case of land degradation due to mining and destruction of soil profiles.

  17. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in soil in the vicinity of former ironworks in Spodnja Radovna, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ferjan Stanič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining and ore processing represent one of the main anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in Slovenia. To determine the environmental impact of iron ore processing activity in Spodnja Radovna, which finished at the end of the19th century, a sampling campaign was carried out in the area of ironworks and along the river Radovna next to the ironworks. 45 soil samples were collected in three grids at various distances (10, 60 and 110 m from the former blast furnace location and in two cross-valley profiles stretching from Pokljuka to Mežakla plateau. Along the river Radovna samples were collected 200 m upstream and downstream from the location of blast furnace. The analysis of heavy metal distribution in soil in the area of former ironworks and its vicinity confirmed the influence of former activities on the environment, since elevated concentrations of heavy metals, a distinctive feature of iron industry and tailings, were detected in a quite narrow area around iron foundry. While Cd and Pb indicate areal load of heavy metals in soil, concentrations of As, Cu, Hg and Zn are typical of point pollution sources, where the officially allowed limit and warning values are exceeded. The most significant threat to the environment as a consequence of iron ore processing activities are therefore sources of point pollution (tailings locations in the ironworks area.

  19. Pollution Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Tea and Soil of Tea Plantations in Jinghong City%景洪市茶园茶叶和土壤中重金属的污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友勇; 梁名志; 田易萍; 徐丕忠; 孙云南; 陈林波; 杨毅坚; 孙雪梅; 夏丽飞

    2011-01-01

    通过野外调查采样和室内分析方法对云南省景洪市茶园茶叶和土壤中重金属元素As、Pb、Cr、Hg和Cd的含量进行研究,并结合茶园茶叶和土壤的卫生质量标准,采用污染指数法对茶叶和土壤进行污染评价.结果表明:景洪市茶园茶叶和土壤中重金属元素的平均含量均较低,其中茶叶重金属含量低于无公害茶叶重金属最低限值,土壤重金属含量达到国家2级标准.茶叶中重金属元素单因子污染指数和综合污染指数均小于0.6,茶叶质量均达到国家1级标准;土壤中除As的综合污染指数为1.11,其余4种重金属元素综合污染指数均小于1.0.土壤处于安全等级或警戒线等级,为清洁水平或尚清洁水平.建议今后在进行无公害茶园的布局和建设时,应对基地适当加以选择.%The contents of As, Pb, Cr, Hg and Cd of tea and soil were studied by methods of field survey from,tea plantation in Jinghong laboratory analysis. Combining with the health quality standard of the tea and soil of tea plantation, the pollution indices were used to evaluate the pollution situation. The results showed that the average contents of the heavy metals were low from tea plantation in Jinghong. Tea heavy metals were lower than the threshold limit value. And heavy metals in the soil reached national secondary standard. The indices were less than 0.6 in single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index of tea heavy metals. The tea quality reached national primary standard.Besides the comprehensive pollution index of As was 1.11, the others were all less than 1. 0. The soil was in the safe class or warning class.The soil environmental quality was in clean level or still clean level. It was suggested that tea bases should be selected properly in future when planing non-polluted tea plantation on the whole.

  20. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  1. Effect of heavy metals on soil mineral surfaces and bioretention pond performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Haibo Zhang and Mira S. Olson Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 As urban stormwater runoff flows across impervious surfaces, it collects and accumulates pollutants that are detrimental to the quality of local receiving water bodies. Heavy metal pollution, such as copper, lead and zinc, has been a concern in urban stormwater runoff. In addition, the presence of bacteria in stormwater has been frequently reported. The co-existence of both heavy metals and bacteria in stormwater and their complex interactions determine their transport and removal through bioretention pond. Stormwater runoff was sampled from a bioretention pond in Philadelphia, PA. The concentration of copper, lead and zinc were measured as 0.086ppm, 0.083ppm and 0.365ppm, respectively. Batch experiments were conducted with solutions of pure copper, lead and zinc, and with a synthetic stormwater solution amended with copper, lead and zinc. The solution was buffered to pH 7, within the range of the observed stormwater pH. In pure heavy metal solutions, the sorption of copper, lead and zinc onto soil are 96%, 99% and 85%, respectively. In synthetic stormwater containing nutrients and all three metals, the sorption of lead is 97%, while copper and zinc decrease to 29% and 71%, respectively. Mineralogy of a soil sample taken from the bioretention pond was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared before and after sorption experiments. Sorption and complexation of heavy metals is likely to change the mineralogy of soil particle surfaces, which will affect the attachment of bacteria and therefore its transport through soil. This study will benefit long-term predictions of the performance of bioretention ponds for urban stormwater runoff treatment. Keyword: Heavy metal pollution, sorption, surface complexation, urban stormwater runoff, bioretention pond

