WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy-duty diesel vehicles

  1. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  2. Chassis dynamometer study of emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanowitz, J.; Graboski, M.S.; Ryan, L.B.A.; Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles were measured on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer via three driving cycles using a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and PM sulfate fraction were measured. For hot start tests, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 7.43 g/mi (mean 1.96) for PM; 4.15--54.0 g/mi (mean 23.3) for NO x ; 2.09--86.2 g/mi (mean 19.5) for CO; and 0.25--8.25 g/mi (mean 1.70) for THC. When emissions are converted to a g/gal basis, the effect of driving cycle is eliminated for NO x and largely eliminated for PM. Sulfate comprised less than 1% of the emitted PM for all vehicles and test cycles. A strong correlation is observed between emissions of CO and PM. Cold starting at 77 F produced an 11% increase in PM emissions. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that in-use PM emissions have decreased at a slower rate than anticipated based on the stricter engine certification test standards put into effect since 1985. NO x emissions do not decrease with model year for the vehicles tested here. Smoke opacity measurements are not well correlated with mass emissions of regulated pollutants

  3. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions.

  4. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles dominate vehicle emissions in a tunnel study in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Congbo; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Yanjie; Wang, Ting; Wu, Lin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Yan; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jinsheng; Dai, Qili; Zou, Chao; Sun, Luna; Mao, Hongjun

    2018-05-09

    The relative importance of contributions of gasoline vehicles (GVs) and diesel vehicles (DVs), heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and non-HDDVs to on-road vehicle emissions remains unclear. Vehicle emission factors (EFs), including fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), NO-NO 2 -NO x , and carbon monoxide (CO), were measured (August 4-18, 2017) in an urban tunnel in Tianjin, northern China. The average EFs (mg km -1 veh -1 ) of the fleet were as follows: 9.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.60, 23.07) for PM 2.5 , 62.08 (21.21, 138.25) for NO, 20.42 (0.79, 45.48) for NO 2 , 83.72 (26.29, 162.87) for NO x , and 284.54 (18.22, 564.67) for CO. The fleet-average EFs exhibited diurnal variations, due to diurnal variations in the proportion of HDDVs in the fleet, though the hourly proportion of HDDVs never exceeded 10% during the study period. The reconstructed average EFs for on-road vehicle emissions of PM 2.5 , NO, NO 2 , and NO x , and CO were approximately 2.2, 1.7, 1.5, 2.0, and 1.6 times as much as those in the tunnel, respectively, due to the higher HDDV fractions in the whole city than those in the tunnel. The EFs of PM 2.5 , NO, NO 2 , and NO x , and CO from each HDDV were approximately 75, 81, 24, 65, and 33 times of those from each non-HDDV, respectively. HDDVs were responsible for approximately 81.92%, 83.02%, 59.79%, 79.79%, and 66.77% of the total PM 2.5 , NO, NO 2 , and NO x , and CO emissions from on-road vehicles in Tianjin, respectively. DVs, especially HDDVs, are major sources of on-road PM 2.5 , NO-NO 2 -NO x , and CO emissions in northern China. The contribution of HDDVs to fleet emissions calculated by the EFs from Chinese 'on-road vehicle emission inventory guidebook' were underestimated, as compared to our results. The EFs from on-road vehicles should be updated due to the rapid progression of vehicle technology combined with emission standards in China. The management and control of HDDV emissions have become urgent to reduction of on-road vehicle

  5. On-road emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Jing, Qiguo; Wang, Haikun; Pan, Hansheng; Li, Li; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Huang, Haiying; Schipper, Lee; Streets, David G.

    On-road vehicle tests of nine heavy-duty diesel trucks were conducted using SEMTECH-D, an emissions measuring instrument provided by Sensors, Inc. The total length of roads for the tests was 186 km. Data were obtained for 37,255 effective driving cycles, including 17,216 on arterial roads, 15,444 on residential roads, and 4595 on highways. The impacts of speed and acceleration on fuel consumption and emissions were analyzed. Results show that trucks spend an average of 16.5% of the time in idling mode, 25.5% in acceleration mode, 27.9% in deceleration mode, and only 30.0% at cruise speed. The average emission factors of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), and NO x for the selected vehicles are (4.96±2.90), (1.88±1.03) and (6.54±1.90) g km -1, respectively. The vehicle emission rates vary significantly with factors like speed and acceleration. The test results reflect the actual traffic situation and the current emission status of diesel trucks in Shanghai. The measurements show that low-speed conditions with frequent acceleration and deceleration, particularly in congestion conditions, are the main factors that aggravate vehicle emissions and cause high emissions of CO and THC. Alleviating congestion would significantly improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce CO and THC emissions.

  6. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles(HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and createsstrong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to totalparticle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used toestimate t...

  7. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandip D.; Johnson, Kent C.; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    Emissions from heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles are affected by many factors. Changes in engine technology, operating mode, fuel properties, vehicle speed and ambient conditions can have significant effects on emission rates of regulated species. This paper presents the results of on-road emissions testing of 11 HDD vehicles (model years 1996-2000) over the ARB Four Phase driving schedule and the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS). Emission rates were found to be highly dependent on vehicle operating mode. Per mile NO x emission rates for vehicle operation at low speeds, in simulated congested traffic, were three times higher per mile emissions then while cruising on the freeway. Comparisons of NO x emission factors to EMFAC baseline emission factors were within 5-40% for vehicles of various model years tested over the UDDS. A comparison of NO x emission factors for a weighted average of the ARB four phase driving schedule yielded values within 17-57% of EMFAC values. Generally, particulate matter (PM) emission rates were lower than EMFAC values.

  8. Real-world exhaust temperature profiles of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriboonsomsin, Kanok; Durbin, Thomas; Scora, George; Johnson, Kent; Sandez, Daniel; Vu, Alexander; Jiang, Yu; Burnette, Andrew; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Dai, Zhen; Fulper, Carl; Kishan, Sandeep; Sabisch, Michael; Jackson, Doug

    2018-09-01

    On-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a major contributor of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emissions. In the US, many heavy-duty diesel vehicles employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to meet the 2010 emission standard for NO x . Typically, SCR needs to be at least 200°C before a significant level of NO x reduction is achieved. However, this SCR temperature requirement may not be met under some real-world operating conditions, such as during cold starts, long idling, or low speed/low engine load driving activities. The frequency of vehicle operation with low SCR temperature varies partly by the vehicle's vocational use. In this study, detailed vehicle and engine activity data were collected from 90 heavy-duty vehicles involved in a range of vocations, including line haul, drayage, construction, agricultural, food distribution, beverage distribution, refuse, public work, and utility repair. The data were used to create real-world SCR temperature and engine load profiles and identify the fraction of vehicle operating time that SCR may not be as effective for NO x control. It is found that the vehicles participated in this study operate with SCR temperature lower than 200°C for 11-70% of the time depending on their vocation type. This implies that real-world NO x control efficiency could deviate from the control efficiency observed during engine certification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  10. Heavy-Duty Diesel Fuel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's heavy-duty diesel fuel analysis program sought to quantify the hydrocarbon, NOx, and PM emission effects of diesel fuel parameters (such as cetane number, aromatics content, and fuel density) on various nonroad and highway heavy-duty diesel engines.

  11. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10 12 to 2.29 × 10 13 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10 11 to 1.31 × 10 13 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  12. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  13. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Heavy-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Infrared image of a control materials and equipment on heavy-duty vehicles. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL Illustration of a Ray David, NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers are assisting heavy-duty

  14. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  15. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... later model year vehicles when operated under a wide range of real world driving conditions.\\1\\ The... diesel engines (through the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)) to develop ``data driven'' emission... Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and Instrumentation; Not-to-Exceed Emission Standards; and Technical...

  16. On-road heavy-duty diesel particulate matter emissions modeled using chassis dynamometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Tom; Niemeier, D A

    2006-12-15

    This study presents a model, derived from chassis dynamometer test data, for factors (operational correction factors, or OCFs) that correct (g/mi) heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates measured on standard test cycles for real-world conditions. Using a random effects mixed regression model with data from 531 tests of 34 heavy-duty vehicles from the Coordinating Research Council's E55/E59 research project, we specify a model with covariates that characterize high power transient driving, time spent idling, and average speed. Gram per mile particle emissions rates were negatively correlated with high power transient driving, average speed, and time idling. The new model is capable of predicting relative changes in g/mi on-road heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates for real-world driving conditions that are not reflected in the driving cycles used to test heavy-duty vehicles.

  17. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  18. Robust cylinder pressure estimation in heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulah, S.; Forrai, A.; Rentmeester, F.; Donkers, T.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    The robustness of a new single-cylinder pressure sensor concept is experimentally demonstrated on a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Using a single-cylinder pressure sensor and a crank angle sensor, this single-cylinder pressure sensor concept estimates the in-cylinder pressure traces in the

  19. Fuel composition impact on heavy duty diesel engine combustion & emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Heavy Duty Diesel or compression ignition (CI) engine plays an important economical role in societies all over the world. Although it is a fuel efficient internal combustion engine design, CI engine emissions are an important contributor to global pollution. To further reduce engine emissions

  20. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements, please contact Tad Wysor, Office of... address: wysor.tad@epa.gov . If you have questions concerning EPA's 610 Review related to NESHAP...

  1. In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

    2007-02-01

    Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning.

  2. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... later model year vehicles when operated under a wide range of real world driving conditions.\\1\\ The... ``data driven'' emission measurement allowances through a comprehensive research, development, and... Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and Instrumentation; Not-to-Exceed Emission Standards; and Technical...

  3. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musculus, Mark P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Regulatory drivers and market demands for lower pollutant emissions, lower carbon dioxide emissions, and lower fuel consumption motivate the development of clean and fuel-efficient engine operating strategies. Most current production engines use a combination of both in-cylinder and exhaust emissions-control strategies to achieve these goals. The emissions and efficiency performance of in-cylinder strategies depend strongly on flow and mixing processes associated with fuel injection. Various diesel engine manufacturers have adopted close-coupled post-injection combustion strategies to both reduce pollutant emissions and to increase engine efficiency for heavy-duty applications, as well as for light- and medium-duty applications. Close-coupled post-injections are typically short injections that follow a larger main injection in the same cycle after a short dwell, such that the energy conversion efficiency of the post-injection is typical of diesel combustion. Of the various post-injection schedules that have been reported in the literature, effects on exhaust soot vary by roughly an order of magnitude in either direction of increasing or decreasing emissions relative to single injections (O’Connor et al., 2015). While several hypotheses have been offered in the literature to help explain these observations, no clear consensus has been established. For new engines to take full advantage of the benefits that post-injections can offer, the in-cylinder mechanisms that affect emissions and efficiency must be identified and described to provide guidance for engine design.

  4. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...), optimized turbo-charging, optimized fuel injection, diesel particulate filters), plus liquid urea based...-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim... manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and 2013 for emissions of oxides of...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  6. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  7. Proposed Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Proposed Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule summary, CFR citations and additional resources concerning proposed new emission standards that will begin to take effect in 2007 and corresponding diesel fuel requirements that take effect in 2006.

  8. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  9. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  10. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This presentation provides information about NREL's real-world evaluations of commercial vehicle technologies, which compare the performance of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles to conventional vehicles. NREL conducts these customized evaluations in partnership with commercial and government fleets across the nation. Current fleet and industry partners include UPS, Workhorse, Parker Hannifin, Proterra, Foothill Transit, Long Beach Transit, BYD, Odyne, Duke Energy, Miami-Dade, TransPower, Eaton, Cummins, Bosch, and Clean Cities/National Clean Fleet Partnership. The presentation focuses on two particular vehicle evaluation projects -- hydraulic hybrid refuse haulers operated by Miami-Dade and electric transit buses operated by Foothill Transit.

  11. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Electric Vehicles to supply battery modules for Smith’s lineup of zero-emission, all-electric commercial vehicles (CVs). A123 expects to begin...hybrids may have generally improved reliability compared to conventional diesel vehicles, their maintenance procedures are specialized. Hybrid

  12. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  13. Effect of turbulence intensity on PM emission of heavy duty diesel trucks - Wind tunnel studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littera, D.; Cozzolini, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Gautam, M.

    2017-08-01

    Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel aftertreatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. The formation and evolution of PM from modern engines are more sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process, such as rapidity of mixing, background PM present in the air. These technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environments compliant with measurement standards (i.e. Code of Federal Regulation CFR in the USA) and are not fully representative of real-world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In light of this, a specifically designed and built wind tunnel by West Virginia University (WVU) is used for the study of the exhaust plume of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle, providing a better insight in the dilution process and the representative nanoparticles emissions in a real-world scenario. The subsonic environmental wind tunnel is capable of accommodating a full-sized heavy-duty truck and generating wind speeds in excess of 50mph. A three-dimensional gantry system allows spanning the test section and sample regions in the plume with accuracy of less than 5 mm. The gantry system is equipped with engine exhaust gas analyzers and PM sizing instruments. The investigation involves three different heavy-duty Class-8 diesel vehicles representative of three emission regulation standards, namely a US-EPA 2007 compliant, a US-EPA 2010 compliant, and a baseline vehicle without any aftertreatment technologies as a pre US-EPA 2007, respectively. The testing procedure includes three different vehicle speeds: idling, 20mph, and 35mph. The vehicles were tested on WVU's medium-duty chassis dynamometer, with the load applied to the truck reflecting the road load equation at the corresponding vehicle test speeds. Wind tunnel wind speed and vehicle speed were maintained in close proximity to one another during the entire test. Results show that the cross-sectional plume area

  14. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  15. Performance and emissions of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled whit palm oil biodiesel and premium diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, Helmer; Mantilla, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels due their potential to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Research has been addressed in order to study the emissions of light duty vehicles. However, the particle matter and gaseous emissions emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel and premium diesel fuel have seldom been addressed. The objective of this study was to explore the performance and emission levels of a Cummins 4-stroke, 9.5 liter, 6-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, and a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The palm-biodiesel lowered maximum engine output by much as 10 %. The engine emissions data is compared to standards from 2004, and is determined to pass all standards for diesel fuel, but does not meet emissions standards for PM or NOx for palm-biodiesel.

  16. Emissions During and Real-world Frequency of Heavy-duty Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, Chris; Smith, Jeremy D; Ma, Yilin; Shields, Jennifer Erin; Burnitzki, Mark; Sobieralski, Wayne; Ianni, Robert; Chernich, Donald J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Collins, John Francis; Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David; Hu, Shaohua; Dwyer, Harry

    2018-05-15

    Recent tightening of particulate matter (PM) emission standards for heavy-duty engines has spurred the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which need to be regenerated periodically to remove trapped PM. The total impact of DPFs therefore depends not only on their filtering efficiency during normal operation, but also on the emissions during and the frequency of regeneration events. We performed active (parked and driving) and passive regenerations on two heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), and report the chemical composition of emissions during these events, as well as the efficiency with which trapped PM is converted to gas-phase products. We also collected activity data from 85 HDDVs to determine how often regeneration occurs during real-world operation. PM emitted during regeneration ranged from 0.2 to 16.3 g, and the average time and distance between real-world active regenerations was 28.0 h and 599 miles. These results indicate that regeneration of real-world DPFs does not substantially offset the reduction of PM by DPFs during normal operation. The broad ranges of regeneration frequency per truck (3-100 h and 23-4078 miles) underscore the challenges in designing engines and associated aftertreatments that reduce emissions for all real-world duty cycles.

  17. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... for the current CARB categories of heavy-duty vehicles are within-the-scope of the previously granted...) (Diesel) and 53 FR 7022 (March 4, 1988) (Otto-cycle). \\3\\ 69 FR 59920 (October 6, 2004). CARB's current... threshold test of materiality and * * * thereafter assess such material evidence against a standard of proof...

  18. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9173-5] Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Employing Selective Catalyst Reduction Technology... engine manufacturers have recently begun utilizing a NO X emission control technology called selective...

  19. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs shall not exceed the following: (i)(A) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non... diesel HDE families in any or all of the emissions ABT programs for HDEs, within the restrictions...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty natural gas, hybrid, and conventional diesel on-road trucks during freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C.; Smith, Jeremy; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-11-01

    Heavy-duty on-road vehicles account for 70% of all freight transport and 20% of transportation-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. This study measured three prevalent GHG emissions - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) - from seven heavy-duty vehicles, fueled by diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG), and compliant to the MY 2007 or 2010 U.S. EPA emission standards, while operated over six routes used for freight movement in California. Total combined (tractor, trailer, and payload) weights were 68,000 ± 1000 lbs. for the seven vehicles. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) radiative forcing values for a 100-year time horizon, N2O emissions accounted for 2.6-8.3% of total tailpipe CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2-eq) for diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, Diesel Particulate Filter, and Selective Catalytic Reduction system (DOC + DPF + SCR), and CH4 emissions accounted for 1.4-5.9% of CO2-eq emissions from the CNG-powered vehicle with a three-way catalyst (TWC). N2O emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with SCR (0.17-0.30 g/mi) were an order of magnitude higher than diesel vehicles without SCR (0.013-0.023 g/mi) during highway operation. For the vehicles selected in this test program, we measured 11-22% lower CO2-eq emissions from a hybrid compared to conventional diesel vehicles during transport over lower-speed routes of the freight transport system, but 20-27% higher CO2-eq emissions during higher-speed routes. Similarly, a CNG vehicle emitted up to 15% lower CO2-eq compared to conventional diesel vehicles over more neutral-grade highway routes, but emitted up to 12% greater CO2-eq emissions over routes with higher engine loads.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  2. Comparison of EGR-VTG control schemes for an EPA2010 heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.H.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Next generation heavy-duty diesel engines require tight air path control to meet upcoming emission legislation with minimal fuel consumption. This study concentrates on the emission control of a 13l, 360 kW EGR diesel engine, which is compliant with EPA2010 emission targets. Currently, an

  3. Analysis of the Journal Bearing Friction Losses in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knauder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines (ICE for the use in heavy-duty trucks and buses have to fulfil demanding requirements for both vehicle efficiency as well as for emission of greenhouse gases. Beside the piston assembly the journal bearings are among the largest contributors to friction in the ICE. Through a combination of measurements and validated simulation methods the journal bearing friction losses of a state-of-the-art heavy-duty Diesel engine are investigated for a large range of real world operating conditions. To this task recently developed and extensively validated simulation methods are used together with realistic lubricant models that consider the Non-Newtonian behaviour as well as the piezoviscous effect. In addition, the potential for further friction reduction with the use of ultra-low viscosity lubricants is explored. The results reveal a potential of about 8% friction reduction in the journal bearings using a 0W20 ultra-low viscosity oil with an HTHS-viscosity (The HTHS-viscosity is defined as the dynamic viscosity of the lubricant measured at 150 °C and at a shear rate of 106 s

  4. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    An increasing need for goods and passenger transportation drives continued worldwide growth in traffic. As traffic increases environmental concerns, traffic safety, and cost efficiency become ever more important. Advancements in microelectronics open the possibility to address these issues through new advanced driver assistance systems. Applications such as predictive cruise control, automated gearbox control, predictive front lighting control, and hybrid vehicle state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety. These control systems can benefit significantly from preview road grade information. This information is currently obtained using specialized survey vehicles, and is not widely available. This thesis proposes new methods to obtain road grade information using on-board sensors. The task of creating road grade maps is addressed by the proposal of a framework where vehicles using a road network collect the necessary data for estimating the road grade. The estimation can then be carried out locally in the vehicle, or in the presence of a communication link to the infrastructure, centrally. In either case the accuracy of the map increases over time, and costly road surveys can be avoided. This thesis presents a new distributed method for creating accurate road grade maps for vehicle control applications. Standard heavy duty vehicles in normal operation are used to collect measurements. Estimates from multiple passes along a road segment are merged to form a road grade map, which improves each time a vehicle retraces a route. The design and implementation of the road grade estimator are described, and the performance is experimentally evaluated using real vehicles. Three different grade estimation methods, based on different assumption on the road grade signal, are proposed and compared. They all use data from sensors that are standard equipment in heavy duty vehicles. Measurements of the vehicle speed and the engine

  5. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-05 Section 86.1817-05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. (a) General. (1) Complete heavy-duty vehicles eligible for the NOX averaging, trading and banking program are described in the applicable...

  7. Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch

    2018-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM), and in particular ultrafine particles, have a negative impact on human health. The contribution of vehicle PM emissions to air pollution is typically quantified with emission inventories, which need vehicle emission factors as input. Heavy-duty vehicles, although they represent a small percentage of the vehicle population in nearly every major country, contribute the majority of the on-road PM emissions. However, the published data of modern heavy-duty vehicle emissions are scarce, and for the newest Euro VI technologies, almost non-existent. The main objective of this paper is to present Solid Particle Number (SPN) emission factors from Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles using diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Urban, rural and motorway (highway) emissions were determined on the road at various European cities using SPN Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS). Additional tests on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer showed that the solid sub-23 nm fraction, which is not covered at the moment in the European regulation, is high, especially for CNG engines. The significant contribution of regeneration events and the effect of ambient temperature and engine cold-start on particle emissions were also discussed. PMID:29425174

  8. Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch Giechaskiel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM, and in particular ultrafine particles, have a negative impact on human health. The contribution of vehicle PM emissions to air pollution is typically quantified with emission inventories, which need vehicle emission factors as input. Heavy-duty vehicles, although they represent a small percentage of the vehicle population in nearly every major country, contribute the majority of the on-road PM emissions. However, the published data of modern heavy-duty vehicle emissions are scarce, and for the newest Euro VI technologies, almost non-existent. The main objective of this paper is to present Solid Particle Number (SPN emission factors from Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles using diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG, or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG. Urban, rural and motorway (highway emissions were determined on the road at various European cities using SPN Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Additional tests on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer showed that the solid sub-23 nm fraction, which is not covered at the moment in the European regulation, is high, especially for CNG engines. The significant contribution of regeneration events and the effect of ambient temperature and engine cold-start on particle emissions were also discussed.

  9. Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch

    2018-02-09

    Particulate matter (PM), and in particular ultrafine particles, have a negative impact on human health. The contribution of vehicle PM emissions to air pollution is typically quantified with emission inventories, which need vehicle emission factors as input. Heavy-duty vehicles, although they represent a small percentage of the vehicle population in nearly every major country, contribute the majority of the on-road PM emissions. However, the published data of modern heavy-duty vehicle emissions are scarce, and for the newest Euro VI technologies, almost non-existent. The main objective of this paper is to present Solid Particle Number (SPN) emission factors from Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles using diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Urban, rural and motorway (highway) emissions were determined on the road at various European cities using SPN Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS). Additional tests on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer showed that the solid sub-23 nm fraction, which is not covered at the moment in the European regulation, is high, especially for CNG engines. The significant contribution of regeneration events and the effect of ambient temperature and engine cold-start on particle emissions were also discussed.

  10. Direct injection of a diesel-butane blend in a heavy duty engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, C.A.J.; van den Berge, B.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Jaasma, S.A.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) has for long been used in passenger cars. Presently, LPG sup-ply systems have also attracted considerable at-tention for heavy duty use. LPG can be applied in these engines combining port fuel injected LPG with a direct injection of diesel. These engines equipped with a

  11. Final Rule for Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to establish nonconformance penalties (NCPs) for manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines (HHDDE) in model years 2012 and later for emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) because we have found the criteria for NCPs.

  12. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  13. The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on the elemental composition of emissions from heavy duty diesel buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C.H. Lim; G.A. Ayoko; L. Morawska; Z.D. Ristovski; E.R. Jayaratne [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences

    2007-08-15

    The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on elemental composition of emissions from twelve heavy duty diesel buses have been investigated. Two types of diesel fuels - low sulfur diesel (LSD) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels with 500 ppm and 50 ppm sulfur contents respectively and 3 driving modes corresponding to 25%, 50% and 100% power were used. Elements present in the tailpipe emissions were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and those found in measurable quantities included Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ni, Pb, Be, P, Se, Ti and Ge. Multivariate analyses using multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) facilitated the extraction of information about the structure of the data. MCDM showed that the emissions of the elements were strongly influenced by the engine driving conditions while the PCA loadings plots showed that the emission factors of the elements were correlated with those of other pollutants such as particle number, total suspended particles, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx. Partial least square analysis revealed that the emission factors of the elements were strongly dependent on the fuel parameters such as the fuel sulfur content, fuel density, distillation point and cetane index. Strong correlations were also observed between these pollutants and the engine power or exhaust temperature. The study provides insights into the possible role of fuel sulfur content in the emission of inorganic elements from heavy duty diesel vehicles. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Real-world NOx emissions of Euro V and Euro VI heavy duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, R.; Dekker, H.; Vonk, W.

    2012-04-15

    TNO regularly performs measurements to determine the in-service performance and durability with respect to the pollutant emissions of heavy-duty vehicles under representative driving conditions. The 2011 measurement programme yields new insights regarding the emission performance of the upcoming Euro VI technology for heavy-duty vehicles, mandatory as of 31 December 2013 and, together with the results from earlier performed programmes, leads to conclusions on the emission performance of past and present generations of heavy-duty vehicles (Euro V, EEV)

  15. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hang, Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  16. Oxygenated fuels for clean heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: For diesel engines, changing the fuel composition is an alternative route towards achieving lower emission levels. The potential of oxygenated fuels to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions has already been demonstrated earlier. In this study, this research has been

  17. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-02

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required.

  18. Direct injection of diesel-butane blends in a heavy duty engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, C.A.J.; van den Berge, B.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Jaasma, S.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing fuel prices keep bringing attention to alternative, cheaper fuels. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been well known for decades as an alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) passenger cars. More recently, aftermarket LPG systems were also introduced to Heavy Duty transport vehicles.

  19. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  20. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2001-02-14

    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  1. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  2. Deriving fuel-based emission factor thresholds to interpret heavy-duty vehicle roadside plume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C; Smith, Jeremy D; Ham, Walter A; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Hu, Shaohua

    2018-04-13

    Remote sensing devices have been used for decades to measure gaseous emissions from individual vehicles at the roadside. Systems have also been developed that entrain diluted exhaust and can also measure particulate matter (PM) emissions. In 2015, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 8% of in-field diesel particulate filters (DPF) on heavy-duty (HD) vehicles were malfunctioning and emitted about 70% of total diesel PM emissions from the DPF-equipped fleet. A new high-emitter problem in the heavy-duty vehicle fleet had emerged. Roadside exhaust plume measurements reflect a snapshot of real-world operation, typically lasting several seconds. In order to relate roadside plume measurements to laboratory emission tests, we analyzed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), and PM emissions collected from four HD vehicles during several driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. We examined the fuel-based emission factors corresponding to possible exceedances of emission standards as a function of vehicle power. Our analysis suggests that a typical HD vehicle will exceed the model year (MY) 2010 emission standards (of 0.2 g NO X /bhp-hr and 0.01 g PM/bhp-hr) by three times when fuel-based emission factors are 9.3 g NO X /kg fuel and 0.11 g PM/kg using the roadside plume measurement approach. Reported limits correspond to 99% confidence levels, which were calculated using the detection uncertainty of emissions analyzers, accuracy of vehicle power calculations, and actual emissions variability of fixed operational parameters. The PM threshold was determined for acceleration events between 0.47 and 1.4 mph/sec only, and the NO X threshold was derived from measurements where aftertreatment temperature was above 200°C. Anticipating a growing interest in real-world driving emissions, widespread implementation of roadside exhaust plume measurements as a compliment to in-use vehicle programs may benefit from expanding this analysis to a larger

  3. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askin, Amanda C.; Barter, Garrett E.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. The model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives. -- Highlights: •We present a parametric analysis of factors U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. •Conventional diesels will be more than 70% of U.S. heavy-duty vehicles through 2050. •CNG trucks are well suited to large, urban fleets with private refueling. •Ultra-efficient long haul diesel trucks are preferred over LNG at current fuel prices

  4. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  5. Optimising the cam profile of an electronic unit pump for a heavy-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Tao; Dai, Hefei; Lei, Yan; Cao, Chunlei; Li, Xuchu

    2015-01-01

    For a fuel system with a tangent cam or a constant-velocity cam, the peak injection pressure continues to rise as the injection duration increases, but overly high peak pressures induce mechanical loads and wear, limiting the maximum engine speed and injection quantity. To improve the performance of an EUP (Electronic Unit Pump) fuel system for heavy-duty diesel engines, this work proposes a new pump cam, namely the constant-pressure cam. It helps the EUP run at a higher speed and deliver larger fuel quantities while maintaining a constant peak injection pressure, which improves the power of the heavy-duty diesel engine. A model based on the EUP was built to determine the three constraints for optimising the constant-pressure cam: 1) the pump pressure should equal the nozzle pressure; 2) the cam speed should decrease with the increase in the injection duration; and 3) the cam acceleration gradient should be zero. An EUP system was tested with the tangent cam and the optimised cam under different conditions. The experimental results show that the EUP system with the optimised cam delivers more injection quantity and runs at higher engine speeds while maintaining the same peak pressure as the tangent cam. - Highlights: • We propose a constant-pressure cam to improve the power of heavy-duty diesel engine. • We deduce three constraints for the CP (constant-peak pressure) cam based on a model. • The EUP system with the new cam works well under higher engine speed. • The peak pressure of the constant-pressure cam fuel system maintains high

  6. Demand Forecasting for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Considering Emission Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Seong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Makers of heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs need to reduce their inventory of old-generation products in preparation for the demand for next-generation products that satisfy new emission regulations. In this paper, a new demand forecasting model is proposed to reflect special conditions raised by the technological generational shift owing to new emission regulation enforcement. In addition, sensitivity analyses are conducted to better accommodate uncertainty involved at the time of prediction. Our proposed model can help support manufacturers’ production and sales management for a series of products in response to new emission regulations.

