WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy-duty diesel vehicles

  1. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (Heavy-Duty 610... EPA's 610 Review related to Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur... Review of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements...

  2. Combustion and emission analysis of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Xue; Wang, Xiancheng; Zhou, Jingkai

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the research on combustion and emission characteristics of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, a bench test was carried out for PM and NOx emission for a certain type diesel engine under different speed and loads. Results shows that for this type of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, ignition delay is longer and the proportion of diffusion combustion increases under high speed of external characteristics conditions. Under the speed of 1400 r/min, ignition delay decreases with load increases, combustion duration shortened at first, then increases, the proportion of diffusion combustion increases. The ignition delay is longer and cylinder temperature is higher under lower speed external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavier; with large load of external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavy as well.

  3. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE LOAD ESTIMATION: DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Heavy-Duty Vehicle Modal Emission Model (HDDV-MEM) developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology(Georgia Tech) has a capability to model link-specific second-by-second emissions using speed/accleration matrices. To estimate emissions, engine power demand calculated usin...

  4. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.

  5. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  6. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics.

  7. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  8. Metals emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with advanced PM and NO X emission controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D.; Shafer, Martin; Robertson, William; Schauer, James J.; Dwyer, Harry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto

    Emission factors for elemental metals were determined from several heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) of 1998-2007 vintage, operating with advanced PM and/or NO X emissions control retrofits on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, under steady state cruise, transient, and idle conditions. The emission control retrofits included diesel particulate filters (DPF): catalyzed and uncatalyzed, passive and active prototype vanadium- or zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, and a catalyzed DPF fitted on a hybrid diesel electric drive vehicle. The prototype SCR systems in combination with DPF retrofits are of particular interest because they represent the expected emissions controls for compliance with PM and NO X regulations in 2010. PM samples from a full-exhaust dilution tunnel were collected on bulk filters, and on a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS) for total and water-soluble elemental analysis. All the DPFs significantly reduced emissions of total trace elements (>85% and >95% for cruise and for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), respectively). However, we observed differences in the post-retrofit metals emissions due to driving cycle effects (i.e., exhaust temperature) and type of retrofit. In general, the metals emissions over cruise conditions (which leads to higher exhaust temperatures) were substantially different from the emissions over a transient cycle or while idling. For instance, during cruise, we observed higher levels of platinum (1.1 ± 0.6-4.2 ± 3.6 ng km -1) for most of the retrofit-equipped vehicle tests compared to the baseline configuration (0.3 ± 0.1 ng km -1). The vanadium-based DPF + SCR vehicle during cruise operation exhibited emissions of vanadium (562 ± 265 ng km -1) and titanium (5841 ± 3050 ng km -1), suggesting the possible release of actual SCR wash-coat (V 2O 5/TiO 2) from the catalyst under the higher temperatures characteristic of cruise operation. The vanadium emissions exhibited a bi

  9. Quantifying on-road emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles: accounting for the presence of medium- and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; DeMartini, Steven J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-12-03

    Vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic aerosol (OA), and black carbon (BC) were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Measurements were made in bore 2 of the tunnel, where light-duty (LD) vehicles accounted for >99% of total traffic and heavy-duty trucks were not allowed. Prior emission studies conducted in North America have often assumed that route- or weekend-specific prohibitions on heavy-duty truck traffic imply that diesel contributions to pollutant concentrations measured in on-road settings can be neglected. However, as light-duty vehicle emissions have declined, this assumption can lead to biased results, especially for pollutants such as NOx, OA, and BC, for which diesel-engine emission rates are high compared to corresponding values for gasoline engines. In this study, diesel vehicles (mostly medium-duty delivery trucks with two axles and six tires) accounted for emission factors for light-duty vehicles are, respectively, 10 and 50 times lower than for heavy-duty diesel trucks. Using measured emission factors from this study and publicly available data on taxable fuel sales, as of 2010, LD gasoline vehicles were estimated to be responsible for 85%, 18%, 18%, and 6% of emissions of CO, NOx, OA, and BC, respectively, from on-road motor vehicles in the United States.

  10. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Baldauf, Richard W.; Zhang, K. Max; Hu, Jingnan; Li, Zhenhua; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-09-01

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and creates strong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to total particle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used to estimate total BC emissions from historical PM data; however, these ratios have not been measured using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) in order to obtain real-world measurements over a wide range of driving conditions. In this study, we developed a PEMS platform by integrating two Aethalometers and an electric low pressure impactor to realize the joint measurement of real-world BC and PM emissions for ten HDDVs in China. Test results showed that the average BC/PM ratio for five HDDVs equipped with mechanical fuel injection (MI) engines was 0.43 ± 0.06, significantly lower (P engines (0.56 ± 0.12). Traffic conditions also affected the BC/PM ratios with higher ratios on freeway routes than on local roads. Furthermore, higher ratios were observed for HDDVs equipped with EI engines than for the MI engines for the highway and local road routes. With an operating mode binning approach, we observed that the instantaneous BC/PM ratios of EI engine vehicles were above those of the MI engine vehicles in all operating modes except for the braking mode (i.e., Bin 0). Therefore, the complex impacts from engine technology and traffic conditions on BC/PM ratios should be carefully considered when estimating real-world BC emissions from HDDVs based on overall PM emissions data.

  11. Chemical speciation of PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Verma, Vishal; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Four heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) in six retrofitted configurations (CRT ®, V-SCRT ®, Z-SCRT ®, Horizon, DPX and CCRT ®) and a baseline vehicle operating without after--treatment were tested under cruise (50 mph), transient UDDS and idle driving modes. As a continuation of the work by Biswas et al. [Biswas, S., Hu, S., Verma, V., Herner, J., Robertson, W.J., Ayala, A., Sioutas, C., 2008. Physical properties of particulate matter (PM) from late model heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating with advanced emission control technologies. Atmospheric Environment 42, 5622-5634.] on particle physical parameters, this paper focuses on PM chemical characteristics (Total carbon [TC], Elemental carbon [EC], Organic Carbon [OC], ions and water-soluble organic carbon [WSOC]) for cruise and UDDS cycles only. Size-resolved PM collected by MOUDI-Nano-MOUDI was analyzed for TC, EC and OC and ions (such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium and phosphate), while Teflon coated glass fiber filters from a high volume sampler were extracted to determine WSOC. The introduction of retrofits reduced PM mass emissions over 90% in cruise and 95% in UDDS. Similarly, significant reductions in the emission of major chemical constituents (TC, OC and EC) were achieved. Sulfate dominated PM composition in vehicle configurations (V-SCRT ®-UDDS, Z-SCRT ®-Cruise, CRT ® and DPX) with considerable nucleation mode and TC was predominant for configurations with less (Z-SCRT ®-UDDS) or insignificant (CCRT ®, Horizon) nucleation. The transient operation increases EC emissions, consistent with its higher accumulation PM mode content. In general, solubility of organic carbon is higher (average ˜5 times) for retrofitted vehicles than the baseline vehicle. The retrofitted vehicles with catalyzed filters (DPX, CCRT ®) had decreased OC solubility (WSOC/OC: 8-25%) unlike those with uncatalyzed filters (SCRT ®s, Horizon; WSOC/OC ˜ 60-100%). Ammonium was present predominantly in the

  12. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  13. Impact of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles on Air Quality and Control of Their Emissions%重型柴油车对空气质量的影响及其排放的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周磊; 王伯光; 汤大钢

    2011-01-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories,this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions.Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere,causing regional haze.Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health,and in particular,the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes.Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China,and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions.Hence,controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan,and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed.%通过对柴油车污染物排放的特征和机动车排放清单的分析,探讨了重型柴油车对我国城市空气质量的影响及其排放的控制.重型柴油车排放大量的氮氧化物和颗粒物,其中氮氧化物为大气中产生二次细粒子以及臭氧的重要前体物之一,导致区域性灰霾的形成,而柴油颗粒物是影响健康的一个主要有毒空气污染物,尤其是其中粒径为30~100 nm的超细粒子,由于其粒径非常微小,对人体健康有极大的危害性.目前机动车已成为我国很多大城市和城市群地区的重要空气污染源,而其中的重型柴油车则排放了很大部分的氮氧化物和细颗粒物.因此,控制重型柴油车的排放

  14. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of stea

  15. Product audit for heavy duty diesel engines in production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sanghoon; Beresford, Jim

    2005-09-01

    A product audit at manufacturing plants has become more important due to the customer's requirements on product quality. Noise and vibration performance have been a primary concern for gas engines and small size diesel engines. Lately, more interest has been shown by truck manufacturers about engine noise for heavy duty diesel application. It has been regarded that acoustic measurements requires dedicated measurement environment for detailed study. This case study shows that acoustic measurements can be performed at performance cell without any dedicated acoustic treatment at the manufacturing plant to identify some of the noise characteristics with proper preparation. Order tracking and loudness were used to identify two different characteristics related to front gear train in heavy duty diesel engines. In addition, the coordination between technical organization and manufacturing plant for the data acquisition and analysis is discussed.

  16. A Fuel Economy Study in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Watanabe; Wim van Dam; Gary Parsons; Peter Kleijwegt

    2011-01-01

    Internal combustion engines′ fuel economy is an important role for engine designers,engine manufacturers over the past 30 years,especially passenger car motor oils.In heavy duty diesel engine,over the past 20 years,fuel economy has in some cases been sacrificed for exhaust gas emission optimizations.Now,Heavy Duty Automotive and the related industries have strong interest in fuel economy and the lubricants.It is driven by competitive market forces as well as government mandates and new emission regulations.Japan was the first country in the world to establish and implement heavy duty trucks and buses fuel economy standards.Other countries also have followed either by establishing direct fuel economy standards or greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions standards which are directly tied to fuel economy.This paper is discussing that heavy duty diesel engine lubricants can contribute on fuel economy.The contribution of various aspects of engine oil formulations on fuel economy will be discussed such as lubricant viscosity grade,lubricant additives and friction modifiers.In this paper,the evaluation discussions are based on fuel economy measurements in some bench tests,standardized laboratory engine tests and field tests.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S. heavy-duty vehicle sales of complete heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicles for model year 2008... complete heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicles for model year 2008. (2)(i) Manufacturers certifying vehicles... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments.

  19. 78 FR 31536 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles (as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Diesel Particulate Matter, Oxides of Nitrogen and Other Criteria Pollutants from In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel... motor vehicles which are not the subject of this decision (such regulations are not preempted under the... subsection in the context of section 209(b) motor vehicle waivers).\\8\\ \\6\\ 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994)....

  20. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  1. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  2. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  3. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This presentation provides information about NREL's real-world evaluations of commercial vehicle technologies, which compare the performance of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles to conventional vehicles. NREL conducts these customized evaluations in partnership with commercial and government fleets across the nation. Current fleet and industry partners include UPS, Workhorse, Parker Hannifin, Proterra, Foothill Transit, Long Beach Transit, BYD, Odyne, Duke Energy, Miami-Dade, TransPower, Eaton, Cummins, Bosch, and Clean Cities/National Clean Fleet Partnership. The presentation focuses on two particular vehicle evaluation projects -- hydraulic hybrid refuse haulers operated by Miami-Dade and electric transit buses operated by Foothill Transit.

  4. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  5. Effect of turbulence intensity on PM emission of heavy duty diesel trucks - Wind tunnel studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littera, D.; Cozzolini, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Gautam, M.

    2017-08-01

    Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel aftertreatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. The formation and evolution of PM from modern engines are more sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process, such as rapidity of mixing, background PM present in the air. These technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environments compliant with measurement standards (i.e. Code of Federal Regulation CFR in the USA) and are not fully representative of real-world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In light of this, a specifically designed and built wind tunnel by West Virginia University (WVU) is used for the study of the exhaust plume of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle, providing a better insight in the dilution process and the representative nanoparticles emissions in a real-world scenario. The subsonic environmental wind tunnel is capable of accommodating a full-sized heavy-duty truck and generating wind speeds in excess of 50mph. A three-dimensional gantry system allows spanning the test section and sample regions in the plume with accuracy of less than 5 mm. The gantry system is equipped with engine exhaust gas analyzers and PM sizing instruments. The investigation involves three different heavy-duty Class-8 diesel vehicles representative of three emission regulation standards, namely a US-EPA 2007 compliant, a US-EPA 2010 compliant, and a baseline vehicle without any aftertreatment technologies as a pre US-EPA 2007, respectively. The testing procedure includes three different vehicle speeds: idling, 20mph, and 35mph. The vehicles were tested on WVU's medium-duty chassis dynamometer, with the load applied to the truck reflecting the road load equation at the corresponding vehicle test speeds. Wind tunnel wind speed and vehicle speed were maintained in close proximity to one another during the entire test. Results show that the cross-sectional plume area

  6. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-05 Section 86.1817-05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. (a) General. (1) Complete heavy-duty vehicles eligible for the NOX averaging, trading and banking program are described in the applicable...

  8. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  9. Impact of Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-07

    Filipi, Z., Assanis, D., Kuo, T.-W., Najt, P., Rask, R. “New Heat Transfer Correlation for the HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of...Impact of Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Gerald Fernandes1, Jerry Fuschetto1, Zoran Filipi1 and Dennis...with the operation of a diesel engine with JP- 8 fuel due to its lower density and viscosity, but few experimental studies suggest that kerosene

  10. Particle emission from heavy-duty engine fuelled with blended diesel and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; da Silva Júnior, Carlos Roberto; Solci, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Jurandir Pereira; Souza, Davi Zacarias; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Sousa, Eliane Teixeira; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2012-05-01

    In this study, particulate matter (PM) were characterized from a place impacted by heavy-duty vehicles (Bus Station) fuelled with diesel/biodiesel fuel blend (B3) in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were analyzed in the samples by their association with atmospheric PM, mass size distributions and major ions (fluorite, chloride, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, oxalate; fumarate, formate, succinate and acetate; lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and ammonium). Results indicate that major ions represented 21.2% particulate matter mass. Nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, respectively, presented the highest concentration levels, indicating that biodiesel may also be a significant source for these ions, especially nitrate. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene were the main PAH found, and a higher fraction of PAH particles was found in diameters lower than 0.25 μm in Londrina bus station. The fine and ultrafine particles were dominant among the PM evaluated, suggesting that biodiesel decreases the total PAH emission. However, it does also increase the fraction of fine and ultrafine particles when compared to diesel.

  11. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongliang; Dong, Wei; Li, Nan; Dai, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-positi...

  12. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hang, Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  13. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    include utility boom trucks and beverage haulers. Eaton Corp. manufactures a parallel hybrid-electric drivetrain that is used by many of the truck...Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Most of the hybrid buses use series hybrid-electric drivetrains , and key manufacturers are BAE Systems, ISE...Competing Alternatives to Diesel-Electric Hybrid Powertrains ............................................ 153 6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Drivetrains

  14. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2001-02-14

    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  15. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2001-02-14

    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  16. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20.

  17. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  18. Exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by alcohol or biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-06-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty ethanol fuelled diesel vehicles operating in urban traffic. Due to special problems, related to emissions of unregulated compounds emanating from ethanol fuelled buses in Swedish fleet tests, a catalyst research programme has been initiated. The engineering target was to achieve a light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) for ethanol conversion below 110 deg C and a selectivity for total oxidation over 90 %. In this report results from laboratory-reactor tests are described. The results indicate that by combining two different precious metals both activity and selectivity can be positively affected compared to the properties of the corresponding mono metallic catalysts. The best results show a light-off temperature for ethanol conversion below 100 deg C. The base metal oxides were more selective for total oxidation than the corresponding precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate a considerable interaction between support and active material which affects the product distribution in catalytic oxidation of ethanol. At temperatures below 250 deg C the by-product formation can be quite high and the major by-product is acetaldehyde. The metal support interaction also has a certain influence on the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The results show that the NO{sub 2} formation can be suppressed without considerably affecting the activity of the catalyst. This report also includes a preliminary life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) estimate for exhaust gas catalysts intended for heavy-duty ethanol vehicles in urban traffic. 22 refs, numerous figs and tabs

  19. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-08 Section 86.1817-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. Section 86.1817-08 includes text that...-cycle vehicles may participate in an NMHC averaging, banking and trading program to show compliance with...

  1. Application for certification 1982 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing.

  2. Compact high-speed, heavy-duty diesel engines; Der kleine schnelllaufende Hochleistungs-Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafel, S.; Hanula, B.; Mueck, A.; Schlueter, C. [Dr. Schrick GmbH, Remscheid (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Dr. Schrick GmbH at Remscheid are working on a compact high-speed, heavy-duty diesel engine. The new engine, TKDI 600, has proved already that it meets the rigid specifications in terms of performance, consumption, weight, and size for a diesel engine for unmanned aircraft. The sophisticated concept could be put into practice during a very short development time. (orig.) [German] Die Firma Dr. Schrick GmbH in Remscheid ist mit der Entwicklung eines kleinen, hochdrehenden Hochleistungsdieselmotors beauftragt. Sie hat mit der Entwicklung dieses kleinen TKDI 600 gezeigt, dass die anspruchsvollen Zielvorgaben fuer Leistung, Verbrauch, Gewicht und Bauraum mit einem Dieselmotor fuer den Antrieb von unbemannten Luftfahrzeugen moeglich ist. Weiterhin konnte mit diesem Motor ein anspruchvolles Konzept eines Hochleistungsdieselmotors in kurzer Zeit realisiert werden. (orig.)