  2. Effect of Combined Heavy Metal Pollution on Nitrogen Mineralization Potential,Urease and Phosphatase Activities in a Typic Udic Ferrisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGCHUNRONG; TUCONG; 等

    1999-01-01

    Individual and combined effects of Cu,Pb,Zn and Cd on N mineralization,urease and phosphatase were examined in a Typic Udic Ferrisol in laboratory by employing and uniform design and a single factor design,Soil pollution caused by heavy metals inhibited N mineralization (N0 value)and urease and phosphatase activities.The combined pollution of metals alleviated their toxicity to N mineralization to some extent whereas aggravated the toxicity to urease and phosphatase.Phosphorous application could mitigat the toxic effect of heavy metals on phosphatase activities,while alleviating effect of N application on the toxicity of heavy metals to urease was inconsistent.However,the mitigating effect of the fertilizers was limited in heavily polluted soils.

  3. 不同来源重金属污染的土壤对水稻的影响%Effect of Soils Polluted by Different Heavy Metal Sources on Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀满; 郑春荣; 王慎强; 涂从

    2001-01-01

    采用人工污染土壤、尾矿砂、污泥等不同载体的污染源来模拟土壤污染,研究其对水稻生长、吸收养分和吸收重金属的影响。结果表明,不同污染载体对水稻生长的影响不同,其影响的大小顺序为人工污染土壤>尾矿砂>污泥>尾矿砂+污泥。不同污染载体对水稻吸收重金属的影响亦不同,以纯化学试剂的形式添加到土壤中的重金属最易被提取出来,植物从中吸收的Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd最多,而从以污泥为污染载体的土壤中吸收的Zn、Pb、Cd最少。研究表明,用添加纯化学试剂的方法来模拟污染土壤对生态与环境的影响是可行的,确定土壤负载容量是安全的,因为在实验条件下它对供试植物的影响最明显。%Effects of different pollution sources,simulated with different carriers of heavy metals such as contaminated soil,mine tailings,and sewage sludge,on growth of rice and transfer of nutrients and heavy metals in the soil-paddy rice(Oryza sativa L.) system were studied with pot experiment in greenhouse. Results showed that effects on plant growth varied with sources and were in the order of contaminated soil>mine tailings>sewage sludge>tailing+sewage sludge. The concentrations of Cu,Zn,Pb and Cd were higher in the plants growing in soil treated with contaminated soil due to higher extractability and toxicity of the heavy metals therein. Rice growing in the soil applied with sewage sludge and tailing+sludge had lower concentrations of Zn,Pb and Cd because of lower extractability and bioavailability of the heavy metals,which might get complexed with organic matter in the sewage sludge. Meanwhile plant growth was also related to nutrient uptake of the plants. It was also demonstrated that by adding chemical agents into soil to determine heavy metal loading capacity of the soil was feasible and safe,for under lab conditions response of the test plants would be the most apparent.

  4. Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals in Soils Using Multivariate Statistics and Geostatistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Ming-Kai; LI Wei-Dong; ZHANG Chuan-Rong; WANG Shan-Qin; YANG Yong; HE Li-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to introduce an integrated method for effectively identifying soil heavy metal pollution sources and apportioning their contributions,and apply it to a case study.The method combines the principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model and geostatistics.The case study was conducted in an area of 31 km2 in the urban-rural transition zone of Wuhan,a metropolis of central China.124 topsoil samples were collected for measuring the concentrations of eight heavy metal elements (Mn,Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd,Cr,Ni and Co).PCA results revealed that three major factors were responsible for soil heavy metal pollution,which were initially identified as "steel production","agronomic input" and "coal consumption".The APCS technique,combined with multiple linear regression analysis,was then applied for source apportionment.Steel production appeared to be the main source for Ni,Co,Cd,Zn and Mn,agronomic input for Cu,and coal consumption for Pb and Cr.Geostatistical interpolation using ordinary kriging was finally used to map the spatial distributions of the contributions of pollution sources and further confirm the result interpretations.The introduced method appears to be an effective tool in soil pollution source apportionment and identification,and might provide valuable reference information for pollution control and environmental management.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN ABIOTIC COMPONENT OF ECOSYSTEM OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bilyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of abiotic component in theVyrlytsa Lake. Was determined the amount of movable form of heavy metals in the water and bottomsediments by the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anthropogenic pollution of the lake is connectedwith discharges of waste waters from enterprises that situated in the industrial zone.Keywords: abiotic component, heavy metals, migration, mobile form.