  7. Differences between emissions measured in urban driving and certification testing of heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Poornima; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Oshinuga, Adewale; Jiang, Yu; Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent C.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from eight heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) equipped with three different exhaust aftertreatment systems (ATS) for controlling nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were quantified on a chassis dynamometer using driving schedules representative of stop-and-go and free-flow driving in metropolitan areas. The three control technologies were: 1) cooled exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) plus a diesel particulate filter (DPF); 2) CEGR and DPF plus advanced engine controls; and 3) CEGR and DPF plus selective catalytic reduction with ammonia (SCR). Results for all control technologies and driving conditions showed PM emission factors were less than the standard, while selected non-regulated emissions (ammonia, carbonyls, and C4-C12 hydrocarbons) and a greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide) were at measurement detection limits. However, NOx emission factors depended on the control technology, engine calibration, and driving mode. For example, emissions from engines with cooled-exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) were 239% higher for stop-and-go driving as compared with free-flow. For CEGR plus selective catalytic reduction (SCR), the ratio was 450%. A deeper analysis was carried out with the assumption that emissions measured for a drive cycle on either the chassis or in-use driving would be similar. Applying the same NTE rules to the chassis data showed emissions during stop-and-go driving often exceeded the certification standard and >90% of the driving did not fall within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) control area suggesting the NTE requirements do not provide sufficient emissions control under in-use conditions. On-road measurement of emissions using the same mobile lab while the vehicle followed a free-flow driving schedule verified the chassis results. These results have implications for scientists who build inventories using certification values instead of real world emission values and for metropolitan populations, who are exposed to elevated emissions. The differences in values

  8. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-08 Section 86.1817-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. Section 86.1817-08 includes text that.... (1) Manufacturers of Otto-cycle vehicles may participate in an NMHC averaging, banking and trading...

  9. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  10. On particulate characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, H.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of soot measurements acquired in the combustion chamber of an optically accessible heavy-duty Diesel engine. The Diesel engine is the most efficient internal combustion engine. Pollutant emissions from the engine, such as soot and NOx, however, form a

  11. Scenarios for use of biogas for heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark and related GHG emissions impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Winther, Morten; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    of biogas is of concern. This study has analysed the potential biomass and biogas production from all Danish organic waste sources under different scenario assumptions for future scenario years. The analysis includes energy demand of the road transportation sector by means of transport and fuel types......, and potential use of the limited biogas resource taking into account alternative fuel options available for transportation (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels). Further, the total differences in fuel consumption and GHG emissions due to the replacement of diesel-powered heavy-duty vehicles by gas-powered heavy...

  12. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  13. Design of power steering systems for heavy-duty long-haul vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Backx, E.A.; Hofman, T.; Voets, H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, all auxiliaries present in a heavy-duty vehicle (e.g., power-steering pump, air-conditioning compressor) are engine-driven systems, which put high constraints on their performance. Outputs (e.g., speed, temperature) and energy consumption are dictated by engine speed, while most

  14. Euro VI technologies and costs for Heavy Duty vehicles: the expert panels summary of stakeholders responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gense, N.L.J.; Riemersma, I.J.; Such, C.l; Ntziachristos, L.

    2006-01-01

    This report is the result of the work carried out under on the Europeans Commission’s call for tender regarding “Technical support for the Commission DG Environment on the development of Euro 5 standards for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI standards for heavy-duty vehicles” (Reference:

  15. Experimental comparison of R123 and R245fa as working fluids for waste heat recovery from heavy-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Mingru; Tian, Hua; Huo, Yongzhan; Zhu, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) on-board is a solution for vehicles to save energy and reduce emission. Considering the characteristics of waste heat from vehicle, the criterions of the suitable working fluid are very strict. R123 and R245fa have been widely used in companies and labs, however, the difference of their properties under different engine conditions still requires further study. During this research, a series of experiments have been done to compare the performance of these two working fluids, what's more, to determine under which engine conditions they are suitable separately. These experimental comparisons are new and important for the targeting design of ORC for vehicles. The result shows that, considering the difference of thermodynamic properties and the limited cooling capacity on board, R123 shows its advantage for the waste heat recovery at heavy duty, while R245fa is more suitable at light-and-medium duty. These properties make R123 suitable for the ORC designed for long-haul heavy-duty truck, while R245fa is suggested for city bus. The following performance test of R123 for waste heat recovery from heavy-duty diesel engine shows that the maximum fuel consumption improvement can be as much as 2.8%. - Highlights: • R123 is more suitable for heavy duty and steady working condition. • R245fa shows its advantage at light-and-medium duty and varying working condition. • R123 suits better for long-haul heavy-duty truck, while R245fa for city bus. • The maximum fuel consumption improvement is as much as 2.8%.

  16. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Natural gas application in light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Brazil: panorama, technological routes and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos, Cordeiro de Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante; Leao, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Iaccarino, Fernando Aniello; Figueiredo Moreira, Marcia

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian CNG light-duty vehicle fleet has currently reached more than 1,300,000 units. This growth increased in the late 1990's, when CNG was approved for use in passenger cars. In 2001, the IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources), concerned with this uncontrolled growth, published CONAMA (National Environmental Council, controlled by IBAMA) resolution 291, which establishes rules for CNG conversion kit environmental certification.This paper discusses the technological challenges for CNG-converted vehicles to comply with PROCONVE (Brazilian Program for Automotive Air Pollution Control) emission limits. In the 1980's, because of the oil crisis, Natural Gas (NG) emerged as a fuel with great potential to replace Diesel in heavy-duty vehicles. Some experiences were conducted for partial conversions from Diesel to NG (Diesel-gas). Other experiences using NG Otto Cycle buses were conducted in some cities, but have not expanded. Another technological route called 'Ottolization' (Diesel to Otto cycle convertion) appeared recently. Population increase and the great growth in vehicle fleet promote a constant concern with automotive emissions. More restrictive emission limits, high international oil prices, and the strategic interest in replacing Diesel imports, altogether form an interesting scenario for CNG propagation to public transportation in the main Brazilian metropolises.

  18. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  19. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  20. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  1. Soot particulate size characterisation in a heavy-duty diesel engine for different engine loads by laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, B.; Ganippa, L.C.; Vliet, van A.P.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence was used to estimate primary particle size distributions inside the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine as a function of the crank angle, for two different engine loads at two different probe locations. Assuming a log-normal particle size

  2. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load

  3. Quantitative nitric oxide measurements by means of laser-induced fluorescence in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Vliet, van A.P.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Ganippa, L.C.; Bougie, H.J.T.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative in-cylinder laser-induced fluorescence measurements ofnitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine are presented. Special attention is paid to experimental techniques to assess the attenuation of the laser beam and the fluorescence signal by the cylinder contents.This attenuation can be

  4. Appliance of high EGR rates with a short and long route EGR system on a heavy duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jong, de D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the possibilities of applying high EGR rates with low NOx and PM emission levels on a two-stage turbocharged 12 liter heavy duty diesel engine. The EGR is applied by using a long and short route EGR system. For the ESC operating points A25 and C100 EGR is

  5. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  6. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital high-speed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  7. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  8. MOVES2014: Heavy-duty Vehicle Emissions Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report updates MOVES methods for evaluating current HD diesel NOx emission rates based on comparisons to independent data from EPA’s IUVP and Houston drayage programs. The report also details methods/assumptions made for HD gasoline HC, CO and NOx emission rates using reduct...

  9. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance and emissions of a heavy-duty diesel/LPG dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, Paul [Sasol Technology, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty truck engine which has been equipped with an aftermarket conversion kit to enable operation as a diesel/LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) dual fuel engine. During operation diesel fuel is displaced by LPG which is vaporised and metered into the inlet manifold by means of solenoid injectors. It was found that, as the LPG fuelling rate is increased, the cylinder pressure rise rates and peak cylinder pressures increase, as do the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. At higher loads it was found that the LPG autoignites independently of the diesel fuel, resulting in very high rates of cylinder pressure rise. Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions remain largely unchanged, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced due to the lower carbon content of the LPG fuel. Different LPG compositions were also investigated and it was found that the LPG properties that have the most significant effect on combustion and emissions were the autoignition and volatility characteristics. (orig.)

  11. Computational study of the effect of different injection angle on heavy duty diesel engine combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar Ali Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines exhausting gaseous emission and particulate matter have long been regarded as one of the major air pollution sources, particularly in metropolitan areas, and have been a source of serious public concern for a long time. The choosing various injection strategies is not only motivated by cost reduction but is also one of the potentially effective techniques to reduce exhaust emission from diesel engines. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different injection angles on a heavy duty diesel engine and emission characteristics. The varieties of injection angle were simulated and the emissions like soot and NO is calculated. The comparison between the different injection strategies was also investigated. A combustion chamber for three injection strategies (injection direction with angles of α=67.5, 70, and 72.5 degree was simulated. The comparative study involving rate of heat release, in-cylinder temperature, in-cylinder pressure, NO and soot emissions were also reported for different injection strategies. The case of α=70 is optimum because in this manner the emissions are lower in almost most of crank angle than two other cases and the in-cylinder pressure, which is a representation of engine power, is higher than in the case of α=67.5 and just a little lower than in the case of α=72.5.

  12. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  13. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  14. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  15. Bayesian Parameter Estimation for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric; Konan, Arnaud; Duran, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Accurate vehicle parameters are valuable for design, modeling, and reporting. Estimating vehicle parameters can be a very time-consuming process requiring tightly-controlled experimentation. This work describes a method to estimate vehicle parameters such as mass, coefficient of drag/frontal area, and rolling resistance using data logged during standard vehicle operation. The method uses Monte Carlo to generate parameter sets which is fed to a variant of the road load equation. Modeled road load is then compared to measured load to evaluate the probability of the parameter set. Acceptance of a proposed parameter set is determined using the probability ratio to the current state, so that the chain history will give a distribution of parameter sets. Compared to a single value, a distribution of possible values provides information on the quality of estimates and the range of possible parameter values. The method is demonstrated by estimating dynamometer parameters. Results confirm the method's ability to estimate reasonable parameter sets, and indicates an opportunity to increase the certainty of estimates through careful selection or generation of the test drive cycle.

  16. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates of diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Vonk, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    In real-world conditions, modern Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles produce an average of ten times less nitrogen oxide (NOx)emissions than previous generations of Euro IV and Euro V heavy-duty vehicles. However, Euro 6 passenger cars and light commercial vehicles present an entirely different picture since, despite a continual tightening of European emissions limits, the real-world NOx emissions of new diesel passenger cars and light commercial vehicles have remained virtually unchanged over the la...

  17. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  18. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of..., exhaust emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines fueled with either gasoline or liquefied petroleum gas, and intended...

  19. Computer simulation of the heavy-duty turbo-compounded diesel cycle for studies of engine efficiency and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. A.; Heywood, J. B.; Replogle, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reductions in heat loss at appropriate points in the diesel engine which result in substantially increased exhaust enthalpy were shown. The concepts for this increased enthalpy are the turbocharged, turbocompounded diesel engine cycle. A computer simulation of the heavy duty turbocharged turbo-compounded diesel engine system was undertaken. This allows the definition of the tradeoffs which are associated with the introduction of ceramic materials in various parts of the total engine system, and the study of system optimization. The basic assumptions and the mathematical relationships used in the simulation of the model engine are described.

  20. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  1. Experimental Verification of Discretely Variable Compression Braking Control for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Vahidi, Ardalan; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Farias, Phil; Tsao, Tsu Chin

    2003-01-01

    In this report a recursive least square scheme with multiple forgetting factors is proposed for on-line estimation of road grade and vehicle mass. The estimated mass and grade can be used to robustify many automatic controllers in conventional or automated heavy-duty vehicles. We demonstrate with measured test data from the July 26-27, 2002 test dates in San Diego, CA, that the proposed scheme estimates mass within 5% of its actual value and tracks grade with good accuracy. The experimental s...

  2. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  3. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  4. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-position three-way electromagnetic valve with double coil as actuator. The system could keep the vehicle parking brake status or parking release status for a long time without power supply. The function modules of the system are planned, and the control strategies of automatic parking brake and parking release are made. The experiment is performed on a medium-sized commercial vehicle which is experimentally modified. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system and the automatic parking function are proved through real vehicle tests.

  5. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  6. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  7. Particulate emissions from new heavy duty vehicles (Euro IV and V); Partikeludslip fra nye tunge koeretoejer (Euronorm IV og V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.; Ohm, A.; Willumsen, E. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2008-07-01

    The new Danish act on environmental zones allows local authorities to define zones where EURO III or older heavy duty vehicles should be equipped with a particulate filter. The introduction of EURO IV and V has reduced particulate emissions from heavy duty vehicles by approximately 80 % based on the mass of particles. There is, however, substantial uncertainty about the impact on the number of ultrafine particles, since they are not covered by Euronorm standards. When passing the bill, the Danish Minister for the Environment of the time stated that all relevant knowledge about particle emission from heavy duty vehicles needed to be collected for subsequent publication. To this end, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned a literature survey. The purpose of the survey is to provide an overview of the latest knowledge in the field of particle emissions from heavy duty vehicles, with special focus on the average size of the particle emissions. Another objective of the study is to analyse the direct emissions of NO{sub 2} from heavy duty vehicles classified under EURO IV and V. (au)

  8. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  9. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  10. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Otto-cycle HDE. (d) Every manufacturer of new motor vehicle engines subject to the standards prescribed... production of heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle engines for model year 2008, except as explicitly allowed...

  11. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later...

  12. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  13. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  14. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  15. The effect of the position of oxygen group to the aromatic ring to emission performance in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the soot-NOx trade-off and fuel efficiency of various aromatic oxygenates is investigated in a modern DAF heavy-duty diesel engine. All oxygenates were blended to diesel fuel such that the blend oxygen concentration was 2.59 wt.-%. The oxygenates in question, anisole, benzyl alcohol

  16. Experimental analysis of ethanol dual-fuel combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine: An optimisation at low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozo, Vinícius B.; May, Ian; Dalla Nora, Macklini; Cairns, Alasdair; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-fuel combustion offers promising results on a stock heavy-duty diesel engine. • The use of split diesel injections extends the benefits of the dual-fuel mode. • Ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion results in high indicated efficiencies. • NOx and soot emissions are significantly reduced. • Combustion efficiency reaches 98% with an ethanol energy ratio of 53%. - Abstract: Conventional diesel combustion produces harmful exhaust emissions which adversely affect the air quality if not controlled by in-cylinder measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Dual-fuel combustion can potentially reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot which are characteristic of diesel diffusion flame. The in-cylinder blending of different fuels to control the charge reactivity allows for lower local equivalence ratios and temperatures. The use of ethanol, an oxygenated biofuel with high knock resistance and high latent heat of vaporisation, increases the reactivity gradient. In addition, renewable biofuels can provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion suffers from poor engine efficiency at low load due to incomplete combustion. Therefore, experimental studies were carried out at 1200 rpm and 0.615 MPa indicated mean effective pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Fuel delivery was in the form of port fuel injection of ethanol and common rail direct injection of diesel. The objective was to improve combustion efficiency, maximise ethanol substitution, and minimise NOx and soot emissions. Ethanol energy fractions up to 69% were explored in conjunction with the effect of different diesel injection strategies on combustion, emissions, and efficiency. Optimisation tests were performed for the optimum fuelling and diesel injection strategy. The resulting effects of exhaust gas recirculation, intake air pressure, and rail pressure were

  17. Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai-Lin Litzke; James Wegrzyn

    2001-01-01

    In addition to their significant environmental impacts, medium-duty and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles are high volume fuel users. Development of such vehicles, which include transit buses, refuse trucks, and HD Class 6-8 trucks, that are fueled with natural gas is strategic to market introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV). Over the past five years the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) has funded technological developments in NGV systems to support the growth of this sector in the highly competitive transportation market. The goals are to minimize emissions associated with NGV use, to improve on the economies of scale, and to continue supporting the testing and safety assessments of all new systems. This paper provides an overview of the status of major projects under a program supported by DOE/OHVT and managed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The discussion focuses on the program's technical strategy in meeting specific goals proposed by the N GV industry and the government. Relevant projects include the development of low-cost fuel storage, fueling infrastructure, and HD vehicle applications

  18. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  19. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pengine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. An experimental investigation of the combustion process of a heavy-duty diesel engine enriched with H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, C.; Li, H.; Nuszkowski, J.; Liu, S.; Gatts, T.; Atkinson, R.; Clark, N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This paper investigated the effect of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) addition on the combustion process of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The addition of a small amount of H{sub 2} was shown to have a mild effect on the cylinder pressure and combustion process. When operated at high load, the addition of a relatively large amount of H{sub 2} substantially increased the peak cylinder pressure and the peak heat release rate. Compared to the two-stage combustion process of diesel engines, a featured three-stage combustion process of the H{sub 2}-diesel dual fuel engine was observed. The extremely high peak heat release rate represented a combination of diesel diffusion combustion and the premixed combustion of H{sub 2} consumed by multiple turbulent flames, which substantially enhanced the combustion process of H{sub 2}-diesel dual fuel engine. However, the addition of a relatively large amount of H{sub 2} at low load did not change the two-stage heat release process pattern. The premixed combustion was dramatically inhibited while the diffusion combustion was slightly enhanced and elongated. The substantially reduced peak cylinder pressure at low load was due to the deteriorated premixed combustion. (author)

  1. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  2. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  3. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  4. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  5. Comparative measurement of the efficiency of catalytic after-burning devices on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattas, K.N.; Kyriakis, N.A.; Samaras, Z.C.; Aidarinis, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of three oxidation catalysts (Honeycat DEP 290, Engelhard PTX 623, Herapur 20L) and one catalytic trap oxidizer (Johnson Matthey JM 13/II) on the emissions of a RABA (M.A.N. Licensed) heavy-duty diesel engine has been comparatively studied. Tests were conducted according to EPA 13 mode test to measure CO, total HC, NO/sub x/ and total particulate matter emitted by the engine with and without devices. The test results were also correlated to the total emissions of the Athenian buses through new weighing factors of an ''Athenian 13 mode test''. The engine tests for all four devices resulted in: (1) considerable reduction of the engine's CO and total HC emissions - being already low (2) practically no difference in NO/sub x/ emissions and (3) increase of the total particulate emissions at high load modes.

  6. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorji-Bandpy Mofid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  7. Semivolatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating on diesel and bio-diesel fuel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  8. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  9. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... implementation of the provisions of the seven consent decrees signed by the United States and diesel engine..., or anticipates receiving, requests from the diesel engine manufacturers for termination of their respective decrees. This meeting notice is also available on EPA's Diesel Engine Settlement Web site at http...

  10. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-10-30

    Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electric drive choices for light, medium, and heavy duty vehicles to reduce their climate change impact in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of electric drive technologies from 1988, at the 9 th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS 9) in Toronto, to 2007 at EVS 23 in Anaheim, is described. Total hybridization of Canada's fleet of light, medium and heavy duty vehicles would result in greenhouse reductions savings of 30 Mt of CO 2 E per year, similar to the saving from a 25% reduction in vehicle weight. Further savings in greenhouse reductions from plug-in hybrids require a battery cost similar to that needed for electric vehicles. Further development of both ultracapacitors and batteries is needed as is work on other parts of the electric drive supply chain. (author)

  12. Analysis of pavement structure sensitivity to passage of oversized heavy duty vehicle in terms of bearing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Rys; Piotr, Jaskula

    2018-05-01

    Oversized heavy duty vehicles occur in traffic very rarely but they reach extremely high weights, even up to 800 tonne. The detrimental impact of these vehicles on pavement structure is much higher than in case of commercial vehicles that comprise typical traffic, thus it is necessary to assess the sensitivity of pavement structure to passage of oversized vehicles. The paper presents results of sample calculations of load equivalency factor of a heavy duty oversized vehicle with usage of mechanistic-empirical approach. The effects of pavement thickness, type of distress (cracking or rutting) and pavement condition (new or old with structural damage) were considered in the paper. Analysis revealed that a single pass of an 800 tonne oversized vehicle is equivalent to pass of up to 377 standard 100 kN axles. Load equivalency factor calculated for thin structures is almost 3 times lower than for thick structures, however, the damage effect caused by one pass of an oversized vehicle is higher in the case of thin structure. Bearing capacity of a pavement structure may be qualified as sufficient for passage of an oversized heavy duty vehicle when the measured deflection, for example in an FWD test, does not exceed the maximum deflections derived from mechanistic-empirical analysis. The paper presents sample calculation of maximum deflections which allow to consider passage of an oversized vehicle as safe over different pavement structures. The paper provides road administration with a practical tool which helps to decide whether to issue a permit of passage for a given oversized vehicle.

  13. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende District, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, West District, Chiayi 60051, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  14. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study

  15. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  16. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  17. Use of natural gas on heavy duty vehicles in Brazil: experience, current scene and barriers that still persist; Utilizacao do gas natural em veiculos pesados no Brasil: experiencia, cenario atual e barreiras que ainda persistem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme B.; Melo, Tadeu C.C.; Lastres, Luiz Fernando M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In the 80's, because of the oil crisis, the Natural Gas (NG) appeared as a fuel with a great potential for Diesel replacement in Heavy Duty Vehicles. At that time, PETROBRAS with other companies have developed partial conversion technologies from Diesel to NG, known as 'Dual Fuel'. Engine dynamometer and vehicle bus tests have been developed to verify its technical and economical viability. Because of several factors, the Dual Fuel Program did not advance and the experience was interrupted. At the same time, other experiences using NG Otto Cycle bus engines, manufactured in Brazil, have been conducted, mainly at Sao Paulo, nevertheless, without expansion. Currently, factors as increase of the NG converted light vehicles fleet; the NG excess in the National Market, which has contributed to the NG distribution net expansion; the Environmental Legislature in vigor, that continuously determine lower emission limits; the government interest in increasing the NG energy matrix share and in reducing Diesel fuel consumption, and the low NG industrial demand, compose together a great scene to the diffusion of NG as substitute to the Diesel fuel in Heavy Duty Vehicles. (author)

  18. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Turbocompounding and ORC Waste Heat Recovery Systems on the Performance of a Turbocharged Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari; Apostolos Pesiridis; Vahid Esfahanian; Ali Salavati-Zadeh; Apostolos Karvountzis-Kontakiotis; Vishal Muralidharan

    2017-01-01

    In this study the influence of utilization of two Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) strategies, namely organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and turbocompounding, have been investigated based on the performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine using 1-D simulation engine code (GT-Power) in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC) at various engine speeds and Brake Mean Effective Pressures (BMEP). The model of a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine (Holset HDX55V) was calibrated using an experimental BSFC map to...

  19. Experimental demonstration of RCCI in heavy-duty engines using diesel and natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as

  20. Emission performance of lignin-derived cyclic oxygenates in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Leermakers, C.A.J.; Dam, N.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In earlier research, a new class of bio-fuels, so-called cyclic oxygenates, was reported to have a favorable impact on the soot-NOx trade-off experience in diesel engines. In this paper, the soot-NOx trade-off is compared for two types of cyclic oxygenates. 2-phenyl ethanol has an aromatic and

  1. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  2. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  3. Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Murgovski, N.; de Jager, A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.

    This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO2–NOxCO2–NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with

  4. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  5. Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as

  6. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  7. An Insight into the Effect of Advanced Injection Strategies on Pollutant Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An advanced numerical investigation has been carried out in order to study the effect of multiple injection strategies on Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Both different injected fuel percentages for each pulse and several dwells between main and post phase were investigated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD and large eddy simulation (LES. Two sets of simulations were taken into account for 10% and 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR fractions. In the first one, the main injection was split into two identical phases, while in the second one into three pulses. Within each set, three strategies were considered, increasing the amount of fuel injected during the main and concurrently decreasing the post pulse. Overall, 48 simulations were employed, since four different dwells between the last phase of the main and post injection were considered. Results show that the pollutant emissions minimization has been obtained for the Schemes injecting 65% and 70% of fuel for both two and three split strategies, but for different values of dwell. In fact, emissions very close to each other for NOx and particulate matter have been reached for these cases. Reductions of about −30% and −71% were respectively obtained for NOx and soot in comparison with experimental emissions related to the single injection case.

  8. Combustion and emission response of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shan, G.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the growing energy needs, alternative energy sources particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel, consisting of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats, has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbo charged, inter cooled, DI (Direct Injection) diesel engine was fuelled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil and its 20% blend with commercial diesel to study the regulated exhaust pollutants in the light of combustion parameters in the cylinder. The experimental results show that BTE (Brake Thermal Efficiently), MCP (Maximum Combustion Pressure) and SOI (Start of injection) angle were increased, ID (Ignition Delay) was decreased; however, RHR (Rate of Heat Release) remained almost unaffected in case of biodiesel. The BTE and RHR were not much affected with B20; however Sol angle and MCP were improved, and ID was decreased with B20. Smoke opacity, CO (Carbon Monoxide), and HC (HydroCarbons) emissions were decreased, but NO. (Oxides of Nitrogen) pollutants were increased in case of both B100 and B20 compared to fossil diesel. However, the increase in NO emissions was lower with B20. (author)

  9. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT) are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that target PM and NOx emissions, respectively, have recently become standard equipment on new HDDT. DPFs can also be installed on older engines as a retrofit device. Previous work has shown that DPF and SCR systems can reduce NOx and BC emissions by up to 70% and 90%, respectively, compared to modern trucks without these after-treatment controls (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). DPFs can have the undesirable side-effect of increasing ultrafine particle (UFP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. While SCR systems can partially mitigate DPF-related NO2 increases, these systems can emit nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We report new results from a study of HDDT emissions conducted in fall 2015 at the Port of Oakland and Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. We report pollutant emission factors (g kg-1) for emitted NOx, NO2, BC, PM2.5, UFP, and N2O on a truck-by-truck basis. Using a roadside license plate recognition system, we categorize each truck by its engine model year and installed after-treatment controls. From this, we develop emissions profiles for trucks with and without DPF and SCR. We evaluate the effectiveness of these devices as a function of their age to determine whether degradation is an issue. We also compare the emission profiles of trucks traveling at low speeds along a level, arterial road en route to the port and at high speeds up a 4% grade highway approaching the tunnel. Given the climate impacts of BC and N2O, we also examine the global warming potential of emissions from trucks with and without DPF and SCR.

  10. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine During Cold and Warm Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Rong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through experiment conducted on a six cylinder direct injection diesel engine with SCR catalyst, effects of coolant temperature on rail pressure, injection quantity, excess air coefficient and emissions characteristics during cold and warm start were investigated. The results showed that, the maximum injection quantity during a starting event was several times higher than idling operation mode, so was the maximal opacity in the cold and warm starting process. When coolant temperature rose up to above 20℃, NOX emissions in the starting process exhibited peculiar rise which was times higher than idling mode. Compared with engine warm start, rail pressure, cycle fuel quantity, opacity, CO and HC emissions during engine cold start were higher in the course from their transient maximal values towards stabilized idling status. NOX in the same transient course, however, were lower in cold start. As coolant temperature rose, the maximal and the idling value of rail pressure and cycle fuel injection quantity during diesel engine starting process decreased gradually, the excess air coefficient increased to a certain degree, and the maximal and idling values of NOX increased gradually.

  13. Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zheng; Wu, Zhenkuo; Liu, Jingping; Lee, Chiafon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of EGR on high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend (Bu40) were investigated and compared with neat diesel (Bu00). • Bu40 has higher NOx due to wider combustion high-temperature region. • Bu40 has lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution. • Bu40 has higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. • For Bu40, EGR reduces NOx emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. - Abstract: In this work, the combustion and emission fundamentals of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend with 40% butanol (i.e., Bu40) in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated by experiment and simulation at constant engine speed of 1400 rpm and an IMEP of 1.0 MPa. Additionally, the impact of EGR was evaluated experimentally and compared with neat diesel fuel (i.e., Bu00). The results show that Bu40 has higher cylinder pressure, longer ignition delay, and faster burning rate than Bu00. Compared with Bu00, moreover, Bu40 has higher NOx due to wider combustion high-temperature region, lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution, and higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. For Bu40, EGR reduces NOx emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. Meanwhile, there is no significant change in HC and CO emissions and indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) with EGR until EGR threshold is reached. When EGR rate exceeds the threshold level, HC and CO emissions increase dramatically, and ITE decreases markedly. Compared with Bu00, the threshold of Bu40 appears at lower EGR rate. Consequently, combining high butanol/diesel ratio blend with medium EGR has the potential to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency level

  14. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  15. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... to Otto-cycle engines used in such MDPVs, except as specified in subpart S of this part. The term... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  16. Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeePhD, John [Aramco Services Company; TzanetakisPhD, Tom [Aramco Services Company; Travers, Michael [Aramco Services Company; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles. Overall lower CO2 emissions and fuel consumption were also measured for naphtha due in part to its higher heating value and higher hydrogen to carbon ratio. Engine-out and tailpipe NOx emissions were lower for naphtha fuel at the same catalyst conversion levels and measured particulate matter (PM) emissions were also lower when using naphtha due to its higher volatility and lower aromatic content compared to ULSD. To help assess the potential impact on diesel particulate filter design and operation, engine-out PM samples were collected and characterized at the B50 operating point. A significant reduction in elemental carbon (EC) within the particulate emissions was found when using naphtha compared to ULSD.