  3. Natural gas application in light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Brazil: panorama, technological routes and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos, Cordeiro de Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante; Leao, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Iaccarino, Fernando Aniello; Figueiredo Moreira, Marcia

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian CNG light-duty vehicle fleet has currently reached more than 1,300,000 units. This growth increased in the late 1990's, when CNG was approved for use in passenger cars. In 2001, the IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources), concerned with this uncontrolled growth, published CONAMA (National Environmental Council, controlled by IBAMA) resolution 291, which establishes rules for CNG conversion kit environmental certification.This paper discusses the technological challenges for CNG-converted vehicles to comply with PROCONVE (Brazilian Program for Automotive Air Pollution Control) emission limits. In the 1980's, because of the oil crisis, Natural Gas (NG) emerged as a fuel with great potential to replace Diesel in heavy-duty vehicles. Some experiences were conducted for partial conversions from Diesel to NG (Diesel-gas). Other experiences using NG Otto Cycle buses were conducted in some cities, but have not expanded. Another technological route called 'Ottolization' (Diesel to Otto cycle convertion) appeared recently. Population increase and the great growth in vehicle fleet promote a constant concern with automotive emissions. More restrictive emission limits, high international oil prices, and the strategic interest in replacing Diesel imports, altogether form an interesting scenario for CNG propagation to public transportation in the main Brazilian metropolises.

  4. Pneumatic brake control for precision stopping of heavy-duty vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Fanping; Tan, Han-Shue

    2007-01-01

    Precision stopping is an important automated vehicle control function that is critical in applications such as precision bus docking, automated truck or bus fueling, as well as automatic intersection, or toll booth stopping. The initial applications of this technology are most likely to be applied to heavy-duty vehicles such as buses or trucks. Such applications require specific attention to brake control since the characteristics of a typical pneumatic brake system of a heavy vehicle is inhe...

  5. An Investigation of Natural Gas as a Substitute for Diesel in Heavy Duty Trucks and Associated Considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, applicability of natural gas fuel for transportation as compared to diesel is investigated. This study investigates a promising technology for the heavy duty truck sector of transportation as a target for conversion from diesel to natural gas. The supply of natural gas is limited so we also verify the available domestic supply quantities both before and after a fleet conversion. This paper concludes with an economic discussion regarding Javon's paradox and the fungibility of natural gas as compared to that of oil. In order to determine if natural gas can replace diesel for the country's heavy duty truck transportation needs, the energy equivalent and efficiency of natural gas alternatives should be compared to diesel. There are two alternatives for using natural gas as a replacement for diesel; compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas.

  6. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  7. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load conven

  8. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Otto-cycle heavy-duty engine. (d) Every manufacturer of new motor vehicle engines subject to the... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  9. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exceed 50 percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle... heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle engines for model year 2008. (2)(i) Manufacturers certifying engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  10. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  11. Effect of fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine nonvolatile particle emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Happonen, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Virtanen, Annele; Solla, Anu; Kytö, Matti; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust particle emissions were studied. Nonvolatile particle size distributions and gaseous emissions were measured at steady-state engine conditions while the fuel injection pressure was changed. An increase in the injection pressure resulted in an increase in the nonvolatile nucleation mode (core) emission at medium and at high loads. At low loads, the core was not detected. Simultaneously, a decrease in soot mode number concentration and size and an increase in the soot mode distribution width were detected at all loads. Interestingly, the emission of the core was independent of the soot mode concentration at load conditions below 50%. Depending on engine load conditions, growth of the geometric mean diameter of the core mode was also detected with increasing injection pressure. The core mode emission and also the size of the mode increased with increasing NOx emission while the soot mode size and emission decreased simultaneously.

  12. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  13. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  14. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  15. Emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine at simulated high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao; Ding, Yan

    2011-08-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of altitude on the pollutant emissions of a diesel engine, an experimental research was carried out using an engine test bench with an altitude simulation system. The emissions of HC, CO, NOx, smoke, and particle number of a heavy-duty diesel engine were measured under steady state operating conditions at sea level and simulated altitudes of 1000 and 2000 m. The experimental results indicate that the high altitude increases the emissions of HC, CO and smoke of the diesel engine, the average increasing rates of which are 30%, 35% and 34% with addition of altitude of 1000 m, respectively. The effect of high altitudes on the NOx emission varies with the engine types and working conditions. At 1000 m the particles number emissions are 1.6 to 4.2 times the levels at the low altitude. The pattern of the particle size distributions at 1000 m is similar with that at sea-level, which is the mono-modal lognormal distribution with geometric mean diameter around 0.1 μm. However, the peak number concentrations of particles are bigger and the exhausted particles are smaller at the high altitude.

  16. Nanoparticle emissions from a heavy-duty engine running on alternative diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo

    2009-12-15

    We have studied the effect of three different fuels (fossil diesel fuel (EN590); rapeseed methyl ester (RME); and synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL)) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Our main focus was on nanoparticle emissions of the engine. Our results show that the particle emissions from a modern diesel engine run with EN590, GTL, or RME consisted of two partly nonvolatile modes that were clearly separated in particle size. The concentration and geometric mean diameter of nonvolatile nucleation mode cores measured with RME were substantially greater than with the other fuels. The soot particle concentration and soot particle size were lowest with RME. With EN590 and GTL, a similar engine load dependence of the nonvolatile nucleation mode particle size and concentration imply a similar formation mechanism of the particles. For RME, the nonvolatile core particle size was larger and the concentration dependence on engine load was clearly different from that of EN590 and GTL. This indicates that the formation mechanism of the core particles is different for RME. This can be explained by differences in the fuel characteristics.

  17. Conversion of the exhaust emission results obtained from combustion engines of heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, J.; Pielecha, J.

    2016-09-01

    The use of internal combustion engines as the drive for heavy-duty vehicles forces these engines to be tested on an engine dynamometer. Thus, these engines operate under forced conditions, which are significantly different from their actual application. To assess the ecology of such vehicles (or more accurately the engine alone) the emission of pollution per unit of work done by the engine must be determined. However, obtaining the results of unit emissions (expressed in grams of the compound per a unit of performed work) does not give the grounds for determining the mass of pollutants on a given stretch of the road travelled by the vehicle. Therefore, there is a need to change the emission value expressed in units referenced to the engine work into a value of road emissions. The paper presents a methodology of determining pollutant emissions of heavy-duty road vehicles on the basis of the unit emissions, as well as additional parameters determined on the basis of the algorithm presented in the article. A solution was obtained that can be used not only for heavy-duty vehicles, but was also extended to allow use for buses.

  18. Application for certification 1981 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  19. Application for certification 1984 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  20. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Cummins Engine Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  1. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Isuzu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  2. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Hino Motors Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mitsubishi Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs, except for Otto-cycle HDEs subject to the alternative...

  5. Bayesian Parameter Estimation for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric; Konan, Arnaud; Duran, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Accurate vehicle parameters are valuable for design, modeling, and reporting. Estimating vehicle parameters can be a very time-consuming process requiring tightly-controlled experimentation. This work describes a method to estimate vehicle parameters such as mass, coefficient of drag/frontal area, and rolling resistance using data logged during standard vehicle operation. The method uses Monte Carlo to generate parameter sets which is fed to a variant of the road load equation. Modeled road load is then compared to measured load to evaluate the probability of the parameter set. Acceptance of a proposed parameter set is determined using the probability ratio to the current state, so that the chain history will give a distribution of parameter sets. Compared to a single value, a distribution of possible values provides information on the quality of estimates and the range of possible parameter values. The method is demonstrated by estimating dynamometer parameters. Results confirm the method's ability to estimate reasonable parameter sets, and indicates an opportunity to increase the certainty of estimates through careful selection or generation of the test drive cycle.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  7. Computer simulation of the heavy-duty turbo-compounded diesel cycle for studies of engine efficiency and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. A.; Heywood, J. B.; Replogle, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reductions in heat loss at appropriate points in the diesel engine which result in substantially increased exhaust enthalpy were shown. The concepts for this increased enthalpy are the turbocharged, turbocompounded diesel engine cycle. A computer simulation of the heavy duty turbocharged turbo-compounded diesel engine system was undertaken. This allows the definition of the tradeoffs which are associated with the introduction of ceramic materials in various parts of the total engine system, and the study of system optimization. The basic assumptions and the mathematical relationships used in the simulation of the model engine are described.

  8. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  9. Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C.; Sircar, A.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Radiation in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method. DOE, NSF.

  10. Radiative Heat Transfer modelling in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Ge, Wenjun [University of California Merced (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Detailed radiation modelling in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method.

  11. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  12. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-position three-way electromagnetic valve with double coil as actuator. The system could keep the vehicle parking brake status or parking release status for a long time without power supply. The function modules of the system are planned, and the control strategies of automatic parking brake and parking release are made. The experiment is performed on a medium-sized commercial vehicle which is experimentally modified. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system and the automatic parking function are proved through real vehicle tests.

  13. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  14. Particulate emissions from new heavy duty vehicles (Euro IV and V); Partikeludslip fra nye tunge koeretoejer (Euronorm IV og V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.; Ohm, A.; Willumsen, E. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2008-07-01

    The new Danish act on environmental zones allows local authorities to define zones where EURO III or older heavy duty vehicles should be equipped with a particulate filter. The introduction of EURO IV and V has reduced particulate emissions from heavy duty vehicles by approximately 80 % based on the mass of particles. There is, however, substantial uncertainty about the impact on the number of ultrafine particles, since they are not covered by Euronorm standards. When passing the bill, the Danish Minister for the Environment of the time stated that all relevant knowledge about particle emission from heavy duty vehicles needed to be collected for subsequent publication. To this end, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned a literature survey. The purpose of the survey is to provide an overview of the latest knowledge in the field of particle emissions from heavy duty vehicles, with special focus on the average size of the particle emissions. Another objective of the study is to analyse the direct emissions of NO{sub 2} from heavy duty vehicles classified under EURO IV and V. (au)

  15. Application for certification for 1978 model year heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Every year each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application, submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  16. Application for certification for 1979 model year for heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-21

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems an exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  17. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    There is a global effort to expand the use of alternative fuels due to their several benefits such as improving air quality with reducing some criteria emissions, reducing dependency on fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. This dissertation is focused on investigating the impact of two popular alternative fuels, biodiesel and natural gas (NG), on emissions from heavy-duty engines. Biodiesel is one of the most popular renewable fuels with diesel applications. Although biodiesel blends are reported to reduce particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbon emissions; there is uncertainty on their impact on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This dissertation evaluated the effect of biodiesel feedstock, biodiesel blend level, engine technology, and driving conditions on NOx emissions. The results showed that NOx emissions increase with 20% and higher biodiesel blends. Also, in this study some strategies were proposed and some fuel formulations were found for mitigating NOx emissions increases with biodiesel. The impact of 5% biodiesel on criteria emissions specifically NOx was also fully studied in this thesis. As a part of the results of this study, 5% animal-based biodiesel was certified for use in California based on California Air Resources Board emissions equivalent procedure. NG is one of the most prominent alternative fuels with larger reserves compared to crude oil. However, the quality of NG depends on both its source and the degree to which it is processed. The current study explored the impact of various NG fuels, ranging from low methane/high energy gases to high methane/low energy gases, on criteria and toxic emissions from NG engines with different combustion and aftertreatment technologies. The results showed stronger fuel effects for the lean-burn technology bus. Finally, this thesis investigated the impact of changing diesel fuel composition on the criteria emissions from a variety of heavy-duty engine

  18. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Sperling, Dan; Gouse, Bill; Harris, D. Bruce; King, Foy G

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engin...

  19. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas; Dwyer, Harry; Sperling, Daniel; Gouse, S. William; King, Foy

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engines....

  20. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  1. EGR and fuel sulphur influences on particle size distributions from a heavy duty direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, J.D.; Wedekind, B.; Widdicombe, K.A. [Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd., Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Diesel exhaust particle emissions were determined from the EGR system of a heavy duty direct injection engine. Both mass and number weighted particle size distribution analyses were undertaken. Measurements were acquired from the inlet manifold at two levels of EGR with two levels of fuel sulphur. An increase in EGR level was found to increase particle numbers but had little influence on the mass weighted size distribution of the exhaust aerosol. Particle mass emissions were increased slightly. An increase in fuel sulphur influenced both the number and mass weighted size distributions measured. Particle mass emissions were minimally affected. (author)

  2. Application for certification, 1986 model year heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification 1981 model year heavy duty gasoline vehicles - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification, 1986 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Application for certification 1987 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. They also provide information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  7. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... disadvantage compared to nonconforming manufacturers, because the NCPs would be based, in part, on money saved... 0.50 g/hp-hr, we expect that one of these manufacturers could exhaust their supplies of credits in... exhausts its supply of emission credits for medium heavy-duty engines. B. NCP Eligibility: Emission...

  8. Intelligent modified internal model control for speed control of nonlinear uncertain heavy duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Gaur, Prerna

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to control the speed of heavy duty vehicle (HDV) through angular position of throttle valve. Modified internal model control (IMC) schemes with fuzzy supervisor as an adaptive tuning are proposed to control the speed of HDV. Internal model (IM) plays a key role in design of various IMC structures with robust and adaptive features. The motivation to design an IM is to produce nearly stable performance as of the system itself. Clustering algorithm and Hankel approximation based model order reduction techniques are used for the design of suitable IM. The time domain performance specifications such as overshoot, settling time, rise time and integral error performance indices such as the integral of the absolute error and the integral of the square of error are taken into consideration for performance analysis of HDV for various uncertainties.

  9. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... AGENCY Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty... manufacturers have recently begun utilizing a NO X emission control technology called selective catalyst... ensure, among other things, that SCR-equipped engines are designed to properly control emissions as...

  10. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  11. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  12. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  13. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorji-Bandpy Mofid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  14. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  15. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  16. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  17. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende District, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, West District, Chiayi 60051, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  18. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p<0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure

  19. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Feru

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery systemfor a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the waste heat recovery system modeling is improved by including evaporator models that combine the finite difference modeling approach with a moving boundary one. Over a specific cycle, the steady-state and dynamic temperature prediction accuracy improved on average by 2% and 7%. From a control design perspective, the objective is to maximize the waste heat recovery system output power.However, for safe system operation, the vapor state needs to be maintained before the expander under highly dynamic engine disturbances. To achieve this, a switching model predictive control strategy is developed. The proposed control strategy performance is demonstrated using the high-fidelity waste heat recovery system model subject to measured disturbances from an Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Simulations are performed usinga cold-start World Harmonized Transient cycle that covers typical urban, rural and highway driving conditions. The model predictive control strategy provides 15% more time in vaporand recovered thermal energy than a classical proportional-integral (PI control strategy. In the case that the model is accurately known, the proposed control strategy performance can be improved by 10% in terms of time in vapor and recovered thermal energy. This is demonstrated with an offline nonlinear model predictive control strategy.

  20. Design of a Road Friendly SAS System for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Based on a Fuzzy-Hybrid-ADD and GH-Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhao; Pak Kin Wong; Zhengchao Xie; Xinbo Ma; Caiyang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Semiactive suspension (SAS) system has been widely used for its outstanding performance in offering competent ride quality, road holding, and handling capacity. However, the road friendliness is also one of the crucial factors that should be attached in the design of the SAS system for heavy-duty vehicles. In this study, a fuzzy controlled hybrid-acceleration driven damper (ADD) and ground hook- (GH-) control strategy is proposed for SAS system of heavy-duty vehicles. Firstly, a quarter-vehic...

  1. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  2. Turbulence radiation coupling in boundary layers of heavy-duty diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Ge, Wenjun [University of California Merced (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)

    2017-04-05

    The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive, physics-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on the most recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating pressures and exhaust-gas recirculation levels typical of modern heavy-duty compression-ignition engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation (mainly CO2 and H2O) can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation not only contributes to heat losses, but also changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number.

  3. The Influence of Light Weight Materials on Fuel Economy and Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Paul C.

    2000-08-20

    Technologies being developed that will allow for the substitution of aluminum for cast iron in engine heads and blocks, while maintaining performance and durability. Development of lightweight diesel engine technology: funded by NAVY, DOE and TACOM

  4. Use of natural gas on heavy duty vehicles in Brazil: experience, current scene and barriers that still persist; Utilizacao do gas natural em veiculos pesados no Brasil: experiencia, cenario atual e barreiras que ainda persistem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme B.; Melo, Tadeu C.C.; Lastres, Luiz Fernando M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In the 80's, because of the oil crisis, the Natural Gas (NG) appeared as a fuel with a great potential for Diesel replacement in Heavy Duty Vehicles. At that time, PETROBRAS with other companies have developed partial conversion technologies from Diesel to NG, known as 'Dual Fuel'. Engine dynamometer and vehicle bus tests have been developed to verify its technical and economical viability. Because of several factors, the Dual Fuel Program did not advance and the experience was interrupted. At the same time, other experiences using NG Otto Cycle bus engines, manufactured in Brazil, have been conducted, mainly at Sao Paulo, nevertheless, without expansion. Currently, factors as increase of the NG converted light vehicles fleet; the NG excess in the National Market, which has contributed to the NG distribution net expansion; the Environmental Legislature in vigor, that continuously determine lower emission limits; the government interest in increasing the NG energy matrix share and in reducing Diesel fuel consumption, and the low NG industrial demand, compose together a great scene to the diffusion of NG as substitute to the Diesel fuel in Heavy Duty Vehicles. (author)

  5. Current state and emission performance of CNG/LNG heavy-duty vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Patuleia, A.F.; Koornneef, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of natural gas and biogas for heavy-duty road transport is gaining popularity. Apart from economic benefits and supply security, the environmental advantages are often cited. This report, with an extended Dutch summary, gives an overview of the current situation in Europe, with a focus on Th

  6. Catalog of selected heavy duty transport energy management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colello, R. G.; Boghani, A. B.; Gardella, N. C.; Gott, P. G.; Lee, W. D.; Pollak, E. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Thomas, R. G.; Snyder, C. M.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A catalog of energy management models for heavy duty transport systems powered by diesel engines is presented. The catalog results from a literature survey, supplemented by telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to discover the major computer models currently used in the transportation industry in the following categories: heavy duty transport systems, which consist of highway (vehicle simulation), marine (ship simulation), rail (locomotive simulation), and pipeline (pumping station simulation); and heavy duty diesel engines, which involve models that match the intake/exhaust system to the engine, fuel efficiency, emissions, combustion chamber shape, fuel injection system, heat transfer, intake/exhaust system, operating performance, and waste heat utilization devices, i.e., turbocharger, bottoming cycle.