  6. Factorial Kriging analysis and sources of heavy metals in soils of different land-use types in the Yangtze River Delta of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Feng, Ke; Li, Yinju; Zhou, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyse the pollution status and spatial correlation of soil heavy metals and identify natural and anthropogenic sources of these heavy metals at different spatial scales. Two hundred and twenty-four soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected and analysed for eight heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn and Ni) in soils of different land-use types in the Yangtze River Delta of Eastern China. The multivariate methods and factorial Kriging analysis were used to achieve the research objectives. The results indicated that the human and natural effects of different land-use types on the contents of soil heavy metals were different. The Cd, Hg, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils of industrial area were affected by human activities, and the pollution level of these heavy metals in this area was moderate. The Pb in soils of traffic area was affected by human activities, and eight heavy metals in soils of residential area and farmland area were affected by natural factor. The ecological risk status of eight heavy metals in soils of the whole study area was light. The heavy metals in soils showed three spatial scales (nugget effect, short range and long range). At the nugget effect and short range scales, the Cd, Hg, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils were affected by human and natural factors. At three spatial scales, the As, Cr and Ni in soils were affected by soil parent materials.

  7. Heavy Metals Pollution in Vegetables Grown on Some Farmlands Around Dabaoshan Mine and Its Healthy Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOU Su-min

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used the approaches of the single factor pollution index and the comprehensive factor pollution index to evaluate the heavy-metals pollution in vegetables by analyzing the data of the heavy metals(As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb contents in vegetables grown around the area of Dabaoshan mine. Synchronously considering the potential healthy risks of the local people from long-term consumption of vegetables, we also applied the health risk assessment model to evaluate the health risks of vegetables polluted by heavy metals. The results showed that the contents of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb in this farmland soil were 0.875, 0.900, 0.373, 2.863, 0.305 times as the threshold values from the national second-grading standard of environmental quality assessment for soils respectively, suggesting that only Cd content in soil was beyond the standard level. The comprehensive pollution index of heavy metal pollution in vegetables ranged from 0.412 to 3.339 with the mean value being of 1.155, which belonged to the level of light pollution. The single factor pollution indexes of As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr were 0.412~3.339, 0.000~0.154, 0.105~1.255, 0.563~4.609 and 0.008~0.360 respectively, and the means of these five heavy metals were 0.030, 0.076, 0.343, 1.536 and 0.091 respectively, indicating that the pollution of vegetables was mainly suffered from Cd. Additionally, results from the data of health risk assessment of the heavy metal pollution in 17 vegetables showed:the mean of the total risk was 3.50×10-5 a-1, suggesting that the situation of heavy metal pollution in vegetable varieties had a certain risk to human health, but the risk was acceptable; the mean of the carcinogenic risk for human health was 3.50×10-5 a-1, this meant that the situation of heavy metal pollution in vegetable varieties had a certain risk to human health of the carcinogenic risk, but was acceptable with a degree order of the carcinogenic risk was RiskCd > RiskCr > RiskAs > RiskPb; the total

  8. Research Progress of Phytoremediation Technology for Soil Polluted by Heavy Metals%重金属污染土壤植物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白彦真; 谢英荷; 张小红

    2012-01-01

    With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, heavy metals contamination of soils becomes more and more serious. Phytoremediation is getting more attention as a environmental friendly control measure. Phytoremediation of the polluted soil is a kind of method to remedy the polluted soil. It uses plants to over-absorb and volatilize the heavy mental in the polluted soil, and uses the collaboration of plants and the microbe around the root to decompose the organic contamination in the original spot. Phytoremediation is a promising Green Industry, which has characteristic of low-cost and high-efficiency.%随着城市化和工业化的加速,土壤的重金属污染问题日趋严重.植物修复技术作为一种环境友好型治理措施,越来越受到人们关注.植物修复是利用某些植物对土壤重金属的超量吸收、挥发以及固定等特殊功能,并与根际微生物协同作用,原位修复污染土壤的方法,费用低、效果显著,是极具发展潜力的“绿色产业”.