  17. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND PREMIUM DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELMER ACEVEDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel es promocionado como combustible alternativo para sustituir combustibles de origen fósil y reducir emisiones de carbono. Algunos estudios han sido llevados a cabo para estudiar las emisiones de vehículos diesel de baja potencia. Sin embargo, las emisiones sólidas y gaseosas emitidas por vehículos de trabajo operados con biodiesel de palma africana y diesel de bajo contenido de azufre (~ 15 ppm han sido poco estudiadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el desempeño y emisiones de un motor Diesel Cummins, 4 tiempos, 9.5 litros, 6 cilindros con sistema de inyección "common rail", y sistema de recirculación de gases. El motor desarrolló una menor potencia (10 % cuando fue operado con biodiesel de palma africana. El motor cumplió con la norma ambiental 2004 cuando fue operado con combustible diesel, sin embargo, con biodiesel de palma africana las emisiones de material particulado y los óxidos de nitrógeno estuvieron fuera de norma.

  18. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  19. Modeling and control of a parallel waste heat recovery system for Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery systemfor a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  20. COMPARISON OF THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EXHAUST USING A DILUTION TAIL-PIPE SAMPLER AND IN-PLUME SAMPLER DURING ON-ROAD OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper compares the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tail-pipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation. EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentat...

  1. Review and analysis of potential safety impacts of and regulatory barriers to fuel efficiency technologies and alternative fuels in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a safety analysis of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MD/HDVs) equipped with fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and/or using alternative fuels (natural gas-CNG and LNG, propane, biodiesel and power train electrification). The st...

  2. Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Eaton Corporation proposed a comprehensive project to develop and demonstrate advanced component technology that will reduce the cost of implementing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems to Heavy-Duty Diesel engines, making adaptation of this fuel efficiency improving technology more commercially attractive to end-users in the next 5 to 10 year time period. Accelerated adaptation and implementation of new fuel efficiency technology into service is critical for reduction of fuel used in the commercial vehicle segment.

  3. The effect of rapeseed oil biodiesel fuel on combustion, performance, and the emission formation process within a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lešnik, Luka; Biluš, Ignacijo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-models for parameter determination can be derived using experimental results. • Proposed sub-models can be used for calculation of model parameters. • Biodiesel fuel reduces emissions compared to diesel fuel on full engine load. • Usage of biodiesel fuel slow down the emission formation rate. • Oxygen content in biodiesel fuel decreases the amount of formatted CO emissions. - Abstract: This study presents the influence of biodiesel fuel and blends with mineral diesel fuel on diesel engine performance, the combustion process, and the formation of emissions. The study was conducted numerically and experimentally. The aim of the study was to test the possibility of replacing mineral diesel fuel with biodiesel fuel made from rapeseed oil. Pure biodiesel fuel and three blends of biodiesel fuel with mineral diesel fuel were tested experimentally for that purpose on a heavy-duty bus diesel engine. The engine’s performance, in-cylinder pressure, fuel consumption, and the amount of produced NO_x and CO emissions were monitored during experimental measurements, which were repeated numerically using the AVL BOOST simulation program. New empirical sub-models are proposed for determining a combustion model and emission models parameters. The proposed sub-models allow the determination of necessary combustion and emission model parameters regarding the properties of the tested fuel and the engine speed. When increasing the percentage of biodiesel fuel within the fuel blends, the reduction in engine torque and brake mean effective pressures are obtained for most of the test regimes. The reduction is caused due to the lower calorific value of the biodiesel fuel. Higher oxygen content in biodiesel fuel contributes to a better oxidation process within the combustion chamber when running on pure biodiesel or its blends. Better oxidation further results in a reduction of the formatted carbon and nitrogen oxides. The reduction of carbon emission is also

  4. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Liou, Yi-Jyun [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Man-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erh-Jen Road, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, Chiayi 60036, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jim-Shoung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores <16 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of biodiesel blend and load. - Abstract: Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC + DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N{sub TOT}) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N{sub TOT} and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N{sub TOT} at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N{sub TOT} post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of

  5. Environmental effects of using Methanol as a biofuel into the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kianoosh shojae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol as a biofuel is an environmentally friendly substitute for pure diesel and can be obtained from biomasses. The use of biofuels such as methanol for the combustion process is associated with positive impacts on the environment. Using pure methanol or a blend of diesel/methanol fuel in motorized vehicles has been proposed by researchers. In this paper, pure methanol was injected into the combustion chamber of a ISM 370 HD diesel engine and the exhaust emissions were evaluated by using AVL FIRE CFD code software at four engine speeds (1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800 rpm. Additionally, the influences of EGR mass fraction and various injection timings were investigated. In order to validate the simulation results, in-cylinder mean pressure and rate of heat release (RHR were compared with experimental data, and the results gave an acceptable agreement. The obtained results from the conducted simulation showed that the use of methanol fuel in the combustion chamber dramatically reduced the amount of exhaust emissions such as NO, soot, CO, and CO2 to 90%, 75%, 40%, and 26%, respectively. In addition, a mass fraction of EGR (20% caused a reduction in the amount of exhaust NO to about 12%. It was determined that when a system is equipped with a fueling system at 3 deg before top dead center (BTDC, the exhaust NO and soot are reduced by 5.8% and 3%.

  6. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  7. Acoustic Data for Hybrid and Electric Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Electric Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 requires NHTSA to conduct a rulemaking to establish a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard requiring an alert sound for pedestrians to be emitted by all types of motor vehicles that are electric o...

  8. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  9. Particle number and particulate mass emissions of heavy duty vehicles in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the issue of PM emissions from HDV vehicles. The theoretical part discusses the problem of emission of this toxic compound in terms of particle structure taking into account the mass and dimensions of PM. Next, the methodology of the research and the results of the measurements performed under the conditions of actual operation were presented. The test drive routes were chosen in accordance with the operational purpose of the selected test vehicles. Two heavy vehicles were used for the study: a tractor with trailer and an eighteen meter long city bus. The test vehicles complied with the Euro V standard, with the second vehicle additionally complying with the EEV standard and being equipped with a DPF. The analysis of the research results was performed in the aspect of determining the operating time densities of vehicles and their drive systems as well as defining their emission characteristics and ecological indicators. PM and PN emissions were measured in the tests and particle size distribution was determined. It was shown that the exhaust gas after treatment system used in the city bus had a positive influence on the ecological indicators and had contributed to the reduction of PN emissions for heavier particles.

  10. Analysis of the backpressure effect of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) evaporator on the exhaust line of a turbocharged heavy duty diesel power generator for marine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michos, Constantine N.; Lion, Simone; Vlaskos, Ioannis; Taccani, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery on internal combustion engines is studied. • The backpressure effect of the Organic Rankine Cycle boiler has been evaluated. • Three different state-of-the art turbocharging technologies have been assessed. • Six different fluids for medium-high temperature recovery have been considered. • A reduction up to 10% in fuel consumption can be achieved. - Abstract: In marine and power generation sectors, waste heat recovery technologies are attracting growing attention in order to increase heavy duty diesel engines efficiency and decrease fuel consumption, with the purpose of respecting stringent emissions legislations. In this work, the backpressure effect of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) evaporator on the exhaust line of a turbocharged, V12 heavy duty diesel engine, for typical marine and power generation applications has been investigated using the commercial software Ricardo WAVE. Three different state-of-the art turbocharging strategies are assessed in order to counterbalance the increased pumping losses of the engine due to the boiler installation: fixed turbine, Waste-Gate (WG) and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT). At the same time, the steady-state thermodynamic performance of two different ORC configurations, simple tail-pipe evaporator and recuperated simple tail-pipe evaporator layouts, are assessed, with the scope of further increasing the engine power output, recovering unutilized exhaust gas heat. Several different working fluids, suitable for medium-high temperature waste heat recovery, are evaluated and screened, considering, as well, health and safety issues. Thermodynamic cycle parameters such as, for example, evaporation and condensing pressures, working fluid mass flow and cycle temperatures, are optimized in order to obtain the maximum improvement in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (bsfc). From the engine side point of view, a VGT turbocharger is the most favorable solution to withstand increased

  11. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  12. 77 FR 34149 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... selective catalytic reduction technologies. Third, EPA is proposing to offer short-term relief for nonroad..., Attention Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-1032. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal..., especially given some emergency vehicles' extreme duty cycles. By this action, EPA intends to help our nation...

  13. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-10-06

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  14. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  15. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  16. Modeling the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia over a Vanadia-based catalyst from heavy duty diesel exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Byoung Kyu; Kim, Man Young

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation for prediction of NO X conversion over a commercial V 2 O 5 catalyst with NH 3 as a reductant was performed for a heavy duty diesel engine applications. The chemical behaviors of the SCR reactor are described by using the global NO X kinetics including standard, fast, and NH 3 oxidation reactions with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism incorporated into the commercial Boost code. After introducing mathematical models for the SCR reaction with specific reaction parameters, the effects of various parameters such as space velocities, the O 2 , H 2 O, NO 2 , and NH 3 concentrations on the NOx conversion are thoroughly studied and validated by comparing with the experimental data available in the literature. It is found that NO X conversion increases with decreasing space velocity, H 2 O concentration, and NH 3 /NO X ratio, and increasing O 2 concentration and NO 2 /NO X ratio. The study shows that not only is the present approach adopted is flexible in treating performance of the commercial V 2 O 5 based SCR catalyst, it is also accurate and efficient for the prediction of NO X conversion in diesel exhaust environments. - Highlights: ► To find the reaction parameters for LH mechanism over a commercial V2O5 catalyst. ► To investigate the effects of various parameters on the SCR NO X conversion. ► To present benchmark solutions on SCR behavior with diesel exhaust environments.

  17. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  18. Transient performance and emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with microalga Chlorella variabilis and Jatropha curcas biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devendra; Singal, S.K.; Garg, M.O.; Maiti, Pratyush; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Pushpito K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B100 biodiesels from Jatropha (BJ) and marine microalga (BA) compared. • 17% lower NOx and 6% lower specific fuel consumption of BA over BJ. • Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) highest in urban mode in all cases. • NOx, HC and CO highest in rural-, motorway-and urban modes, respectively. • Microalga Chlorella variabilis is a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petro-diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. Two B100 biodiesel samples were prepared by patented routes from the lipids extracted from marine microalga Chlorella variabilis (BA) cultivated in salt pans and wasteland-compatible Jatropha curcas (BJ). The fuels complied with ASTM D-6751 and European Standard EN-14214 specifications. Standard Petro-diesel served as a control. Transient performance and emission characteristics of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with these B100 fuels (BJ and BA) were studied over European Transient Cycle. Test results showed that both B100 biodiesels outperformed petro-diesel in terms of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, with slight penalty on NOx emissions. Among the two biodiesels, merits of BA were established over BJ in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions and specific fuel consumption. Mode-wise transient emission analysis revealed that NOx was highest in rural mode, CO was highest in urban and HC was highest in motorway mode for all fuels. BA may be considered as a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine which can be produced sustainably through cultivation of the marine microalga in coastal locations using seawater as culture medium, obviating thereby concerns around land use competition for food and fuel.

  19. Life-cycle implications of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle technology for medium- and heavy-duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Elgowainy, Amgad; Kotz, Andrew; Vijayagopal, Ram; Marcinkoski, Jason

    2018-07-01

    This study provides a comprehensive and up-to-date life-cycle comparison of hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks (FCETs) and their conventional diesel counterparts in terms of energy use and air emissions, based on the ensemble of well-established methods, high-fidelity vehicle dynamic simulations, and real-world vehicle test data. For the centralized steam methane reforming (SMR) pathway, hydrogen FCETs reduce life-cycle or well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy use by more than 98% compared to their diesel counterparts. The reduction in WTW air emissions for gaseous hydrogen (G.H2) FCETs ranges from 20 to 45% for greenhouse gases, 37-65% for VOC, 49-77% for CO, 62-83% for NOx, 19-43% for PM10, and 27-44% for PM2.5, depending on vehicle weight classes and truck types. With the current U.S. average electricity generation mix, FCETs tend to create more WTW SOx emissions than their diesel counterparts, mainly because of the upstream emissions related to electricity use for hydrogen compression/liquefaction. Compared to G.H2, liquid hydrogen (L.H2) FCETs generally provide smaller WTW emissions reductions. For both G.H2 and L.H2 pathways for FCETs, because of electricity consumption for compression and liquefaction, spatio-temporal variations of electricity generation can affect the WTW results. FCETs retain the WTW emission reduction benefits, even when considering aggressive diesel engine efficiency improvement.

  20. Modeling and Parameterization of Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjung Oh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper suggests fuel consumption modeling for HDVs based on the code from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Two interpolation models (inversed distance weighted (IDW and Hermite and three types of fuel efficiency maps (coarse, medium, and dense were adopted to determine the most appropriate combination for further studies. Finally, sensitivity analysis studies were conducted to determine which parameters greatly impact the fuel efficiency prediction results for HDVs. While vitiating each parameter at specific percentages (±1%, ±3%, ±5%, ±10%, the change rate of the fuel efficiency results was analyzed, and the main factors affecting fuel efficiency were summarized. As a result, the Japanese transformation algorithm program showed good agreement with slightly increased prediction accuracy for the fuel efficiency test results when applying the Hermite interpolation method compared to IDW interpolation. The prediction accuracy of fuel efficiency remained unchanged regardless of the chosen fuel efficiency map data density. According to the sensitivity analysis study, three parameters (fuel consumption map data, driving force, and gross vehicle weight have the greatest impact on fuel efficiency (±5% to ±10% changes.

  1. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul

    2012-02-07

    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count.

  3. Technologies for simulation improvement of NOx and PM emissions and fuel consumption of future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks; Shorai no ogatasha diesel engine ni okeru NOx, PM, nenryo shohi no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, M.; Shimokawa, K.; Uchida, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Yokotaa, H.; Hosoya, M. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks are required to have significantly low NO{sub x} and PM emissions and fuel consumption characteristics. In order to improve these characteristics, various technologies including high pressure fuel injection systems, combustion optimization. high boost pressure turbocharging, EGR homogeneous charge compression ignition combined with multiple injections, and aftertreatment are discussed. As each technology has a number of challenges to overcome, it will take long before engines with these technologies are commercially available. In this paper, the research activities accomplished to date are reported. (author)

  4. An experimental investigation of H{sub 2} emissions of a 2004 heavy-duty diesel engine supplemented with H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatts, T.; Li, H.; Liew, C.; Liu, S.; Spencer, T.; Wayne, S.; Clark, N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6106, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) emissions characteristics of H{sub 2}-diesel dual fuel engine were measured using a 2004 turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine with H{sub 2} supplemented into the intake air. The emissions of H{sub 2} were measured using an Electron Pulse Ionization (EPI) Mass Spectrometer (MS). The effect of the amount of H{sub 2} added, the engine load, and diesel fuel flow rates on the emissions of H{sub 2} and its combustion efficiency in the engine were investigated. The addition of H{sub 2} under high load operation was notable for its ability to obtain high H{sub 2} combustion efficiency and improve brake thermal efficiency. However, the addition of H{sub 2} at low load resulted in high emissions of H{sub 2} due to the failure to initiate and support a sufficiently vigorous flame for the complete combustion of H{sub 2} present outside the diesel spray plume. The maximum H{sub 2} emissions of 1.4% (volume in dry exhaust gas) were observed with the addition of 6% H{sub 2} at 10% load. In comparison, the maximum H{sub 2} emissions of 0.13% were observed when operated at 70% load with the addition of 6% H{sub 2}. The slip of a large percentage of H{sub 2} at low load operation was shown to deteriorate the potential of H{sub 2} in improving the brake thermal efficiency. (author)

  5. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Simulation of a heavy-duty diesel engine with electrical turbocompounding system using operating charts for turbocharger components and power turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, C.O.; Hountalas, D.T.; Zannis, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A diesel model was developed using charts for turbocharger and power turbine. • The maximum value of bsfc improvement is 4.1% at 100% engine load. • The generated electric power ranges from 23 kW to 62 kW. • Turbocharger turbine efficiency decreases slightly with the power turbine speed. • Turbocompounding increases the average pressure value in the exhaust manifold. - Abstract: In diesel engines, approximately 30–40% of the energy supplied by the fuel is rejected to the ambience through exhaust gases. Therefore, there is a potentiality for further considerable increase of diesel engine efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas heat and its conversion to mechanical or electrical energy. In the present study, the operational behavior of a heavy-duty (HD) diesel truck engine equipped with an electric turbocompounding system is examined on a theoretical basis. The electrical turbocompounding configuration comprised of a power turbine coupled to an electric generator, which is installed downstream to the turbocharger (T/C) turbine. A diesel engine simulation model has been developed using operating charts for both turbocharger and power turbine. A method for introducing the operating charts into the engine model is described thoroughly. A parametric analysis is conducted with the developed simulation tool, where the varying parameter is the rotational speed of power turbine shaft. In this study, the interaction between the power turbine and the turbocharged diesel engine is examined in detail. The effect of power turbine speed on T/C components efficiencies, power turbine efficiency, exhaust pressure and temperature, engine boost pressure and air to fuel ratio is evaluated. In addition, theoretical results for the potential impact of electrical turbocompounding on the generated electric power, net engine power and relative improvement of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) are provided. The critical evaluation of the theoretical

  7. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadano, Yara S.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana Flávia L.; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Valebona, Fábio B.; Errera, Marcelo R. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas [Institute of Technology for Development, Lactec–Leme Division, 01 LothárioMeissner Ave., Curitiba, PR, 80210-170 (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NO{sub x} and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH{sub 3}, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NO{sub x} and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH{sub 3} concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. - Highlights: • Emission, dispersion and risk assessment

  8. An experimental investigation of PAH emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel and its blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A. N.; Shan, G.E.Y.; Wei, T.J.; Hua, L.Z.

    2008-01-01

    For the comparison of emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel biodiesel and its 20% blend with diesel, and their carcinogenic potencies, an experimental study has been conducted on a turbocharged, intercooled and direct injection diesel engine. Total PAHs (solid and gas) from diesel, B20 and B100 at low load were more than those at high loads. Total PAH emissions from the test fuels at the rated speed were more than those at maximum torque speed. Benzo[a] pyrene (BaP) brake specific emission of biodiesel is less than that of diesel. LMW-PAH emissions for the test fuels are all higher than those of MMW and HMW PAH. Biodiesel and B20 reduce both the total Benzo[a] pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP/sub eq/) and the total mean-PAHs as compared to commercial diesel fuel. BSFC of the engine increased but its brake power decreased in the cases of B20 and biodiesel. (author)

  9. Analysis the effect of advanced injection strategies on engine performance and pollutant emissions in a heavy duty DI-diesel engine by CFD modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheri, Raouf; Peng, Zhijun; Mirsalim, Seyed Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Explore the effects of advanced multiple injection strategies in a DI-diesel engine. ► Achieving good agreement between the predicted results and experimental values. ► Analyzing three factors for optimization including pilot, main and post-injection. ► Injecting adequate fuel in each pulse accompanied with an appropriate EGR rate. ► Beneficial effects for significant soot reduction without a NOx penalty rate. - Abstract: An Advanced CFD simulation has been carried out in order to explore the combined effects of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies and EGR on engine performance and emission formation in a heavy duty DI-diesel engine. An improved version of the ECFM-3Z combustion model has been applied coupled with advanced models for NOx and soot formation. The model was validated with experimental data achieved from a Caterpillar 3401 DI diesel engine and good agreement between predicted and measured in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, NOx and soot emissions was obtained. The optimizations were conducted separately for different split injection cases without pilot injection and then, for various multiple injection cases. Totally, three factors were considered for the injection optimization, which included EGR rate, the separation between main injection and post-injection and the amount of injected fuel in each pulse. For the multiple injection cases, two more factors (including double and triple injections during main injection) were also added. Results show that using pilot injection accompanied with an optimized main injection has a significant beneficial effect on combustion process so that it could form a separate 2nd stage of heat release which could reduce the maximum combustion temperature, which leads to the reduction of the NOx formation. In addition, it has found that injecting adequate fuel in post-injection at an appropriate EGR allows significant soot reduction without a NOx penalty rate.

  10. Experimental study on filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system for heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Dongxiao; Shuai, Shijin; Zhao, Yanguang

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system on an engine test bench, consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF). Both the DOC and the CDPF led to a high conversion of NO to NO2 for continuous regeneration. The filtration efficiency on solid particle number (SPN) was close to 100%. The post-CDPF particles were mainly in accumulation mode. The downstream SPN was sensitively influenced by the variation of the soot loading. This phenomenon provides a method for determining the balance point temperature by measuring the trend of SPN concentration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a

  12. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  13. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates of diesel vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Vonk, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    In real-world conditions, modern Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles produce an average of ten times less nitrogen oxide (NOx)emissions than previous generations of Euro IV and Euro V heavy-duty vehicles. However, Euro 6 passenger cars and light commercial vehicles present an entirely different picture

  14. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S.; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  15. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-25

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), which are key PM 2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NO x emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NO x under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NO x emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NO x emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  16. Numerical Investigation on Effects of Assigned EGR Stratification on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with Two-Stage Fuel Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojie Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available External exhaust gas recirculation (EGR stratification in diesel engines contributes to reduction of toxic emissions. Weak EGR stratification lies in that strong turbulence and mixing between EGR and intake air by current introduction strategies of EGR. For understanding of ideal EGR stratification combustion, EGR was assigned radically at −30 °CA after top dead center (ATDC to organize strong EGR stratification using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The effects of assigned EGR stratification on diesel performance and emissions are discussed in this paper. Although nitric oxides (NOx and soot emissions are both reduced by means of EGR stratification compared to uniform EGR, the trade-off between NOx and soot still exists under the condition of arranged EGR stratification with different fuel injection strategies. A deterioration of soot emissions was observed when the interval between main and post fuel injection increased, while NO emissions increased first then reduced. The case with a 4 °CA interval between main and post fuel injection is suitable for acceptable NO and soot emissions. Starting the main fuel injection too early and too late is not acceptable, which results in high NO emissions and high soot emissions respectively. The start of the main fuel injection −10 °CA ATDC is suitable.

  17. Contributions of Diesel Truck Emissions to Indoor Elemental Carbon Concentrations in Home Proximate to Ambassador Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambassador Bridge, connecting Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, is the busiest international commercial vehicle crossing in North America, with a large percentage of heavy duty diesel trucks. This study seeks to examine the contribution of diesel truck traffic across Ambass...

  18. Diesel vehicles and sustainable mobility in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, T.J.; Lambert, C.K.; Ruona, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns regarding global warming and energy security have increased the importance of decreasing emissions of CO 2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO 2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. On a well-to-wheels per vehicle per km basis it has been estimated that diesel light-duty vehicles in 2015 will emit 14–27% less CO 2 than their gasoline counterparts. We estimate here that on a gCO 2 /kWh at peak torque, diesel medium-duty vehicles currently have an approximately 10% CO 2 advantage over their gasoline counterparts. At light and moderate loads the CO 2 advantage for medium-duty diesels with SCR after-treatment will be greater than 10% (reflecting pumping losses when gasoline engines are operated at low and moderate loads). Emission of NO x , HCs, and PM from diesel (and gasoline) vehicles has decreased substantially over the past decade and further reductions are anticipated in the future. In addition to the heavy-duty segment, which diesels currently dominate, modern diesel engines are likely to continue to play an important role in the medium-duty segment, and perhaps also in the light-duty segment in a transition to more sustainable mobility. - Highlights: ► This paper is part of a special issue on diesels organized by Lee Schipper. ► The paper provides an overview of advanced diesel technology from a U.S. perspective. ► Modern diesel engines are likely to contribute to a transition to more sustainable mobility

  19. Economical and environmental assessments of compressed natural gas for diesel vehicle in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep Chouykerd

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic assessments for the use of compressed natural gas as fuel for several types of diesel vehicles, rarely pick up, non-fixed route truck and private truck, were studied. It is noted that two main technologies of diesel natural gas vehicle (NGV, i.e. dedicated retrofit and diesel dual fuel (DDF, were considered in this work. It was found that the dedicated retrofit needs higher investment costs than dual fuel, but can achieve higher diesel saving than dual fuel. In detail, the payback period of dual fuel non-fixed route truck was found to be identical to dual fuel private truck both in the cases of6 wheel and 10 wheel, while dedicated retrofit non-fixed route truck and private truck are also identical and have longerpay back period than dual fuel due to its higher conversion costs.This work also presents the emissions released from all types of engines especially green house gas CO2. It was found that, in the case of light duty diesel i.e. pickup truck, dedicated retrofit emitted high level of CO2 than both dual fuel and conventional diesel engines. For heavy duty i.e. non-fixed route truck and private truck vehicles, dedicated retrofit emitted a lower level of CO2 than normal diesel engine. Other pollutants from engine emission, i.e. hydrocarbon (HC,nitric oxide (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter, (PM were also observed. The results indicated that, inthe case of light duty diesel, dedicated retrofit engine emits higher levels of HC and CO than diesel engine; in contrast, it emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel and dual fuel. Dual fuel emits HC and CO higher than diesel and dedicated retrofit but emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel. Lastly, for heavy duty diesel, it was demonstrated that non-fixed route truck and private truck heavy duty dedicated retrofit have potential to reduce emissions of HC, NOx, CO and PM when compared to normal heavy duty diesel. Engine efficiencies under dual fuel and dedicated

  20. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Turbocompounding and ORC Waste Heat Recovery Systems on the Performance of a Turbocharged Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of utilization of two Waste Heat Recovery (WHR strategies, namely organic Rankine cycle (ORC and turbocompounding, have been investigated based on the performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine using 1-D simulation engine code (GT-Power in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC at various engine speeds and Brake Mean Effective Pressures (BMEP. The model of a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine (Holset HDX55V was calibrated using an experimental BSFC map to predict engine exhaust thermodynamic conditions such as exhaust mass flow rate and exhaust temperature under various operating conditions. These engine exhaust conditions were then utilized to feed the inlet conditions for both the ORC and turbocompounding models, evaluating the available exhaust energy to be recovered by each technology. Firstly the ORC system model was simulated to obtain the power that can be generated from the system. Having this additional power converted to useful work, the BSFC was observed to reduce around 2–5% depending upon engine’s speed and BMEP. The initial model of the engine was then modified by considering a second turbine representing turbocompounding heat recovery system. The BSFC was increased due to the back-pressure from the second turbine, but the energy generated from the turbine was sufficient to reduce the BSFC further. However, by application of turbocompounding no improvement in BSFC was achieved at low engine’s speeds. It is concluded that ORC heat recovery system produces a satisfactory results at low engine speeds with both low and high loads whereas at medium and high engine speeds turbocompounding heat recovery system causes higher BSFC reduction.

  1. Studies of valve lifter for automotive heavy duty diesel engine by ceramic materials. II. Development of SiC valve lifter by injection molding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, H W [Technical Centre of KIA-ASIA MOTORS (Korea, Republic of); Han, I S [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Tajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Y S; Chung, Y J [Myong Ji University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Valve lifter, namely tappet, is supported by lifter hole which is located upper side of camshaft in cylinder block, transforms rotatic movement of camshaft into linear movement and helps to open and shut the engine valve as an engine parts. The face of valve lifter, which is continuously contacting with camshaft, brings about abnormal wears, such as unfair wear and early wear, because it is severely loaded in the valve train system. These wears act as a defect like over-clearance and cause imperfect combustion of fuel during the valve lifting in the combustion chamber. Consequently, this imperfect combustion makes the engine out-put decrease and has cause on air pollution. To prevent these wears, therefore, the valve lifter cast in metal developed into SiC ceramics valve lifter which has an excellence in wear and impact resistance. As a result, the optimum process conditions like injection condition, mixture ratio and debonding process could be established. After sintering, fine-sinered dual microstructure in which prior {alpha}-SiC, carbon and silicon was obtained. Based on the new SiC({beta}-SiC) produced by reaction among the {alpha}-SiC, carbon and silicon was obtained. Based on the study, it is verified that mechanical properties of SiC valve lifter are excellent in Vickers hardness 1100{approx}1200 bending strength (300{approx}350 Pa), fracture toughness (1.5{approx}1.7 MPacentre dotm{sup 1/2}). Through engine dynamo testing, SiC valve lifter and metal valve lifter are examined and compared into abnormal phenomena such early fracture, unfair and early wear. It is hoped that this research will serve as an important springboard for the future study of heavy duty diesel engine parts developed by ceramics which has a good wear resistance, reliability, and lightability.

  2. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheshu; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    The increase of ship's energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  3. In-use NOx emissions from model year 2010 and 2011 heavy-duty diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chandan; Collins, John F; Herner, Jorn D; Sax, Todd; Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Sobieralski, Wayne; Burntizki, Mark; Chernich, Don

    2013-07-16

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions of model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel engines. Emissions from four trucks: one equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three equipped with EGR and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device were measured on two different routes with three different payloads using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results indicated that brake-specific NOx emissions for the truck equipped only with an EGR were independent of the driving conditions. Results also showed that for typical highway driving conditions, the SCR technology is proving to be effective in controlling NOx emissions. However, under operations where the SCR's do not reach minimum operating temperature, like cold starts and some low load/slow speed driving conditions, NOx emissions are still elevated. The study indicated that strategies used to maintain exhaust temperature above a certain threshold, which are used in some of the newer SCRs, have the potential to control NOx emissions during certain low-load/slow speed driving conditions.