  7. Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as

  8. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel en

  9. Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as low-cet

  10. Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Murgovski, N.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Power- train Control(IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO – NOx 2 trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fu

  11. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue consumpt

  12. Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Murgovski, N.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Power- train Control(IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO – NOx 2 trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fu

  13. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  14. In-cylinder Flow Characterisation of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using Combustion Image Velocimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Dembinski, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In-cylinder flow in diesel engines has a large impact on combustion and emission formation. In this work, the flow is characterised with a new measurement method called combustion image velocimetry (CIV). This technique is used to explain how airflow introduced during induction affects soot emissions and interacts with injection pressures up to 2500 bar. The CIV measurements enable flow analysis during the combustion and post-oxidation phases. The flow velocities inside the cylinder of a heav...

  15. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S.; Ukawa, H. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K.; Kitagawa, A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  18. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  19. The calculating analysis for cooling systems of heavy-duty vehicles%重型汽车冷却系统计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛亮; 徐建宁

    2012-01-01

    本文通过对陕汽牌SX3254BM294重型自卸车冷却系的分析计算,提出了重型汽车冷却系统在设计时的计算分析的方法,为重型自卸车冷却系中关键零件的设计和选配提供理论依据。%The text, from analytical calculating for the cooling systems of Shanqi brand SX3254BM294 heavy-duty self-dumping vehicles, brings forward a method of calculating analysis for designing cooling systems of heavy-duty vehicles, which can be taken as theoretical foundations for designing and selecting key parts of cooling systems of heavy-duty self-dumping vehicle .

  20. Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeePhD, John [Aramco Services Company; TzanetakisPhD, Tom [Aramco Services Company; Travers, Michael [Aramco Services Company; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles. Overall lower CO2 emissions and fuel consumption were also measured for naphtha due in part to its higher heating value and higher hydrogen to carbon ratio. Engine-out and tailpipe NOx emissions were lower for naphtha fuel at the same catalyst conversion levels and measured particulate matter (PM) emissions were also lower when using naphtha due to its higher volatility and lower aromatic content compared to ULSD. To help assess the potential impact on diesel particulate filter design and operation, engine-out PM samples were collected and characterized at the B50 operating point. A significant reduction in elemental carbon (EC) within the particulate emissions was found when using naphtha compared to ULSD.

  1. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  2. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND PREMIUM DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELMER ACEVEDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel es promocionado como combustible alternativo para sustituir combustibles de origen fósil y reducir emisiones de carbono. Algunos estudios han sido llevados a cabo para estudiar las emisiones de vehículos diesel de baja potencia. Sin embargo, las emisiones sólidas y gaseosas emitidas por vehículos de trabajo operados con biodiesel de palma africana y diesel de bajo contenido de azufre (~ 15 ppm han sido poco estudiadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el desempeño y emisiones de un motor Diesel Cummins, 4 tiempos, 9.5 litros, 6 cilindros con sistema de inyección "common rail", y sistema de recirculación de gases. El motor desarrolló una menor potencia (10 % cuando fue operado con biodiesel de palma africana. El motor cumplió con la norma ambiental 2004 cuando fue operado con combustible diesel, sin embargo, con biodiesel de palma africana las emisiones de material particulado y los óxidos de nitrógeno estuvieron fuera de norma.

  3. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  4. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the was

  5. Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Eaton Corporation proposed a comprehensive project to develop and demonstrate advanced component technology that will reduce the cost of implementing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems to Heavy-Duty Diesel engines, making adaptation of this fuel efficiency improving technology more commercially attractive to end-users in the next 5 to 10 year time period. Accelerated adaptation and implementation of new fuel efficiency technology into service is critical for reduction of fuel used in the commercial vehicle segment.

  6. Optical properties of urban aerosols, aircraft emissions, and heavy-duty diesel trucks using aerosol light extinction measurements by an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Massoli, P.; Wood, E. C.; Allan, J. D.; Fortner, E.; Yu, Z.; Herndon, S. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Onasch, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of optical property characterization of ambient particulate during several field deployments where measurements of aerosol light extinction (σep) are obtained using an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex). The CAPS PMex is able to provide extinction measurements with 3-σ detection limit of 3 Mm-1 for 1s integration time. The CAPS PMex (630 nm) is integrated in the Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory where a co-located Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) provides particle light absorption coefficient at 632 nm. The combination of the CAPS with the MAAP data allows estimating the single scattering albedo (ω) of the ambient aerosol particles. The ARI mobile laboratory was deployed in winter 2010 at the Chicago O’Hare International Airport to measure gas phase and particulate emissions from different aircraft engines, and during summer 2010 in Oakland, CA, to characterize vehicular gaseous and particulate emissions (mainly exhaust from heavy-duty diesel trucks) from the Caldecott Tunnel. We provide estimates of black carbon emission factors from individual aircraft engines and diesel trucks, in addition to characterizing the optical properties of these ambient samples studying fleet-average emissions for both light-duty passenger vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Two CAPS PMex instruments (measuring σep at 630 and 532 nm) were also deployed during the CalNex 2010 study (May 14 - June 16) at the CalTech ground site in Pasadena, CA. During the same time, a photo-acoustic spectrometer (PAS, DMT) and an aethalometer instrument (Magee Sci.) measured particle light absorption of submicron aerosol particles from the same sample line as the CAPS PMex monitors. We combine these data to provide multi-wavelength ω trends for the one-month campaign. Our results show the high potential of the CAPS as light weight, compact instrument to perform precise and accurate σep measurements of

  7. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and...--Proposed Vocational Diesel Engine Standards Over the Heavy-Duty FTP Cycle Medium Model year Standard Light... Light heavy-duty Medium heavy-duty Heavy heavy-duty Fuel Consumption Baseline (gallon/1,000 ton-mile...

  8. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  9. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  10. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalava Pasi I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM. We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590 and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214 and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC. A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were

  11. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  12. Vehicle testing of Cummins turbocompound diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, M. C.; Werner, J. R.; Hoehne, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two turbocompound diesel engines were installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption potential and performance characteristics. One turbocompound powered vehicle was evaluated at the Cummins Pilot Center where driveability, fuel consumption, torsional vibration, and noise were evaluated. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% benefit for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved driveability, improved gradeability, and marginally superior engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.

  13. 78 FR 36135 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... source sector, after light-duty passenger cars and trucks. The final rule was published in the Federal... technologies (such as Rankine engines, electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles), in order to generate advanced... fuel conversion regulations to provide clarity regarding the applicability of the fuel...

  14. Combining artificial neural network and multi-objective optimization to reduce a heavy-duty diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir-Hasan; Kakaee; Pourya; Rahnama; Amin; Paykani; Behrooz; Mashadi

    2015-01-01

    Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ) is well known for engine optimization problem. Artificial neural networks(ANNs) followed by multi-objective optimization including a NSGA-Ⅱ and strength pareto evolutionary algorithm(SPEA2) were used to optimize the operating parameters of a compression ignition(CI) heavy-duty diesel engine. First, a multi-layer perception(MLP) network was used for the ANN modeling and the back propagation algorithm was utilized as training algorithm. Then, two different multi-objective evolutionary algorithms were implemented to determine the optimal engine parameters. The objective of the present study is to decide which algorithm is preferable in terms of performance in engine emission and fuel consumption optimization problem.

  15. Combining artificial neural network and multi-objective optimization to reduce a heavy-duty diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir-Hasan Kakaee; Pourya Rahnama; Amin Paykani; Behrooz Mashadi

    2015-01-01

    Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is well known for engine optimization problem. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) followed by multi-objective optimization including a NSGA-II and strength pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) were used to optimize the operating parameters of a compression ignition (CI) heavy-duty diesel engine. First, a multi-layer perception (MLP) network was used for the ANN modeling and the back propagation algorithm was utilized as training algorithm. Then, two different multi-objective evolutionary algorithms were implemented to determine the optimal engine parameters. The objective of the present study is to decide which algorithm is preferable in terms of performance in engine emission and fuel consumption optimization problem.

  16. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions.

  17. Application for certification for 1978 model year heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors Corporation, supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Every year each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application, submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  18. Longitudinal Acceleration Tracking Control of Low Speed Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuejian; BIN Yang; LI Keqiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model matching control (MMC) method based on the sliding mode control(SMC) method for longitudinal acceleration tracking control in a vehicular stop-and-go cruise control system.The nonlinearity of the vehicle acceleration response at low speeds was analyzed to develop a transfer function model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics using the least-mean-square system identification technique.This transfer function was then used to design the MMC controller,including an SMC feedback compensator.The system combines the advantages of the two control methods with robust control and rapid response.Simulations show that the controller enhances the rapid trackability to the vehicle acceleration and improves the system's robustness at low speeds compared with conventional PID MMC controllers.

  19. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ..., the filter unit is removed from the vehicle and professionally cleaned with a special machine... following approaches: On-board electrical heaters upstream of the filter. Air-intake throttling in one or... technology to power on-board hydraulic systems and cab heating and cooling systems. In conventional...

  20. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  1. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  2. FLEXIBLE 2-DOF STEERING MODEL OF MULTI-AXLE HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Wang Xuelin; Hu Yujin; Li Chenggang

    2004-01-01

    A flexible two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle (MAV) is presented with considering the effect of frame flexibility based on the classic 2-DOF model. A method to calculate the frame flexibility is derived by using three moments equation. The steering stability of MAV is analyzed. The steering performance of MAV is also researched in frequency domain. Simulation results show that the dynamic effects of flexible model are more severe than rigid model and the flexible effect of frame will weaken the steering stability of MAV. Different disposals of steering axles lead to different steering characteristics of MAV. The in-phase steering mode improves the steering characteristics and stability at high speed. The anti-phase steering mode increases the steering mobility at low vehicle speed.

  3. Driver Steering Control and Full Vehicle Dynamics Study Based on a Nonlinear Three-Directional Coupled Heavy-Duty Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated driving situations, such as cornering brake, lane change, or barrier avoidance, the vertical, lateral, and longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle are coupled and interacted obviously. This work aims to propose the suitable vehicle and driver models for researching full vehicle dynamics in complicated conditions. A nonlinear three-directional coupled lumped parameters (TCLP model of a heavy-duty vehicle considering the nonlinearity of suspension damping and tire stiffness is built firstly. Then a modified preview driver model with nonlinear time delay is proposed and connected to the TCLP model to form a driver-vehicle closed-loop system. The presented driver-vehicle closed-loop system is evaluated during a double-lane change and compared with test data, traditional handling stability vehicle model, linear full vehicle model, and other driver models. The results show that the new driver model has better lane keeping performances than the other two driver models. In addition, the effects of driver model parameters on lane keeping performances, handling stability, ride comfort, and roll stability are discussed. The models and results of this paper are useful to enhance understanding the effects of driver behaviour on full vehicle dynamics.

  4. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  5. Modeling and Parameterization of Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjung Oh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper suggests fuel consumption modeling for HDVs based on the code from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Two interpolation models (inversed distance weighted (IDW and Hermite and three types of fuel efficiency maps (coarse, medium, and dense were adopted to determine the most appropriate combination for further studies. Finally, sensitivity analysis studies were conducted to determine which parameters greatly impact the fuel efficiency prediction results for HDVs. While vitiating each parameter at specific percentages (±1%, ±3%, ±5%, ±10%, the change rate of the fuel efficiency results was analyzed, and the main factors affecting fuel efficiency were summarized. As a result, the Japanese transformation algorithm program showed good agreement with slightly increased prediction accuracy for the fuel efficiency test results when applying the Hermite interpolation method compared to IDW interpolation. The prediction accuracy of fuel efficiency remained unchanged regardless of the chosen fuel efficiency map data density. According to the sensitivity analysis study, three parameters (fuel consumption map data, driving force, and gross vehicle weight have the greatest impact on fuel efficiency (±5% to ±10% changes.

  6. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively.

  7. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul

    2012-02-07

    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count.

  8. Reducing carbonyl emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine at US transient cycle test by use of paraffinic/biodiesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Chia-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2009-12-01

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are toxic carcinogens so their reductions in diesel-engine emissions are desirable. This study investigated emissions of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) from an HDDE (heavy-duty diesel engine) at US transient cycle test, using five test fuels: premium diesel fuel (D100), P100 (100% palm-biodiesel), P20 (20% palm-biodiesel + 80% premium diesel fuel), PF80P20 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm-biodiesel), and PF95P05 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm-biodiesel). Experimental results indicate that formaldehyde was the major carbonyl in the exhaust, accounting for 70.1-76.2% of total CBC concentrations for all test fuels. In comparison with D100 (172 mg BHP -1 h -1), the reductions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission factor for P100, P20, PF80P20, and PF95P05 were (-16.8%, -61.8%), (-10.0%, -39.0%), (21.3%, 1.10%), and (31.1%, 19.5%), respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 in the HDDE increased CBC concentrations by 14.5% and 3.28%, respectively, but using PF80P20 and PF95P05 significantly reduced CBC concentrations by 30.3% and 23.7%, respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 (2867 ton yr -1) in the HDDE increased CBC emissions by 240 and 224 ton yr -1, respectively, but using PF80P20, and PF95P05 instead of D100 in the HDDE decreased CBC emissions by 711 and 899 ton yr -1, respectively. The above results indicate that the wide usage of paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends as alternative fuels could protect the environment.

  9. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom's commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. The national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.

  10. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines.

  11. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadano, Yara S.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana Flávia L.; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Valebona, Fábio B.; Errera, Marcelo R. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas [Institute of Technology for Development, Lactec–Leme Division, 01 LothárioMeissner Ave., Curitiba, PR, 80210-170 (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NO{sub x} and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH{sub 3}, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NO{sub x} and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH{sub 3} concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. - Highlights: • Emission, dispersion and risk assessment

  12. Ecophysiological Response of Plants to Combined Pollution from Heavy-duty Vehicles and Industrial Emissions in Higher Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xia Cui; Gao-Ming Jiang; Shu-Li Niu; Chuang-Dao Jiang; Mei-Zhen Liu; Shun-Li Yu; Lei-Ming Gao

    2006-01-01

    compared to other woody species, especially in assimilation through a compensatory increase in leaf area. A more remarkable decline in PN (decrease 80%) was noted in the exotic but widespread species, Platanus orientalis L., with serious etiolation and withering being exhibited on the whole canopy. Our results suggested,special for woody species, that most native species are more tolerant to pollution and therefore should to be broadly used in a humid urban industrial environment with heavy-duty vehicle emissions.

  13. Design of a Road Friendly SAS System for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Based on a Fuzzy-Hybrid-ADD and GH-Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiactive suspension (SAS system has been widely used for its outstanding performance in offering competent ride quality, road holding, and handling capacity. However, the road friendliness is also one of the crucial factors that should be attached in the design of the SAS system for heavy-duty vehicles. In this study, a fuzzy controlled hybrid-acceleration driven damper (ADD and ground hook- (GH- control strategy is proposed for SAS system of heavy-duty vehicles. Firstly, a quarter-vehicle model with SAS system is constructed. Then, aiming to improve the ride quality and road friendliness, a hybrid-ADD and GH-control strategy is proposed under the coordination of the fuzzy controller. Numerical results show that the ride quality and road friendliness of the SAS system with the proposed control strategy outperform those with traditional hybrid-sky hook and ground hook-control strategy. It is also verified that the proposed strategy is superior to the sole ADD approach and sole ground hook approach in improving the vehicle overall performance.

  14. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates of diesel vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Vonk, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    In real-world conditions, modern Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles produce an average of ten times less nitrogen oxide (NOx)emissions than previous generations of Euro IV and Euro V heavy-duty vehicles. However, Euro 6 passenger cars and light commercial vehicles present an entirely different picture sinc

  15. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a ta

  16. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a

  17. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  18. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S.; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  19. Economical and environmental assessments of compressed natural gas for diesel vehicle in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep Chouykerd

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic assessments for the use of compressed natural gas as fuel for several types of diesel vehicles, rarely pick up, non-fixed route truck and private truck, were studied. It is noted that two main technologies of diesel natural gas vehicle (NGV, i.e. dedicated retrofit and diesel dual fuel (DDF, were considered in this work. It was found that the dedicated retrofit needs higher investment costs than dual fuel, but can achieve higher diesel saving than dual fuel. In detail, the payback period of dual fuel non-fixed route truck was found to be identical to dual fuel private truck both in the cases of6 wheel and 10 wheel, while dedicated retrofit non-fixed route truck and private truck are also identical and have longerpay back period than dual fuel due to its higher conversion costs.This work also presents the emissions released from all types of engines especially green house gas CO2. It was found that, in the case of light duty diesel i.e. pickup truck, dedicated retrofit emitted high level of CO2 than both dual fuel and conventional diesel engines. For heavy duty i.e. non-fixed route truck and private truck vehicles, dedicated retrofit emitted a lower level of CO2 than normal diesel engine. Other pollutants from engine emission, i.e. hydrocarbon (HC,nitric oxide (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter, (PM were also observed. The results indicated that, inthe case of light duty diesel, dedicated retrofit engine emits higher levels of HC and CO than diesel engine; in contrast, it emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel and dual fuel. Dual fuel emits HC and CO higher than diesel and dedicated retrofit but emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel. Lastly, for heavy duty diesel, it was demonstrated that non-fixed route truck and private truck heavy duty dedicated retrofit have potential to reduce emissions of HC, NOx, CO and PM when compared to normal heavy duty diesel. Engine efficiencies under dual fuel and dedicated

  20. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  1. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Turbocompounding and ORC Waste Heat Recovery Systems on the Performance of a Turbocharged Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of utilization of two Waste Heat Recovery (WHR strategies, namely organic Rankine cycle (ORC and turbocompounding, have been investigated based on the performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine using 1-D simulation engine code (GT-Power in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC at various engine speeds and Brake Mean Effective Pressures (BMEP. The model of a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine (Holset HDX55V was calibrated using an experimental BSFC map to predict engine exhaust thermodynamic conditions such as exhaust mass flow rate and exhaust temperature under various operating conditions. These engine exhaust conditions were then utilized to feed the inlet conditions for both the ORC and turbocompounding models, evaluating the available exhaust energy to be recovered by each technology. Firstly the ORC system model was simulated to obtain the power that can be generated from the system. Having this additional power converted to useful work, the BSFC was observed to reduce around 2–5% depending upon engine’s speed and BMEP. The initial model of the engine was then modified by considering a second turbine representing turbocompounding heat recovery system. The BSFC was increased due to the back-pressure from the second turbine, but the energy generated from the turbine was sufficient to reduce the BSFC further. However, by application of turbocompounding no improvement in BSFC was achieved at low engine’s speeds. It is concluded that ORC heat recovery system produces a satisfactory results at low engine speeds with both low and high loads whereas at medium and high engine speeds turbocompounding heat recovery system causes higher BSFC reduction.