  9. Migration law of heavy metal cadmium in soil-root interface systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Xiang YANG; Ming-Xu ZHANG; Xiao-Long LI; Liang-Min GAO; Duo-Xi YAO

    2013-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in soil-root systems have great significance for the research into soil pollution risk assessment and the phytoremediation effect.This paper takes ligustrum lucidum as an example,based on the characteristics of adsorption of heavy metals in soil by woody plants,lays out sampling points,and using software Sufer for the Kiging interpolation analysis,and the horizontal migration law of heavy metal cadmium in the soil-root interface system is simulated.Through multi-model statistical regression trend analysis,the horizontal migration mechanism of cadmium in different sections is discussed.The results show that:① under horizontal migration law:the migration ability of Cd is weaker near the Ligustrum lucidum root (0-30 cm); with the root extension,the migration ability of Cd gradually is strengthened,and the main range of the migration ability is 60 90 cm.In addition,its migration law follows the cubic curve mode.② under longitudinal migration law:based on the Kriging method,migration models Z(hi) of heavy metal Cd in any depth of hi are constructed and fit the correlation coefficient R2>0.95.

  10. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  11. Distribution, bioavailability, and leachability of heavy metals in soil particle size fractions of urban soils (northeastern China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutong, Zong; Qing, Xiao; Shenggao, Lu

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the distribution, mobility, and potential environmental risks of heavy metals in various particle size fractions of urban soils. Representative urban topsoils (ten) collected from Anshan, Liaoning (northeastern China), were separated into six particle size fractions and their heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) were determined. The bioaccessibility and leachability of heavy metals in particle size fractions were evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction, respectively. The results indicated that the contents of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the size fractions increased with the decrease of particle size. The clay fraction of fraction was polluted by heavy metals more seriously than the other size fractions in urban topsoils. Cr also concentrated in the coarse fraction of 2000-1000 μm, indicating a lithogenic contribution. However, the dominant size fraction responsible for heavy metal accumulation appeared to belong to particle fraction of 50-2 μm. The lowest distribution factors (DFs) of heavy metals were recorded in the 2000- to 1000-μm size fraction, while the highest in the clay fraction. The DFs of heavy metals in the clay fraction followed Zn (3.22) > Cu (2.84) > Pb (2.61) > Cr (2.19) > Cd (2.05). The enrichment factor suggested that the enrichment degree of heavy metal increased with the decrease of the particle size, especially for Cd and Zn. The TCLP- and EDTA-extractable concentrations of heavy metals in the clay fraction were relatively higher than those in coarse particles. Cd bioavailability was higher in the clay fraction than in other fractions or whole soils. In contrast, Cr exhibits similar bioaccessibilities in the six size fractions of soils. The results suggested that fine particles were the main sources of potentially toxic metals in urban soils. The variation of heavy metals in various size fractions

  12. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the lo

  13. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun

    2014-09-15

    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings.

  14. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  15. Heavy Metal Runoff in Relation to Soil Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cu,Zn,Pb and Hg runoff from yellow limestone soil and purple soils and the relationships between the mobility of the heavy metals and the soil characteristics were studied in laboratory using a rainfall simulator.The results showed that the concentrations of soluble Zn in surface runoff were significantly negatively correlated with the contents of <0.002 mm particles and CEC of the soils, indicating that Zn was mostly adsorbed by clays in the soils.The contents of Cu and Hg in surface runoff were positively related to their contents in the soils.The amounts of Gu, Zn,Pb and Hg removed by surface runoff were influenced by the amounts of soil and water losses and their contents in the soils,and were closely related to the contents of soil particles 1~0.02 mm in size.

  16. Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, John Richard

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential extraction protocol is described. Two alternate approaches for assessing the environmental health risk to humans by undertaking in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (also known as the physiologically based extraction test, PBET) are considered. Finally, two acid digestion protocols that allow the pseudo-total metal content of samples to be assessed are provided.

  17. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN THE PEARL RIVER ESTUARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Sui-liang; ONYX W. H. Wai

    2004-01-01

    Since 70's, the economy and society in the Pearl River Delta region have been undergoing a great development. Pollution control and environment protection have received much public attention. As heavy metals are an important toxic pollutant source in this area and are not biodegradable in general, a lot of scientists in China, especially in Southern China, devote their focus on studying the pollution caused by heavy metals in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). This paper presents a comprehensive review on the heavy metal pollution research and its related research in this area. It is suggested that the study of heavy metal pollution in PRE should be coupled with water movement, sediment motion and tidal characteristics in this region. Studying core sediments in various locations is recommended to reveal the history of heavy metal pollution in PRE and improve the understanding of the fate and transport of metals.