  4. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Zheshu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  5. A comprehensive design methodology of organic Rankine cycles for the waste heat recovery of automotive heavy-duty diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amicabile, Simone; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Kum, Dongsuk

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches to recover the waste heat from internal combustion engines is the Organic Rankine Cycle owing to its efficiency and reliability. The design optimization of ORC, however, is nontrivial because there exist many design variables and practical considerations. The present paper proposes a comprehensive design methodology to optimize the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) considering a wide range of design variables as well as practical aspects such as component limitations and costs. The design process is comprised of three steps: heat source selection, candidate fluid selection, and thermodynamic cycle optimization. In order to select the best waste heat source, the available energy and other practical considerations of various heat sources have been compared. Among others, the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler is found to be the best heat source, and thus used for the rest of this study. Based on a systematic working fluid analysis, Ethanol, Pentane, and R245fa are selected as three candidate fluids. For the comprehensive ORC optimization, four types of cycle layouts are considered; 1) subcritical cycle without a recuperator, 2) subcritical cycle with a recuperator, 3) supercritical without a recuperator, and 4) supercritical cycle with a recuperator. Four cycle layouts coupled with three candidate fluids give a total of twelve cycle analyses. Results show that the best performance is provided by the regenerative subcritical cycle with Ethanol, while the solution with minimum capital cost is the subcritical cycles with Ethanol but without a recuperator. - Highlights: • Selection of the best waste heat source of a diesel engine for a heat recovery system. • Screening process to identify the most suitable working fluids for the system. • Comprehensive ORC optimization is introduced for four types of cycle layouts. • Pay Back Time investigation to present the economic analysis of the cycles

  6. Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.I.; Som, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Kastengren, A.L.; El-Hannouny, E.M.; Longman, D.E.; Powell, C.F. [Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software

  7. Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A. I.; Som, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Kastengren, A. L.; El-Hannouny, E. M.; Longman, D. E.; Powell, C. F.

    2009-07-01

    A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software.

  8. Regulated and unregulated emissions from highway heavy-duty diesel engines complying with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 emissions standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Bougher, Thomas L; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from four different 2007 model year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-compliant heavy-duty highway diesel engines were measured on an engine dynamometer. The engines were equipped with exhaust high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filters (C-DPFs) that are actively regenerated or cleaned using the engine control module. Regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (PM) were on average 97, 89, and 86% lower than the 2007 EPA standard, respectively, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were on average 9% lower. Unregulated exhaust emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions were on, average 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than the NO, emissions reported in previous work using 1998- and 2004-technology engines, respectively. However, compared with other work performed on 1994- to 2004-technology engines, average emission reductions in the range of 71-99% were observed for a very comprehensive list of unregulated engine exhaust pollutants and air toxic contaminants that included metals and other elements, elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, and gas- and particle-phase volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon (OC) compounds. The low PM mass emitted from the 2007 technology ACES engines was composed mainly of sulfate (53%) and OC (30%), with a small fraction of EC (13%) and metals and other elements (4%). The fraction of EC is expected to remain small, regardless of engine operation, because of the presence of the high-efficiency C-DPF in the exhaust. This is different from typical PM composition of pre-2007 engines with EC in the range of 10-90%, depending on engine operation. Most of the particles emitted from the 2007 engines were mainly volatile nuclei mode in the sub-30-nm size range. An increase in volatile nanoparticles was observed during C-DPF active regeneration, during which the observed particle number was

  9. NOx, NH3, N2O and PN real driving emissions from a Euro VI heavy-duty vehicle. Impact of regulatory on-road test conditions on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Villafuerte, Pablo; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Riccobono, Francesco; Bulgheroni, Claudia; Astorga, Covadonga; Perujo, Adolfo

    2017-12-31

    Euro VI emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) introduced for the first time limits for solid particle number (PN) and NH 3 emissions. EU regulation also includes a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) based test at type approval, followed by in-service conformity (ISC) testing. A comprehensive study on the real-time on-road emissions of NO x , NH 3 , N 2 O and PN from a Euro VI HDV equipped with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particle Filter (DPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and an Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX) is presented. Our analyses revealed that up to 85% of the NO x emissions measured during the tests performed are not taken into consideration if the boundary conditions for data exclusion set in the current legislation are applied. Moreover, it was found that the highest NO x emissions were measured during urban operation. Analyses show that a large fraction urban of operation is not considered when 20% power threshold as boundary condition is applied. They also show that cold start emissions account for a large fraction of the total NO x emitted. Low emissions of PN (2.8×10 10 to 6.5×10 10 #/kWh) and NH 3 (1.0 to 2.2ppm) were obtained during the on-road tests, suggesting effectiveness of the vehicle's after-treatment (DPF and AMOX). Finally, a comparison between speed-based (as currently defined by Euro VI legislation) and land-use-based (using Geographic Information System (GIS)) calculation of shares of operation was performed. Results suggest that using GIS to categorize the shares of operation could result in different interpretations depending on the criteria adopted for their definition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  11. 76 FR 45741 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act AGENCY... the Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act (Act 124 of 2008, or simply Act 124) into... allowable time that heavy-duty, commercial highway diesel vehicles of over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle...

  12. Review of Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert W. Carling; Gurpreet Singh

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine facility is under development. Recent experimental results to be discussed are: the effects of injection timing and diluent addition on late-combustion soot burnout, diesel-spray ignition and premixed-burn behavior, a comparison of the combustion characteristics of M85 (a mixture of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline) and DF2 (No.2 diesel reference fuel), and a description of our HCCI experimental program and modeling work

  13. A Noise-Insensitive Semi-Active Air Suspension for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with an Integrated Fuzzy-Wheelbase Preview Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-active air suspension is increasingly used on heavy-duty vehicles due to its capabilities of consuming less power and low cost and providing better ride quality. In this study, a new low cost but effective approach, fuzzy-wheelbase preview controller with wavelet denoising filter (FPW, is developed for semi-active air suspension system. A semi-active suspension system with a rolling lobe air spring is firstly modeled and a novel front axle vertical acceleration-based road prediction model is constructed. By adopting a sensor on the front axle, the road prediction model can predict more reliable road information for the rear wheel. After filtering useless signal noise, the proposed FPW can generate a noise-insensitive control damping force. Simulation results show that the ride quality, the road holding, the handling capability, the road friendliness, and the comprehensive performance of the semi-active air suspension with FPW outperform those with the traditional active suspension with PID-wheelbase preview controller (APP. It can also be seen that, with the addition of the wavelet filter, the impact of sensor noise on the suspension performance can be minimized.

  14. PILCs for trapping phosphorus in a heavy duty engine exhaust system : An experimental evaluation of the phosphorus sorption capability of different clay materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarned, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements in the EURO VI standard, regulating emissions from heavy duty vehicles, the exhaust aftertreatment system needs to maintain its efficiency for at least seven years or 700 000 km. In diesel applications the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is located closest to the engine and is thus the most vulnerable to poisoning contaminants, such as phosphorus originating from fuel and oil additives, which deactivates the catalyst. An idea to reduce the impact from phosp...

  15. Overview of use of natural gas on heavy duty vehicles in Brazil; Panorama da utilizacao do gas natural veicular em veiculos pesados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos; Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante Cordeiro de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Area de Desempenho de Produtos em Motores; Lastres, Luiz Fernando Martins [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Lubrificantes e Produtos Especiais

    2004-07-01

    The use of vehicular natural gas (VNG) was initiated in Brazil in he 80's seeking the replacement of diesel in heavy vehicles due to the oil crisis. In this season PETROBRAS participated, along with other companies, in the development of conversion technologies for replacement part of the diesel by natural gas through systems known as diesel-gas. Were made works to development bank of tests of engines and field tests on some bus companies, verifying if there are technical and economic viability of such conversion. Due to factors such as small mesh distribution of natural gas in Brazil, lack of infrastructure of technical support suitable for conversions and lack of culture in the use of natural gas, the program not progressed and experience was interrupted. Other experiments were conducted in Brazil with the use of engines dedicated to natural gas (Otto cycle) developed and manufactured in the country for use in urban buses. Currently there is a scenario favorable to the return of use of natural gas in weighed vehicles by the following factors: 1) increase the mesh distribution of VNG due to the high growth of the fleet light vehicles to VNG in the country, solving part of the problems of logistics; 2) pressure from environmental agencies by values of emissions of particles and gases ever less pollutants in urban centers; 3) excess supply of natural gas in the domestic market due to new discoveries in Brazil, contracts for the import of natural gas signed with Bolivia and low demand for current industrial consumption of gas; 4) need to replace the import of diesel, which weighs in trade of the country. This paper will be presented some experiences with the technology of diesel-gas and the engine dedicated the VNG in weighed vehicles in Brazil. Also some recommendations will be made to increase and spread the use of these technologies, aiming to increase the replacement of diesel by vehicular natural gas in weighed vehicles. (author)

  16. 78 FR 31536 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles (as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... immediately attempt to regulate new farm and construction equipment and that under any compliance pathway a... from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used in farm equipment... with section 202(a) if: (1) There is inadequate lead time to permit the development of the necessary...

  17. Integrated powertrain control for optimizing CO2-NOx emission trade-off in heavy duty hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Spronkmans, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Energy management in modern vehicles typically relates to optimizing the powerflow in the (hybrid) powertrain, whereas emission management is associated with the combustion engine and its aftertreatment system. To achieve maximum performance in both fuel economy and hazardous emissions, the concept

  18. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

  19. HEAVY-DUTY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MODEL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance with any new standards. The EPA has created a model called “GHG Emissions Model (GEM)”, which is specifically tailored to predict truck GHG emissions. As the model is designed for the express purpose of vehicle compliance demonstration, it is less configurable than similar commercial products and its only outputs are GHG emissions and fuel consumption. This approach gives a simple and compact tool for vehicle compliance without the overhead and costs of a more sophisticated model. Evaluation of both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from heavy-duty highway vehicles through a whole-vehicle operation simulation model.

  20. Ventajas del uso de la inyección electrónica para vehículos diesel pesados en las condiciones de Cuba. // Advantages of electronic injection for diesel engines in heavy duty equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Reyes González

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en cuenta la importancia que tiene para Cuba el obtener una eficiencia energética elevada en los motores decombustión interna, al igual que el control de las emanaciones de gases tóxicos en los mismos, se realizó este trabajo dondese demuestran las ventajas tanto en el orden económico como ecológico de los motores diesel con mando electrónico paraequipos pesados empleados en la transportación de carga por camiones en la empresa Cubalse.Por medio de métodos experimentales y estadísticos, se obtuvo el consumo de combustible y la humosidad en motores coninyección electrónica (Detroit y en motores que utilizan los métodos tradicionales (Cummins. Los rresultadosdemostraron la superioridad en ambos aspectos de los motores con inyección electrónica.Se realizó una valoración del tiempo de amortización de la inversión inicial necesaria para utilizar en el parque existenteesta novedosa técnica de la inyección electrónica.Palabras claves: Eficiencia energética, inyección electrónica, consumo de combustible, motores de combustióninterna.__________________________________________________________________Abstract.Taking into consideration the importance of achieving a high efficiency in the internal combustion engines and emissioncontrol of the exhaust gases, this paper deals with economical and environmental advantages of the electronic controlleddiesel engines in heavy-duty trucks, which are used by Cubalse in the transportation. The fuel consumption and the sootemission in Detroit motors (with electronic injection system and Cummins (with traditional system, were studied usingstatistic and experimental methods, and the Detroit proved to be superior in both parameters. The pay back time for theinvestment needed to change the systems of all the existent trucks were calculatedKey words: Energetic efficiency, electronic injection, fuel consumption, internal combustion engine.

  1. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  2. Retrofit SCR system for NOx control from heavy-duty mining equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Diesel engines are used extensively in the mining industry and offer many advantages. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions and nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) are among its disadvantages. A significant concern related to PM and NOx in an underground mine involves the use of diesel exhaust after treatment systems such as diesel particulate filters and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This presentation discussed NOx and PM control and provided a description of an SCR system and examples of SCR retrofits. Options for NOx control were discussed and a case study involving the installation of an SCR retrofit system in an underground mine operated by Sifto Salt was also presented. The purpose of the case study was to identify cost effective retrofit solutions to lower nitrogen dioxide emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating in underground mines. The case study illustrated and presented the candidate vehicle, baseline emissions, a BlueMax SCR retrofit solution, and BlueMax installation. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. Application of a Detailed Emission Model for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Simulations Application d'un modèle détaillé d'émissions pour la simulation de gros moteurs diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson I.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed chemical model describing the formation of soot and NO is applied to simulate emission formation in a heavy duty diesel engine. Cylinder flow and spray development is simulated using an engine CFD code - Speedstar. Combustion is described using a simple eddy break-up model. Modeling of the emission-chemistry/turbulent-flow interaction is based on a flamelet approach. Contrary to a typical flamelet concept, transport equations are solved for mass fractions of soot and NO. The reason being that these major emission constituencies are assumed to change slowly in comparison to typical time scales for chemical processes or transport processes important for combustion. Chemical reactions leading to production and destruction of soot and NO are, however, assumed to be fast. Soot and NO source terms are therefore evaluated from a flamelet library using a presumed probability density function and integrating over mixture fraction space. Results from simulations are compared to engine measurements inform of exhaust emission data and cylinder pressure. Un modèle avec chimie détaillée décrivant la formation des suies et du NO est appliqué à la simulation de la formation des polluants dans un gros moteur Diesel. L'écoulement et le spray sont modélisés avec le code de calcul Speedstar. La combustion est représentée par le modèle eddy break-up . La modélisation de l'interaction entre l'écoulement turbulent et la chimie des polluants est basée sur une approche de type flamelet . Cependant, à la différence d'autres travaux, des équations de transport pour les fractions massiques de suies et de NO sont résolues. Cela est justifié par la supposition que les temps caractéristiques de formation de ces composés sont longs comparés à ceux associés aux phénomènes de transport et aux réactions chimiques associées à la combustion. Cependant, les vitesses de réaction se rapportant aux suies et au NO sont supposées rapides. Cela

  4. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  5. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  6. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby individually designated: (1) Motor vehicle diesel fuel, grade 1-D; (2) Motor vehicle diesel...

  7. Multi-Year On-Road Emission Factor Trends of Two Heavy-Duty California Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, M.; Bishop, G.

    2017-12-01

    New heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations have resulted in the development of advanced exhaust after-treatment systems that specifically target particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). This has resulted in significant decreases in the emissions of these species. The University of Denver has collected three data sets of on-road gaseous (CO, HC, NO and NOx) and PM (particle mass, black carbon and particle number) emission measurements from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the spring of 2013, 2015 and 2017 at two different locations in California. One site is located at the Port of Los Angeles, CA (1,150 HDVs measured in 2017) and the other site is located at a weigh station in Northern California near Cottonwood, CA (780 HDVs measured in 2017). The On-Road Heavy-Duty Measurement Setup measures individual HDV's fuel specific emissions (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06172). Vehicles drive under a tent-like structure that encapsulates vehicle exhaust and 15 seconds of data collection is integrated to give fuel specific information. The measurements obtained from these campaigns contain real-world emissions affected by different driving modes, after-treatment systems and location. The Port of Los Angeles contributes a fleet that is fully equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the San Pedro Ports Clean Air Action Plan enforced since 2010 that allows only vehicles model year 2007 or newer on the premises. This fleet, although comprised with relatively new HDVs with lower PM emissions, has increased PM emissions as it has aged. Cottonwood's fleet contains vehicles with and without after-treatment systems, a result of a gradual turnover rate, and fleet PM has decreased at a slower rate than at the Port of Los Angeles. The decrease in PM emissions is a result of more HDVs being newer model years as well as older model years being retrofit with DPFs. The complimentary fleets, studied over multiple years, have given the University of Denver

  8. Diluted Operation of a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine - Aiming at Improved Effciency, Emission and Maximum Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiadi, Mehrzad

    2011-01-01

    Most heavy-duty engines are diesel operated. Severe emission regulations, high fuel prices, high technology costs (e.g. catalysts, fuel injection systems) and unsustainably in supplying fuel are enough reasons to convenience engine developers to explore alternative technologies or fuels. Using natural gas/biogas can be a very good alternative due to the attractive fuel properties regarding emission reduction and engine operation. Heavy-duty diesel engines can be easily converted for natur...

  9. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  10. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbin, Payam; Ning, Zhi; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    A chassis dynamometer study was carried out by the University of Southern California in collaboration with the Air Resources Board (CARB) to investigate the physical, chemical, and toxicological characteristics of diesel emissions of particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles. These heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) were equipped with advanced emission control technologies, designed to meet CARB retrofit regulations. A HDDV without any emission control devices was used as the baseline vehicle. Three advanced emission control technologies; continuously regenerating technology (CRT), zeolite- and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction technologies (Z-SCRT and V-SCRT), were tested under transient (UDDS) (1) and cruise (80 kmph) driving cycles to simulate real-world driving conditions. This paper focuses on the characterization of the particle bound organic species from the vehicle exhaust. Physical and chemical properties of PM emissions have been reported by Biswas et al. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 5622-5634) and Hu et al. (Atmos. Environ. 2008, submitted) Significant reductions in the emission factors (microg/mile) of particle bound organic compounds were observed in HDDV equipped with advanced emission control technologies. V-SCRT and Z-SCRT effectively reduced PAHs, hopanes and steranes, n-alkanes and acids by more than 99%, and often to levels below detection limits for both cruise and UDDS cycles. The CRT technology also showed similar reductions with SCRT for medium and high molecular weight PAHs, acids, but with slightly lower removal efficiencies for other organic compounds. Ratios of particle bound organics-to-OC mass (microg/g) from the baseline exhaust were compared with their respective ratios in diesel fuel and lubricating oil, which revealed that hopanes and steranes originate from lubricating oil, whereas PAHs can either form during the combustion process or originate from diesel fuel itself. With the introduction of emission control

  11. Heavy duty plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, G.C.; Klein, J.F.; Lander, R.D.; Thompson, H.C.; Trapani, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the plasma gas is introduced into the gun arc in a manner only defined by the gas distribution member. The gun has liquid cooling for the nozzle (anode) and the cathode. Double seals are provided between the coolant and the arc region and a vent is provided between the seals which provides an indication when a seal has failed. Some parts of the gun are electrically isolated from others by an intermediate member which is formed as a sandwich of two rigid metal face pieces and an insulator disposed between them. The metal face pieces provide a rigid body to attach the remaining parts in proper alignment therewith

  12. Selection of appropriate working fluids for Rankine cycles used for recovery of heat from exhaust gases of ICE in heavy-duty series hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Daebong; Park, Sungjin; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the waste heat recovery system is studied for application in vehicles to improve fuel economy. Especially, Rankine cycle is representative and attractive technology as waste heat recovery system. In order to maximize efficiency of Rankine cycle in the vehicle application, selection of optimal working fluid is important. Thus, in this study, thermodynamic analysis with consideration of practical operating condition was conducted to find out optimal working fluids. Thermodynamic efficiency, recovery efficiency, and overall cycle efficiency were adopted to estimate Rankine cycle performance. In order to reflect practical operating condition on the analysis, limitations due to working fluid physical properties and components specifications are taken into account. 5 working fluids including dry and wet fluid were used to estimate efficiency. Consequently, R245fa which shows high efficiency and environment-friendly is suggested as optimal working fluid in vehicle application. - Highlights: • 5 different working fluids were analyzed in respect of hybrid electric vehicle waste heat recovery system. • Real world operational conditions and limits are applied. • Optimal heating temperature of each working fluid show different trend. • R245fa is preferable among other fluids due to its high efficiency and impact on environment

  13. A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Lars; Hussain, Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed; Malek, Kourosh; Costanzo, Robert; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumers and organizations worldwide are searching for low-carbon alternatives to conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their impact on the environment. A comprehensive technique used to estimate overall cost and environmental impact of vehicles is known as life cycle assessment (LCA). In this article, a comparative LCA of diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered heavy duty refuse collection vehicles (RCVs) is conducted. The analysis utilizes real-time operational data obtained from the City of Surrey in British Columbia, Canada. The impact of the two alternative vehicles is assessed from various points in their life. No net gain in energy use is found when a diesel powered RCV is replaced by a CNG powered RCV. However, significant reductions (approximately 24% CO 2 -equivalent) in GHG and criteria air contaminant (CAC) emissions are obtained. Moreover, fuel cost estimations based on 2011 price levels and a 5-year lifetime for both RCVs reveal that considerable cost savings may be achieved by switching to CNG vehicles. Thus, CNG RCVs are not only favorable in terms of reduced climate change impact but also cost effective compared to conventional diesel RCVs, and provide a viable and realistic near-term strategy for cities and municipalities to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Life cycle analysis is performed on two alternative refuse collection vehicle technologies. ► Real-time operational data obtained by the City of Surrey in British Columbia are utilized. ► The life cycle energy use is similar for diesel and CNG RCVs. ► A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO 2 -equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel to CNG. ► CNG RCVs are estimated to be cost effective and may lead to reduced fuel costs.

  14. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  15. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

  17. Future methane emissions from the heavy-duty natural gas transportation sector for stasis, high, medium, and low scenarios in 2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; Johnson, Derek R; McKain, David L; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Rudek, Joseph; Mongold, Ronald A; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Hailer, John T

    2017-12-01

    Today's heavy-duty natural gas-fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than 2% of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50%. Although fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas-fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas-fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet-wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions. However, predicted growth could result in a significant quantity of methane emissions. To evaluate this potential and identify effective options for minimizing emissions, future growth scenarios of heavy-duty natural gas-fueled vehicles, and compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas fueling stations that serve them, have been developed for 2035, when the populations could be significant. The scenarios rely on the most recent measurement campaign of the latest manufactured technology, equipment, and vehicles reported in a companion paper as well as projections of technology and practice advances. These "pump-to-wheels"(PTW) projections do not include methane emissions outside of the bounds of the vehicles and fuel stations themselves and should not be confused with a complete wells-to-wheels analysis. Stasis, high, medium, and low scenario PTW emissions projections for 2035 were 1.32%, 0.67%, 0.33%, and 0.15% of the fuel used. The scenarios highlight that a large emissions reductions could be realized with closed crankcase operation, improved best practices, and implementation of vent mitigation technologies. Recognition of the potential pathways for emissions reductions could further enhance the heavy-duty transportation sectors ability to reduce carbon emissions. Newly collected pump-to-wheels methane emissions data for current natural gas technologies

  18. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  19. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  20. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  1. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation

    2017-06-30

    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  2. Gas fuelled heavy-duty trucks for municipal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, A. (City of Helsinki Construction Services (Finland)); Hietanen, L. (Lassila and Tikanoja, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Nylund, N.-O. (TEC TransEnergy Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Helsinki City Public Works Department (HKR) and the environmental management company Lassila and Tikanoja joined forces to demonstrate the suitability of heavy-duty gas fuelled trucks for municipal services. HKR acquired two and Lassila and Tikanoja five Mercedes-Benz Econic trucks. HKR's trucks are equipped with interchangeable platforms, Lassila an Tikanoja's trucks with refuse collection equipment. The trucks are subjected to a two-year follow-up study to establish reliability, operational costs and exhaust emissions. Diesel trucks representing up-to-date technology are used as reference. If the gas fuelled trucks perform well, this can lead to increased numbers of natural gas trucks in municipal services, and in the long run to the introduction of biogas fuelled trucks. (orig.)

  3. Plasma Catalysis for NOx Reduction from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-15

    On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, we are pleased to introduce the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The mission of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable Americans to use less petroleum for their vehicles. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program supports this mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty highway vehicles that meet future Federal and state emissions regulations. The primary objective of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program is to improve the brake thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines from 30 to 45 percent for light-duty applications by 2010; and 40 to 55 percent for heavy-duty applications by 2012; while meeting cost, durability, and emissions constraints. R&D activities include work on combustion technologies that increase efficiency and minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions, as well as aftertreatment technologies that further reduce exhaust emissions. Work is also being conducted on ways to reduce parasitic and heat transfer losses through the development and application of thermoelectrics and turbochargers that include electricity generating capability, and conversion of mechanically driven engine components to be driven via electric motors. This introduction serves to outline the nature, current progress, and future directions of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The research activities of this Sub-Program are planned in conjunction with the FreedomCAR Partnership and the 21st Century Truck Partnership and are carried out in collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities. Because of the importance of clean fuels in achieving low

  4. Model based control for waste heat recovery rankine cycle system in heavy duty trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Grelet, Vincent; Dufour, Pascal; Nadri, Madiha; Lemort, Vincent; Reiche, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Driven by future emissions legislations and increase in fuel prices engine, gas heat recovering has recently attracted a lot of interest. In the past few years, a high number of studies have shown the interest of energy recovery Rankine based systems for heavy duty trucks engine compounding. Recent studies have brought a significant potential for such a system in a Heavy Duty (HD) vehicle, which can lead to a decrease in fuel consumption of about 5% [Wang et al. (2011)] and reduce engine emis...

  5. On-line energy and battery thermal management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Nevels, R.M.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach for energy and thermal management to minimize the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric heavy-duty truck. Conventional Energy Management Systems (EMS) operate separately from the Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs).

  6. Development of Advanced High Strength Cast Alloys for Heavy Duty Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, James [Caterpillar Inc., Mossville, IL (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Gray iron has been the primary alloy for heavy duty diesel engine core castings for decades. During recent decades the limitations of gray iron have been reached in some applications, leading to the use of compacted graphite iron in engine blocks and heads. Caterpillar has had compacted graphite designs in continuous production since the late 1980’s. Due to the drive for higher power density, decreased emissions and increased fuel economy, cylinder pressures and temperatures continue to increase. Currently no viable replacement for today’s compacted graphite irons exist at an acceptable cost level. This project explored methods to develop the next generation of heavy duty diesel engine materials as well as demonstrated some results on new alloy designs although cost targets will likely not be met.

  7. Fuel Economy Improvement of a Heavy-Duty Powertrain by Using Hardware-in-Loop Simulation and Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel economy efficiency is one of the most important parameters for vehicle powertrains, which is of particular interest for heavy-duty powertrain calibration. Conventionally, this work relies heavily on road tests, which cost more and may lead to long duration product development cycles. The paper proposes a novel hardware-in-loop modeling and calibration method to work it out. A dSPACE hardware-based test bench was successfully established and validated, which is valuable for a more efficient and easier shift schedule in calibration. Meanwhile, a real-time dynamic powertrain model, including a diesel engine, torque converter, gear box and driver model was built. Typical driving cycles that both velocity and slope information were constructed for different road conditions. A basic economic shift schedule was initially calculated and then optimal calibrated by the test bench. The results show that there is an optimal relationship between an economic shift schedule and speed regulation. By matching the best economic shift schedule regulation to different road conditions; the fuel economy of vehicles can be improved. In a smooth driving cycle; when the powertrain applies a larger speed regulation such as 12% and the corresponding shift schedule; the fuel consumption is smaller and is reduced by 13%. In a complex driving cycle, when the powertrain applies a smaller speed regulation such as 5% along with the corresponding shift schedule; the fuel consumption is smaller and is reduced by 5%. The method thus can provide guidance for economic calibration experiments of off-road heavy-duty vehicles.

  8. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  9. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...... that have been evaluated during the experiments. Both vehicle types were operated on conventional crude oil based fuels and alternative fuels. The diesel vehicle was operated on conventional diesel fuel from a Danish fuel station, low sulfur diesel from Sweden and biodiesel, which was bought at a fuel...

  10. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  11. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    , NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  12. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkoski, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Kast, J.; Duran, A.

    2016-01-01

    Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representat...

  13. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  14. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? 80.592 Section 80.592... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? (a) Records that must be...

  15. PROBABILISTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A HEAVY DUTY RADIATOR UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBIN ROY P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Engine cooling is vital in keeping the engine at most efficient temperature for the different vehicle speed and operating road conditions. Radiator is one of the key components in the heavy duty engine cooling system. Heavy duty radiator is subjected to various kinds of loading such as pressure, thermal, vibration, internal erosion, external corrosion, creep. Pressure cycle durability is one of the most important characteristic in the design of heavy duty radiator. Current design methodologies involve design of heavy duty radiator using the nominal finite element approach which does not take into account of the variations occurring in the geometry, material and boundary condition, leading to over conservative and uneconomical designs of radiator system. A new approach is presented in the paper to integrate traditional linear finite element method and probabilistic approach to design a heavy duty radiator by including the uncertainty in the computational model. As a first step, nominal run is performed with input design variables and desired responses are extracted. A probabilistic finite elementanalysis is performed to identify the robust designs and validated for reliability. Probabilistic finite element includes the uncertainty of the material thickness, dimensional and geometrical variation. Gaussian distribution is employed to define the random variation and uncertainty. Monte Carlo method is used to generate the random design points.Output response distributions of the random design points are post-processed using different statistical and probability technique to find the robust design. The above approach of systematic virtual modelling and analysis of the data helps to find efficient and reliable robust design.