  2. Estimation of Total Transport CO2 Emissions Generated by Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (MHDVs in a Sector of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigu Seo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, policy action that addresses vehicle emissions is essential. While many previous studies have focused on light-duty vehicles (LDV, little is known about medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDV. This study lays the groundwork for future MHDV investigations in the Republic of Korea by developing an MHDV CO2 emissions inventory. The bottom-up approach was used to calculate national CO2 emissions. Simulation methods that calculated the CO2 emissions of each vehicle and statistical data, such as vehicle miles traveled (VMT and the number of registered vehicles were used to predict CO2 emissions. The validity of this simulation model was examined by comparing it with the chassis dynamometer test results. The results of this study showed that the CO2 emissions of MHDV in 2015 were 24.47 million tons, which was 25.5% of the total road transportation CO2 emissions, despite only comprising 4.2% of the total vehicles. Trucks emitted 69.6% and buses emitted 30.4% of the total MHDV CO2 emissions. Using the results between 2012 and 2015, the level of business-as-usual (BAU CO2 emissions will be 25.37 million tons in 2020.

  3. Combination of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend and SCR catalyst assembly to reduce emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yunbo; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Dong, Hongyi; Li, Rulong

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the efforts to reduce NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine using both ethanol-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx over an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst and a biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel) on an engine bench test are discussed. Compared with diesel fuel, use of BE-diesel increased PM emissions by 14% due to the increase in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of PM, but it greatly reduced the Bosch smoke number by 60%-80% according to the results from 13-mode test of European Stationary Cycle (ESC) test. The SCR catalyst was effective in NOx reduction by ethanol, and the NOx conversion was approximately 73%. Total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO emissions increased significantly during the SCR of NOx process. Two diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) assemblies were used after Ag/Al2O3 converter to remove CO and HC. Different oxidation catalyst showed opposite effect on PM emission. The PM composition analysis revealed that the net effect of oxidation catalyst on total PM was an integrative effect on SOF reduction and sulfate formation of PM. The engine bench test results indicated that the combination of BE-diesel and a SCR catalyst assembly could provide benefits for NOx and PM emissions control even without using diesel particle filters (DPFs).

  4. Comparative efficiency and driving range of light- and heavy-duty vehicles powered with biomass energy stored in liquid fuels or batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Mark; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-03-04

    This study addresses the question, "When using cellulosic biomass for vehicular transportation, which field-to-wheels pathway is more efficient: that using biofuels or that using bioelectricity?" In considering the question, the level of assumed technological maturity significantly affects the comparison, as does the intended transportation application. Results from the analysis indicate that for light-duty vehicles, over ranges typical in the United States today (e.g., 560-820 miles), field-to-wheels performance is similar, with some scenarios showing biofuel to be more efficient, and others indicating the two pathways to be essentially the same. Over the current range of heavy-duty vehicles, the field-to-wheels efficiency is higher for biofuels than for electrically powered vehicles. Accounting for technological advances and range, there is little basis to expect mature bioelectricity-powered vehicles to have greater field-to-wheels efficiency (e.g., kilometers per gigajoule biomass or per hectare) compared with mature biofuel-powered vehicles.

  5. 重型柴油机SCR后处理系统在线故障诊断功能的开发%Development of the On-board Diagnostics Function of SCR After-treatment System for Heavy-duty Diesel Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张人选; 张云龙; 帅石金

    2012-01-01

    According to the requirements of national regulation HJ 437-2008 on the on-board diagnostics ( OBD) of emissions for heavy-duty vehicle, the OBD functions of selective catalytic reduction after-treatment system based on both NO, and Adblue tests are developed for heavy-duty diesel engine, and verified by the hardware-in the-loop simulation test with its communication mode confirming to SAE J1939 standard.%根据国家法规HJ 437-2008中对重型车排放在线故障诊断(OBD)的要求,为重型柴油机分别开发了基于NOx检测和Adblue检测的尿素选择催化还原(SCR)后处理系统的OBD功能,并得到硬件在环仿真试验的验证,其通信模式符合SAE J1939标准.

  6. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pilot project was designed to confirm that an FTIR could generate useful real-time data for non-regulated tailpipe emissions of concern to the EPA. This ability to generate useful modal data could be demonstrated if the mode shapes of regulated emissions measured by referen...

  7. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pilot project was designed to confirm that an FTIR could generate useful real-time data for non-regulated tailpipe emissions of concern to the EPA. This ability to generate useful modal data could be demonstrated if the mode shapes of regulated emissions measured by referen...

  8. Characterizing the Dynamic Response of a Chassis Frame in a Heavy-Duty Dump Vehicle Based on an Improved Stochastic System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an online method for the assessment of the dynamic performance of the chassis frame in a heavy-duty dump truck based on a novel stochastic subspace identification (SSI method. It introduces the use of an average correlation signal as the input data to conventional SSI methods in order to reduce the noisy and nonstationary contents in the vibration signals from the frame, allowing accurate modal properties to be attained for realistically assessing the dynamic behaviour of the frame when the vehicle travels on both bumped and unpaved roads under different operating conditions. The modal results show that the modal properties obtained online are significantly different from the offline ones in that the identifiable modes are less because of the integration of different vehicle systems onto the frame. Moreover, the modal shapes between 7 Hz and 40 Hz clearly indicate the weak section of the structure where earlier fatigues and unsafe operations may occur due to the high relative changes in the modal shapes. In addition, the loaded operations show more modes which cause high deformation on the weak section. These results have verified the performance of the proposed SSI method and provide reliable references for optimizing the construction of the frame.

  9. 76 FR 59922 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY: National... established fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles, as prescribed under the...--MEDIUM- AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES 0 1. The authority citation for part 535 continues to read as follows...

  10. A Noise-Insensitive Semi-Active Air Suspension for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with an Integrated Fuzzy-Wheelbase Preview Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-active air suspension is increasingly used on heavy-duty vehicles due to its capabilities of consuming less power and low cost and providing better ride quality. In this study, a new low cost but effective approach, fuzzy-wheelbase preview controller with wavelet denoising filter (FPW, is developed for semi-active air suspension system. A semi-active suspension system with a rolling lobe air spring is firstly modeled and a novel front axle vertical acceleration-based road prediction model is constructed. By adopting a sensor on the front axle, the road prediction model can predict more reliable road information for the rear wheel. After filtering useless signal noise, the proposed FPW can generate a noise-insensitive control damping force. Simulation results show that the ride quality, the road holding, the handling capability, the road friendliness, and the comprehensive performance of the semi-active air suspension with FPW outperform those with the traditional active suspension with PID-wheelbase preview controller (APP. It can also be seen that, with the addition of the wavelet filter, the impact of sensor noise on the suspension performance can be minimized.

  11. 重型柴油机空气滤清器技术状况监测方法%Study on Technical Condition Monitoring Methods of Air Filter of Heavy-duty Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永东; 赵文柱; 王宪成; 和穆

    2014-01-01

    According to the present problem that detection methods of air filter of some heavy-duty diesel engine are too simple and can’t reflect the trouble entirely,the pressure drop of whole air filter is simpli-fied to the sum of pressure drop of three parts through analyzing the structure of air filter.A mathematic model used to detect technical condition of air filter based on equivalent flow section area is deduced by means of hydrodynamics analysis by using computational formula of pressure drop.And the mathematic model is proved to be stable and monotonous by gantry and real vehicle tests.What’s more,it can exact-ly reflect practical condition of increase of intake resistant and decrease of flow section area caused by dust deposit in air filter.Using this model to detect air filter can arrange the cleaning time of air filter properly,which is significant to the timely maintenance and normal work of air filter.%针对目前对某重型柴油机空气滤清器检测方法单一、反映问题不全面的现状,通过分析空气滤清器结构,将整个滤清器的压降简化为3部分压降之和。运用流体力学分析,选择各部分压降计算公式,联立推导出了基于等效流通截面积的空气滤清器技术状况监测数学模型。通过台架和实车试验证明:该数学模型具有较好的稳定性和单调性,能够准确反映空气滤清器内部因尘土堆积而导致进气阻力增大、流通截面积减小的实际情况。运用该模型监测空气滤清器可合理安排清洗时机,对空气滤清器的及时保养和正常使用具有重要意义。

  12. 重型柴油机涡轮复合增压技术的研究与应用%Research and application of the turbo-compound technology on a heavy duty diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷勇; 赵艳婷; 米娇; 陈镇; 诸葛伟林; 赵荣超

    2014-01-01

    研究了动力涡轮与曲轴之间的传动比对柴油机动力性和经济性的影响,以便将带可变截面增压器(VGT)的涡轮复合系统应用于重型柴油机上。构建了一维模型,以便模拟涡轮复合增压发动机,并优化动力涡轮和涡轮增压器与发动机的匹配。在某一台常规11 L的重型柴油机的基础上,研制了涡轮复合柴油机试验样机,并进行试验,以研究增压器开度对柴油机性能的影响,并寻求最优控制策略。结果表明:该涡轮复合增压发动机的全工况外特性优于原机,比油耗(BSFC)平均改善3%,最大改善8%。这表明:涡轮复合增压是一项能够满足未来柴油机节能减排要求的关键技术。%The effect of transmission ratio between power turbine and diesel engine crank power on the performances and the fuel economy was investigated for the application of turbo-compound system with Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) on a heavy duty diesel engine. A one-dimensional model was established to simulate the turbo-compound engine and optimize the matching of the power turbine and turbocharger with the engine. A turbo-compound prototype diesel engine was developed based on a conventional 11-L heavy-duty diesel engine, and then tested to investigate the impacts of the openness of the VGT on the turbo-compound engine performances, and to ifne the most optimal control strategy. The results show that the turbo-compound engine is better than the original machine under engine ful load operation conditions. The brake speciifc fuel consumption (BSFC) increases 3% on average with a maximum BSFC of 8%. Therefore, turbo-compounding is a key technology to satisfy the future requirements of diesel engine’s energy conservation and emission reduction.

  13. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  14. Quinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakober, Chris A; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Gas- and particle-phase emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers were collected using annular denuders, quartz filters, and PUF substrates. Quinone species were measured using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine quinones were observed, ranging from C6 to C16. New species identified in motor vehicle exhaust include methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQN), and aceanthrenequinone. Gas-phase motor vehicle emissions of quinones are also reported for the first time. Six gas-phase quinones were quantified with emission rates of 2-28 000 microg L(-1) fuel consumed. The most abundant gas-phase quinones were 1,4-benzoquinone (BON) and MNQN. The gas-phase fraction was > or = 69% of quinone mass for light-duty gasoline emissions, and > or = 84% for heavy-duty diesel emissions. Eight particle-phase quinones were observed between 2 and 1600 microg L(-1), with BQN the most abundant species followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone. Current particle-phase quinone measurements agree well with the few available previous results. Further research is needed concerning the gas-particle partitioning behavior of quinones in ambient and combustion source conditions.

  15. Reducing emissions of carbonyl compounds and regulated harmful matters from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with paraffinic/biodiesel blends at one low load steady-state condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chung-Bang

    This study investigated the emissions of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and regulated harmful matters (traditional pollutants) from an HDDE (heavy-duty diesel engine) at one low load steady-state condition, 24.5% of the max load (40 km h -1), using five test fuels: premium diesel fuel (D100), P100 (100% palm-biodiesel), P20 (20% palm-biodiesel + 80% premium diesel fuel), PF80P20 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm-biodiesel), and PF95P05 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm-biodiesel). Experimental results indicate that formaldehyde was the major carbonyl in the exhaust, accounting for 70.3-75.4% of total CBC concentrations for all test fuels. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 in the HDDE increased CBC concentrations by 9.74% and 2.89%, respectively. However, using PF80P20 and PF95P05 as alternative fuels significantly reduced CBC concentrations by 30.3% and 24.2%, respectively. Using PF95P05 instead of D100 decreased CBCs by 30.3%, PM by 11.1%, THC by 39.0%, CO by 34.0%, NOx by 24.3%, and CO 2 by 7.60%. The wide usage of paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends as alternative fuels could protect the environment. However, it should be noted that only one engine operated at one low load steady-state condition was investigated.

  16. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

  17. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  18. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX plus NMHC and particulate... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.004-15 NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines. (a)(1) Heavy-duty engines eligible for NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging,...

  19. 重型柴油机燃用天然气合成油的性能与排放%Performance and Emission Characteristics of Heavy-duty Diesel Engine Fueled with Gas-to-Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志远; 谭丕强; 赵杰; 楼狄明

    2009-01-01

    According to the operating characteristics of the in-using buses,a study is made of the power,the fuel economic performance and the emissions characteristics of the numodified heavy-duty bus diesel engine fueled with pure gas-to-liquids (GTL) or diesel 0#.The results show that compared with diesel 0#,the power and torque of GTL-fueled engine decrease by 10% on average,fuel consumption decreases by 3%,the emission of CO,NO x,PM and CO2 reduces by 9%,14%,25% and 4% respectively,but the HC emission remains unchanged.GTL is a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine.%根据在用公交车的特点,在未对发动机进行任何调整的前提下,对在用公交车用重型柴油机燃用天然气合成油(GTL柴油)和0#柴油进行了动力性、燃油经济性及排放特性研究.结果表明:与0#柴油比较,该机燃用GTL柴油的外特性功率、转矩都平均降低约10%;燃油消耗率降低约3%,经济转速区向低转速区移动;GTL柴油的一氧化碳、氮氧化物、颗粒物和二氧化碳排放分别降低9%,14%,25%和4%,碳氢化合物排放基本不变.GTL柴油能同时降低柴油机的氮氧化物和颗粒物排放,是有潜力的低排放柴油清洁代用燃料之一.

  20. Ventajas del uso de la inyección electrónica para vehículos diesel pesados en las condiciones de Cuba. // Advantages of electronic injection for diesel engines in heavy duty equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Reyes González

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en cuenta la importancia que tiene para Cuba el obtener una eficiencia energética elevada en los motores decombustión interna, al igual que el control de las emanaciones de gases tóxicos en los mismos, se realizó este trabajo dondese demuestran las ventajas tanto en el orden económico como ecológico de los motores diesel con mando electrónico paraequipos pesados empleados en la transportación de carga por camiones en la empresa Cubalse.Por medio de métodos experimentales y estadísticos, se obtuvo el consumo de combustible y la humosidad en motores coninyección electrónica (Detroit y en motores que utilizan los métodos tradicionales (Cummins. Los rresultadosdemostraron la superioridad en ambos aspectos de los motores con inyección electrónica.Se realizó una valoración del tiempo de amortización de la inversión inicial necesaria para utilizar en el parque existenteesta novedosa técnica de la inyección electrónica.Palabras claves: Eficiencia energética, inyección electrónica, consumo de combustible, motores de combustióninterna.__________________________________________________________________Abstract.Taking into consideration the importance of achieving a high efficiency in the internal combustion engines and emissioncontrol of the exhaust gases, this paper deals with economical and environmental advantages of the electronic controlleddiesel engines in heavy-duty trucks, which are used by Cubalse in the transportation. The fuel consumption and the sootemission in Detroit motors (with electronic injection system and Cummins (with traditional system, were studied usingstatistic and experimental methods, and the Detroit proved to be superior in both parameters. The pay back time for theinvestment needed to change the systems of all the existent trucks were calculatedKey words: Energetic efficiency, electronic injection, fuel consumption, internal combustion engine.