  18. Analysis on the Correlation between Heavy Metal Pollution and Phosphate Application in Soil-rice Ecosystem%土壤-水稻生态系统中重金属污染与施用磷肥关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪君; 栾天浩; 栾博宇; 李源; 梁烜赫; 于洪柱; 陈宝玉

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为在土壤-水稻生态系统中有效防控重金属污染及合理使用肥料提供理论依据.[方法]通过分析重金属及施用磷肥对水稻生长发育及其生态系统的影响,总结出磷肥的最佳施用量及水稻重金属污染的研究方向.[结果]适当施用磷肥能增加水稻产量,改善稻谷品质,加速水稻植株分蘖,促进幼穗分化、灌浆和籽粒饱满,提高作物的抗逆性.过量施用磷肥将会消耗作物内贮存的糖分和能量,诱发土壤缺锌,造成水稻缺硅症和缺钼症.过量重金属进入植物体内,会对植物细胞膜系统造成伤害,使其体内的各种生理生化过程发生紊乱,导致供给植物生长的物质和能量减少,进而抑制植物生长.[结论]该研究为防治施用磷肥导致的水稻重金属污染提供了理论依据.%[Objective]The research aimed to supply theoretical foundation for effectively controlling the heavy metal pollution and reasonably applying fertilizers in soil-rice ecosystem. [Method]Through analyzing the influences of heavy metal and phosphate application on the growth, development and ecosystem of rice, the optimum application amount of phosphate fertilizer and the research direction on heavy metal pollution in rice were summed up. [Result]The appropriate phosphate application could increase the yield of rice, improve its quality, speed up the tillering of its plants, promote the differentiation and grain filling of its young panicles and the formation of full grains and enhance its stress-resistance. The excessive phosphate application would consume the sugar and energy stored in crops, induce zinc deficiency in soil and cause silicon and molybdenum deficiency in rice. The excessive heavy metal in plant would damage its cellular membrane system, induce its various intracorporal physiological and biochemical processes to be disorder, result in the decrement of matter and energy supplying for its growth, so its growth would be

  19. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of heavy metals; Schadstoffbelastung und -belastbarkeit. Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, H.; Neumann, A.; Surkus, A.E. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    Urban soils often have high concentrations of heavy metals. This is particularly true of the technogenic substrates often found in cities and industrial and trading estates. The aim of the present project was therefore to mitigate the deficits of our present knowledge on problems relating to heavy metals in technogenic substrates. The studies presented in the following were carried out in pursuit of the following tasks: determination of the total concentration and mobility of the elements Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni in 11 lead soil profiles from technogenic substrates in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfjoerde and Halle/Saale; study of the dependence of heavy metal mobility on different soil characteristics (e.g. pH, clay, organic carbon, and total heavy metal content); recording of adsorption isotherms characterising the sorption and desorption behaviour of heavy metals; estimation of the heavy metal binding capacity of technogenic substrates following the method quoted by DVWK (1988) for heavy metals; and performance of percolation experiments on soil columns for deriving material transport parameters and of model calculations on heavy metal migration. [Deutsch] Urbane Boeden, besonders die in Staedten, Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten verbreitet lagernden technogenen Substrate, weisen oft hohe Schwermetallgehalte auf. Ziel dieses Projektes ist daher, Erkenntnisdefizite zur Schwermetallproblematik technogener Substrate zu verringern. Den nachfolgend dargestellten Untersuchungen liegt folgende Aufgabenstellung zugrunde: - Bestimmung der Gesamtgehalte und Mobilitaeten der Elemente Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn und Ni an 11 Leitprofilen aus technogenen Substraten in Rostock, Kiel, Eckernfoerde und Halle/Saale, - Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit der Schwermetallmobilitaet von verschiedenen Bodenkennwerten (pH-Wert, Ton-, Corg-, Kalkgehalt, KAK, Schwermetall-Gesamtgehalt), - Aufnahme von Adsorptionsisothermen zur Kennzeichnung des Sorptions- und Desorptionsverhaltens von Schwermetallen, - Schaetzung

  20. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.