  16. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  17. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HDEs, within the restrictions described in § 86.098-15 as applicable. If the manufacturer elects to... or all of the particulate ABT programs for HDEs, within the restrictions described in § 86.098-15 as...

  18. Characteristics of On-road Diesel Vehicles: Black Carbon Emissions in Chinese Cities Based on Portable Emissions Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Huan; Song, Shaojie; Li, Zhenhua; Fan, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-17

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) are rarely continuously measured using portable emission measurement systems (PEMSs). In this study, we utilize a PEMS to obtain real-world BC emission profiles for 25 HDDVs in China. The average fuel-based BC emissions of HDDVs certified according to Euro II, III, IV, and V standards are 2224 ± 251, 612 ± 740, 453 ± 584, and 152 ± 3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Notably, HDDVs adopting mechanical pump engines had significantly higher BC emissions than those equipped with electronic injection engines. Applying the useful features of PEMSs, we can relate instantaneous BC emissions to driving conditions using an operating mode binning methodology, and the average emission rates for Euro II to Euro IV diesel trucks can be constructed. From a macroscopic perspective, we observe that average speed is a significant factor affecting BC emissions and is well correlated with distance-based emissions (R(2) = 0.71). Therefore, the average fuel-based and distance-based BC emissions on congested roads are 40 and 125% higher than those on freeways. These results should be taken into consideration in future emission inventory studies.

  19. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor vehicle...

  20. Diesel retrofit assessment for NYS DOT to retrofit its existing engine fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The NYS DEC has required the use of retrofit technologies for various state agency, state public authority, and regional public authority heavy duty vehicles, as well as heavy duty vehicles used on behalf of such agencies and authorities. This report...

  1. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel small...

  2. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9219-4; NHTSA 2010-0079] RIN 2060-AP61; RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on...

  3. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535 [NHTSA 2010-0079; EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles, responding to the...

  4. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K; Shinjo, H; Harada, M; Ohata, K; Sakata, K [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June 1...

  6. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mareev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventional diesel trucks in different transportation scenarios. The average consumption is simulated for different battery electric truck configurations on the main German highways and transportation scenarios incorporating battery charging during driver rest periods. The results show that in average case the required battery would restrict the payload to only 80% of a usual diesel truck payload that might be acceptable considering the statistical payload use. The life cycle costs in the examined scenarios also considering the charging infrastructure show that battery electric trucks can already perform on the same costs level as diesel trucks in certain scenarios.

  7. Analysis of application of alternative drive systems for international heavy-duty transport on Wroclaw-Dresden-Prague routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The depletion of the fossil fuels resources, significant increase of the air pollution caused by the use of internal combustion engines, and emission of carbon dioxide which is responsible for the greenhouse effect escalates the development of vehicle's alternative drive systems. Generally, the emphasis is given to the alternative fuels (natural gas CNG, mixture of propane-butane gases LPG, hydrogen, alcohol fuels, biofuels) and hybrid or electric vehicles. Roads between large industrial and commercial centres, i.e. Wroclaw - Dresden - Prague, are used mainly by heavy-duty vehicles. Consequently, the contribution of the road transport to the ecological threat in this realm is significant. The objectives of this research were the assessment of the traffic volume and emission rate of exhaust gases caused by heavy-duty vehicles on the analysed roads and evaluation of the possibility of using existing and alternative drive systems in vehicles driving on the roads in the analysed region.

  8. Low Temperature Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleskog, Malin

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, there have been major efforts to reduce engine emissions and fuel consumption. The studies described in this thesis were conducted with the aim of identifying methods for reducing harmful engine-out emissions of soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) under high load without increasing fuel consumption. The first part of the project focused on low temperature combustion using very high levels of EGR. It was found that very low soot and NOx emissions could be achieved at low loads. Unfortunately, these conditions resulted in high fuel consumption as well as high emissions of HC and CO. The increased emissions could be mitigated by optimising the timing of the SOI and increasing the injection pressure, but the high fuel consumption remained problematic. Intermediate levels of EGR can be used to increase the ignition delay and thereby achieve partially premixed combustion. When soot and NOx emissions are plotted against the amount of EGR, there is an intersection point at which the soot emissions are just beginning to increase but the recirculated exhaust gas has greatly reduced the NOx emissions. At this point, the HC and CO emissions and the fuel consumption remain acceptably low. If the onset of the increased soot emissions could be shifted to a higher EGR level or if the peak soot emissions could be reduced in magnitude, the tradeoff between soot and NOx emissions at intermediate EGR levels could be improved. By increasing the charge air pressure, the size of the soot bump is reduced and the point of intersection between the soot and NOx curves is shifted to a higher EGR percentage. The soot-NOx tradeoff can also be improved by increasing the injection pressure to reduce the soot peak while using EGR levels that are high enough to suppress NOx formation. To further investigate the potential of partially premixed combustion, the effects of varying the timing of late inlet valve closure were investigated. The results show that reducing the effective compression ratio increased the ignition delay and thus increased premixing for both late and early intake valve closing (IVC). In the absence of EGR, this reduced NOx emissions without increasing soot emissions as long as the combustion phasing and equivalence ratio remained unchanged. When EGR was used, this approach reduced soot emissions while maintaining low NOx emissions. These emissions reductions were achieved without associated increases in unburned hydrocarbon emissions or fuel consumption.

  9. Quasi-Dimensional Modelling and Parametric Studies of a Heavy-Duty HCCI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-dimensional modelling study is conducted for the first time for a heavy duty, diesel-fuelled, multicylinder engine operating in HCCI mode. This quasidimensional approach involves a zero-dimensional single-zone homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion model along with a one-dimensional treatment of the intake and exhaust systems. A skeletal chemical kinetic scheme for n-heptane was used in the simulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio (CR were the two parameters that were altered in order to deal with the challenges of combustion phasing control and operating load range extension. Results from the HCCI mode simulations show good potential when compared to conventional diesel performance with respect to important performance parameters such as peak firing pressure, specific fuel consumption, peak pressure rise, and combustion noise. This study shows that HCCI combustion mode can be employed at part load of 25% varying the EGR rates between 0 and 60%.

  10. Conversion of Diesel Vehicles to Electric Vehicles and Controlled by PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Mengi, Onur Özdal

    2017-01-01

    Internal combustion engine vehicles are the most producedand sold vehicles on the market. In recent years, interest in electric vehicleshas begun to increase, especially due to the environmental problems. In thenear future, it is estimated that gasoline and diesel vehicles will becompletely electric vehicles. For this reason, many studies have been conductedon electric vehicles. Particularly the change of the engine parts, the turningof the internal combustion part to the electric motor, and ...

  11. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006 through...

  12. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations. Motor...

  13. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using the...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do

  15. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel...

  16. Life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Brandoni, C.; Evangelista, D.; Polonara, F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the life cycle, in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of diesel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as fuels for heavy-duty vehicles in the European market (EU-15). A literature review revealed that the numerous studies conducted have reported different results when the authors departed from different baseline assumptions and reference scenarios. For our study, we concentrated on the European scenario and on heavy-duty road transport vehicles, given their important incidence on the global emissions of GHG. Two possible LNG procurement strategies were considered i.e. purchasing it directly from the regasification terminal (LNG-TER) or producing LNG locally (at the service station) with small-scale plants (LNG-SSL). We ascertained that the use of LNG-TER enables a 10% reduction in GHG emissions by comparison with diesel, while the emissions resulting from the LNG-SSL solution are comparable with those of diesel.

  17. Simulations of Multi Combustion Modes Hydrogen Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical study of a diesel direct injection heavy duty truck engine converted to hydrogen. The engine has a power turbine connected through a clutch and a continuously variable transmission to the crankshaft. The power turbine may be disconnected and by-passed when it is inefficient or inconvenient to use. The conversion is obtained by replacing the Diesel injector with a hydrogen injector and the glow plug with a jet ignition device. The hydrogen engine operates different modes of combustion depending on the relative phasing of the main injection and the jet ignition. The engine generally operates mostly in Diesel-like mode, with the most part of the main injection following the suitable creation in cylinder conditions by jet ignition. For medium-low loads, better efficienciy is obtained with the gasoline-like mode jet igniting the premixed homogeneous mixture at top dead centre. It’s permitted at higher loads or at very low loads for the excessive peak pressure or the mixture too lean to burn rapidly. The hydrogen engine has better efficiency than Diesel outputs and fuel conversion. Thanks to the larger rate of heat release, it has the opportunity to run closer to stoichiometry and the multi mode capabilities. The critical area for this engine development is found in the design of a hydrogen injector delivering the amount of fuel needed to the large volume cylinder within a Diesel-like injection time.

  18. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  19. Model development for air conditioning system in heavy duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Zhang, Quansheng; Li, Shengbo Eben; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a modelling approach for the air conditioning (AC) system in heavy duty trucks. The presented model entails two major elements: a mechanical compressor model and a thermal AC model. The compressor model describes the massflow of the refrigerant as well as the mechanical power

  20. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel fuel... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.527 Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15...

  1. Carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions from CNG heavy-duty engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, M.; Cericola, R.; Corbo, P.; Iannaccone, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous works carried out in Istituto Motori laboratories have shown that natural gas is a suitable fuel for general means of transportation. This is because of its favorable effects on engine performance and pollutant emissions. The natural gas fueled engine provided the same performance as the diesel engine, met R49 emission standards, and showed very low smoke levels. On the other hand, it is well known that internal combustion engines emit some components that are harmful for human health, such as carbonyl compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This paper shows the results of carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions analysis for a heavy-duty Otto cycle engine fueled with natural gas. The engine was tested using the R49 cycle that is used to measure the regulated emissions. The test analysis has been compared with an analysis of a diesel engine, tested under the same conditions. Total PAH emissions from the CNG engine were about three orders of magnitude lower than from the diesel engine. Formaldehyde emission from the CNG engine was about ten times as much as from the diesel engine, while emissions of other carbonyl compounds were comparable

  2. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  3. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content standard...

  4. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  5. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles underestimated? Insights from near and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, John; Gordon, Mark; Smallwood, Gregory; Li, Shao-Meng; Stroud, Craig; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Lee, Patrick; Taylor, Brett; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) with a high-sensitivity laser-induced incandescence (HS-LII) instrument and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) were conducted upwind, downwind, and while driving on a highway dominated by gasoline vehicles. The results are used with concurrent CO(2) measurements to derive fuel-based BC emission factors for real-world average fleet and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. The derived emission factors from both instruments are compared, and a low SP2 bias (relative to the HS-LII) is found to be caused by a BC mass mode diameter less than 75 nm, that is most prominent with the gasoline fleet but is not present in the heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust on the highway. Results from both the LII and the SP2 demonstrate that the BC emission factors from gasoline vehicles are at least a factor of 2 higher than previous North American measurements, and a factor of 9 higher than currently used emission inventories in Canada, derived with the MOBILE 6.2C model. Conversely, the measured BC emission factor for heavy-duty diesel vehicles is in reasonable agreement with previous measurements. The results suggest that greater attention must be paid to black carbon from gasoline engines to obtain a full understanding of the impact of black carbon on air quality and climate and to devise appropriate mitigation strategies. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  7. Experimental study on transportation safety of package in side collision of heavy duty truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, M.; Sasaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    The accidents in road transportation of package may be collision, fall and fire. It is necessary to examine all cases very carefully because collision might be caused by other vehicle. Collisions are classified into head-on collision, rear-end collision, side collision. A lot of experiments and analyses are reported on head-on collision, so the behavior of vehicle and package may be predicted without difficulty. Rear-end collisions bring about less impact and may be applied corresponding to the head-on collisions. About side collisions, few experiments or analyses are reported, and most of them are about passenger cars not about trucks. So it becomes important to study the transportation safety of package carried on a heavy duty truck when hit on the side by another truck similar in size

  8. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kholod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder. Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  9. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  10. Heavy-duty explosively operated pulsed opening and closing switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Price, J.H.; Upshaw, J.L.; Weldon, W.F.; Zowarka, R.C.; Gully, J.H.; Spann, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses improvements to heavy duty, explosively operated, opening and closing switches to reduce component cost, installation cost, and turnaround time without sacrificing reliability. Heavy duty opening and closing switches operated by small explosive charges (50 g or less) are essential to operation of the 60 MJ Balcones power supply. The six independent modules - a 10 MJ homopolar generator (HPG) and a 6 μH storage inductor - can be discharged sequentially, a valuable feature for shaping the current pulse delivered to loads such as high-energy railguns. Each delayed inductor must be isolated from the railgun circuit with a heavy duty closing switch capable of carrying megampere currents to millisecond duration. Similar closing switches are used to crowbar the railgun as the projectile approaches the muzzle: noise reduction, reduction of muzzle arc damage, and reduction of post-launch perturbation of projectile flight. The switches - both opening and closing - are characterized by microhm resistance in the closed state. Current is carried in metallic conductors. Metal-to-metal seams which carry current are maintained in uniform high pressure contact. Efficient switching is crucial to efficient conversion: rotor kinetic energy to stored inductive energy with ∼50% efficiency, stored inductive energy to projectile kinetic energy with ∼30% efficiency. The switches must operate with a precision and repeatability of 10 -5 s, readily achievable with explosives. The opening switches must be structurally and thermally capable of carrying megampere currents for more than 100 ms (∼10 5 C) and develop 10 kV upon opening, stay open for 10 - 2 s, and safely and reliably dissipate megajoules of inductive energy in the event of a fault, a failure of the switch to operate or an attempt to commutate into an open circuit

  11. The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Seinfeld, John H.; Carmichael, Greg R.; Streets, David G.

    2004-01-01

    With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NO_x) control devices to reduce air pollution, “modern” diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO_2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NO_x below gasoline NO_x without increasing particle emissions. Here, it is calculated that, unless the diesel NO_2:NO ratio a...

  12. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: Evaporative and Refueling Emission Regulations for Gasolineand Methanol-Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Technical Amen

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 24, 1993 EPA finalized a new test procedure to measure evaporative emissions from motor vehicles. The amendments modify several of the test procedure’s tolerances, equipment specifications, and procedural steps.

  13. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  14. Empirical membrane lifetime model for heavy duty fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Natalia; Watson, Mark; Lauritzen, Michael; Knights, Shanna; Wang, G. Gary; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Heavy duty fuel cells used in transportation system applications such as transit buses expose the fuel cell membranes to conditions that can lead to lifetime-limiting membrane failure via combined chemical and mechanical degradation. Highly durable membranes and reliable predictive models are therefore needed in order to achieve the ultimate heavy duty fuel cell lifetime target of 25,000 h. In the present work, an empirical membrane lifetime model was developed based on laboratory data from a suite of accelerated membrane durability tests. The model considers the effects of cell voltage, temperature, oxygen concentration, humidity cycling, humidity level, and platinum in the membrane using inverse power law and exponential relationships within the framework of a general log-linear Weibull life-stress statistical distribution. The obtained model is capable of extrapolating the membrane lifetime from accelerated test conditions to use level conditions during field operation. Based on typical conditions for the Whistler, British Columbia fuel cell transit bus fleet, the model predicts a stack lifetime of 17,500 h and a membrane leak initiation time of 9200 h. Validation performed with the aid of a field operated stack confirmed the initial goal of the model to predict membrane lifetime within 20% of the actual operating time.

  15. 40 CFR 80.593 - What are the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to temporary refiner relief standards... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 80.594 - What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.594 Section 80.594 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements § 80.594 What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? (a... June 1, 2005, all refiners and importers planning to produce or import motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  17. Volatile organic compounds emissions from gasoline and diesel powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vega, E; Sanchez, G; Reyes, E; Arriaga, J. L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Chow, J; Watson, J; Egami, R [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this research, volatile organic compound emissions were characterized from gasoline and diesel vehicles. Sampling campaigns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were designed and carried out in tunnels, crossroads, and truck and bus terminals. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography getting more than 250 different compounds, being more or less 60 of them the 80% of all the emissions. The most abundant are the two carbon compounds, as a result of the combustion, and compounds related to fuels compositions, like isopentane, xylenes, toluene among others. The profiles obtained in tunnels and crossroads were very similar with the exception of the 3 and 4 carbon compounds, which were found in bigger proportion in the profiles at crossroads. This may probably be due to the blend with the ambient air. The profiles corresponding to trucks and buses have a smaller content of two carbon compounds and a bigger content of xylenes, toluene and ethylbenzene. The variations in the proportions of the compounds allow differentiating the profiles of vehicles using gasoline and diesel. [Spanish] En este trabajo se caracterizaron las emisiones de compuestos organicos volatiles provenientes de vehiculos a gasolina y a diesel. Para ello, se disenaron diversas campanas de muestreo en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico, en tuneles, cruceros y estaciones de camiones de carga y autobuses. Las muestras se analizaron con cromatografia, de gases obteniendose mas de 250 compuestos distintos, de los cuales aproximadamente 60 corresponden a mas del 80% de las emisiones. Los compuestos mas abundantes son los de dos carbonos, resultado de la combustion, y 4 carbonos que se encontraron en mayor proporcion en los perfiles de cruceros, lo cual se debe probablemente a la mezcla con el aire ambiente. Los perfiles correspondientes a camiones de carga y autobuses tienen un menor contenido de compuestos de dos carbonos y un mayor contenido de xilenos, tolueno y etilbenceno. Estas

  18. Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

  19. CNG/diesel buses for Texas school districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    At the present time, the preponderance of trucks, buses and other heavy duty vehicles are powered by diesel engines. The reasons for the change from gasoline to diesel engines are all basically economic, due to the longer life and lower operating costs of diesel engines, as compared to gasoline engines. This provides a compelling reason to continue to use these engines, even if powered by fuel other than diesel. A major strategy within the industry has been the various attempts to adapt diesel engines to alternative fuels. These conversions have been largely to either methanol or natural gas, with propane joining the race just recently. This strategy takes advantage of the remaining life of existing vehicles by converting engines rather than purchasing a new engine (and/or vehicle) designed for and dedicated to an alternate fuel. Although diesel engines have been converted to run on natural gas, there are substantial challenges that must be met. The following describes some of the technical approaches being used for diesel engine conversions

  20. Effects of vehicle type and fuel quality on real world toxic emissions from diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Tibbett, Anne R.; Day, Stuart J.

    Diesel vehicles are an important source of emissions of air pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and toxic compounds with potential health impacts including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene and aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current developments in engine design and fuel quality are expected to reduce these emissions in the future, but many vehicles exceed 10 years of age and may make a major contribution to urban pollutant concentrations and related health impacts for many years. In this study, emissions of a range of toxic compounds are reported using in-service vehicles which were tested using urban driving cycles developed for Australian conditions. Twelve vehicles were chosen from six vehicle weight classes and, in addition, two of these vehicles were driven through the urban drive cycle using a range of diesel fuel formulations. The fuels ranged in sulphur content from 24 to 1700 ppm, and in total aromatics from 7.7 to 33 mass%. Effects of vehicle type and fuel composition on emissions are reported. The results show that emissions of these toxic species were broadly comparable to those observed in previous dynamometer and tunnel studies. Emissions of VOCs and smaller PAHs such as naphthalene, which are derived largely from the combustion process, appear to be related, and show relatively little variability when compared with the variability in emissions of aldehydes and larger PAHs. In particular, aldehyde emissions are highly variable and may be related to engine operating conditions. Fuels of lower sulphur and aromatic content did not have a significant influence on emissions of VOCs and aldehydes, but tended to result in lower emissions of PAHs. The toxicity of vehicle exhaust, as determined by inhalation risk and toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-weighted PAH emissions, was reduced with fuels of lower aromatic content.

  1. Experimental study on the heavy-duty gas turbine combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovsky, V.; Ahn, Kook Young

    2000-01-01

    The results of stand and field testing of a combustion chamber for a heavy-duty 150 MW gas turbine are discussed. The model represented one of 14 identical segments of a tubular multican combustor constructed in the scale 1:1. The model experiments were executed at a pressure smaller than in the real gas turbine. The combustion efficiency, pressure loss factor, pattern factor, liner wall temperature, flame radiation, fluctuating pressure, and NOx emission were measured at partial and full load for both model and on-site testing. The comparison of these items of information, received on similar modes in the stand and field tests, has allowed the development of a method of calculation and the improvement of gas turbine combustors

  2. Separately removable tubes in heavy duty heat exchanger assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neudeck, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    The invention is directed to removable heat exchanger tube assemblies in heavy duty equipment radiators in which the tubes are each separately removable if they become defective in service. An inwardly facing annular ledge or abutment is molded into the inside diameter of each upper and lower sealing member to receive the respective ends of the tubes and prevent vertical movement of the tubes in service. A flange or shoulder is also provided on the lower portions of each tube and engages the inside of the lower sealing member to further restrain downward movement of the tubes in service. Each tube may be removed by pushing the tube upwardly to overcome the upper ledge abutment and thereby lift the tube free of the lower seal. Each tube may then be removed sidewise from the radiator. Variations of the removable sealing arrangement can be made and are described herein

  3. Parametric study of a thermoelectric generator system for exhaust gas energy recovery in diesel road freight transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, S.; Heber, L.; Coelho, P.J.; Silva, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 1-D numerical TEG model in diesel freight vehicles exhaust pipe. • Over 800 W of electrical power for the heavy-duty vehicle. • Plain fins provide better performance than offset strip fins. • The height of the thermocouple legs plays a significant role. • 2% maximum efficiency needs further improvements. - Abstract: A parametric study and optimization approaches of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) for the recovery of energy from the exhaust gas in Diesel vehicles used in freight transport is reported. The TEG is installed in the tailpipe of a commercial vehicle (3.5 tonnes) and a heavy-duty vehicle (40 tonnes). The exhaust gas is used as the heat source and the cooling water as the heat sink. Two different heat exchanger configurations are considered: plain fins and offset strip fins. The influence of the height, length and spacing of the fins on the electrical and net power is analysed for the fixed width and length of the TEG. The influence of the length and width of the TEG and of the height of the thermocouple legs is also investigated. According to the criteria used in this study, plain fins are the best choice, yielding a maximum electrical power of 188 W for the commercial vehicle and 886 W for the heavy-duty vehicle. The best recovery efficiency is about 2%, with an average thermoelectric material efficiency of approximately 4.4%, for the light-duty vehicle. Accordingly, there is significant room for further improvement and optimisation based on the thermoelectric modules and the system design.

  4. Impact of reformulated fuels on motor vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas

    Motor vehicles continue to be an important source of air pollution. Increased vehicle travel and degradation of emission control systems have offset some of the effects of increasingly stringent emission standards and use of control technologies. A relatively new air pollution control strategy is the reformulation of motor vehicle fuels, both gasoline and diesel, to make them cleaner- burning. Field experiments in a heavily traveled northern California roadway tunnel revealed that use of oxygenated gasoline reduced on-road emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 23 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 8%, respectively, while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were not significantly affected. The introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG) in California led to large changes in gasoline composition including decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents, and an increase in oxygen content. The combined effects of RFG and fleet turnover between summers 1994 and 1997 were decreases in on-road vehicle exhaust emissions of CO, non-methane VOC, and NOx by 31 +/- 5, 43 +/- 8, and 18 +/- 4%, respectively. Although it was difficult to separate the fleet turnover and RFG contributions to these changes, it was clear that the effect of RFG was greater for VOC than for NOx. The RFG effect on exhaust emissions of benzene was a 30-40% reduction. Use of RFG reduced the reactivity of liquid gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors by 23 and 19%, respectively. Increased use of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline led to increased concentrations of highly reactive formaldehyde and isobutene in vehicle exhaust. As a result, RFG reduced the reactivity of exhaust emissions by only about 5%. Per unit mass of fuel burned, heavy-duty diesel trucks emit about 25 times more fine particle mass and 15-20 times the number of fine particles compared to light-duty vehicles. Exhaust fine particle emissions from heavy-duty diesels contain more black carbon than particulate

  5. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  6. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mareev, Ivan; Becker, Jan Nicolas; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2018-01-01

    The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventio...

  7. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...

  8. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  9. 40 CFR 80.530 - Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31, 2006? 80.530 Section 80.530 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.530 Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel...

  10. Development of a heavy duty portable variable power supply (HPVPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad Zulfadli Bin; Lung, Chong Man; Abidin, Wan'Amirah Basyarah Binti Zainol

    2017-08-01

    This paper covers the innovation of a Heavy Duty Portable Variable Power Supply (HPVPS) in Jabatan Kejuruteraan Elektrik (JKE), Politeknik Mukah, Sarawak (PMU). This project consists of variable power supply which can vary the output from 1.2 V to 11.6V, AC pure wave inverter to convert DC to AC for the operation of low power home appliances and also used Li-on rechargeable batteries to store the electrical energy and additional feature that can be used to jump-start the batteries of the car. The main objective of this project is to make the user can operate the electronic devices anywhere whenever if no electricity while doing their lab activities. Most of the regulated power supply in JKE lab aged 9-10 years old and need periodical maintenance and need cost and also the unit can be used is not enough to support the whole class during lab activities. As a result, the P&P process will be facing the major problem in order to make the lab activities running smoothly. By development of the portable variable power supply, the P&P process is more efficient and very helpful.

  11. Deterioration Models for Cement Bound Materials in Structural Design and Evaluation of Heavy Duty Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Holst, Mogens Løvendorf

    Ports and industries require special types of pavements to resist the heavy static load from containers and continuous loads from operation vehicles. To reduce the risk of rutting and settlements over time concrete or compositepavement systems are typically applied. The structural design of such ......Ports and industries require special types of pavements to resist the heavy static load from containers and continuous loads from operation vehicles. To reduce the risk of rutting and settlements over time concrete or compositepavement systems are typically applied. The structural design...... of such pavements are today based on Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) methods. The M-E method is appropriate for many situations, in other situations it may lead to overdesign, or maybe worse, underdesign. The method has limited capabilities and cannot account for signicant factors affecting the pavement response...... number of model parameters. In order to move a step towards more generalised structural design methods for analysis of heavy duty pavements, this study aims at developing a mechanistic approach based on constitutive models. A simple framework for engineering application is sought; creating a rational...

  12. Pump-to-Wheels Methane Emissions from the Heavy-Duty Transportation Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L; Johnson, Derek R; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Mongold, Ronald A; Hailer, John T; Ugarte, Orlando J

    2017-01-17

    Pump-to-wheels (PTW) methane emissions from the heavy-duty (HD) transportation sector, which have climate change implications, are poorly documented. In this study, methane emissions from HD natural gas fueled vehicles and the compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations that serve them were characterized. A novel measurement system was developed to quantify methane leaks and losses. Engine related emissions were characterized from twenty-two natural gas fueled transit buses, refuse trucks, and over-the-road (OTR) tractors. Losses from six LNG and eight CNG stations were characterized during compression, fuel delivery, storage, and from leaks. Cryogenic boil-off pressure rise and pressure control venting from LNG storage tanks were characterized using theoretical and empirical modeling. Field and laboratory observations of LNG storage tanks were used for model development and evaluation. PTW emissions were combined with a specific scenario to view emissions as a percent of throughput. Vehicle tailpipe and crankcase emissions were the highest sources of methane. Data from this research are being applied by the authors to develop models to forecast methane emissions from the future HD transportation sector.

  13. Alignment of policies to maximize the climate benefits of diesel vehicles through control of particulate matter and black carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjares, Ray; Blumberg, Kate; Posada Sanchez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Diesel vehicles offer greater fuel-efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions at a time when national governments seek to reduce the energy and climate impacts of the vehicle fleet. Policies that promote diesels like preferential fuel taxes, fuel economy standards and greenhouse gas emission standards can produce higher emissions of diesel particulate matter if diesel particulate filters or equivalent emission control technology is not in place. This can undermine the expected climate benefits of dieselization and increase impacts on public health. This paper takes a historical look at Europe to illustrate the degree to which dieselization and lax controls on particulate matter can undermine the potential benefits sought from diesel vehicles. We show that countries on the dieselization pathway can fully capture the value of diesels with the adoption of tailpipe emission standards equivalent to Euro 6 or Tier 2 for passenger cars, and fuel quality standards that limit the sulfur content of diesel fuel to no greater than 15 ppm. Adoption of these policies before or in parallel with adoption of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas standards can avert the negative impacts of dieselization. - Highlights: ► Preferential tax policies have increased the dieselization of some light-duty vehicle fleets. ► Dieselization paired with lax emission standards produces large black carbon emissions. ► Diesel black carbon undermines the perceived climate benefits of diesel vehicles. ► Stringent controls on diesel particulate emissions will also reduce black carbon. ► Euro 6/VI equivalent emission standards can preserve the climate benefits of diesel vehicles

  14. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF ALTERNATIVES OR REFORMULATED LIQUID FUELS, FUEL ADDITIVES, FUEL EMULSONS, AND LUBRICANTS FOR HIGHWAY AND NONROAD USE HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINES AND LIGHT DUTY GASOLINE ENGINES AND VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  16. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...... performance tests on a 10 ton vehicle....

  17. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  18. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines, the...

  19. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.F.; Kodjak, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  20. Black carbon concentrations in California vehicles and estimation of in-vehicle diesel exhaust particulate matter exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.; Rodes, Charles E.