  1. Application of a Detailed Emission Model for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Simulations Application d'un modèle détaillé d'émissions pour la simulation de gros moteurs diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson I.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed chemical model describing the formation of soot and NO is applied to simulate emission formation in a heavy duty diesel engine. Cylinder flow and spray development is simulated using an engine CFD code - Speedstar. Combustion is described using a simple eddy break-up model. Modeling of the emission-chemistry/turbulent-flow interaction is based on a flamelet approach. Contrary to a typical flamelet concept, transport equations are solved for mass fractions of soot and NO. The reason being that these major emission constituencies are assumed to change slowly in comparison to typical time scales for chemical processes or transport processes important for combustion. Chemical reactions leading to production and destruction of soot and NO are, however, assumed to be fast. Soot and NO source terms are therefore evaluated from a flamelet library using a presumed probability density function and integrating over mixture fraction space. Results from simulations are compared to engine measurements inform of exhaust emission data and cylinder pressure. Un modèle avec chimie détaillée décrivant la formation des suies et du NO est appliqué à la simulation de la formation des polluants dans un gros moteur Diesel. L'écoulement et le spray sont modélisés avec le code de calcul Speedstar. La combustion est représentée par le modèle eddy break-up . La modélisation de l'interaction entre l'écoulement turbulent et la chimie des polluants est basée sur une approche de type flamelet . Cependant, à la différence d'autres travaux, des équations de transport pour les fractions massiques de suies et de NO sont résolues. Cela est justifié par la supposition que les temps caractéristiques de formation de ces composés sont longs comparés à ceux associés aux phénomènes de transport et aux réactions chimiques associées à la combustion. Cependant, les vitesses de réaction se rapportant aux suies et au NO sont supposées rapides. Cela

  2. Oxidative potential of semi-volatile and non volatile particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles retrofitted with emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Verma, Vishal; Schauer, James J; Cassee, Flemming R; Cho, Arthur K; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-05-15

    Advanced exhaust after-treatment devices for diesel vehicles are less effective in controlling semivolatile species than the refractory PM fractions. This study investigated the oxidative potential (OP) of PM from vehicles with six retrofitted technologies (vanadium and zeolite based selective catalytic reduction (V-SCRT, Z-SCRT), Continuously regenerating technology (CRT), catalyzed DPX filter, catalyzed continuously regenerating trap (CCRT), and uncatalyzed Horizon filter) in comparison to a "baseline" vehicle (without any control device). Vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer atthree driving conditions, i.e., cruise, transient urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS), and idle. The consumption rate of dithiothreitol (DTT), one of the surrogate measures of OP, was determined for PM samples collected at ambient and elevated temperatures (thermally denuded of semivolatile species). Control devices reduced the OP expressed per vehicle distance traveled by 60-98%. The oxidative potential per unit mass of PM however, was highest for the Horizon followed by CRT, DPX -Idle, SCRTs, and baseline vehicles. Significant reduction in OP (by 50-100%) was observed forthermally denuded PM from vehicles with retrofitted technologies (PM with significant semivolatile fraction), whereas particles emitted bythe baseline vehicle (with insignificant semivolatile fraction) did not demonstrate any measurable changes in oxidative activity. This suggests that the semivolatile fraction of particles are far more oxidative in nature than refractory particles-a conclusion further supported by previous tunnel and ambient studies, demonstrating a decline in PM oxidative activity with increasing atmospheric dilution. Correlation analysis performed between all the species, showed that OP is moderately associated (R = 0.76) with organic carbon (OC) and strongly associated (R = 0.94) with the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC).

  3. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and... derived from averaging, banking, or trading programs. (ii)(A) Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) for engines fueled with either diesel fuel, natural gas, or liquefied petroleum gas. 0.14 grams per brake...

  4. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  5. 基于ADAMS的某重型牵引车操纵稳定性仿真分析%The Simulation Analysis Of Controllability And Stability for a Heavy-duty Vehicle Based On ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊伟; 李海波

    2016-01-01

    以某6×4重型牵引车为分析对象,采用ADAMS建立了整车的仿真模型,根据国标《汽车操纵稳定性指标限值与评价方法》,进行整车操纵稳定性仿真试验,从不同角度反映在运动过程中的稳态响应和瞬态响应,综合评价牵引车的操纵稳定性。同时,通过对牵引车的前悬架钢板弹簧刚度和整车载荷等参数参数的变化,研究了不同状态下参数的变化对操纵稳定性所造成的影响。%According to a 6×4 heavy-duty vehicle, the simulation model was established by using the software ADAMS. The handling stability simulation test was carried out based on the national standard: Criterion thresholds and evaluation of controllability and stability for automobiles, the controllability and stability of the heavy-duty vehicle was evaluated by the stationary response and transient response of the vehicle in the movement.in the end, the influence of controllability and stability was studied by the change of the parameters of the spring stiffness of the front suspension and the load of the vehicle.

  6. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles; Final... for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and... that power them, except for medium-duty passenger vehicles already covered by the greenhouse gas...

  7. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  8. 重型汽车控制系统的通讯与诊断协议%Communication and Diagnostic Protocol of Control System on Heavy-duty Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军

    2001-01-01

    为了便于汽车上越来越多的控制系统之间的相互通讯,现代汽车上采用了多通道网络技术。简要介绍了用于重型汽车控制系统网络技术的通讯与诊断协议SAE、J1708、SAE、J1587、SAE、J1922、ISO、9141、ISO、14230。%Multi-tunnel network technology are adopted in modern auto to the intercommunic ation of the control systems.This paper introduces the network technology of con trol system and the diagnostic protocol SAE、J1708,SAE、J1587,SAE、J1922,ISO、91 41,ISO、14230 used in the heavy-duty vehicle.

  9. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY... 57106). The regulations established fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty engines and... trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles'' will be added. List of Subjects in 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535...

  10. 75 FR 74151 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and... that power them, except for medium-duty passenger vehicles already covered by the greenhouse gas...

  11. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... clarification on how to handle positive displacement pump (PDP) pressure calibrations at maximum pressure; 13... determined by the following generalized process. First, select the PEMS with the lowest or minimum positive value. Second, select the calculation method that has the lowest or minimum positive value. Third,...

  12. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... testing only; 12. We are making a clarification on how to handle positive displacement pump (PDP) pressure... process. First, select the PEMS with the lowest or minimum positive value. Second, select the calculation method that has the lowest or minimum positive value. Third, and finally, use the results from...

  13. Diluted Operation of a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine - Aiming at Improved Effciency, Emission and Maximum Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiadi, Mehrzad

    2011-01-01

    Most heavy-duty engines are diesel operated. Severe emission regulations, high fuel prices, high technology costs (e.g. catalysts, fuel injection systems) and unsustainably in supplying fuel are enough reasons to convenience engine developers to explore alternative technologies or fuels. Using natural gas/biogas can be a very good alternative due to the attractive fuel properties regarding emission reduction and engine operation. Heavy-duty diesel engines can be easily converted for natur...

  14. An Investigation on Injection Characteristics of Direct-Injected Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by Means of Multi-Zone Spray Modeling Étude sur les caractéristiques d’injection d’un moteur Diesel industriel à injection directe au moyen de la modélisation multi-zones de la pulvérisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadi Rad G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of injection parameters on a heavy duty diesel engine performance and emission characteristics. In order to analyze the injection and spray characteristics of diesel fuel with employing high-pressure common-rail injection system, the injection characteristics such as injection delay, injection duration, and injection rate and number of nozzle holes were investigated by using a quasi-dimensional model. In the present work, the variety of injection rate is performed at various injection parameters where as performance and emission of the engine will be simulated subsequently. Finally the best injection system for a high efficiency and low NOx emission heavy duty diesel engine was investigated. Le but de cette étude est d’étudier l’effet des paramètres d’injection sur les caractéristiques de performance et d’émissions d’un moteur Diesel industriel. Afin d’analyser les caractéristiques d’injection et de pulvérisation du gazole assurées par un système d’injection “common-rail” haute pression, les paramètres d’injection tels que le calage de l’injection, la durée de l’injection, le taux d’injection et le nombre de trous de l’injecteur ont été étudiés en utilisant un modèle quasi-dimensionnel. Dans l’étude présentée, les performances et les émissions du moteur sont simulées à différents taux d’injection en faisant varier des paramètres d’injection. Enfin, la meilleure définition du système d’injection a été recherchée pour obtenir un moteur Diesel industriel avec un haut rendement et de basses émissions de NOx.

  15. In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J.; Walkowicz, K.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2013-10-01

    This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen. The HEV showed 31% better fuel economy on the NYComp cycle, 25% better on the HTUF 6 cycle and 4% worse on the CARB HHDDT cycle when compared to the conventional vehicle. The in-use field data indicates that the HEVs had around 16% better fuel economy than the conventional vehicles. Dynamometer testing also showed that the HEV generally emitted higher levels of nitric oxides than the conventional vehicle over the drive cycles, up to 77% higher on the NYComp cycle (though this may at least in part be attributed to the different engine certification levels in the vehicles tested). The conventional vehicle was found to accelerate up to freeway speeds over ten seconds faster than the HEV.

  16. Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, George A; McLaughlin, John P; Harley, Robert A; Kean, Andrew J; Grosjean, Eric; Grosjean, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Carbonyls can be toxic and highly reactive in the atmosphere. To quantify trends in carbonyl emissions from light-duty (LD) vehicles, measurements were made in a San Francisco Bay area highwaytunnel bore containing essentially all LD vehicles during the summers of 1999, 2001, and 2006. The LD vehicle emission factor for formaldehyde, the most abundant carbonyl, did not change between 1999 and 2001, then decreased by 61 +/- 7% between 2001 and 2006. This reduction was due to fleet turnover and the removal of MTBE from gasoline. Acetaldehyde emissions decreased by 19 +/- 2% between 1999 and 2001 and by the same amount between 2001 and 2006. Absent the increased use of ethanol in gasoline after 2003, acetaldehyde emissions would have further decreased by 2006. Carbonyl emission factors for medium- (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks were measured in 2006 in a separate mixed-traffic bore of the tunnel. Emission factors for diesel trucks were higher than those for LD vehicles for all reported carbonyls. Diesel engine exhaust dominates over gasoline engines as a direct source of carbonyl emissions in California. Carbonyl concentrations were also measured in liquid-gasoline samples and were found to be low (gasoline brands that contained ethanol showed higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in unburned fuel versus gasoline that was formulated without ethanol. Measurements of NO2 showed a yearly rate of decrease for LD vehicle emissions similar to that of total NOx in this study. The observed NO2/NOx ratio was 1.2 +/- 0.3% and 3.7 +/- 0.3% for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively.

  17. Heavy duty complete extension slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, José Ignacio; Vázquez, Javier

    2001-09-01

    The selection from available commercial market of a set of slides to be used in an habitable pressurised module in space, to draw a 660 mm box out of a rack, up to a completely extracted position in a safely supported configuration, seems in principle not to be a complicated task. That was the first approach taken in the design process of the telescopic guides of the Crew Work Bench (CWB) included in the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), part of "ESA Microgravity Facilities for Columbus" within the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Nevertheless, common space compatible requirements such as materials, specific environmental loads, available envelope, total weight, etc., can make the selection of telescopic slides from commercial market unfeasible. A specific development to design space compatible telescopic slides for the CWB was undertaken. A set of heavy duty space compatible telescopic slides were designed, manufactured and tested. They should be operative in both, 1-g environment and in orbit, and additionally should withstand an inadvertent astronaut kick or bump of 556 N in any direction.

  18. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  19. SCR systems for heavy duty trucks: progress towards meeting EURO 4 emissions standards in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W.; Huethwohl, G.; Maurer, B. [PUREM Abgassysteme GMBH und Co. KG, Unna (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. The efficient NO{sub x} reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfil the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. An insight is given to some of the extreme testing procedures which the systems and components are exposed to. The infrastructure for AdBlue is under evaluation in Europe by Urea Producers and Mineral Oil companies to be readily available in time. Urea is one of the most common chemical products in the world and the production and the distribution very much experienced. However, a pure grade is needed for automotive application and requires special attention. (orig.)

  20. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  1. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  2. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  3. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  4. Measurement of Black Carbon and Co-pollutants Emitted from Diesel Vehicles in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.; Fortner, E.; Herndon, S.; Knighton, B.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Roscioli, J. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Paramo, V. H.; Zirath, S.; Mejia, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Freight, public transport, and heavy-duty trucks can contribute to harmful emissions of black carbon and other co-pollutants in many urban areas. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for the potential of mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources is be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains, as well as the uncertainties surrounding the accurate quantification of the associated benefits. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We present the results of the measurement of black carbon and co-emitted pollutants of dozens of diesel powered vehicles, including freight trucks, public transport buses, and intra-city metrobuses sampled during a 4-day experiment in Mexico City in February of 2013 as part of the SLCFs-Mexico project. Measurements were obtained with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, remote sensing, and portable emissions measurements, and encompassed the sampling of several vehicle models and technologies in experimental and real-world driving conditions. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere and the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies.

  5. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  6. Future methane emissions from the heavy-duty natural gas transportation sector for stasis, high, medium, and low scenarios in 2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; Johnson, Derek R; McKain, David L; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Rudek, Joseph; Mongold, Ronald A; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Hailer, John T

    2017-08-22

    Today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than two percent of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50 percent. While fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions. However, predicted growth could result in a significant quantity of methane emissions. To evaluate this potential and identify effective options for minimizing emissions, future growth scenarios of heavy-duty natural gas fueled vehicles and compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas fueling stations that serve them, have been developed for 2035, when the populations could be significant. The scenarios rely on the most recent measurement campaign of the latest manufactured technology, equipment, and vehicles reported in a companion paper as well as projections of technology and practice advances. These "Pump-to-Wheels"(PTW) projections do not include methane emissions outside of the bounds of the vehicles and fuel stations themselves and should not be confused with a complete Wells-to-Wheels analysis. Stasis, high, medium, and low scenario PTW emission projections for 2035 were 1.32%, 0.67%, 0.33%, and 0.15% of the fuel used. The scenarios highlight that a large emissions reductions could be realized with closed crankcase operation, improved best practices, and implementation of vent mitigation technologies. Recognition of the potential pathways for emission reductions could further enhance the heavy-duty transportation sectors ability to reduce carbon emissions. Implications Newly collected Pump to Wheels methane emissions data for current

  7. Improving Efficiency, Extending the Maximum Load Limit and Characterizing the Control-related Problems Associated with Higher Loads in a 6-Cylinder Heavy-duty Natural gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiadi, Mehrzad; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    High EGR rates combined with turbocharging has been identified as a promising way to increase the maximum load and efficiency of heavy duty spark ignition Natural Gas engines. With stoichiometric conditions a three way catalyst can be used which means that regulated emissions can be kept at very low levels. Most of the heavy duty NG engines are diesel engines which are converted for SI operation. These engine's components are in common with the diesel-engine which put limits on higher exh...

  8. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  9. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  10. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as directly in the exhaust plumes of individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks. BC emission factor distributions for HD trucks were more skewed than OA distributions (N = 293), with the highest 10% of trucks accounting for 56 and 42% of total measured BC and OA emissions, respectively. OA mass spectra measured for HD truck exhaust plumes show cycloalkanes are predominate in exhaust OA emissions relative to saturated alkanes (i.e., normal and iso-paraffins), suggesting that lubricating oil rather than fuel is the dominant source of primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions in diesel vehicle exhaust. This finding is supported by the detection of trace elements such as zinc and phosphorus in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks. Trace elements were emitted relative to total OA at levels that are consistent with typical weight fractions of commonly used additives present in lubricating oil. A comparison of measured OA and BC mass spectra across various sampling periods revealed a high degree of similarity in OA and BC emitted by gasoline and diesel engines. This finding indicates a large fraction of OA in gasoline exhaust is lubricant-derived as well. The similarity in OA and BC mass spectra for gasoline and diesel engine exhaust is likely to confound ambient source apportionment efforts to determine contributions to air pollution from these two important sources.

  11. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for Ad

  12. Plasma Catalysis for NOx Reduction from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-15

    On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, we are pleased to introduce the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The mission of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable Americans to use less petroleum for their vehicles. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program supports this mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty highway vehicles that meet future Federal and state emissions regulations. The primary objective of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program is to improve the brake thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines from 30 to 45 percent for light-duty applications by 2010; and 40 to 55 percent for heavy-duty applications by 2012; while meeting cost, durability, and emissions constraints. R&D activities include work on combustion technologies that increase efficiency and minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions, as well as aftertreatment technologies that further reduce exhaust emissions. Work is also being conducted on ways to reduce parasitic and heat transfer losses through the development and application of thermoelectrics and turbochargers that include electricity generating capability, and conversion of mechanically driven engine components to be driven via electric motors. This introduction serves to outline the nature, current progress, and future directions of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The research activities of this Sub-Program are planned in conjunction with the FreedomCAR Partnership and the 21st Century Truck Partnership and are carried out in collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities. Because of the importance of clean fuels in achieving low

  13. CO2 emission benefit of diesel (versus gasoline) powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J L; Baker, R E; Boyer, B A; Hammerle, R H; Kenney, T E; Muniz, L; Wallington, T J

    2004-06-15

    Concerns regarding global warming have increased the pressure on automobile manufacturers to decrease emissions of CO2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. Increased penetration of diesel powered vehicles into the market is a possible transition strategy toward a more sustainable transportation system. To facilitate discussions regarding the relative merits of diesel vehicles it is important to have a clear understanding of their CO2 emission benefits. Based on European diesel and gasoline certification data, this report quantifies such CO2 reduction opportunities for cars and light duty trucks in today's vehicles and those in the year 2015. Overall, on a well-to-wheels per vehicle per mile basis, the CO2 reduction opportunity for today's vehicles is approximately 24-33%. We anticipate that the gap between diesel and gasoline well-to-wheel vehicle CO2 emissions will decrease to approximately 14-27% by the year 2015.

  14. Control of air pollution from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines. Federal certification test results for 1993 model year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The regulations that apply to the control of emissions from vehicles and engines, appearing in 40 CFR Part 86, set maximum allowable limits on exhaust and evaporative emission levels. The exhaust limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled and diesel light-duty vehicles (passenger cars), light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty engines, and to gasoline-fueled motorcycles. The evaporative limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. The report contains all of the individual tests that were required by the certification procedures.