    This research assessed in-vehicle exposures to black carbon (BC) as an indicator of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures. Approximately 50 h of real-time Aethalometer BC measurements were made inside vehicles driven on freeway and arterial loops in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Video tapes of the driver's view were transcribed to record the traffic conditions, vehicles followed, and vehicle occupant observations, and these results were tested for their associations with BC concentration. In-vehicle BC concentrations were highest when directly following diesel-powered vehicles, particularly those with low exhaust pipe locations. The lowest BC concentrations were observed while following gasoline-powered passenger cars, on average no different than not following any vehicle. Because diesel vehicles were over-sampled in the field study, results were not representative of real-world driving. To calculate representative exposures, in-vehicle BC concentrations were grouped by the type of vehicle followed, for each road type and congestion level. These groupings were then re-sampled stochastically, in proportion to the fraction of statewide vehicle miles traveled (VMT) under each of those conditions. The approximately 6% of time spent following diesel vehicles led to 23% of the in-vehicle BC exposure, while the remaining exposure was due to elevated roadway BC concentrations. In-vehicle BC exposures averaged 6 μg m -3 in Los Angeles and the Bay Area, the regions with the highest congestion and the majority of the state's VMT. The statewide average in-vehicle BC exposure was 4 μg m -3, corresponding to DPM concentrations of 7-23 μg m -3, depending on the Aethalometer response to elemental carbon (EC) and the EC fraction of the DPM. In-vehicle contributions to overall DPM exposures ranged from approximately 30% to 55% of total DPM exposure on a statewide population basis. Thus, although time spent in vehicles was only 1.5 h day -1 on average, vehicles may be the most

  1. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  2. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  3. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.

    1998-01-01

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants

  4. Bio Diesel An Alternative Vehicles Fuel; Analytical View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853, by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many years before the first diesel engine became functional(1). Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany on August 10, 1893(2). Diesel later demonstrated his engine at the World Fair in Paris, France in 1898. This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it was powered by peanut oil-a bio fuel. He believed that the utilization of a biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. In a 1912 speech, Rudolf Diesel said, (I) t he use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today, but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time. Rudolf Diesel was not the only inventor to believe that biomass fuels would be the mainstay of the transportation industry. Henry Ford designed his automobiles, beginning with the 1908 Model T(1), to use ethanol. Ford was so convinced that renewable resources were the key to the success of his automobiles that he built a plant to make ethanol in the Midwest and formed a partnership with Standard Oil to sell it in their distributing stations

  5. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment...

  6. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of...

  7. Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst (ETV Mobile Source Emissions Control Devices) Verification Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst is a diesel engine retrofit device for light, medium, and heavy heavy-duty diesel on-highway engines for use with commercial ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The BA-B particulate filter is composed of a pre-catalyst ...

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Duty Machine Tools Remanufacturing Based on Modified Catastrophe Progression Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    shunhe, Li; jianhua, Rao; lin, Gui; weimin, Zhang; degang, Liu

    2017-11-01

    The result of remanufacturing evaluation is the basis for judging whether the heavy duty machine tool can remanufacture in the EOL stage of the machine tool lifecycle management.The objectivity and accuracy of evaluation is the key to the evaluation method.In this paper, the catastrophe progression method is introduced into the quantitative evaluation of heavy duty machine tools’ remanufacturing,and the results are modified by the comprehensive adjustment method,which makes the evaluation results accord with the standard of human conventional thinking.Using the catastrophe progression method to establish the heavy duty machine tools’ quantitative evaluation model,to evaluate the retired TK6916 type CNC floor milling-boring machine’s remanufacturing.The evaluation process is simple,high quantification,the result is objective.

  9. Vale nails down reduction of diesel particulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2010-09-01

    This article discussed innovations for reducing emissions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from light-duty underground vehicles. DPM is a byproduct of diesel-powered equipment. Controlling these emissions at the source of generation is necessary for a healthy work environment and more cost effective than fresh air ventilation to reduce contaminant concentrations. Previous diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems required extensive human intervention, but this was deemed too inefficient. A DPF system that does not require human intervention was developed and proved successful in filter regeneration, longevity, and reliability. This DPF system uses a sintered metal filter element, a base metal, fuel-borne catalyst with an on-board dosing system, an electric heater that uses on-board power, and a sensor-based control unit. Software in the control unit adjusts fuel dosing rates and heater timing to ensure filter regeneration for different engines and operating scenarios. The new filter system is robust, and it has a compact design and long service-intervals. The product is still being tested to determine the costs and service life of the filter. More testing on fuel additives was deemed to be warranted, as was designing filter elements for larger engines used in heavy-duty vehicles.

  10. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT...

  11. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Cycling and Usage Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Truck Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Svens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field test performed on commercial power-optimized lithium-ion battery cells cycled on three heavy-duty trucks. The goal with this study was to age battery cells in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV environment and find suitable methods for identifying cell ageing. The battery cells were cycled on in-house developed equipment intended for testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. A hybrid strategy that allows battery usage to vary within certain limits depending on driving patterns was used. This concept allows unobtrusive and low-cost testing of battery cells under realistic conditions. Each truck was equipped with one cell cycling equipment and two battery cells. One cell per vehicle was cycled during the test period while a reference cell on each vehicle experienced the same environmental conditions without being cycled. Differential voltage analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to identify ageing of the tested battery cells. Analysis of driving patterns and battery usage was performed from collected vehicle data and battery cell data.

  12. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  13. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  14. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U; Lundorf, P; Ivarsson, A; Schramm, J [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  15. Emission characteristics of petrol and diesel driven vehicles in Rewa town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.M.; Gupta, A.K.; Parihar, Sarita

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution by road traffic is likely to be severe in most of the major cities of India, in near future. An emission survey was conducted in Rewa town to obtain the basic data on emission characteristics of inservice vehicles. About 250 two wheelers, 110 cars and 350 diesel vehicles were tested for the emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Present paper summarizes the data of vehicular emissions observed in this survey and discusses the emission level of different categories of vehicles, in the light of the proposed national standards and the emission standards enforced in developed countries. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Stoichiometric and lean burn heavy-duty gas engines: a dilemma between emissions and fuel consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M. van der; Rijke, J. de; Seppen, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares stoichiometric with lean burn technology for heavy-duty gas engines (natural gas and LPG) and demonstrates that there is a future for both engine concepts on the multilateral global market. Emission limits in Europe as expected in the near future will facilitate both engine

  17. Parameter estimation and analysis of an automotive heavy-duty SCR catalyst model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Widd, Anders; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    A single channel model for a heavy-duty SCR catalyst was derived based on first principles. The model considered heat and mass transfer between the channel gas phase and the wash coat phase. The parameters of the kinetic model were estimated using bench-scale monolith isothermal data. Validation ...

  18. Cost-effective energy management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck including battery aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Huisman, R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Battery temperature has large impact on battery power capability and battery life time. In Hybrid Electric Heavy-duty trucks (HEVs), the high-voltage battery is normally equipped with an active Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) guaranteeing a desired battery life time. Since the BTMS can

  19. Electric refuse collection vehicle with a range extender; Elektrisches Abfallsammelfahrzeug mit Range Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    At the Frankfurt Motor Show IAA 2012, MAN will be presenting the Metropolis, a heavy-duty truck for use in urban areas that produces no emissions and is ultra-quiet. Using mains electricity generated from renewable sources, it can operate without producing any CO{sub 2}. The truck's modular lithium-ion battery is located under the ab. A quiet and efficient diesel engine from the Volkswagen Group generates power as needed and functions as a range extender for the truck. At the end of 2012, the MAN Metropolis will start a two-year field test as a refuse collection vehicle. (orig.)

  20. Emissions of hydrogen cyanide from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Samar G.; Leithead, Amy; Li, Shao-Meng; Chan, Tak W.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Stroud, Craig; Zhang, Junhua; Lee, Patrick; Lu, Gang; Brook, Jeffery R.; Hayden, Katherine; Narayan, Julie; Liggio, John

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is considered a marker for biomass burning emissions and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Despite its potential health impacts, vehicular HCN emissions estimates and their contribution to regional budgets are highly uncertain. In the current study, Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure HCN emission factors from the exhaust of individual diesel, biodiesel and gasoline vehicles. Laboratory emissions data as a function of fuel type and driving mode were combined with ambient measurement data and model predictions. The results indicate that gasoline vehicles have the highest emissions of HCN (relative to diesel fuel) and that biodiesel fuel has the potential to significantly reduce HCN emissions even at realistic 5% blend levels. The data further demonstrate that gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines emit more HCN than their port fuel injection (PFI) counterparts, suggesting that the expected full transition of vehicle fleets to GDI will increase HCN emissions. Ambient measurements of HCN in a traffic dominated area of Toronto, Canada were strongly correlated to vehicle emission markers and consistent with regional air quality model predictions of ambient air HCN, indicating that vehicle emissions of HCN are the dominant source of exposure in urban areas. The results further indicate that additional work is required to quantify HCN emissions from the modern vehicle fleet, particularly in light of continuously changing engine, fuel and after-treatment technologies.

  1. Life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteconi, A.; Brandoni, C.; Evangelista, D.; Polonara, F. [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Energetica, Via Brecce Bianche, 1-60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the life cycle, in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of diesel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as fuels for heavy-duty vehicles in the European market (EU-15). A literature review revealed that the numerous studies conducted have reported different results when the authors departed from different baseline assumptions and reference scenarios. For our study, we concentrated on the European scenario and on heavy-duty road transport vehicles, given their important incidence on the global emissions of GHG. Two possible LNG procurement strategies were considered i.e. purchasing it directly from the regasification terminal (LNG-TER) or producing LNG locally (at the service station) with small-scale plants (LNG-SSL). We ascertained that the use of LNG-TER enables a 10% reduction in GHG emissions by comparison with diesel, while the emissions resulting from the LNG-SSL solution are comparable with those of diesel. (author)

  2. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM(sub 2.5)). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO(sub x) and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles

  3. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluder, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO(sub 2)-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles

  4. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  5. 77 FR 54384 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Effects) I. National Technology Transfer Advancement Act J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To... considered it to be a technology-forcing standard and subsequent history has shown that substantial work has... information is not publicly available, e.g., confidential business information or other information whose...

  6. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... have evaluated, especially in the context of this third requirement. (1) Competitive Advantage for Non... competitive advantage remains. A manufacturer of a non-complying engine generally gains a competitive... the operator will vary based on several factors. An even harder to quantify competitive advantage is...

  7. Performance of lignin derived aromatic oxygenates in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Johansson, B.H.; Reijnders, J.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to reduce dependence on fossil fuel resources has led to an increasing interest in the use of bio-fuels. This study builds on earlier work on (aromatic) cyclic oxygenates [1] and [2], but a far wider window of engine operation has been investigated in this paper. Two parametric

  8. Gasoline port fuel injection on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, B.; Leermakers, C.A.J.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Albrecht, B.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Cracknell, Roger F.

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of silicon honeycombs are evaluated as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion microbatteries. The morphological changes of the structure are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and it is revealed that the honeycomb structure can reversibly withstand huge

  9. Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Escobar Valdivieso, D.

    2017-01-01

    To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world

  10. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimi Hessamedin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.

  11. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Naeimi Hessamedin; Domiry Ganji Davood; Gorji Mofid; Javadirad Ghasem; Keshavarz Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction loss...

  12. Experimental study of fuel composition impact on PCCI combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, C.A.J.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Kalghatgi, G.T.; Albrecht, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is a combustion concept that holds the promise of combining emission levels of a spark-ignition engine with the efficiency of a compression-ignition engine. In a short term scenario, PCCI would be used in the lower load operating range only, combined with

  13. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  14. Sulfur driven nucleation mode formation in diesel exhaust under transient driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-02-18

    Sulfur driven diesel exhaust nucleation particle formation processes were studied in an aerosol laboratory, on engine dynamometers, and on the road. All test engines were equipped with a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a partial diesel particulate filter (pDPF). At steady operating conditions, the formation of semivolatile nucleation particles directly depended on SO2 conversion in the catalyst. The nucleation particle emission was most significant after a rapid increase in engine load and exhaust gas temperature. Results indicate that the nucleation particle formation at transient driving conditions does not require compounds such as hydrocarbons or sulfated hydrocarbons, however, it cannot be explained only by the nucleation of sulfuric acid. A real-world exhaust study with a heavy duty diesel truck showed that the nucleation particle formation occurs even with ultralow sulfur diesel fuel, even at downhill driving conditions, and that nucleation particles can contribute 60% of total particle number emissions. In general, due to sulfur storage and release within the exhaust aftertreatment systems and transients in driving, emissions of nucleation particles can even be the dominant part of modern diesel vehicle exhaust particulate number emissions.

  15. Emission factors of black carbon and co-pollutants from diesel vehicles in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Fortner, Edward C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Floerchinger, Cody; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Knighton, Walter B.; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Mejía, José Antonio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2017-12-01

    Diesel-powered vehicles are intensively used in urban areas for transporting goods and people but can substantially contribute to high emissions of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and other gaseous pollutants. Strategies aimed at controlling mobile emissions sources thus have the potential to improve air quality and help mitigate the impacts of air pollutants on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, in developing countries there are limited data on the BC and OC emission characteristics of diesel-powered vehicles, and thus there are large uncertainties in the estimation of the emission contributions from these sources. We measured BC, OC, and other inorganic components of fine particulate matter (PM), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ethane, acetylene, benzene, toluene, and C2-benzenes under real-world driving conditions for 20 diesel-powered vehicles encompassing multiple emission level technologies in Mexico City with the chasing technique using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory. Average BC emission factors ranged from 0.41-2.48 g kg-1 of fuel depending on vehicle type. The vehicles were also simultaneously measured using the cross-road remote sensing technique to obtain the emission factors of nitrogen oxide (NO), CO, total hydrocarbons, and fine PM, thus allowing for the intercomparison of the results from the two techniques. There is overall good agreement between the two techniques and both can identify high and low emitters, but substantial differences were found in some of the vehicles, probably due to the ability of the chasing technique to capture a larger diversity of driving conditions in comparison to the remote sensing technique. A comparison of the results with the US EPA MOVES2014b model showed that the model underestimates CO, OC, and selected VOC species, whereas there is better agreement for NOx and BC. Larger OC / BC ratios were found in comparison to ratios measured in California using

  16. Emission factors of black carbon and co-pollutants from diesel vehicles in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel-powered vehicles are intensively used in urban areas for transporting goods and people but can substantially contribute to high emissions of black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, and other gaseous pollutants. Strategies aimed at controlling mobile emissions sources thus have the potential to improve air quality and help mitigate the impacts of air pollutants on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, in developing countries there are limited data on the BC and OC emission characteristics of diesel-powered vehicles, and thus there are large uncertainties in the estimation of the emission contributions from these sources. We measured BC, OC, and other inorganic components of fine particulate matter (PM, as well as carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur dioxide (SO2, ethane, acetylene, benzene, toluene, and C2-benzenes under real-world driving conditions for 20 diesel-powered vehicles encompassing multiple emission level technologies in Mexico City with the chasing technique using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory. Average BC emission factors ranged from 0.41–2.48 g kg−1 of fuel depending on vehicle type. The vehicles were also simultaneously measured using the cross-road remote sensing technique to obtain the emission factors of nitrogen oxide (NO, CO, total hydrocarbons, and fine PM, thus allowing for the intercomparison of the results from the two techniques. There is overall good agreement between the two techniques and both can identify high and low emitters, but substantial differences were found in some of the vehicles, probably due to the ability of the chasing technique to capture a larger diversity of driving conditions in comparison to the remote sensing technique. A comparison of the results with the US EPA MOVES2014b model showed that the model underestimates CO, OC, and selected VOC species, whereas there is better agreement for NOx and BC. Larger OC / BC ratios were found in comparison to ratios

  17. Evaluation of the potential of the Stirling engine for heavy duty application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.

    1981-01-01

    A 150 hp four cylinder heavy duty Stirling engine was evaluated. The engine uses a variable stroke power control system, swashplate drive and ceramic insulation. The sensitivity of the design to engine size and heater temperature is investigated. Optimization shows that, with porous ceramics, indicated efficiencies as high as 52% can be achieved. It is shown that the gain in engine efficiency becomes insignificant when the heater temperature is raised above 200 degrees F.

  18. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  19. 40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. 600.206-86 Section 600.206-86...-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values...

  20. Rotating Liner Engine: Improving Efficiency of Heavy Duty Diesels by Significant Friction Reduction, and Extending the Life of Heavy Duty Engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dardalis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-31

    This report describes the work on converting a 4 cylinder Cummins ISB engine into a single cylinder Rotating Liner Engine functioning prototype that can be used to measure the friction benefits of rotating the cylinder liner in a high pressure compression ignition engine. A similar baseline engine was also prepared, and preliminary testing was done. Even though the fabrication of the single cylinder prototype was behind schedule due to machine shop delays, the fundamental soundness of the design elements are proven, and the engine has successfully functioned. However, the testing approach of the two engines, as envisioned by the original proposal, proved impossible due to torsional vibration resonance caused by the single active piston. A new approach for proper testing has been proposed,

  1. [Real world instantaneous emission simulation for light-duty diesel vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Dai, Pu; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Cheng, Zhen; Jia, Ji-Hong

    2008-10-01

    Core architecture and input parameters of CMEM model were introduced to simulation the second by second vehicle emission rate on real world by taking a light-duty diesel car as a case. On-board test data by a portable emission measurement system were then used to validate the simulation results. Test emission factors of CO, THC, NO(x) and CO2 were respectively 0.81, 0.61, 2.09, and 193 g x km(-1), while calculated emission factors were 0.75, 0.47, 2.47, and 212 g x km(-1). The correlation coefficients reached 0.69, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.72. Simulated instantaneous emissions of the light duty diesel vehicle by CMEM model were strongly coherent with the transient driving cycle. By analysis, CO, THC, NO(x), and CO2 emissions would be reduced by 50%, 47%, 45%, and 44% after improving the traffic situation at the intersection. The result indicated that it is necessary and feasible to simulate the instantaneous emissions of mixed vehicle fleet in some typical traffic areas by the micro-scale vehicle emission model.

  2. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  3. Investigating the impact of in-vehicle transients on diesel soot emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a simulation of the vehicle system, and its use for investigating highly-dynamic engine-in-vehicle operation and its effect on diesel engine emissions. Running an engine in the test cell under conditions experienced in the vehicle enables acquiring detailed insight into dynamic interactions between power train sub-systems, and the impact of it on fuel consumption and transient emissions. This type of data may otherwise be difficult and extremely costly to obtain from a vehicle prototype test. In particular, engine system response during critical transients and the effect of transient excursions on emissions are investigated using advanced, fast-response test instrumentation and emissions analyzers. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study different power train configurations. In particular, the paper describes the engine-in-the-loop study of a V-8, 6l engine coupled to a virtual 4´4 off road vehicle. This engine is considered as a high-performance option for this truck and the real prototype of the complete vehicle does not exist yet. The results shed light on critical transients in a conventional powertrain and their effect on NOx and soot emissions. Measurements demonstrate very large spikes of particulate concentration at the initiation of vehicle acceleration events. Characterization of transients and their effect on particulate emission provides a basis for devising engine-level or

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  5. Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

    2000-01-01

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated

  6. Fuel consumption and greenhouse gas calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Factors that influence fuel consumption include environmental conditions, maintenance, poor driving techniques, and driving speed. Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the SmartDriver training programs were designed to help fleet managers, drivers, and instructors to learn methods of improving fuel economy. This fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles provides drivers with a method of calculating fuel consumption rates when driving. It includes a log-book in which to record odometer readings and a slide-rule in which to determine the litres of fuel used during a trip. The scale showed the number of kg of GHGs produced by burning a particular amount of fuel for both biodiesel and diesel fuels. 1 fig.

  7. Industrial fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for production of biodiesel and its application in vehicle diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo eXiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60 m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L-1 day-1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying and ball milling methods to harvest, dry and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  8. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  9. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  10. Dilution effects on ultrafine particle emissions from Euro 5 and Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Martinet, Simon; D'Anna, Barbara; Valiente, Alvaro Martinez; Boreave, Antoinette; R'Mili, Badr; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; André, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Dilution and temperature used during sampling of vehicle exhaust can modify particle number concentration and size distribution. Two experiments were performed on a chassis dynamometer to assess exhaust dilution and temperature on particle number and particle size distribution for Euro 5 and Euro 6 vehicles. In the first experiment, the effects of dilution (ratio from 8 to 4 000) and temperature (ranging from 50 °C to 150 °C) on particle quantification were investigated directly from tailpipe for a diesel and a gasoline Euro 5 vehicles. In the second experiment, particle emissions from Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles directly sampled from the tailpipe were compared to the constant volume sampling (CVS) measurements under similar sampling conditions. Low primary dilutions (3-5) induced an increase in particle number concentration by a factor of 2 compared to high primary dilutions (12-20). Low dilution temperatures (50 °C) induced 1.4-3 times higher particle number concentration than high dilution temperatures (150 °C). For the Euro 6 gasoline vehicle with direct injection, constant volume sampling (CVS) particle number concentrations were higher than after the tailpipe by a factor of 6, 80 and 22 for Artemis urban, road and motorway, respectively. For the same vehicle, particle size distribution measured after the tailpipe was centred on 10 nm, and particles were smaller than the ones measured after CVS that was centred between 50 nm and 70 nm. The high particle concentration (≈106 #/cm3) and the growth of diameter, measured in the CVS, highlighted aerosol transformations, such as nucleation, condensation and coagulation occurring in the sampling system and this might have biased the particle measurements.

  11. Comparison of Cooling System Designs for an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using an Organic Rankine Cycle on a Heavy Duty Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stanzel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex simulation model of a heavy duty truck, including an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC based waste heat recovery system and a vehicle cooling system, was applied to determine the system fuel economy potential in a typical drive cycle. Measures to increase the system performance were investigated and a comparison between two different cooling system designs was derived. The base design, which was realized on a Mercedes-Benz Actros vehicle revealed a fuel efficiency benefit of 2.6%, while a more complicated design would generate 3.1%. Furthermore, fully transient simulation results were performed and are compared to steady state simulation results. It is shown that steady state simulation can produce comparable results if averaged road data are used as boundary conditions.

  12. Estimation of CO2 reduction by parallel hard-type power hybridization for gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible improvements in ICEVs by implementing fuzzy logic-based parallel hard-type power hybrid systems. Two types of conventional ICEVs (gasoline and diesel) and two types of HEVs (gasoline-electric, diesel electric) were generated using vehicle and powertrain simulation tools and a Matlab-Simulink application programming interface. For gasoline and gasoline-electric HEV vehicles, the prediction accuracy for four types of LDV models was validated by conducting comparative analysis with the chassis dynamometer and OBD test data. The predicted results show strong correlation with the test data. The operating points of internal combustion engines and electric motors are well controlled in the high efficiency region and battery SOC was well controlled within ±1.6%. However, for diesel vehicles, we generated virtual diesel-electric HEV vehicle because there is no available vehicles with similar engine and vehicle specifications with ICE vehicle. Using a fuzzy logic-based parallel hybrid system in conventional ICEVs demonstrated that HEVs showed superior performance in terms of fuel consumption and CO 2 emission in most driving modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation and control of a HD diesel engine equipped with new EGR technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic model of a Heavy Duty (HD) turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was developed. The engine was equipped with high pressure diesel injection, a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) and an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. This engine was targeted at meeting EURO4 emission

  14. Emission reduction in diesel hybrid commercial vehicles; Emissionsreduzierung bei NFZ mit Dieselhybridantrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuberczyk, Raffael; Koehler, Jochen; Blattner, Stefan [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    As far as the commercial vehicle driveline is concerned, today's formidable challenges are combined with an equally compelling need for action - all geared to the aim of meeting stringent emissions standards which reduce fuel consumption and emissions. At the same time the costs for sophisticated new exhaust emissions systems should be reduced. In the following, engineers from ZF Friedrichshafen AG illustrate the advantages offered by diesel hybrid trucks - and why a comprehensive analysis of all saving potentials is required to meet the ambitious targets. (orig.)

  15. NOx reduction in diesel fuel flames by additions of water and CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Natural gas has the highest heating value per unit mass (50.1 MJ/kg, LHV) of any of the hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., butane, liquid diesel fuel, gasoline, etc.). Since it has the lowest carbon content per unit mass, combustion of natural gas produces much less carbon dioxide, soot particles, and oxide of nitrogen than combustion of liquid diesel fuel. In view of anticipated strengthening of regulations on pollutant emissions from diesel engines, alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been experimentally introduced to replace the traditional diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks, transit buses, off-road vehicles, locomotives, and stationary engines. To help in applying natural gas in Diesel engines and increasing combustion efficiency, the emphasis of the present paper is placed on the detailed flame chemistry of methane-air combustion. The present work is the continued effort in finding better methods to reduce NO{sub x}. The goal is to identify a reliable chemical reaction mechanism for natural gas in both premixed and diffusion flames and to establish a systematic reduced mechanism which may be useful for large-scale numerical modeling of combustion behavior in natural gas engines.

  16. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  17. Thermal/structural analysis of radiators for heavy-duty trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shaolin; Cheng, Changrui; Li Xianchang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2010-01-01

    A thermal/structural coupling approach is applied to analyze thermal performance and predict the thermal stress of a radiator for heavy-duty transportation cooling systems. Bench test and field test data show that non-uniform temperature gradient and dynamic pressure loads may induce large thermal stress on the radiator. A finite element analysis (FEA) tool is used to predict the strains and displacement of radiator based on the solid wall temperature, wall-based fluid film heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. These are obtained from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A 3D simulation of turbulent flow and coupled heat transfer between the working fluids poses a major difficulty because the range of length scales involved in heavy-duty radiators varies from few millimeters of the fin pitch and/or tube cross-section to several meters for the overall size of the radiator. It is very computational expensive, if not impossible, to directly simulate the turbulent heat transfer between fins and the thermal boundary layer in each tube. In order to overcome the computational difficulties, a dual porous zone (DPZ) method is applied, in which fins in the air side and turbulators in the water side are treated as porous region. The parameters involved in the DPZ method are tuned based on experimental data in prior. A distinguished advantage of the porous medium method is its effectiveness of modeling wide-range characteristic scale problems. A parametric study of the impact of flow rate on the heat transfer coefficient is presented. The FEA results predict the maximum value of stress/strain and target locations for possible structural failure and the results obtained are consistent with experimental observations. The results demonstrate that the coupling thermal/structural analysis is a powerful tool applied to heavy-duty cooling product design to improve the radiator thermal performance, durability and reliability under rigid working environment.

  18. Ultrafine particle emissions from modern Gasoline and Diesel vehicles: An electron microscopic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis

    2018-08-01

    Ultrafine (electron microscopy (TEM) is applied to obtain a concrete picture on the nature, morphology and chemical composition of non-volatile ultrafine particles in the exhaust of state-of-the-art, Euro 6b, Gasoline and Diesel vehicles. The particles were collected directly on TEM grids, at the tailpipe, downstream of the after-treatment system, during the entire duration of typical driving cycles on the chassis dynamometer. Based on TEM imaging coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, numerous ultrafine particles could be identified, imaged and analyzed chemically. Particles vehicles and driving cycles. The present TEM study gives information also on the imaging and chemical composition of the solid fraction of the unregulated sub-23 nm size category particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  20. Efficient EGR technology for future HD diesel engine emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Different systems for achieving short-route cooled EGR on turbocharged and aftercooled heavy-duty diesel engines have been tested on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and an electronically controlled unit pump fuel injection system. In all of these systems the exhaust gas was

  1. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2004-08-23

    Diesel and hybrid technologies each have the potential to increase light-duty vehicle fuel economy by a third or more without loss of performance, yet these technologies have typically been excluded from technical assessments of fuel economy potential on the grounds that hybrids are too expensive and diesels cannot meet Tier 2 emissions standards. Recently, hybrid costs have come down and the few hybrid makes available are selling well. Diesels have made great strides in reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, and are likely though not certain to meet future standards. In light of these developments, this study takes a detailed look at the market potential of these two powertrain technologies and their possible impacts on light-duty vehicle fuel economy. A nested multinomial logit model of vehicle choice was calibrated to 2002 model year sales of 930 makes, models and engine-transmission configurations. Based on an assessment of the status and outlook for the two technologies, market shares were predicted for 2008, 2012 and beyond, assuming no additional increase in fuel economy standards or other new policy initiatives. Current tax incentives for hybrids are assumed to be phased out by 2008. Given announced and likely introductions by 2008, hybrids could capture 4-7% and diesels 2-4% of the light-duty market. Based on our best guesses for further introductions, these shares could increase to 10-15% for hybrids and 4-7% for diesels by 2012. The resulting impacts on fleet average fuel economy would be about +2% in 2008 and +4% in 2012. If diesels and hybrids were widely available across vehicle classes, makes, and models, they could capture 40% or more of the light-duty vehicle market.

  2. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  3. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  4. Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments

  5. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  6. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  7. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM 2.5 , Σ 15 PAHs, Σ 11 NPAHs, Σ 5 Hopanes and Σ 6 Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM 2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM 2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  8. Developing Markets for Zero-Emission Vehicles in Goods Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report evaluates the market status and potential freight market penetration of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) and near ZEVs in the medium and heavy duty class within the California market. It evaluates alternative technologies, primarily battery ...