  15. 时域和空间域路面激励下重型辆动载荷仿真分析%Simulation Analysis of Heavy-duty Vehicle Dynamic Load under Road Excitation in Time Domain and Spatial Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣超; 刘大维; 王松; 康忠亮

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic load characteristics of heavy-duty vehicle under road excitation in time domain and spatial domain, a rigid flexible coupling virtual vehicle prototype was established using SIMPACK software. The tires and leaf springs were treated as deformable body, and the rubber pads and limit block were simplified to force elements with non-linear stiffness and damping characteristics. And time domain and spatial domain mathematical models of road excitation were established using the harmony superposition method based on power spectral density of rational function. Then a dynamic model of vehicle under road excitation in time domain and spatial domain was established, and the vehicle tire normal force and tire normal dynamic load coefficient were computed. The simulation results indicate that (1) at different driving speeds, the values and change regularities of tire normal forces obtained under the road excitation in time domain and spatial domain were not the same, and the maximum values of tire normal force appeared at different location; (2) the change regularities of the middle and the rear axles' tire normal dynamic load coefficients were basically similar, while those of the front axle's tire normal dynamic load coefficient were different. The research results could provide a basis for calculation, verification and prediction of vehicle tire dynamic load.%为研究时间和空间频率路面激励下重型车辆动载特性,将车辆的轮胎、钢板弹簧视为柔体,橡胶垫块、限位块简化为具有非线性刚度和阻尼特性的力元,采用多体动力学仿真软件SIMPACK建立刚柔耦合的车辆整车虚拟样机,并采用有理函数功率谱密度的谐波叠加法建立空间域和时域路面激励数学模型,创建一个时域和空间域路面激励下车辆行驶动力学模型,仿真计算了车辆各轴轮胎的法向作用力和车轮法向动栽系数.结果表明:不同车速下,时域和空间域路面激

  16. Fuel Economy Improvement of a Heavy-Duty Powertrain by Using Hardware-in-Loop Simulation and Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel economy efficiency is one of the most important parameters for vehicle powertrains, which is of particular interest for heavy-duty powertrain calibration. Conventionally, this work relies heavily on road tests, which cost more and may lead to long duration product development cycles. The paper proposes a novel hardware-in-loop modeling and calibration method to work it out. A dSPACE hardware-based test bench was successfully established and validated, which is valuable for a more efficient and easier shift schedule in calibration. Meanwhile, a real-time dynamic powertrain model, including a diesel engine, torque converter, gear box and driver model was built. Typical driving cycles that both velocity and slope information were constructed for different road conditions. A basic economic shift schedule was initially calculated and then optimal calibrated by the test bench. The results show that there is an optimal relationship between an economic shift schedule and speed regulation. By matching the best economic shift schedule regulation to different road conditions; the fuel economy of vehicles can be improved. In a smooth driving cycle; when the powertrain applies a larger speed regulation such as 12% and the corresponding shift schedule; the fuel consumption is smaller and is reduced by 13%. In a complex driving cycle, when the powertrain applies a smaller speed regulation such as 5% along with the corresponding shift schedule; the fuel consumption is smaller and is reduced by 5%. The method thus can provide guidance for economic calibration experiments of off-road heavy-duty vehicles.

  17. The Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the characteristics of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from heavy-duty trucks in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region, which is located in Northern China. The multiyear emissions of GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O from heavy-duty trucks fueled by diesel and natural gas during the period of 2006–2015 were compared and analyzed. The results show that the GHG emissions from heavy-duty trucks increase with time, which is consistent with the trend of the population growth. The total amount of carbon dioxide equivalence (CO2e emissions in the BTH region was about 5.12 × 106 t in 2015. Among the three sub-regions, Hebei possesses the largest number of heavy-duty trucks due to the size of its heavy-duty industries. As a consequence, the GHG emissions are about 10 times compared to Beijing and Tianjin. Tractor trailers account for the major proportion of heavy-duty trucks and hence contribute to about 74% of GHG emissions. Diesel- and liquefied natural gas (LNG-powered heavy-duty trucks can reduce GHG emissions more effectively under current national standard IV than can the previous standard. The widespread utilization of the alternative fuel of LNG to mitigate emissions must be accompanied with engine technology development in China. This study has provided new insight on management methods and the policy-making as regards trucks in terms of environmental demand.

  18. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    , NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  19. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  20. Measurement of black carbon and particle number emission factors from individual heavy-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, George A; Lunden, Melissa M; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Harley, Robert A

    2009-03-01

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks driving through a 1-km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO2 concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for approximately 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg(-1) and maximum values of approximately 10 g kg(-1). Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10(15) and 4 x 10(16) # kg(-1). There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1sigma) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from +/- 43% for n=10 to +/- 8% for n=300, illustrating the importance of vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. When n=10, sample means are more likely to be biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in the future, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet will become more of a challenge.

  1. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  2. Investigation of SCR After-Treatment Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel to Meet the Emission Regulations above Euro 5%重型柴油机满足欧吁、欧遇排放法规的SCR后处理技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国莹; 付海燕; 于红胜; 仲蕾; 程秀围; 任庆霜; 董江峰

    2014-01-01

    The technical roadmaps of emission regulations of foreign heavy duty diesel are investigated. The technical characteristics of SCR system are analyzed. SCR after-treatment technologies meeting the emission regulations above Euro V are discussed. It's pointed out that the design conception of SCR has been renewed,the temperature window of SCR has been enlarged,and the volume of SCR has been reduced continuously. The operating cost of engine and after-treatment is being optimized constantly.%研究了国外重型柴油机排放法规的技术路线,分析了SCR系统的技术特点,并在此基础上探讨了满足欧吁以上排放法规的SCR后处理技术。指出SCR的设计理念在不断地更新换代,SCR的温度窗口不断扩大,SCR的体积不断缩小。发动机及后处理系统运行成本也在不断优化。

  3. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  4. Combustion Commonality and Differences Between HSDI and Heavy Duty Truck Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rong

    2000-08-20

    Experimental understanding of the diesel spray and combustion process at the fundamental level has helped advance the virtual lab simulation tools. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulation has been globally verified in many engines, providing substantial credibility to the use of this technology in advanced engine development. This paper highlights the common aspects and differences between the smallbore HSDI and the larger displacement heavy-duty truck engine spray and combustion processes. Implications for combustion system strategies will be delineated. Detroit Diesel integrated ''Wired'' approach will be explained with pointers towards future tool enhancements.

  5. Size-resolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission factors from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles: temperature effect on the nuclei-mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Miguel, Antonio H

    2012-03-06

    Motor vehicles are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions in urban areas. Motor vehicle emission control strategies have included improvements in engine design, exhaust emission control, and fuel reformulation. Therefore, an updated assessment of the effects of the shifts in fuels and vehicle technologies on PAH vehicular emission factors (EFs) is needed. We have evaluated the effects of ambient temperature on the size-resolved EFs of nine US EPA Priority Pollutant PAH, down to 10 nm diameter, from on-road California gasoline light-duty vehicles with spark ignition (SI) and heavy-duty diesels with compression ignition (CI) in summer 2004 and winter 2005. During the winter, for the target PAH with the lowest subcooled equilibrium vapor pressure --benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene-- the mass in the nucleation mode, defined here as particles with dp <32 nm, ranged between 14 and 38% for SI vehicles and 29 and 64% for CI vehicles. Our observations of the effect of temperature on the mass of PAH in the nucleation mode are similar to the observed effect of temperature on the number concentration of diesel exhaust particles in the nucleation mode in a previous report.

  6. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  7. Diesel vehicles shortage mobilizes the automotive industry; La penurie de diesel mobilise la filiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P.Y.; Deheunynck, P.Y.; Demoulin, L.

    2000-12-01

    The infatuation for diesel vehicles in Europe has led to an unexpected growth of this market. The reason is linked with the improvements made in diesel engine technology and with the rise of automotive fuel prices. Car and vehicle equipment manufacturers and sub-contractors have to increase their production and manpower and to adopt new work schedules for a better exploitation of factories capacity. However, the development of the direct injection (common-rail) technology for diesel engines requires complex and precise machining procedures that are hardly compatible with an enhanced mass production. (J.S.)

  8. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  9. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  10. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June......

  11. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  12. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Shinjo, H.; Harada, M.; Ohata, K.; Sakata, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...... lubricant, compared to the reference lubricant, was dependent on the driving pattern -the lubricant was the main contributor to the soluble organic fraction of the particulates emitted, only biodiesel gave a contribution from the fuel -a slightly higher fuel consumption and NOx emission was noticed...

  14. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using...

  15. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations....

  16. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006...

  17. Positive displacement compounding of a heavy duty diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.

    1984-06-04

    A helical screw type positive displacement (PD) compressor and expander was considered in this study as an alternative to the turbocharger and the power turbine in the Cummins Advanced Turbocompound engine. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) completed the design, layout, and performance prediction of the PD machines under a subcontract from Cummins. The results of the study indicate that a screw compressor-expander system is feasible up to at least 750 HP, dry operation of the rotors is feasible, cost and producibility are uncertain, and the system will yield about 4% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the Advanced Turbocompound engine.

  18. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  19. Quasi-Dimensional Modelling and Parametric Studies of a Heavy-Duty HCCI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-dimensional modelling study is conducted for the first time for a heavy duty, diesel-fuelled, multicylinder engine operating in HCCI mode. This quasidimensional approach involves a zero-dimensional single-zone homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion model along with a one-dimensional treatment of the intake and exhaust systems. A skeletal chemical kinetic scheme for n-heptane was used in the simulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio (CR were the two parameters that were altered in order to deal with the challenges of combustion phasing control and operating load range extension. Results from the HCCI mode simulations show good potential when compared to conventional diesel performance with respect to important performance parameters such as peak firing pressure, specific fuel consumption, peak pressure rise, and combustion noise. This study shows that HCCI combustion mode can be employed at part load of 25% varying the EGR rates between 0 and 60%.

  20. Diesel hybrid powertrain for passenger and light commercial vehicles; Diesel-Hybrid-Antriebsstrang fuer PKW und leichte Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, David [Ricardo Deutschland GmbH, Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany). Productgruppe Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Wren, Corin [Ricardo Midlands Technical Centre, Leamington Spa (United Kingdom). Hi-CEPS Project for Hybrid and Electrical Vehicles

    2011-03-15

    As part of the European funded FP6 project Hi-CEPS, Ricardo, Ford and Eldor have collaborated to develop an efficient diesel powertrain concept suitable for a family of vehicles on a C-segment platform, including a light commercial vehicle variant. The powertrain architecture incorporates a downsized diesel engine mated to an electromechanically actuated dual clutch transmission developed by Ricardo. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  2. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    losses due to uneven pavement , and representative of most installations. • Track Weather Station: ATC setup equipment to measure and record weather...the conventional utility truck provide a better, more rigid ride. Acceleration of the vehicle is very poor. The vehicles continuously fall behind

  3. Simulations of Multi Combustion Modes Hydrogen Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical study of a diesel direct injection heavy duty truck engine converted to hydrogen. The engine has a power turbine connected through a clutch and a continuously variable transmission to the crankshaft. The power turbine may be disconnected and by-passed when it is inefficient or inconvenient to use. The conversion is obtained by replacing the Diesel injector with a hydrogen injector and the glow plug with a jet ignition device. The hydrogen engine operates different modes of combustion depending on the relative phasing of the main injection and the jet ignition. The engine generally operates mostly in Diesel-like mode, with the most part of the main injection following the suitable creation in cylinder conditions by jet ignition. For medium-low loads, better efficienciy is obtained with the gasoline-like mode jet igniting the premixed homogeneous mixture at top dead centre. It’s permitted at higher loads or at very low loads for the excessive peak pressure or the mixture too lean to burn rapidly. The hydrogen engine has better efficiency than Diesel outputs and fuel conversion. Thanks to the larger rate of heat release, it has the opportunity to run closer to stoichiometry and the multi mode capabilities. The critical area for this engine development is found in the design of a hydrogen injector delivering the amount of fuel needed to the large volume cylinder within a Diesel-like injection time.

  4. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel fuel... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.527 Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the...

  5. General Motors perspective on the potential of diesel vehicles for the U.S. automotive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, J.G.; Indra, F.; Freese, C.; Brown, D.; Potter, M. [General Motors Powertrain, Pontiac (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The European market for diesel-powered vehicles has seen tremendous growth over the last ten years. This trend is driven by the superior fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions of diesel engines, tax policies that favor diesel-powered vehicles, and emission regulations tailored to the capabilities of the diesel engine. The diesel growth observed in Europe has not been reproduced in the United States due in part to an economic environment that does not favor diesel-powered vehicles and U.S. light-duty emission regulations primarily based on the capability of the gasoline engine. This paper discusses the challenges associated with diesel market expansion in the United States and the technologies being developed to address these challenges. The paper concludes with an assessment of the potential for future U.S. diesel vehicle market growth.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  7. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the first of two volumes, comprises the first six blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are the following topics: shop equipment and practices; procedures for starting, moving, and stopping equipment; the…

  8. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the second of two volumes, comprises the final three blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are engines, basic electricity, and winches. Each block contains a section on parts theory that gives the purpose,…

  9. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  11. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle...

  12. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel...

  13. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content...

  14. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

  15. Toxicity of effluents emitted by the diesel engines vehicles; Toxicite des effluents emis par les vehicules a moteur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcon, St.

    1998-04-29

    The exhaust gases of diesel engine vehicles are atmospheric pollutants. They are characterised by a gaseous phase and a particulate phase. The diesel particulates are composed of a nucleus formed with elementary carbon, forming aggregates that absorb the organic by-products at their surface. A first part treats the effluents of diesel engine vehicles: their characteristics, the factors influencing the diesel emissions, the noxiousness of the gaseous phase, the kinetics and the metabolism of the particulate phase and analysis methods. A second part tackles the experimental toxicity of diesel effluents on insisting on the nature of exposures, the mutagenicity, the carcinogenicity, the effects on the reproduction function and immuno-toxicity. A third part is devoted to the toxicity for man with epidemiology data and some studies under controlled exposures. Then, a fourth part, explains the toxicity mechanisms and the action modes of diesel effluents on the carcinogen effects and on respiratory diseases. (N.C.)

  16. Heavy-duty engine testing report-correlation testing of GMC (General Motors Corporation) 5. 7l/MVMA engine. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.

    1988-06-01

    The correlation between the heavy-duty test facilities of a manufacturer and the Environmental Protection Agency Motor Vehicle Emission Laboratory (MVEL) is of significant interest to both the manufacturer and EPA. It is especially important from a regulatory standpoint because of Selective Enforcement Audit (SEA) testing requirements. Thus, EPA/MVEL conducted testing on a Chevrolet heavy-duty gasoline-fueled engine with the intent of providing correlation data for comparison with similar data developed by laboratories which conduct SEA emissions tests for the manufacturers of heavy-duty gasoline (HDG) engines. The round-robin program was a joint effort on the part of EPA/MVEL and the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA).

  17. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S.

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  18. PM2.5 emissions from different types of heavy-duty truck: a case study and meta-analysis of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liying; Song, Hongqing; Lin, Jingyi; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Mingxu; Huang, Xiaoxia; Guan, Yu; Wang, Xing; Du, Li

    2017-03-14

    Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China is affected seriously by the hazy weather that has a large impact on human health. PM2.5 is one of the most important reasons for hazy weather. Understanding the PM2.5 emission characteristics from different types of heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) is valuable in policies and regulations to improve urban air quality and mitigate vehicle emission in China. The investigation and analysis on HDT population and PM2.5 emission in BTH region are carried out. The results show that the population and PM2.5 emission of HDTs in BTH has risen for the last four consecutive years, from 404 thousand and 1795 tons in 2012 to 551 thousand and 2303 tons in 2015. The PM2.5 emission from HDTs in Hebei is about 10 times more than that of Beijing and 9 times more than that of Tianjin. The proportion of natural gas HDTs is about 5%; however, its PM2.5 emission only accounts for 0.94% in 2015, which indicates the utilization of HDTs powered by natural gas facilitate PM2.5 mitigation more than diesel in BTH. The tractor and pickup trucks are the main source of PM2.5 emission from different types of HDT, while special and dump trucks are relatively clean. This study has provided insights for management method and policy-making of vehicle in terms of environmental demand.

  19. Application for certification for 1979 model year for heavy-duty engines - General Motors Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-30

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application, submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  20. Climate-relevant properties of diesel particulate emissions: results from a piggyback study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, R; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Paw-armart, Ittipol; Duleep, K G

    2009-06-01

    A "piggyback" approach is used to characterize aerosol emissions to obtain input for large-scale models of atmospheric transport. Particulate and gaseous emissions from diesel trucks, light-duty vehicles, and buses were measured by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department as part of the Developing Integrated Emissions Strategies for Existing Land Transport (DIESEL) project. We added filter-based measurements of carbonaceous composition, particulate light absorption, and water uptake. For 88 "normal" diesel vehicles (PM emission rate < 4.7 g/kg), our best estimate of the average PM2.5 emission rate is 2.2 +/- 0.5 g/kg, whereas for 15 high emitters, it is 8.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg. The effect of Euro standards on PM emission rates was apparent for heavy-duty vehicles, but not for light-duty vehicles. Carbonaceous composition appears relatively consistent, with particulate (artifact-corrected) OC at 17 +/- 1% and EC at 40 +/- 8% of PM for 103 pickups, vans, heavy-duty trucks and buses. The median absorption cross-section for EC is 10.5 m2/g at 532 nm. The history of average emission rate and chemical composition during the project suggests that about 25 vehicles can provide a regional PM emission rate for normal vehicles. Other studies such as remote sensing measurements will be required to estimate the important contribution of high-emitting vehicles.

  1. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  2. The influence of fuel type on the cooling system heat exchanger parameters in heavy-duty engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsztynowicz, B.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discuses the problem of selection of cooling systems for heavy-duty engines fitted in city buses. Aside from diesel engines, engine manufacturers also have in their portfolio engines fueled with natural gas, whose design is based on that of a conventional diesel engine. Based on the parameters of the engines from this type-series (the same displacement and rated power) an analysis has been performed of the influence of the applied fuel on the heat flows directed to the radiators and charge air coolers, hence, their size and space necessary for their proper installation. A replacement of a diesel engine with a natural gas fueled engine of the same operating parameters results in an increased amount of heat released to the coolant and a reduced heat from the engine charging system. This forces a selection of different heat exchangers that require more space for installation. A universal cooling module for different engines is not an optimal solution.