  9. A PEMS study of the emissions of gaseous pollutants and ultrafine particles from gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Feng, Qian; Chen, Yiran; Chen, Changhong; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di

    2013-10-01

    On-road emission measurements of gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles were conducted by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) in Shanghai, China. Horiba OBS 2200 and TSI EEPS 3090 were employed to detect gaseous and ultrafine particle emissions during the tests. The driving-based emission factors of gaseous pollutants and particle mass and number were obtained on various road types. The average NOx emission factors of the diesel bus, diesel car, and gasoline car were 8.86, 0.68, and 0.17 g km-1, all of which were in excess of their emission limits. The particle number emission factors were 7.06 × 1014, 6.08 × 1014, and 1.57 × 1014 km-1, generally higher than the results for similar vehicle types reported in the previous studies. The size distributions of the particles emitted from the diesel vehicles were mainly concentrated in the accumulation mode, while those emitted from the gasoline car were mainly distributed in the nucleation mode. Both gaseous and particle emission rates exhibit significant correlations with the change in vehicle speed and power demand. The lowest emission rates for each vehicle type were produced during idling. The highest emission rates for each vehicle type were generally found in high-VSP bins. The particle number emission rates of the gasoline car show the strongest growth trend with increasing VSP and speed. The particle number emission for the gasoline car increased by 3 orders of magnitude from idling to the highest VSP and driving speed conditions. High engine power caused by aggressive driving or heavy loads is the main contributor to high emissions for these vehicles in real-world situations.

  10. Diesel supply planning for offshore platforms by a mathematical model based on the vehicle routing problem with replenishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorot Astoures, H.; Alvarenga Rosa, R. de; Silva Rosa, A.

    2016-07-01

    Oil exploration in Brazil is mainly held by offshore platforms which require the supply of several products, including diesel to maintain its engines. One strategy to supply diesel to the platforms is to keep a vessel filled with diesel nearby the exploration basin. An empty boat leaves the port and goes directly to this vessel, then it is loaded with diesel. After that, it makes a trip to supply the platforms and when the boat is empty, it returns to the vessel to be reloaded with more diesel going to another trip. Based on this description, this paper proposes a mathematical model based on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Intermediate Replenishment Facilities (VRPIRF) to solve the problem. The purpose of the model is to plan the routes for the boats to meet the diesel requests of the platform. Given the fact that in the literature, papers about the VRPIRF are scarce and papers about the VRPIRF applied to offshore platforms were not found in the published papers, this paper is important to contribute with the evolution of this class of problem, bringing also a solution for a real application that is very important for the oil and gas business. The mathematical model was tested using the CPLEX 12.6. In order to assess the mathematical model, tests were done with data from the major Brazilian oil and gas company and several strategies were tested. (Author)

  11. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks Table 1—Sampling...

  12. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... and letters we have received, as well as our own outreach and data- gathering efforts, we have learned... are no longer in production. As manufacturers become aware of the need for upgrades or enhancements... and professionally cleaned with a special machine. Fortunately, there is very little ash formation...

  13. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... future model year in which your average CO 2 level exceeds the standard. You may trade credits to another..., Confidential business information, Environmental protection, Incorporation by reference, Labeling, Motor... Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential business...

  14. 78 FR 36369 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... model year compliance, better align testing procedures to market realities, and reduce unnecessary...: www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Email: a-and-r-docket..., U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building, Ground Floor, Rm. W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  15. 78 FR 36135 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Docket Center (EPA/DC), EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC, Attention Docket..., Assessment and Standards Division, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105; telephone number: 734... further divided into subsections related to specific parts of the Code of Federal Regulations. B. Proposed...

  16. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  17. Performance evaluation of alternative fuel/engine concepts 1990- 1995. Final report including addendum of diesel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Ikonen, M.; Kytoe, M.; Lappi, M.; Westerholm, M.; Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    Annex V within the IEA Agreement on Alternative Motor Fuels is the first subtask to generate new experimental data. The objective of the task is to generate information on the emission potential of alternative fuels in severe operating conditions and to evaluate new emission measurement methods. The work was carried out in three phases, Engine Tests, Vehicle Tests and Addendum of Diesel Vehicles. The work was carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) as a cost shared operation. Participants were Belgium (Parts Two and Three), Canada (Parts One and Two), Finland, Italy (Part One), Japan, the Netherlands Sweden and USA. The United Kingdom also joined at the end of the Annex. The work included 143 different vehicle/fuel/temperature combinations. FTP type emission tests were run on 14 vehicles powered with different gasoline compositions, methanol (M50 and M85), ethanol (E85), LPG, CNG and diesel. Both regulated and unregulated emission components were measured using the most up-to-date emissions measurement technology. The results indicated, that today`s advanced gasoline vehicles must be considered rather clean. Diesel is comparable with gasoline in the case of CO and HC. M85 gives low emissions in warm conditions, but unburned methanol must be controlled. Natural gas and LPG are inherently clean fuels which, using up-to-date engine technology, give low emissions in all conditions. (orig.) (29 refs.)

  18. A Taxonomy for Heavy-Duty Telemanipulation Tasks Using Elemental Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Owen-Hill

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the maintenance of large scientific facilities, telemanipulation procedures can involve various subprocedures which in turn are made up of a sequence of subtasks. This work presents a taxonomy which describes a set of elemental actions for heavy-duty telemanipulation, along with an example of these actions in a standard maintenance subprocedure. As maintenance tasks are often very different at high-level, this generalized way of deconstructing tasks allows a highly adaptable approach to describe the sequence of any procedure, which can then be used for such applications as task monitoring, automation or detection of incomplete tasks. We describe in detail the properties of each elemental action and apply the taxonomy to an example subprocedure to show how the process can be generalizable. An automatic state-machine creation stage is shown, which would be used at the task scheduling stage to simplify calculations carried out during the moment-by-moment execution of the task.

  19. High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2014-05-01

    A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of 5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

  20. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  1. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... CFR Parts 523, 534, and 535 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for...-2010-0079; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2060-AP61; 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency... Heavy-Duty National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road...

  2. 76 FR 59922 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 [NHTSA 2010-0079; EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel... comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions...

  3. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distillates? 80.590 Section 80.590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... oil, ECA marine fuel, and other distillates? (a) This paragraph (a) applies on each occasion that any... distillates used or intended to be used as MVNRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, or ECA marine fuel) except when...

  4. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  5. Kinetic study of diesel soot oxidation: application to simulation of diesel particulate filter regeneration; Etude cinetique de la combustion des suies diesel: application a la modelisation de la regeneration du filtre a particule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, Ch.

    2005-11-15

    Because of their toxicity, soot are considered as the most important pollutant from Diesel engines. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is widely deployed in Europe to address the significant reductions in particulate emissions required by increasingly stringent emission standards, both for heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars. Such a DPF filtrates above 99% of soot emissions and must be regularly regenerated. The use of additive allows to decrease the soot oxidation temperature to values which can be reached by appropriate engine tuning. The soot addition is a dominant parameter for the development of regeneration strategies. Its influence must be correctly represented by models. This Ph-D was performed at IFP in collaboration with ADEME and was supported by the LCSR at Orleans. The aim of the present research is to develop a kinetic mechanism characteristic of Diesel soot oxidation, which can be integrated into a DPF regeneration model and used for engine control. The oxidation study was based on soot characterisation and reaction kinetics investigations. The samples of Diesel soot were collected, without and with Cerium/Iron additive, by using two engines points representative of two normalized European cycles (ECE and EUDC). Thermal and composition analyses with techniques such as XPS, XRD or TEM were used to determine their physical and chemical properties. Their oxidation kinetics was experimentally studied on a synthetic gas bench (SGB) with a fixed bed reactor. Different tests were performed: temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), Isothermal oxidation (IO), and sequential oxidation. The results allowed to correlate Diesel soot physical and chemical properties with their oxidation rate. A kinetic model was developed, which is based on global carbon consummation law and distinguishes the oxidation of different soot components. The simulation results agree very well with the experimental results of Diesel soot oxidation. (author)

  6. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  7. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS, the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC.

  8. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  9. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  10. Review of smoothing methods for enhancement of noisy data from heavy-duty LHD mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodecki, Jacek; Michalak, Anna; Stefaniak, Paweł

    2018-01-01

    Appropriate analysis of data measured on heavy-duty mining machines is essential for processes monitoring, management and optimization. Some particular classes of machines, for example LHD (load-haul-dump) machines, hauling trucks, drilling/bolting machines etc. are characterized with cyclicity of operations. In those cases, identification of cycles and their segments or in other words - simply data segmentation is a key to evaluate their performance, which may be very useful from the management point of view, for example leading to introducing optimization to the process. However, in many cases such raw signals are contaminated with various artifacts, and in general are expected to be very noisy, which makes the segmentation task very difficult or even impossible. To deal with that problem, there is a need for efficient smoothing methods that will allow to retain informative trends in the signals while disregarding noises and other undesired non-deterministic components. In this paper authors present a review of various approaches to diagnostic data smoothing. Described methods can be used in a fast and efficient way, effectively cleaning the signals while preserving informative deterministic behaviour, that is a crucial to precise segmentation and other approaches to industrial data analysis.

  11. A New Superalloy Enabling Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Wheels for Improved Combined Cycle Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detor, Andrew [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; DiDomizio, Richard [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; McAllister, Don [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sampson, Erica [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; Shi, Rongpei [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhou, Ning [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research

    2017-01-03

    The drive to increase combined cycle turbine efficiency from 62% to 65% for the next-generation advanced cycle requires a new heavy duty gas turbine wheel material capable of operating at 1200°F and above. Current wheel materials are limited by the stability of their major strengthening phase (gamma double prime), which coarsens at temperatures approaching 1200°F, resulting in a substantial reduction in strength. More advanced gamma prime superalloys, such as those used in jet engine turbine disks, are also not suitable due to size constraints; the gamma prime phase overages during the slow cooling rates inherent in processing thick-section turbine wheels. The current program addresses this need by screening two new alloy design concepts. The first concept exploits a gamma prime/gamma double prime coprecipitation reaction. Through manipulation of alloy chemistry, coprecipitation is controlled such that gamma double prime is used only to slow the growth of gamma prime during slow cooling, preventing over-aging, and allowing for subsequent heat treatment to maximize strength. In parallel, phase field modeling provides fundamental understanding of the coprecipitation reaction. The second concept uses oxide dispersion strengthening to improve on two existing alloys that exhibit excellent hold time fatigue crack growth resistance, but have insufficient strength to be considered for gas turbine wheels. Mechanical milling forces the dissolution of starting oxide powders into a metal matrix allowing for solid state precipitation of new, nanometer scale oxides that are effective at dispersion strengthening.

  12. Piezo-based motion stages for heavy duty operation in clean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasikov, Nir; Peled, Gal; Yasinov, Roman; Gissin, Michael; Feinstein, Alan

    2018-02-01

    A range of heavy duty, ultra-precise motion stages had been developed for precise positioning in semiconductor manufacturing and metrology, for use in a clean room and high vacuum (HV and UHV) environments, to meet the precision requirements for 7, 5 nm nodes and beyond. These stages are powered by L1B2 direct drive ultrasonic motors, which allows combining long motion range, sub-nanometer positioning accuracy, high stiffness (in the direction of motion), low power consumption and active compensation of thermal and structural drift while holding position. The mechanical design, material selection for clean room and high vacuum preparation techniques are reviewed. Test results in a clean room are reported for a two-axis (X-Y) stage, having a load capacity of 30 kg, a motion range of 450 mm, a positioning accuracy of 200 mm/s and a profile has a trapezoidal shape with an acceleration of 1m/s2 and a constant velocity of 100 mm/s. The operational parameters (average absolute position error during constant velocity, motor force, dead zone level) remain stable over more than 370000 passes (experiment duration).

  13. Axial Turbine Aerodynamic Design of Small Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Seok; Lee, Wu Sang; Ryu, Je Wook

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the aerodynamic design procedure for the axial turbines of a small heavy-duty gas turbine engine being developed by Docosan Heavy Industries. The design procedure mainly consists of three parts: namely, flow path design, airfoil design, and 3a performance calculation. To design the optimized flow path, through flow calculations as well as the loss estimation are widely used to evaluate the effect of geometric variables, for example, shape of meridional plane, mean radius, blades axial gap, and had angle. During the airfoil design procedure, the optimum number of blades is calculated by empirical correlations based on the in/outlet flow angles, and then 2a airfoil planar sections are designed carefully, followed by 2a B2 NS calculations. The designed planar sections are stacked along the span wise direction, leading to a 3a surfaced airfoil shape. To consider the 3a effect on turbine performance, 3a multistage Euler calculation, single row, and multistage NS calculations are performed

  14. New EGR technology retains HD diesel economy with 21st century emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Verbeek, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    An EGR system for turbocharged (and aftercooled) heavy-duty diesel engines have been demonstrated on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cyclinder head and high pressure injection system. In the EGR system exhaust gas is tapped of before the turbine, run through a cooler and mixed with the

  15. Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Nieuwenhof, R. van den; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  16. Robust emission management strategy to meet real-world emission requirements for HD diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Nieuwenhof, van den R.; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  17. Integrated emission management for cost optimal EGR-SCR balancing in diesels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Mentink, P.R.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a cost-based optimization method is experimentally demonstrated on a Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the actual engine-aftertreatment state, this model-based Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy minimizes operational (fuel and AdBlue) costs within emission

  18. Disturbance rejection in diesel engines for low emissions and high fuel efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C. H. A.; Willems, F. P. T.; Van Keulen, T. A. C.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a novel and time-efficient control design for modern heavy-duty diesel engines using a variable geometry turbine and an exhaust gas recirculation valve. The goal is to simultaneously and robustly achieve low fuel consumption and low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and

  19. Cyclic oxygenates : a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.D.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) direct-injection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM

  20. Cyclic oxygenates: a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.; Frijters, P.; Luijten, C.; Somers, B.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) directinjection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM

  1. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  2. Research on the Obstacle Negotiation Strategy for the Heavy-duty Six-legged Robot based on Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mantian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To make heavy-duty six-legged robots without environment reconstruction system negotiate obstacles after the earthquake successfully, an obstacle negotiation strategy is described in this paper. The reflection strategy is generated by the information of plantar force sensors and Bezier Curve is used to plan trajectory. As the heavy-duty six-legged robot has a large inertia, force controller is necessary to ensure the robot not to lose stability while negotiating obstacles. Impedance control is applied to reduce the impact of collision and active force control is applied to adjust the pose of the robot. The robot can walk through zones that are filled with obstacles automatically because of force control. Finally, the algorithm is verified in a simulation environment.

  3. Common rail technology for future low emission diesel vehicles; Common Rail Technologie fuer zukuenftige Diesel Fahrzeuge mit niedrigen Emissionswerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, D.; Bercher, P.; Guerrassi, N.; Spadafora, P.

    2004-07-01

    The diesel fuel injection equipment will remain a key element for diesel engine technology evolution. Achieving emission targets at competitive prices has been and will continue to be a major technical challenge to the engine manufacturer. Delphi is continuously developing its common rail system and its components to fulfill future stricter emission legislation while simultaneously improving performance on noise, fuel consumption and power output. This paper will describe the latest developments that delphi introduced into the market in their common rail system to comply with future legislative emission targets. Further, a novel common rail injector will be presented, that uses a revolutionary, direct acting operating principle, where the nozzle is directly operated by a piezo actuator, without the use of a servo-hydraulic flow circuit. The superior performance of this injector concept will be shown, especially in minimum quantity capability as well as multiple injection performance. The direct acting operating principle allows rapid opening and closing of the injector, without compromising pilot quantity capability. The emission benefit obtained by such opening and closing behavior will be shown. Finally, based on the findings discussed, the paper will conclude on key features of future common rail systems. (orig.)

  4. Improved Deep Belief Networks (IDBN Dynamic Model-Based Detection and Mitigation for Targeted Attacks on Heavy-Duty Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianpeng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the robots, especially heavy-duty robots, have become the hardest-hit areas for targeted attacks. These attacks come from both the cyber-domain and the physical-domain. In order to improve the security of heavy-duty robots, this paper proposes a detection and mitigation mechanism which based on improved deep belief networks (IDBN and dynamic model. The detection mechanism consists of two parts: (1 IDBN security checks, which can detect targeted attacks from the cyber-domain; (2 Dynamic model and security detection, used to detect the targeted attacks which can possibly lead to a physical-domain damage. The mitigation mechanism was established on the base of the detection mechanism and could mitigate transient and discontinuous attacks. Moreover, a test platform was established to carry out the performance evaluation test for the proposed mechanism. The results show that, the detection accuracy for the attack of the cyber-domain of IDBN reaches 96.2%, and the detection accuracy for the attack of physical-domain control commands reaches 94%. The performance evaluation test has verified the reliability and high efficiency of the proposed detection and mitigation mechanism for heavy-duty robots.

  5. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  6. Real-world comparison of probe vehicle emissions and fuel consumption using diesel and 5% biodiesel (B5) blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropkins, Karl; Quinn, Robert; Tate, James; Bell, Margaret [Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Beebe, Joe [National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety, Colorado State University, Colorado 80523-1584 (United States); Li, Hu; Daham, Basil; Andrews, Gordon [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    An instrumented EURO I Ford Mondeo was used to perform a real-world comparison of vehicle exhaust (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen) emissions and fuel consumption for diesel and 5% biodiesel in diesel blend (B5) fuels. Data were collected on multiple replicates of three standardised on-road journeys: (1) a simple urban route; (2) a combined urban/inter-urban route; and, (3) an urban route subject to significant traffic management. At the total journey measurement level, data collected here indicate that replacing diesel with a B5 substitute could result in significant increases in both NO{sub x} emissions (8-13%) and fuel consumption (7-8%). However, statistical analysis of probe vehicle data demonstrated the limitations of comparisons based on such total journey measurements, i.e., methods analogous to those used in conventional dynamometer/drive cycle fuel comparison studies. Here, methods based on the comparison of speed/acceleration emissions and fuel consumption maps are presented. Significant variations across the speed/acceleration surface indicated that direct emission and fuel consumption impacts were highly dependent on the journey/drive cycle employed. The emission and fuel consumption maps were used both as descriptive tools to characterise impacts and predictive tools to estimate journey-specific emission and fuel consumption effects. (author)

  7. Modelling and Simulation of Packed Bed Catalytic Converter for Oxidation of Soot in Diesel Powered Vehicles Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasikin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel vehicle is used in Indonesia in very big number. This vehicle exhausts pollutants especially diesel soot that can be reduces by using a catalytic converter to convert the soot to CO2. To obtain the optimal dimension of catalytic converter it is needed a model that can represent the profile of soot weight, temperature and pressure along the catalytic converter. In this study, a model is developed for packed bed catalytic converter in an adiabatic condition based on a kinetic study that has been  reported previously. Calculation of developed equations in this model uses Polymath 5.X solver with Range Kutta Method. The simulation result shows that temperature profile along catalytic converter increases with the decrease of soot weight,  while pressure profile decreases. The increase of soot weight in entering gas increases the needed converter length. On the other hand, the increase of catalyst diameter does not affect to soot weight along converter and temperature profile, but results a less pressure drop. For 2.500 c diesel engine, packed bed catalytic converter with ellipse's cross sectional of 14,5X7,5 cm diagonal and 0,8 cm catalyst particle diameter, needs 4,1 cm length.

  8. Real-world comparison of probe vehicle emissions and fuel consumption using diesel and 5% biodiesel (B5) blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropkins, Karl; Quinn, Robert; Tate, James; Bell, Margaret; Beebe, Joe; Li, Hu; Daham, Basil; Andrews, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    An instrumented EURO I Ford Mondeo was used to perform a real-world comparison of vehicle exhaust (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen) emissions and fuel consumption for diesel and 5% biodiesel in diesel blend (B5) fuels. Data were collected on multiple replicates of three standardised on-road journeys: (1) a simple urban route; (2) a combined urban/inter-urban route; and, (3) an urban route subject to significant traffic management. At the total journey measurement level, data collected here indicate that replacing diesel with a B5 substitute could result in significant increases in both NO x emissions (8-13%) and fuel consumption (7-8%). However, statistical analysis of probe vehicle data demonstrated the limitations of comparisons based on such total journey measurements, i.e., methods analogous to those used in conventional dynamometer/drive cycle fuel comparison studies. Here, methods based on the comparison of speed/acceleration emissions and fuel consumption maps are presented. Significant variations across the speed/acceleration surface indicated that direct emission and fuel consumption impacts were highly dependent on the journey/drive cycle employed. The emission and fuel consumption maps were used both as descriptive tools to characterise impacts and predictive tools to estimate journey-specific emission and fuel consumption effects. (author)

  9. METHOD OF IMPROVING ENERGY, ECOLOGICAL AND STENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abramchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a complex method of deterioration of economic, ecological, and strength indicators of 16ЧН26/27 transport diesel engine. According to the offered method, there were considered conjugated problems applicable to the transport diesel engine combustion chamber and cooling cavities of the cylinder head. Based on the complex research conducted.

  10. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  11. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  12. Comparison of emissions and performance between saturated cyclic oxygenates and aromatics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Johansson, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Emissions and fuel economy are evaluated for two types of biofuels, namely 2-phenyl ethanol and cyclohexaneethanol. Both are derived from lignin, a form of lignocellulosic biomass. The former and latter oxygenates have an aromatic and aliphatic (i.e. saturated) ring structure, respectively. Two

  13. Dynamic behavior of Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery of heavy duty diesel engines under driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Can

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery behavior of the RCS during driving cycle was investigated. • Four operating modes were defined to describe the operating process of the RCS under driving cycle. • The operating mode switching is the crucial reason for on-road inefficiency. • The dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet ones on the adaptability to unsteady ExGE. • The effects of the vapor parameters on RCT-E and power mode percentage are opposite. - Abstract: The RCS (Rankine cycle system) used to recover the WHE (waste heat energy) from engines has been regarded as one of the most potential ways of achieving higher efficiency. However, it is of great challenge to keep the RCS still in good performance under driving cycle. This paper tries to reveal and explain its on-road inefficiency. The operating process of the RCS under driving cycle was analyzed in advance. Afterwards, four basic operating modes were defined, including startup mode, turbine turning mode, power mode and protection mode. Then, a RCS model was established and operating performances of the RCS under an actual driving cycle were discussed based on this model. The results indicate that the on-road RCS-E (Rankine cycle system efficiency) is as low as 3.63%, which is less than half of the design RCS-E (7.77%) at the rated operating point. Despite the inevitable vapor state fluctuation, it is the operating mode switching during the driving cycle that leads to the on-road inefficiency. Further investigations indicate that the expander safety temperature and its safety margin affected by the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure are the main factors determining the operating mode switching. Finally, the effects of the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure on the operating mode switching and RC (Rankine cycle) efficiencies were profoundly investigated. The study shows that the dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet ones due to their less probabilities of droplets formation as a consequence of their saturated vapor characteristics. The effects of the vapor parameters on the RCT-E (Rankine cycle thermal efficiency) and operating mode switching are opposite. Therefore, in order to optimize the RCS, it would be better to take full consideration in reducing the operating mode switching, while pursuing the maximum RCT-E

  14. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for mobile application - heavy duty diesel; Selektive Katalytische Reduktion (SCR) fuer die mobile Anwendung - LKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huennekes, E.; Neubauer, T. [Engelhard Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Roth, S.A.; Patchett, J.A. [Engelhard Corp., R and D, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Different system configurations of particulate and NOx control via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages were described and the final choice of the optimum system will strongly depend on the application, the market (US, EU) and the system costs. Especially when considering low temperature NOx control, the optimum adjustment of the NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio in front of an SCR system plays an important role. When generating NO2 over an oxidation catalyst, the resulting NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio strongly depends on temperature and space velocity. Steady state data show an optimum NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio between 35 and 60% at temperatures about 240 C. Three DOC systems in front of an SCR system were investigated with the purpose to generate high, low and optimum NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratios. The fast SCR reaction at 1:1 NO: NO2 with NH{sub 3} is the preferred reaction pathway until either NO or NO{sub 2} are consumed. The benefit of an optimum designed DOC system can be seen in the transient response after a sudden increase in urea dosing. The time for the optimum designed system to reach maximum NO{sub x} conversion is much shorter compared with systems having excess NO or NO{sub 2} Ammonia oxidation catalysts (AMOX) are effective means in controlling ammonia from SCR systems. To be effective, AMOX must have selectivity to nitrogen over N{sub 2}O and NO{sub x}. (orig.)

  15. Non-Tactical Vehicle Replacement for the Department of the Navy’s Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    persistent depression in world oil prices. However, this project illustrates a methodology that transportation officials can use to make future...persistent depression in world oil prices. However, this project illustrates a methodology that transportation officials can use to make future decisions...52  2.  Biodiesel

  16. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Jager, de A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat

  17. Experimental validation of a combustion kinetics based multi-zone model for natural gas-diesel RCCI engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Bekdemir, C.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the validation results of TNO's combustion model designed to support RCCI control development. In-depth validation was performed on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine operating in RCCI mode on natural gas and diesel fuel. It was shown that the adopted approach is able to

  18. FY2016 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-31

    Vehicle Systems is concerned with advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty (HD) vehicle systems to support DOE’s goals of developing technologies for the U.S. transportation sector that enhance national energy security,increase U.S. competitiveness in the global economy, and support improvement of U.S. transportation and energy infrastructure.

  19. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  20. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  1. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  2. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch eGiechaskiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories are used to quantify sources and identify trends in the emissions of air pollutants. They use vehicle-specific emission factors that are typically determined in the laboratory, through remote-sensing, vehicle chasing experiments and, more recently, on-board Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Although PEMS is widely applied to measure gaseous pollutants, their application to Solid Particle Number (SPN emissions is new. In this paper, we discuss the current status of determining SPN emission factors both on the chassis dynamometer and on-road using PEMS-SPN. First, we determine the influence of the measurement equipment, ambient temperature, driving style and cycle characteristics, and the extra mass of the PEMS equipment on the SPN emissions. Afterward, we present the SPN emissions under type-approval conditions as well as on the road of two heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF (one Euro VI, two light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF, one light-duty vehicle equipped with a Port Fuel Injection engine (PFI, and seven Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI passenger cars (two Euro 6. We find that cold-start and strong accelerations tend to substantially increase SPN emissions. The two heavy-duty vehicles showed emissions around 2×10^13 p/km (Euro V truck and 6×10^10 p/km (Euro VI truck, respectively. One of the DPF-equipped light-duty vehicles showed emissions of 8×10^11 p/km, while the other one had one order of magnitude lower emissions. The PFI car had SPN emissions slightly higher than 1×10^12 p/km. The emissions of GDI cars spanned approximately from 8×10^11 p/km to 8×10^12 p/km. For the cars without DPF, the SPN emissions remained within a factor of two of the laboratory results. This factor was on average around 0.8 for the Euro 6 and 1.6 for the Euro 5 GDIs. The DPF equipped vehicles showed a difference of almost one order of magnitude between laboratory and on-road tests

  3. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    flexural strength, lowest apparent porosity and water absorption of EAF slag based tile was attained at the composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag--30 wt.% ball clay--10 wt.% feldspar--20 wt.% silica. The properties of ceramic tile made with EAF slag waste (up to 40 wt.%), especially flexural strength are comparable to those of commercial ceramic tile and are, therefore, suitable as high flexural strength and heavy-duty green ceramic floor tile. Continuous development is currently underway to improve the properties of tile so that this recycling approach could be one of the potential effective, efficient and sustainable solutions in sustaining our nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  5. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  6. Numerical Evaluation ofThe Performance ofA Compression Ignition Cng Engine For Heavy DutyTrucksWithAn Optimum Speed PowerTurbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13 litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the performances of the after treatment system.

  7. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Yang; Lin Gui; Yefa Hu; Guoping Ding; Chunsheng Song

    2018-01-01

    Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. ...

  8. Fretting fatigue cracking of a center guide bolt supporting the combustion chamber in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas; Fischer, Boromir; Gaedicke, Tobias [Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Gasturbinenwerk Berlin (Germany). Werkstoffprueflabor

    2018-04-01

    The slotted center guide bolt of the center guide feature of the lower part of the outer shell of an annular combustion chamber was found fractured in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine used for power generation, after approximately 5.500 operating hours. The incident was a one-off event and not a recurring incident. No similar events were reported from the fleet; hence the failure was not considered a field issue. The metallurgical root cause investigation that was ordered to determine the failure mechanism revealed that the incident center guide bolt failed by fretting fatigue cracking, a high cycle fatigue (HCF) phenomenon.