  3. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  4. Vehicle Natural Gas (GNV): it is the diesel turn?; GNV: chegou a vez do diesel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar de; Freitas, Katia

    2007-07-01

    In Brazil, the vehicle natural gas in the diesel market can result in important economic and social benefits. First of all, it is important the highlighting the existence between the present demand profile and the petroleum derivatives supply in Brazil. On the other side, the Brazilian production presents a shortage with a total in 2001 of 33,645 millions of m{sup 3} which forced the country to import 6,606.5 millions of m{sup 3}. Also it is important to emphasize the existence of natural gas supply excess in Brazil and in region, making it possible the large scale use.

  5. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with

  6. Application for certification 1983 model year heavy-duty engines - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. Application for certification 1980 model year heavy-duty engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  8. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty trucks - Ford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  9. Vehicular Air Pollution Modeling For Diesel Driven Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Arul selvan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollution in air is generated by the developments, which typically occur as the country gradually shifts towards industrialization, due to city growth, increasing traffic, rapid economic development, and higher levels of energy consumption. Indian cities are among the most polluted cities in the world. The main source of air pollution in Indian metropolitan cities is petrol and diesel driven vehicles. They particularly emit CO, CO2, HC, NOX and O2. The growing vehicular population has resulted in increased air pollution, which in turn has affected the people’s health, who live along the transportation corridors. Increase in vehicular population, has resulted in decrease in quality of air and the environment. There are several health impacts that are associated with respiratory infections, asthma etc,. A number of studies have been done by the foreign countries, but this is not suitable for the Indian cities. This may be due to heterogeneity of vehicles, multiplicity of modes and the difference in geometrics of road. Therefore the need arises to study about the emission rates. In this study, equipment by the name five gas analyzer is used to find out the emission rates of different types of vehicles under static and dynamic conditions. The factor considered under static conditions is the age of the vehicles. Whereas under dynamic condition factors considered are the road roughness, age of the vehicle and speed. From the emission rates a linear regression model is developed using SPSS software and sensitivity analysis is being carried out.

  10. 40 CFR 80.593 - What are the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to temporary refiner relief standards... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject...

  11. An evaluation of criteria for selecting vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hesterberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed selection criteria for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG fueled vehicles, comparing engine emissions, fire and safety, toxicity, economics, and operations. Diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles with the latest emission-control technology, including engine-exhaust aftertreatment, have very similar emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, particles through all size ranges, and greenhouse gases. Although toxicity data are limited, no significant toxicity differences of engine emissions were reported. Operating and maintenance costs are variable, with no consistent difference between diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles. The main operating concern with CNG vehicles is that they are less fuel efficient. Higher infrastructure costs are involved with implementing a CNG-fueled vehicle fleet, giving diesel vehicles a distinct cost advantage over CNG vehicles. For a given budget, greater emissions reductions can thus be achieved with diesel+filter vehicles. Finally, diesel vehicles have a significant fire-and-safety advantage over CNG vehicles. In summary, infrastructure costs and fire-and-safety concerns are much greater for CNG-fueled vehicles. These considerations should be part of the decision-making process when selecting a fuel for a transportation system.

  12. Volatile organic compounds emissions from gasoline and diesel powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vega, E; Sanchez, G; Reyes, E; Arriaga, J. L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Chow, J; Watson, J; Egami, R [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this research, volatile organic compound emissions were characterized from gasoline and diesel vehicles. Sampling campaigns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were designed and carried out in tunnels, crossroads, and truck and bus terminals. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography getting more than 250 different compounds, being more or less 60 of them the 80% of all the emissions. The most abundant are the two carbon compounds, as a result of the combustion, and compounds related to fuels compositions, like isopentane, xylenes, toluene among others. The profiles obtained in tunnels and crossroads were very similar with the exception of the 3 and 4 carbon compounds, which were found in bigger proportion in the profiles at crossroads. This may probably be due to the blend with the ambient air. The profiles corresponding to trucks and buses have a smaller content of two carbon compounds and a bigger content of xylenes, toluene and ethylbenzene. The variations in the proportions of the compounds allow differentiating the profiles of vehicles using gasoline and diesel. [Spanish] En este trabajo se caracterizaron las emisiones de compuestos organicos volatiles provenientes de vehiculos a gasolina y a diesel. Para ello, se disenaron diversas campanas de muestreo en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico, en tuneles, cruceros y estaciones de camiones de carga y autobuses. Las muestras se analizaron con cromatografia, de gases obteniendose mas de 250 compuestos distintos, de los cuales aproximadamente 60 corresponden a mas del 80% de las emisiones. Los compuestos mas abundantes son los de dos carbonos, resultado de la combustion, y 4 carbonos que se encontraron en mayor proporcion en los perfiles de cruceros, lo cual se debe probablemente a la mezcla con el aire ambiente. Los perfiles correspondientes a camiones de carga y autobuses tienen un menor contenido de compuestos de dos carbonos y un mayor contenido de xilenos, tolueno y etilbenceno. Estas

  13. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S

    2010-08-01

    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 中/重型车辆坡道起步辅助系统气动控制电磁阀的设计与研究%Design and Research of Pneumatic Control Solenoid Valve of Hill Start Assist System of the Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆渴; 王洪亮; 谷文豪

    2016-01-01

    目前手动挡汽车,尤其是中/重型车辆坡道起步时,需要驾驶员进行复杂的操作,操作不当易导致发动机熄火或溜车.通过系统结构设计原理分析,得到对电磁阀的功能和结构需求,设计了由1个膜片阀和1个二位三通常闭电磁阀集合而成的坡道起步控制电磁阀.借助该阀,驾驶员无需复杂的操作便可实现汽车坡道起步.此外,通过坡道起步控制电磁阀开关动作系统压力滞后特性试验研究得到:为了达到对制动力的精确控制,应根据系统特性适当选择坡道起步控制电磁阀开启与关闭时间,坡道起步控制电磁阀的断电时间至少应大于开启滞后时间32 ms,坡道起步控制电磁阀的通电时间至少要大于关闭滞后时间8 ms.%A series of complex actions should be executed exactly when the cars starts on the slope, if not, the cars, especially the medium and heavy duty vehicles, will slide down or the motor will get a flame out.Based on the functions and structure characteristic of the valve through analysis of the principle of system structure, the HSA valve, which consists of one membrane valve and one two position three-way solenoid valve is designed.With the help of the HSA valve, the cars can start fluently without any complex actions.Through experiments of system pressure hysteresis characteristic of the HSA valve when it is on and off, it is found that the opening time of the valve is at least 32ms and turn-off time is at least 8ms in order to control the breaking force precisely.

  15. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  16. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  17. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  18. Effects of vehicle type and fuel quality on real world toxic emissions from diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Tibbett, Anne R.; Day, Stuart J.

    Diesel vehicles are an important source of emissions of air pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and toxic compounds with potential health impacts including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene and aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current developments in engine design and fuel quality are expected to reduce these emissions in the future, but many vehicles exceed 10 years of age and may make a major contribution to urban pollutant concentrations and related health impacts for many years. In this study, emissions of a range of toxic compounds are reported using in-service vehicles which were tested using urban driving cycles developed for Australian conditions. Twelve vehicles were chosen from six vehicle weight classes and, in addition, two of these vehicles were driven through the urban drive cycle using a range of diesel fuel formulations. The fuels ranged in sulphur content from 24 to 1700 ppm, and in total aromatics from 7.7 to 33 mass%. Effects of vehicle type and fuel composition on emissions are reported. The results show that emissions of these toxic species were broadly comparable to those observed in previous dynamometer and tunnel studies. Emissions of VOCs and smaller PAHs such as naphthalene, which are derived largely from the combustion process, appear to be related, and show relatively little variability when compared with the variability in emissions of aldehydes and larger PAHs. In particular, aldehyde emissions are highly variable and may be related to engine operating conditions. Fuels of lower sulphur and aromatic content did not have a significant influence on emissions of VOCs and aldehydes, but tended to result in lower emissions of PAHs. The toxicity of vehicle exhaust, as determined by inhalation risk and toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-weighted PAH emissions, was reduced with fuels of lower aromatic content.

  19. Performance Analysis of the Vehicle Diesel Engine-ORC Combined System Based on a Screw Expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve energy saving and emission reduction for vehicle diesel engines, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC was employed to recover waste heat from vehicle diesel engines, R245fa was used as ORC working fluid, and the resulting vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was presented. The variation law of engine exhaust energy rate under various operating conditions was obtained, and the running performances of the screw expander were introduced. Based on thermodynamic models and theoretical calculations, the running performance of the vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was analyzed under various engine operating condition scenarios. Four evaluation indexes were defined: engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC of the combined system, and improvement ratio of BSFC (IRBSFC. Results showed that when the diesel engine speed is 2200 r/min and diesel engine torque is 1200 N·m, the power output of the combined system reaches its maximum of approximately 308.6 kW, which is 28.6 kW higher than that of the diesel engine. ETEIR, WHRE, and IRBSFC all reach their maxima at 10.25%, 9.90%, and 9.30%, respectively. Compared with that of the diesel engine, the BSFC of the combined system is obviously improved under various engine operating conditions.

  20. Deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts. Vehicle- and synthetic aging correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Skoglundh, Magnus [Competence Centre for Catalysis, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Antonsson, Matilda [Volvo Car Corporation, Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Diesel, SE-405 31 Goeteborg (Sweden); Eurenius, Lisa; Olsson, Eva [Microscopy and Microanalysis, Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-03-08

    Deactivation characteristics of a diesel oxidation catalyst subjected to controlled lab aging were compared to field-aged catalysts after 0, 80,000, and 160,000 km driving in order to establish the (dis)similarities between the two types of aging, and determine to what extent vehicle aging can be replaced by rapid synthetic aging. Emission tests confirmed the increasing deactivation of the field-aged catalysts and measurements of CO oxidation, Pt dispersion and hydrocarbon storage capacity were used together with XPS, TEM, and SEM-EDS to compare the performance with lab-aged catalysts. The synthetic aging was designed to account for a combination of thermal and chemical deactivation. A similar degree of Pt sintering was observed for both real and synthetic aging conditions, whereas differences arose from various contributions to the chemical deactivation. XPS showed that pre-oxidation and pre-reduction at 700 C was not sufficient to remove typical compounds of oil-derived catalyst poisons (P, Zn, Ca), which furthermore accumulated with mileage, on the vehicle-aged catalysts. The degree of sulfur poisoning of the lab-aged catalysts increased with the duration of low-temperature sulfur exposure and could not be recovered in atmospheres typical for normal driving conditions. The results show that synthetic aging can be used to simulate thermal aging and a general effect of irreversible chemical deactivation, and thereby accelerate durability test procedures of various catalysts where loss of catalytic activity by time of operation is of concern. (author)

  1. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of... Information Collection: New collection. OMB Control Number: To be issued at time of approval. Title: Medium...

  2. Shannxi Heavy-duty Automobile Co., Ltd Launch Delong X 3000%陕汽重卡德龙X3000全系自卸车全国上市

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦伟杰

    2016-01-01

    Oct. 8, 2016, Shannxi Heavy-duty Automobile Co., Ltd held a grand event at Xi’an Shannqi Commercial Vehicles Industrial Park to launch Delong series of tippers, including new model of waste-collection vehicle, highway tippers and mine-tippers, which were for southwest market and Tibetan region exclusively.

  3. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  4. The energy consumption and cost savings of truck electrification for heavy duty vocational applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks. A simulation tool based on vehicle tractive energy methodology and component efficiency for addressing component and system performance was developed to evaluate the energy consumption and performance of the trucks. As part of this analysis, various battery sizes combined with different charging powers on the E-Trucks for local delivery and utility bucket applications were investigated. The results show that the E-Truck applications not only reduce energy consumption but also achieve significant energy cost savings. For delivery E-Trucks, the results show that periodic stops at delivery sites provide sufficient time for battery charging, and for this reason, a high-power charger is not necessary. For utility bucket PHEV trucks, energy consumption per mile of bucket truck operation is typically higher because of longer idling times and extra high idling load associated with heavy utility work. The availability of on-route charging is typically lacking at the work sites of bucket trucks; hence, the battery size of these trucks is somewhat larger than that of the delivery trucks studied.

  5. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models.

  6. AdBlue as a reducing agent for the decrease of NO{sub x}-emissions from diesel engines of commercial vehicles. Pt. 2: Laboratory and field testing of AdBlue. AdBlue-Logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautwein, W.P.

    2005-02-01

    In order to comply with stringent exhaust gas emission standards issued by the European Union for 2005 and 2008 for diesel engines of HD (heavy duty) commercial vehicles, the European automobile industry has chosen the ''selective catalytic reduction'' (SCR) technology. By this method, nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions can be reduced by 60% vis-a-vis current standards. In addition they agreed to use ''AdBue'', an aqueous solution of urea, as a reducing agent, which is needed to reduce the oxides of nitrogen into elementary nitrogen. The first vehicles equipped with this new technology will be launched in January 2005. This report explains the mechanism of the SCR/urea technique and outlines production as well as physical, chemical and environmental properties of urea and AdBlue. It summarises the results of laboratory and field tests, which were run in order to investigate the technical and logistical requirements of this new technique, and it describes first experiences gained at public service stations, which have been equipped with an AdBlue filling station. Finally, the report reflects on what is needed for the build-up of an AdBlue distribution network. (orig.)

  7. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  8. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...... performance tests on a 10 ton vehicle....

  9. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  10. Pump-to-Wheels Methane Emissions from the Heavy-Duty Transportation Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L; Johnson, Derek R; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Mongold, Ronald A; Hailer, John T; Ugarte, Orlando J

    2017-01-17

    Pump-to-wheels (PTW) methane emissions from the heavy-duty (HD) transportation sector, which have climate change implications, are poorly documented. In this study, methane emissions from HD natural gas fueled vehicles and the compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations that serve them were characterized. A novel measurement system was developed to quantify methane leaks and losses. Engine related emissions were characterized from twenty-two natural gas fueled transit buses, refuse trucks, and over-the-road (OTR) tractors. Losses from six LNG and eight CNG stations were characterized during compression, fuel delivery, storage, and from leaks. Cryogenic boil-off pressure rise and pressure control venting from LNG storage tanks were characterized using theoretical and empirical modeling. Field and laboratory observations of LNG storage tanks were used for model development and evaluation. PTW emissions were combined with a specific scenario to view emissions as a percent of throughput. Vehicle tailpipe and crankcase emissions were the highest sources of methane. Data from this research are being applied by the authors to develop models to forecast methane emissions from the future HD transportation sector.

  11. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  12. Development of a heavy duty portable variable power supply (HPVPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad Zulfadli Bin; Lung, Chong Man; Abidin, Wan'Amirah Basyarah Binti Zainol

    2017-08-01

    This paper covers the innovation of a Heavy Duty Portable Variable Power Supply (HPVPS) in Jabatan Kejuruteraan Elektrik (JKE), Politeknik Mukah, Sarawak (PMU). This project consists of variable power supply which can vary the output from 1.2 V to 11.6V, AC pure wave inverter to convert DC to AC for the operation of low power home appliances and also used Li-on rechargeable batteries to store the electrical energy and additional feature that can be used to jump-start the batteries of the car. The main objective of this project is to make the user can operate the electronic devices anywhere whenever if no electricity while doing their lab activities. Most of the regulated power supply in JKE lab aged 9-10 years old and need periodical maintenance and need cost and also the unit can be used is not enough to support the whole class during lab activities. As a result, the P&P process will be facing the major problem in order to make the lab activities running smoothly. By development of the portable variable power supply, the P&P process is more efficient and very helpful.

  13. Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of organic carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Drew R.; Isaacman, Gabriel; Worton, David R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Dallmann, Timothy R.; Davis, Laura; Liu, Shang; Day, Douglas A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Weber, Robin; Guha, Abhinav; Harley, Robert A.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles are predominant anthropogenic sources of reactive gas-phase organic carbon and key precursors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban areas. Their relative importance for aerosol formation is a controversial issue with implications for air quality control policy and public health. We characterize the chemical composition, mass distribution, and organic aerosol formation potential of emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles, and find diesel exhaust is seven times more efficient at forming aerosol than gasoline exhaust. However, both sources are important for air quality; depending on a region’s fuel use, diesel is responsible for 65% to 90% of vehicular-derived SOA, with substantial contributions from aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Including these insights on source characterization and SOA formation will improve regional pollution control policies, fuel regulations, and methodologies for future measurement, laboratory, and modeling studies. PMID:23091031

  14. TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF ALTERNATIVES OR REFORMULATED LIQUID FUELS, FUEL ADDITIVES, FUEL EMULSONS, AND LUBRICANTS FOR HIGHWAY AND NONROAD USE HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINES AND LIGHT DUTY GASOLINE ENGINES AND VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  15. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  16. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  17. Actualities and Development of Heavy-Duty CNC Machine Tool Thermal Error Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zu-De; Gui, Lin; Tan, Yue-Gang; Liu, Ming-Yao; Liu, Yi; Li, Rui-Ya

    2017-09-01

    Thermal error monitoring technology is the key technological support to solve the thermal error problem of heavy-duty CNC (computer numerical control) machine tools. Currently, there are many review literatures introducing the thermal error research of CNC machine tools, but those mainly focus on the thermal issues in small and medium-sized CNC machine tools and seldom introduce thermal error monitoring technologies. This paper gives an overview of the research on the thermal error of CNC machine tools and emphasizes the study of thermal error of the heavy-duty CNC machine tool in three areas. These areas are the causes of thermal error of heavy-duty CNC machine tool and the issues with the temperature monitoring technology and thermal deformation monitoring technology. A new optical measurement technology called the "fiber Bragg grating (FBG) distributed sensing technology" for heavy-duty CNC machine tools is introduced in detail. This technology forms an intelligent sensing and monitoring system for heavy-duty CNC machine tools. This paper fills in the blank of this kind of review articles to guide the development of this industry field and opens up new areas of research on the heavy-duty CNC machine tool thermal error.