  9. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  10. Modelling of NO{sub x} emission factors from heavy and light-duty vehicles equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L.M., E-mail: monalisa@unifor.br [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, C.M. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Moreno-Tost, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Farias, T.L. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Alternative SCR materials. {yields} Catalysts used in heavy-duty vehicles are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. {yields}Zeolites containing transition metal ions as catalysts for urea SCR has increased. {yields} FeZSM5 catalyst can be a possible candidate as far as pollutants regulation is considered. {yields} Regarding N{sub 2}O emissions mordenite based SCR do not emit this pollutant. - Abstract: NO{sub x} emission standards are becoming stringiest over the world especially for heavy-duty vehicles. To comply with current and future regulations some vehicle manufacturers are adopting exhaust aftertreatment systems known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The catalysts are based on Vanadium (Va) and the reductant agent based on ammonia. However, Va is listed on the California Proposition 65 List as potentially causing cancer and alternatives are being studied. This paper presents a model based on neural networks that integrated with a road vehicle simulator allows to estimate NO{sub x} emission factors for different powertrain configurations, along different driving conditions, and covering commercial, zeolite and mordenite alternatives as the base monolith for SCR. The research included the experimental study of copper based and iron based zeolites (ZSM5 and Cuban natural mordenite). The response of NO{sub x} conversion efficiency was monitored in a laboratory for varying space velocity, oxygen, sulfur, water, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emulating the conditions of a Diesel engine exhaust along a trip. The experimental data was used for training neural networks and obtaining a mathematical correlation between the outputs and inputs of the SCR system. The developed correlation was integrated with ADVISOR road vehicle simulator to obtain NO{sub x} emission factors and to test each SCR system installed on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles for standardized driving cycles and real measured driving cycles. Despite having lower NO

  11. Field Measurement of Dynamic Compressive Stress Response of Pavement-Subgrade Induced by Moving Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshi An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic compressive stress response of pavement-subgrade induced by moving heavy-duty trucks. In order to study the distribution characteristic of dynamic pressure of pavement-subgrade in more detail, truck loadings, truck speeds, and dynamic pressure distributions at different depths were monitored under twenty-five working conditions on the section of Qiqihar-Nenjiang Highway in Heilongjiang Province, China. The effects of truck loading, truck speed, and depth on dynamic compressive stress response can be concluded as follows: (1 increasing truck loading will increase the dynamic pressure amplitude of subgrade-pavement and dominant frequencies are close to the characteristic frequencies caused by heavy-duty trucks at the speed of 70 km/h; (2 as truck speed increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points have an increasing tendency; the dynamic pressure spectrums are also significantly influenced by truck speed: the higher the truck speed, the wider the spectrum and the higher the dominant frequencies; (3 as depth increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points decrease rapidly. The influence of the front axle decreases gradually until disappearing and the compressive stress superposition phenomenon caused by rear double axles can be found with increasing depth.

  12. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM, this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool. Keywords: CFRP drive-line system, Dynamic behavior, Transfer matrix, Vibration measurement

  13. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mo; Gui, Lin; Hu, Yefa; Ding, Guoping; Song, Chunsheng

    2018-03-01

    Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA) show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool.

  14. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  15. A distributed optimization approach to energy management for a heavy-duty truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Constantijn; Donkers, Tijs; Weiland, Siep; Kessels, John

    2014-01-01

    Energy management systems (EMS) aim at minimizing the vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions under the wide range of driving conditions. Classical energy management systems for hybrid vehicles control the powersplit between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the electric motor (EM)

  16. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Gen; Liu Wanhua

    2008-01-01

    The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. ...

  17. Panorama 2016 - Diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, Gaetan; Ivanic, Tanja; Alazard-Toux, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Diesel vehicles have been the focus of recent national and world news coverage. This solution, with greater overall efficiency than spark emission engines (gasoline, LPG and natural gas), remains an essential aspect of road freight transport. Diesel has even gained a significant share of the light vehicle market in certain regions of the world. However, diesel is currently the focus of numerous controversies and has been condemned for its negative impact on air quality. (authors)

  18. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  19. Caracterização das emissões de aldeídos de veículos do ciclo diesel Emission of aldehydes from light duty diesel vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui de Abrantes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar as emissões de acetaldeído e formaldeído, substâncias nocivas para a saúde das pessoas e cujas emissões dos veículos a diesel ainda não estão regulamentadas. MÉTODOS: Testes padronizados foram realizados em quatro veículos leves comerciais do ciclo diesel, testados num dinamômetro de chassis, usando o procedimento de teste FTP-75. Os poluentes foram analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que a emissão de acetaldeído variou de 5,9 a 45,4 mg/km e a de formaldeído variou de 16,5 a 115,2 mg/km. A emissão média para a soma dos aldeídos foi de 58,7 mg/km, variando de 22,5 mg/km a 160 mg/km. A proporção entre os dois se manteve constante, próximo de 74% de formaldeído e 26% de acetaldeído. CONCLUSÕES: A emissão de aldeídos provenientes de veículos movidos a diesel foi significativa quando comparada com as emissões reais dos veículos de ignição por centelha ou com o limite previsto para os veículos do ciclo Otto na legislação brasileira. O estabelecimento de limites de emissão para essas substâncias para veículos a diesel mostra-se importante, considerando o crescimento da frota de veículos a diesel, a toxicidade desses compostos e sua participação como precursores nas reações de formação de gás ozônio na baixa troposfera.OBJECTIVE: To characterize acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions, which are harmful gases to human health and not yet regulated for diesel engines. METHODS: Standardized tests were performed in four diesel light duty commercial vehicles, using a frame dynamometer and test procedure FTP-75. The pollutants were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Results have shown acetaldehyde emission ranged from 5.9 to 45.4 mg/km, and formaldehyde emission from 16.5 to 115.2 mg/km. The average emission for aldehyde sum was 58.7 mg/km, ranging from 22.4 to 160.6 mg/km. The proportion between the two

  20. LP compressor blade vibration characteristics at starting conditions of a 100 MW heavy-duty gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, An Sung; Vedichtchev, Alexandre F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper are presented the blade vibration characteristics at the starting conditions of the low pressure multistage axial compressor of heavy-duty 100 MW gas turbine. Vibration data have been collected through strain gauges during aerodynamic tests of the model compressor. The influences of operating modes at the starting conditions are investigated upon the compressor blade vibrations. The exciting mechanisms and features of blade vibrations are investigated at the surge, rotating stall, and buffeting flutter. The influences of operating modes upon blade dynamic stresses are investigated for the first and second stages. It is shown that a high dynamic stress peak of 120 MPa can occur in the first stage blades due to resonances with stall cell excitations or with inlet strut wake excitations at the stalled conditions

  1. 40 CFR 86.1231-90 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1231-90 Vehicle preparation. (a) Prepare the fuel tank(s) for... tank is 40 percent full. (b) Provide additional fittings and adapters, as required, to accommodate a...

  2. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Bunker, Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division, U.S. Environmental Protection... Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel and Dual-Fuel Conversions E. Vehicle/Engine Labels, Packaging Labels, and Marketing F. Compliance 1. Emission Standards a. Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty Chassis Certified...

  3. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural dryin...

  4. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. Using top kiss risers, enlarging kissing areas and expanding covering width and making ingates to freeze earlier are the effective measures to eliminate shrinkage, blowhole and oxide inclusions in the vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads.

  5. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  6. Opportunities for High-Value Bioblendstocks to Enable Advanced Light- and Heavy-Duty Engines: Insights from the Co-Optima Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, John T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-25

    Co-Optima research and analysis have identified fuel properties that enable advanced light-duty and heavy-duty engines. There are a large number of blendstocks readily derived from biomass that possess beneficial properties. Key research needs have been identified for performance, technology, economic, and environmental metrics.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 85 - Vehicle and Engine Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Operating pressure(s). h. Injector timing calibrations. V. Injection System. 1. Control parameters and.... Operating pressure(s). h. Injector timing calibration. IV. Ignition System. 1. Control parameters and... calibrations. 2. Component calibrations. c. heavy duty diesel engine parameters and specifications I. Basic...

  8. Layout design and energetic analysis of a complex diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio; Venditti, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layout design, energetic and cost analysis of complex parallel hybrid vehicles. • Development of global and real-time optimizers for control strategy identification. • Rule-based control strategies to minimize fuel consumption and NO x . • Energy share across each working mode for battery and thermal engine. - Abstract: The present paper is focused on the design, optimization and analysis of a complex parallel hybrid electric vehicle, equipped with two electric machines on both the front and rear axles, and on the evaluation of its potential to reduce fuel consumption and NO x emissions over several driving missions. The vehicle has been compared with two conventional parallel hybrid vehicles, equipped with a single electric machine on the front axle or on the rear axle, as well as with a conventional vehicle. All the vehicles have been equipped with compression ignition engines. The optimal layout of each vehicle was identified on the basis of the minimization of the overall powertrain costs during the whole vehicle life. These costs include the initial investment due to the production of the components as well as the operating costs related to fuel consumption and to battery depletion. Identification of the optimal powertrain control strategy, in terms of the management of the power flows of the engine and electric machines, and of gear selection, is necessary in order to be able to fully exploit the potential of the hybrid architecture. To this end, two global optimizers, one of a deterministic nature and another of a stochastic type, and two real-time optimizers have been developed, applied and compared. A new mathematical technique has been developed and applied to the vehicle simulation model in order to decrease the computational time of the optimizers. First, the vehicle model equations were written in order to allow a coarse time grid to be used, then, the control variables (i.e., power flow and gear number) were discretized, and the

  9. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NO x emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NO x ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NO x ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NO x emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NO x ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NO x ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NO x ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NO x ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles. Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NO x ratio of 0.8% has possibly linked to underestimation of the total HONO

  10. Design sensitivity analysis for heavy-duty hybrid electric trucks with a waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, F.J.R.; Hofman, T.

    One general trend aiming to improve the development of hybrid electric powertrains is the reduction of production cost of powertrains by developing powertrain components that can be used for multiple vehicle segments. The development of these kind of modular powertrain components requires knowledge

  11. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... standards. Data with this level of detail, especially the combined vehicle build and usage statistics, are... comments. Fax: 1 (202) 493-2251. Mail or Hand Delivery: Docket Management Facility, U.S. Department of... emissions technologies, and usage. The survey is part of a larger coordinated research program aimed at...

  12. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. ► Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. ► Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. ► The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores TOT ) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N TOT and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N TOT at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N TOT post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ∼10 4 cm −3 . This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the aftertreatment is highly favored.

  14. Impact on vehicle fuel economy of the soot loading on diesel particulate filters made of different substrate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millo, Federico; Andreata, Maurizio; Rafigh, Mahsa; Mercuri, Davide; Pozzi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Wall flow DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters) are nowadays universally adopted for all European passenger cars. Since the properties of the filter substrate material play a fundamental role in determining the optimal soot loading level to be reached before DPF regeneration, three different filter material substrates (Silicon Carbide, Aluminum Titanate and Cordierite) were investigated in this work, considering different driving conditions, after treatment layouts and regeneration strategies. In the first step of the research, an experimental investigation on the three different substrates over the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) was performed. The data obtained from experiments were then used for the calibration and the validation of a one dimensional fluid-dynamic engine and after treatment simulation model. Afterward, the model was used to predict the vehicle fuel consumption increments as a function of the exhaust back pressure due to the soot loading for different driving cycles. The results showed that appreciable fuel consumption increments could be noticed only in particular driving conditions, and, as a consequence, in most of the cases the optimal filter regeneration strategy corresponds to reach the highest soot loading that still ensures the component safety even in case of uncontrolled regeneration events. - Highlights: • Three different substrate materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter were investigated. • Fuel consumption increases due to DPF soot loading were generally not appreciable. • Optimal soot loading before regeneration was the highest safeguarding DPF integrity. • SiC substrate showed highest soot load limit and lowest fuel consumption penalties. • AT and Cd substrate properties lead to lower soot load limits than SiC

  15. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1102-87 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., governed speed, injector size, engine calibration, or other parameters which may be designated by the... for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks...-, diesel-, and methanol-fueled), vehicle usage, engine horsepower or additional criteria that the...

  17. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  18. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Appelman, W.A.J.; Verheul, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However estimates of the emissions of these metals from road

  19. The G6 - a heavy-duty six-wheeled shunting locomotive; Dreiachsige Hochleistungsrangierlokomotive G6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Tim [Vossloh Locomotives GmbH, Kiel (Germany). Entwicklung und Standardisierung

    2009-03-15

    With the three-axle shunter G6, exhibited at Innotrans 2008, the renowned producer of rail vehicles Vossloh Locomotives GmbH marks the beginning of a generational change - not only for three-axle but also for four-axle locomotives. In order to replace the type G765C the G6 has been developed in close cooperation with potential customers. Their request concerning robustness and reliability as well as the equipment options set standards for central driver's cab locomotives in general and lead the way for future four-axle replacements within the Vossloh product family. (orig.)

  20. Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5, and black carbon (BC. These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three factors corresponding to gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, and the urban background. Using the source profiles, we calculate fuel-based emission factors for each type of exhaust. The MCMA's gasoline-powered vehicles are considerably dirtier, on average, than those in the US with respect to CO and aldehydes. Its diesel-powered vehicles have similar emission factors of NOx and higher emission factors of aldehydes, particle number, and BC. In the fleet sampled during AML driving, gasoline-powered vehicles are found to be responsible for 97% of total vehicular emissions of CO, 22% of NOx, 95–97% of each aromatic species, 72–85% of each carbonyl species, 74% of ammonia, negligible amounts of particle number, 26% of PM2.5, and 2% of BC; diesel-powered vehicles account for the balance. Because the mobile lab spent 17% of its time waiting at stoplights, the results may overemphasize idling conditions, possibly resulting in an underestimate of NOx and overestimate of CO emissions. On the other hand, estimates of the inventory that do not correctly account for emissions during idling are likely to produce bias in the opposite direction.The resulting fuel

  1. Developing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Models to Evaluate Available Energy in Exhaust Systems of Diesel Light-Duty Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández-Yáñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Around a third of the energy input in an automotive engine is wasted through the exhaust system. Since numerous technologies to harvest energy from exhaust gases are accessible, it is of great interest to find time- and cost-efficient methods to evaluate available thermal energy under different engine conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is becoming a very valuable tool for numerical predictions of exhaust flows. In this work, a methodology to build a simple three-dimensional (3D model of the exhaust system of automotive internal combustion engines (ICE was developed. Experimental data of exhaust gas in the most used part of the engine map in passenger diesel vehicles were employed as input for calculations. Sensitivity analyses of different numeric schemes have been conducted in order to attain accurate results. The model built allows for obtaining details on temperature and pressure fields along the exhaust system, and for complementing the experimental results for a better understanding of the flow phenomena and heat transfer through the system for further energy recovery devices.

  2. Emission measurement of diesel vehicles in Hong Kong through on-road remote sensing: Performance review and identification of high-emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Organ, Bruce; Zhou, John L; Surawski, Nic C; Hong, Guang; Chan, Edward F C; Yam, Yat Shing

    2018-06-01

    A two-year remote sensing measurement program was carried out in Hong Kong to obtain a large dataset of on-road diesel vehicle emissions. Analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of vehicle manufacture year (1949-2015) and engine size (0.4-20 L) on the emission rates and high-emitters. The results showed that CO emission rates of larger engine size vehicles were higher than those of small vehicles during the study period, while HC and NO were higher before manufacture year 2006 and then became similar levels between manufacture years 2006 and 2015. CO, HC and NO of all vehicles showed an unexpectedly increasing trend during 1998-2004, in particular ≥6001 cc vehicles. However, they all decreased steadily in the last decade (2005-2015), except for NO of ≥6001 cc vehicles during 2013-2015. The distributions of CO and HC emission rates were highly skewed as the dirtiest 10% vehicles emitted much higher emissions than all the other vehicles. Moreover, this skewness became more significant for larger engine size or newer vehicles. The results indicated that remote sensing technology would be very effective to screen the CO and HC high-emitters and thus control the on-road vehicle emissions, but less effective for controlling NO emissions. No clear correlation was observed between the manufacture year and percentage of high-emitters for ≤3000 cc vehicles. However, the percentage of high-emitters decreased with newer manufacture year for larger vehicles. In addition, high-emitters of different pollutants were relatively independent, in particular NO emissions, indicating that high-emitter screening criteria should be defined on a CO-or-HC-or-NO basis, rather than a CO-and-HC-and-NO basis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variations in speciated emissions from spark-ignition and compression-ignition motor vehicles in California's south coast air basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Eric M; Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Sagebiel, John C; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Chow, Judith C; Gabele, Peter A; Crews, William; Snow, Richard; Clark, Nigel N; Wayne, W Scott; Lawson, Douglas R

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study examined the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the contributions of spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine exhaust to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presents the chemical composition profiles of SI and CI engine exhaust from the vehicle-testing portion of the study. Chemical analysis of source samples consisted of gravimetric mass, elements, ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) thermal/optical methods, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, alkanes, and polar organic compounds. More than half of the mass of carbonaceous particles emitted by heavy-duty diesel trucks was EC (IMPROVE) and emissions from SI vehicles contained predominantly OC. Although total carbon (TC) by the IMPROVE and STN protocols agreed well for all of the samples, the STN/IMPROVE ratios for EC from SI exhaust decreased with decreasing sample loading. SI vehicles, whether low or high emitters, emitted greater amounts of high-molecular-weight particulate PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and coronene) than did CI vehicles. Diesel emissions contained higher abundances of two- to four-ring semivolatile PAHs. Diacids were emitted by CI vehicles but are also prevalent in secondary organic aerosols, so they cannot be considered unique tracers. Hopanes and steranes were present in lubricating oil with similar composition for both gasoline and diesel vehicles and were negligible in gasoline or diesel fuels. CI vehicles emitted greater total amounts of hopanes and steranes on a mass per mile basis, but abundances were comparable to SI exhaust normalized to TC emissions within measurement uncertainty. The combustion-produced high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in used

  4. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9759-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption; California's 2010 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicle and... for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and extraordinary...

  5. On-board measurements of gaseous pollutant emission characteristics under real driving conditions from light-duty diesel vehicles in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Lang, Jianlei; Li, Song; Tian, Liang

    2016-08-01

    A total of 15 light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs) were tested with the goal of understanding the emission factors of real-world vehicles by conducting on-board emission measurements. The emission characteristics of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at different speeds, chemical species profiles and ozone formation potential (OFP) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from diesel vehicles with different emission standards were analyzed. The results demonstrated that emission reductions of HC and NOx had been achieved as the control technology became more rigorous from Stage I to Stage IV. It was also found that the HC and NOx emissions and percentage of O2 dropped with the increase of speed, while the percentage of CO2 increased. The abundance of alkanes was significantly higher in diesel vehicle emissions, approximately accounting for 41.1%-45.2%, followed by aromatics and alkenes. The most abundant species were propene, ethane, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method was adopted to evaluate the contributions of individual VOCs to OFP. The results indicated that the largest contributors to O3 production were alkenes and aromatics, which accounted for 87.7%-91.5%. Propene, ethene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1-butene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene were the top five VOC species based on their OFP, and accounted for 54.0%-64.8% of the total OFP. The threshold dilution factor was applied to analyze the possibility of VOC stench pollution. The majority of stench components emitted from vehicle exhaust were aromatics, especially p-diethylbenzene, propylbenzene, m-ethyltoluene, and p-ethyltoluene. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Fuel Distribution Effect on Flow and Temperature Field in a Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaowen; Xing, Li; Yin, Hong; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Qun

    2018-03-01

    Multiple-swirlers structure is commonly adopted for combustion design strategy in heavy duty gas turbine. The multiple-swirlers structure might shorten the flame brush length and reduce emissions. In engineering application, small amount of gas fuel is distributed for non-premixed combustion as a pilot flame while most fuel is supplied to main burner for premixed combustion. The effect of fuel distribution on the flow and temperature field related to the combustor performance is a significant issue. This paper investigates the fuel distribution effect on the combustor performance by adjusting the pilot/main burner fuel percentage. Five pilot fuel distribution schemes are considered including 3 %, 5 %, 7 %, 10 % and 13 %. Altogether five pilot fuel distribution schemes are computed and deliberately examined. The flow field and temperature field are compared, especially on the multiple-swirlers flow field. Computational results show that there is the optimum value for the base load of combustion condition. The pilot fuel percentage curve is calculated to optimize the combustion operation. Under the combustor structure and fuel distribution scheme, the combustion achieves high efficiency with acceptable OTDF and low NOX emission. Besides, the CO emission is also presented.

  7. Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Craig Matthew; Papadimitriou, Iakovos; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results of TO4233, "Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles". This project represents a continuing effort of PATH's research on Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and more specifically in the area of heavy vehicles. Research on the lateral control of heavy vehicles for AHS has been going on at PATH since 1993. MOU129, "Steering and Braking Control of Heavy Duty Vehicles" was the first project and it was followed by MOU242, "Lateral Control...

  8. An experimental investigation on the influence of piston bowl geometry on RCCI performance and emissions in a heavy-duty engine

    OpenAIRE

    Benajes Calvo, Jesus Vicente; Pastor Soriano, José Vicente; García Martínez, Antonio; Monsalve Serrano, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This experimental work investigates the effects of piston bowl geometry on RCCI performance and emissions at low, medium and high engine loads. For this purpose three different piston bowl geometries with compression ratio 14.4:1 have been evaluated using single and double injection strategies. The experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine adapted for dual fuel operation. All the tests were carried out at 1200 rev/min. Results suggest that piston geometry has grea...

  9. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  10. Effects of battery charge acceptance and battery aging in complete vehicle energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalik, Z.; Romijn, T.C.J.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Weiland, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to the complete vehicle energy management problem with battery charge acceptance limitations and battery aging limitations. The problem is solved using distributed optimization for a case study of a hybrid heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a refrigerated

  11. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  12. Utilisation of a new fire fighting device on board of a diesel vehicle in the underground German black coal industry; Einsatz einer neuartigen bordfesten Loeschanlage auf dieselgetriebenen Fahrzeugen im untertaegigen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetting, Dieter; Alze, Matthias [Bergwerk Ost, Hamm (Germany); Cerny, Udo [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik - DZGR

    2010-03-15

    In the German hard coal mining industry approximately since the 1970ies, automatically releasing stationary powder snow based fire fighting systems are built on diesel vehicles due to reasons of fire protection. These fire fighting systems are to recognize a developing fire by sensors and to extinguish the fire by an automatic output of a fire fighting agent with high rate (HRD = High Rate Discharge) into a closed engine compartment or within the range of hydraulics. Simultaneously with the releasing of the fire extinguishing system the engine of the vehicle is stop automatically. Due to the stationary fire fighting systems diesel vehicles are not classified with views of risk as fire load.

  13. Effects of improved spatial and temporal modeling of on-road vehicle emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhjem, Christian E; Pollack, Alison K; DenBleyker, Allison; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2012-04-01

    Numerous emission and air quality modeling studies have suggested the need to accurately characterize the spatial and temporal variations in on-road vehicle emissions. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact that using detailed traffic activity data has on emission estimates used to model air quality impacts. The on-road vehicle emissions are estimated by multiplying the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by the fleet-average emission factors determined by road link and hour of day. Changes in the fraction of VMT from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) can have a significant impact on estimated fleet-average emissions because the emission factors for HDDV nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are much higher than those for light-duty gas vehicles (LDGVs). Through detailed road link-level on-road vehicle emission modeling, this work investigated two scenarios for better characterizing mobile source emissions: (1) improved spatial and temporal variation of vehicle type fractions, and (2) use of Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES2010) instead of MOBILE6 exhaust emission factors. Emissions were estimated for the Detroit and Atlanta metropolitan areas for summer and winter episodes. The VMT mix scenario demonstrated the importance of better characterizing HDDV activity by time of day, day of week, and road type. More HDDV activity occurs on restricted access road types on weekdays and at nonpeak times, compared to light-duty vehicles, resulting in 5-15% higher NOx and PM emission rates during the weekdays and 15-40% lower rates on weekend days. Use of MOVES2010 exhaust emission factors resulted in increases of more than 50% in NOx and PM for both HDDVs and LDGVs, relative to MOBILE6. Because LDGV PM emissions have been shown to increase with lower temperatures, the most dramatic increase from MOBILE6 to MOVES2010 emission rates occurred for PM2.5 from LDGVs that increased 500% during colder wintertime conditions found in Detroit, the northernmost

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... power coupler; diesel engine; accumulator; hydraulic motor .... Most hybrid hydraulic studies especially related to electrical motor u ystem as the suitable ... ed on heavy duty vehicles that commonly used diesel engine, it is pro.

  15. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  16. Diesel vehicle and urban burning contributions to black carbon concentrations and size distributions in Tijuana, Mexico, during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Shores, C. A.; Marr, L. C.; Zheng, J.; Levy, M.; Zhang, R.; Castillo, E.; Rodriguez-Ventura, J. G.; Quintana, P. J. E.; Subramanian, R.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) was characterized by three complementary techniques - incandescence (single particle soot photometer, SP2, at Parque Morelos), light absorption (cavity ringdown spectrometer with integrating nephelometer, CRDS-Neph, at Parque Morelos and Aethalometers at seven locations), and volatility (volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer, V-TDMA) during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign. SP2, CRDS-Neph, and Aethalometer measurements characterized the BC mass, and SP2 and V-TDMA measurements also quantified BC-containing particle number, from which mass-mean BC diameters were calculated. On average, the mass concentrations measured in Tijuana (1.8 ± 2.6 μg m-3 at Parque Morelos and 2.6 μg m-3 in other regions of Tijuana) were higher than in San Diego or the international border crossing (0.5 ± 0.6 μg m-3). The observed BC mass concentrations were attributable to nighttime urban burning activities and diesel vehicles, both from the local (Baja California) and transported (Southern California) diesel vehicle fleets. Comparisons of the SP2 and co-located Aethalometers indicated that the two methods measured similar variations in BC mass concentrations (correlation coefficients greater than 0.85), and the mass concentrations were similar for the BC particles identified from nighttime urban burning sources. When the BC source changed to diesel vehicle emissions, the SP2 mass concentrations were lower than the Aethalometer mass concentrations by about 50%, likely indicating a change in the mass absorption efficiency and quantification by the Aethalometers. At Parque Morelos there were up to three different-sized modes of BC mass in particles: one mode below 100 nm, one near 100 nm, and another between 200 and 300 nm. The mode between 200 and 300 nm was associated with urban burning activities that influenced the site during evening hours. When backtrajectories indicated that airmasses came from the south to the Parque Morelos site, BC mass in particles was

  17. Dimethylether. Diesel alternative for the future?; Dimethylether. Dieselalternative der Zukunft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Martin; Wachtmeister, Georg [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    2010-07-15

    Due to dwindling resources, heavy price volatility and the unilateral dependency on crude oil, the demand for alternatives to diesel and gas fuels is increasing. Dimethylether (DME) seems to present a promising option. Early 2009, within the framework of a six month FVV project (keyword 'DME - Alternative Fuels', purpose No. 1005), a potential analysis of DME as a fuel was carried out at the Chair of Combustion Engines (LVK) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM). This paper concludes important information about DME from the point of view of heavy duty engine development. (orig.)

  18. Megacity pollution by modern Diesel cars: New insights into the nature and formation of volatile nano-particles with high lung intrusion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F.; Reichl, U.; Muschik, Ch.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Pirjola, L.; Rönkkö, T.; Keskinen, J.; Rothe, D.; Lähde, T.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol particles generated by Diesel vehicles represent mayor health affecting air pollutants in cities and near motor ways. To mitigate the Diesel particle pollution problem, Diesel vehicles become increasingly fitted or retro-fitted with modern exhaust after treatment systems (ATS), which remove most engine-generated primary particles, particularly soot. Unfortunately however, ATS have undesired side effects including also the formation of low vapour pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to volatile nucleation particles (NUP). NUP are substantially smaller (diameters: 5-15 nm) than soot particles (diameters: 40-100 nm), and therefore may be termed real nano-particles. NUP can intrude with maximum efficiency the lowest, least protected, and most vulnerable compartment of the human lung. However, the chemical nature and mechanism of formation of NUP are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, we have made the first on line and off line measurements of low vapour pressure NUP precursor gases in the exhaust of a modern heavy duty Diesel vehicle engine, operated with and without ATS and combusting low and ultra-low sulphur fuels including also bio fuel. In addition, we have made accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations. The on line measurements involved a CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) method originally developed by MPIK. They took place directly in the Diesel exhaust and had a large sensitivity and a fast time response (1 s). The off line measurements involved adsorption of exhaust gases on stainless steel, followed by thermo desorption and detection of desorbed exhaust molecules by CIMS. We find that modern Diesel ATS strongly increase the formation of hydroxyl radicals, which induce conversion of fuel sulphur to the important NUP precursor gaseous sulphuric acid. We also find that appreciable amounts of di-carboxylic acids survive the passage of the ATS or are even formed by the

  19. Diesel-powered Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Diesel-powered automobiles are in the news following emission concerns raised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This fact sheet contains background information on diesel-powered motor vehicles and diesel fuel.

  20. An assessment of the real-world driving gaseous emissions from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, José M.; Bermúdez, Vicente; Dolz, Vicente; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Recent investigations demonstrated that real-world emissions usually exceed the levels achieved in the laboratory based type approval processes. By means of on-board emissions measurements, it has been shown that nitrogen oxides emitted by diesel engines substantially exceed the limit imposed by the Euro 6 regulation. Thus, with the aim of complementing the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle, the real driving emissions cycle will be introduced after 1 September 2017 to regulate the vehicle emissions in real-world driving situations. This paper presents on-board gaseous emissions measurements from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle in a real-world driving route using a portable emissions measurement system. The test route characteristics follow the requirements imposed by the RDE regulation. The analysis of the raw emissions results suggests that the greatest amount of nitrogen oxides and nitrogen dioxide are emitted during the urban section of the test route, confirming that lower speeds with more accelerations and decelerations lead to higher nitrogen oxides emissions levels than constant high speeds. Moreover, the comparison of the two calculation methods proposed by the real driving emissions regulation has revealed emissions rates differences ranging from 10% to 45% depending on the pollutant emission and the trip section considered (urban or total). Thus, the nitrogen oxides emissions conformity factor slightly varies from one method to the other.