  18. Development of mathematical models for the aero derivative and heavy duty gas turbines; Desenvolvimento de modelos matematicos para as turbinas a gas aeroderivativas e heavy duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Marcelo; Mendes, Pedro Paulo de C.; Ferreira, Claudio; Passaro, Mauricio Campos; Gomes, Leonardo Vinicius [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletronica]. E-mails: freire_marcelo@hotmail.com; ppaulo@iee.efei.br; claudio@iee.efei.br; mcpassaro@uol.com.br; leonardo@iee.efei.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper develops, implements and simulates simplified mathematical models of multiple shafts, aero derivatives and heavy-duty gas turbines, aiming the subsides for studies of power systems dynamic behaviour. These components are fundamental to an approximated evaluation of the National Integrated System after the new thermoelectric plants are incorporated.

  19. A comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Lapin, Charles A; Bunn, William B

    2008-09-01

    A comprehensive comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas (CNG) was developed from 25 reports on transit buses, school buses, refuse trucks, and passenger cars. Emissions for most compounds were highest for untreated exhaust emissions and lowest for treated exhaust CNG buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs; e.g., benzene, butadiene, ethylene, etc.), and carbonyl compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein). Diesel buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exhaust after-treatments reduced most emissions to similar levels in diesel and CNG buses. Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were similar for most vehicle types, fuels, and exhaust after-treatments with some exceptions. Diesel school buses had higher CO2 emissions than the CNG bus. CNG transit buses and passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts had lower NO(x) emissions. Diesel buses equipped with traps had higher nitrogen dioxide emissions. Fuel economy was best in the diesel buses not equipped with exhaust after-treatment.

  20. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose...

  1. 40 CFR 80.530 - Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31, 2006? 80.530 Section 80.530 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.530 Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle...

  2. A Close Analysis of Developments in Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Ahuja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO 2 emissions; however, efficient removal of NO x and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. Diesel aftertreatment systems being used consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC, a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF, and is widely used to meet the most recent NO x (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO 2 and particulate matter (PM emission standards for medium and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The most efficient way and the best available technology (BAT to radically reduce the critical Diesel emission components particles (PM&NP and nitric oxides (NO x are combined exhaust gas aftertreatment systems (DPF+SCR. SCR (selective catalytic reduction is regarded as the most efficient deNO x -system, diesel particle filters are most efficient for soot abatement. Today, several suppliers offer combined systems for retrofitting of HD vehicles.

  3. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline......The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...

  4. Alternatives to conventional diesel fuel-some potential implications of California's TAC decision on diesel particulate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-08-10

    Limitations on the use of petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to provisions of the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies. (1) Increased penetration of natural gas and greater gasoline use in the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some compression-ignition (CI) applications revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents. Each of these alternatives results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles, and gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not evaluated.

  5. Modeling nucleation and coagulation modes in the formation of particulate matter inside a turbulent exhaust plume of a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Gautam, Mridul; Gera, Dinesh

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that is aimed at predicting the nucleation, coagulation, and dynamics of particulate matter (PM) emissions from on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The PM concentration is predicted from the composition of fuel, and operating and ambient conditions. A numerical algorithm for simultaneously solving the coagulation, condensation, and nucleation equations is developed. The effect of relative humidity on the nucleation rate and the nucleus size is also discussed. In addition, the effect of the ambient air dilution on PM size distribution is numerically predicted for a diesel-powered truck operating in a controlled environment at NASA Langley wind-tunnel facility. The particle size distribution and concentration are measured at four different locations in a turbulent plume from the diesel exhaust in the tunnel, and an excellent agreement between the measured and predicted PM concentration values at these locations inside the tunnel is observed.

  6. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.;

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...

  7. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  8. Digital monitoring for heavy duty mechanical equipment based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The digital monitoring principle and technologies for heavy duty mechanical equipment based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology are introduced in this paper. The fundamentals of new-style FBG sensing technology, including the photorefractive effect of FBG, the physical formation, and the relation between optical properties and grating parameters, are investigated. The plaster, encapsulation and distribution planning of FBG sensor (FBGS), which is used to monitor heavy duty mechanical equipment under abominable environment and extreme conditions, are also studied. In addition, theoretical and experimental researches on the strain, temperature, displacement, and stress transmission characteristics between FBGS and detection interface are presented. The principle and method for temperature compensation in non-uniformity temperature field are described in detail as well. Comparing with the traditional sensing monitoring techniques, the application of FBGS technology on digital monitoring and diagnosis for heavy duty mechanical equipment has a number of significant technical advantages and will make a new breakthrough in this field.

  9. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  10. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  11. Modeling and simulation for heavy-duty mecanum wheel platform using model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, A. F. M.; Mahmood, I. A.; Ahmad, S.; Norsahperi, N. M. H.; Toha, S. F.; Akmeliawati, R.; Darsivan, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a study on a control system for a heavy-duty four Mecanum wheel platform. A mathematical model for the system is synthesized for the purpose of examining system behavior, including Mecanum wheel kinematics, AC servo motor, gearbox, and heavy duty load. The system is tested for velocity control, using model predictive control (MPC), and compared with a traditional PID setup. The parameters for the controllers are determined by manual tuning. Model predictive control was found to be more effective with reference to a linear velocity.

  12. Moving towards Sustainability: Road Grades and On-Road Emissions of Heavy-Duty Vehicles—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendan Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On-road vehicle emissions are one of the major sources of transport emissions. As a key design factor, road grades (or road slopes have significant effects on on-road vehicle emissions, particularly on Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs. However, the research into the relationship between road grades and on-road vehicle emissions is very rare in China. Taking a road network in Taiyuan, China, as a study area, this paper explored the influences of road grades on carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon (HC, and nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions of HDVs. Combining emissions data collected by Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS with Vehicle Specific Power (VSP, we developed an emission rate model of HDVs. Then, we integrated it with the traffic simulation model VISSIM to attain the emissions of HDVs on nine scenarios differentiated by road grades. The results showed that the three emissions are found to be highly correlated to road grades, among which the CO emissions are most sensitive to the change of road grades and the HC emissions least. Compared to the emissions at 0% grade, the emissions at 4% grade will be boosted from 39.0% to 60.6%. The CO and NOx emissions increase with the road grades in all nine scenarios, while the variations of HC emissions in different scenarios were complicated. The findings of this research will provide insights for policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners into strategies for improving road design to reduce traffic emissions and develop sustainable transportation in China.

  13. Electric refuse collection vehicle with a range extender; Elektrisches Abfallsammelfahrzeug mit Range Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    At the Frankfurt Motor Show IAA 2012, MAN will be presenting the Metropolis, a heavy-duty truck for use in urban areas that produces no emissions and is ultra-quiet. Using mains electricity generated from renewable sources, it can operate without producing any CO{sub 2}. The truck's modular lithium-ion battery is located under the ab. A quiet and efficient diesel engine from the Volkswagen Group generates power as needed and functions as a range extender for the truck. At the end of 2012, the MAN Metropolis will start a two-year field test as a refuse collection vehicle. (orig.)

  14. Emissions of hydrogen cyanide from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Samar G.; Leithead, Amy; Li, Shao-Meng; Chan, Tak W.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Stroud, Craig; Zhang, Junhua; Lee, Patrick; Lu, Gang; Brook, Jeffery R.; Hayden, Katherine; Narayan, Julie; Liggio, John

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is considered a marker for biomass burning emissions and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Despite its potential health impacts, vehicular HCN emissions estimates and their contribution to regional budgets are highly uncertain. In the current study, Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure HCN emission factors from the exhaust of individual diesel, biodiesel and gasoline vehicles. Laboratory emissions data as a function of fuel type and driving mode were combined with ambient measurement data and model predictions. The results indicate that gasoline vehicles have the highest emissions of HCN (relative to diesel fuel) and that biodiesel fuel has the potential to significantly reduce HCN emissions even at realistic 5% blend levels. The data further demonstrate that gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines emit more HCN than their port fuel injection (PFI) counterparts, suggesting that the expected full transition of vehicle fleets to GDI will increase HCN emissions. Ambient measurements of HCN in a traffic dominated area of Toronto, Canada were strongly correlated to vehicle emission markers and consistent with regional air quality model predictions of ambient air HCN, indicating that vehicle emissions of HCN are the dominant source of exposure in urban areas. The results further indicate that additional work is required to quantify HCN emissions from the modern vehicle fleet, particularly in light of continuously changing engine, fuel and after-treatment technologies.

  15. IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehman, Andre L.

    2000-08-20

    As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by

  16. Evaluations of 1997 Fuel Consumption Patterns of Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo

    2001-08-05

    The proposed 21st Century Truck program selected three truck classes for focused analysis. On the basis of gross vehicle weight (GVW) classification, these were Class 8 (representing heavy), Class 6 (representing medium), and Class 2b (representing light). To develop and verify these selections, an evaluation of fuel use of commercial trucks was conducted, using data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS). Truck fuel use was analyzed by registered GVW class, and by body type.

  17. Stoichiometric and lean burn heavy-duty gas engines: a dilemma between emissions and fuel consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M. van der; Rijke, J. de; Seppen, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares stoichiometric with lean burn technology for heavy-duty gas engines (natural gas and LPG) and demonstrates that there is a future for both engine concepts on the multilateral global market. Emission limits in Europe as expected in the near future will facilitate both engine conce

  18. Crank angle resolved flow field characterization of a heavy-duty one-cylinder optical engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meyden, T.J.

    2009-03-15

    Soot and nitric oxide (NOx) production are the main negative aspects of Diesel combustion. This is why new combustion strategies are being investigated, such as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI). PCCI is one of the most promising combustion strategies for internal combustion engines in the future, since PCCI combustion is able to realize very low soot and nitric oxide emissions. PCCI combines the efficiency of a diesel and the low particulate emission of an Otto engine. To achieve PCCI combustion with limited heat release rates, the influence of charge stratification on combustion should be investigated. In this work, the first steps to achieve that goal are made. The first step is to determine in-cylinder velocities by measuring flow fields using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The test setup consists of a one-cylinder optically accessible heavy duty engine driven by an electrical motor. The upper part of the liner and piston bottom are both made of sapphire. For PIV measurements a 10 Hz Nd:YAG Continuum Surelite laser is used with pulse energies of 140 mJ. The used camera is a Kodak Megaplus ES 1.0 CCD with 1008 x 1018 pixels. The seeding particles are produced from silicon oil using Laskin nozzles and have a diameter of about 0.7 im. Pre- and post- processing and the evaluation of the recorded PIV images is done using the commercially available software program PIVview (Pivtec). The velocity analysis is done using the commercial software program Tecplot. More knowledge is gathered on the in-cylinder velocities, aimed at a future detailed study on the effect of charge stratification in PCCI combustion. Ensemble averaged velocities, vorticities and strain rates, turbulence intensities and turbulent kinetic energies as a function of the crank angle, engine speed, measurement height and compression ratio have been investigated. Velocity and turbulence appear to be proportional to the engine speed. The position of the ensemble averaged swirl center as a

  19. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources: case study of Murmansk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture, fishing and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emission in Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 70% of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source emitting about 12% of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 56.7 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 55% of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  20. Introduction and Market Prospect Analysis of Diesel and natural gas dual- fuel heavy truck%柴油-天然气双燃料重卡简介及市场前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿志勇; 李丽君

    2012-01-01

    通过分析国内天然气行业现状和天然气重卡销售情况,认为目前发展柴油-天然气双燃料重卡更符合我国国情。该双燃料重卡突破纯天然气汽车续驶里程限制,不仅降低运营成本而且节能环保,在技术性能、二手车买卖、应用前景等方面更具市场推广价值。%Analysis of the domestic gas industry status quo and natural gas heavy-duty truck sales,the development of diesel fuel - natural gas dual-fuel heavy-duty truck is more in line with China's national conditions.The dual-fuel heavy-duty truck to break through the pure natural gas vehicles driving range restrictions not only reduce operating costs and energy saving and environmental protection to promote the value of technical performance,used cars,and application prospects of more market.

  1. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... category. MC 90 defines the slope of the penalty rate curve near the standard and is equal to MC 50... cost analysis used to develop the penalty rates. The regulations specify that the relevant costs for...'' technology package elements. This cost stability mitigated the hypothetical nature of the ``baseline engine...

  2. CFD aided optimization of an innovative SCR catalyst design for heavy-duty marine diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, V. K.; Russo, S.; Verdemare, D.; Recine, G.; Biferale, L.; Falcucci, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the design of a new system for reducing NOx from exhaust gases from marine engines is shown. The core of the system is represented by the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactor, in which the catalyst is made of titanium dioxide nano-fibers functionalized with metal oxides and deposited by electrospinning on a corrugated metal support. Compared to the current monolithic reactor designs, the high specific surface offered by the fibers allows in principle to satisfy the TIER III emission standards, with a consistent saving in the reactor volume. To optimize the reactor design process, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed, alongside experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Results of different configurations are reported and critically assessed.

  3. Development of a heavy-duty diesel engine with two-stage turbocharging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, L.; Kruithof, J.

    2001-01-01

    A mean value model was developed by using Matrixx/ Systembuild simulation tool for designing real-time control algorithms for the two-stage engine. All desired characteristics are achieved, apart from lower A/F ratio at lower engine speeds and Turbocharger matches calculations. The CANbus is used to

  4. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimi Hessamedin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.

  5. DAF Euro-4 heavy-duty diesel engine with TNO EGR system and CRT particulates filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Aken, M.G. van; Verkiel, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the TNO venturi EGR system and the Johnson Matthey CRT particulates trap on a DAF 355 kW engine. The results obtained indicate that this EGR-CRT combination is an effective means to achieve EURO-4 emission level, while maintaining good fuel economy. EGR strategy, inj

  6. APPLYING OPEN-PATH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY TO HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-dispersive infrared absorption has been used to measure gaseous emissions for both stationary and mobile sources. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used for stationary sources as both extractive and open-path methods. We have applied the open-path method for bo...

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  8. Investigating the impact of in-vehicle transients on diesel soot emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a simulation of the vehicle system, and its use for investigating highly-dynamic engine-in-vehicle operation and its effect on diesel engine emissions. Running an engine in the test cell under conditions experienced in the vehicle enables acquiring detailed insight into dynamic interactions between power train sub-systems, and the impact of it on fuel consumption and transient emissions. This type of data may otherwise be difficult and extremely costly to obtain from a vehicle prototype test. In particular, engine system response during critical transients and the effect of transient excursions on emissions are investigated using advanced, fast-response test instrumentation and emissions analyzers. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study different power train configurations. In particular, the paper describes the engine-in-the-loop study of a V-8, 6l engine coupled to a virtual 4´4 off road vehicle. This engine is considered as a high-performance option for this truck and the real prototype of the complete vehicle does not exist yet. The results shed light on critical transients in a conventional powertrain and their effect on NOx and soot emissions. Measurements demonstrate very large spikes of particulate concentration at the initiation of vehicle acceleration events. Characterization of transients and their effect on particulate emission provides a basis for devising engine-level or

  9. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  10. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  11. Damages and Expected Deaths Due to Excess NOx Emissions from 2009 to 2015 Volkswagen Diesel Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen P; Mansur, Erin T; Muller, Nicholas Z; Yates, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    We estimate the damages and expected deaths in the United States due to excess emissions of NOx from 2009 to 2015 Volkswagen diesel vehicles. Using data on vehicle registrations and a model of pollution transport and valuation, we estimate excess damages of $430 million and 46 excess expected deaths. Accounting for uncertainty about emissions gives a range for damages from $350 million to $500 million, and a range for excess expected deaths from 40 to 52. Our estimates incorporate significant local heterogeneity: for example, Minneapolis has the highest damages despite having fewer noncompliant vehicles than 13 other cities. Our estimated damages greatly exceed possible benefits from reduced CO2 emissions due to increased fuel economy.

  12. Rotating Liner Engine: Improving Efficiency of Heavy Duty Diesels by Significant Friction Reduction, and Extending the Life of Heavy Duty Engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dardalis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-31

    This report describes the work on converting a 4 cylinder Cummins ISB engine into a single cylinder Rotating Liner Engine functioning prototype that can be used to measure the friction benefits of rotating the cylinder liner in a high pressure compression ignition engine. A similar baseline engine was also prepared, and preliminary testing was done. Even though the fabrication of the single cylinder prototype was behind schedule due to machine shop delays, the fundamental soundness of the design elements are proven, and the engine has successfully functioned. However, the testing approach of the two engines, as envisioned by the original proposal, proved impossible due to torsional vibration resonance caused by the single active piston. A new approach for proper testing has been proposed,

  13. Thermo-mechanical behaviour of heavy-duty disc brake systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    In heavy-duty disc brake systems, braking is a transient, non-linear and asymmetrical thermo-mechanical process. Surface cracking, rather than wear, is the major factor limiting the brake disc's life. The disc material (cast-iron), heat transfer boundary conditions and pad-disc frictional reactions are characteristically non-linear and asymmetrical during the friction process. Non-uniform deformation and surface cracks in brake discs result from the accumulation of excess...

  14. Application of heavy duty roadheaders for underground development of the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Study Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostami, J.; Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Neil, D.M. [D. Neil & Associates, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Heavy duty roadheaders of 100 ton weight class are being considered for the excavation of the test rooms and alcoves along the main ramp and in the main repository level at the Yucca Mountain site. The current design of the candidate machines was studied and appropriate modifications are proposed. Computer programs for design optimization and performance prediction of roadheaders were developed. Results of computer modeling and operational parameters of the proposed machines are presented in this paper.

  15. Estimation of CO2 reduction by parallel hard-type power hybridization for gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible improvements in ICEVs by implementing fuzzy logic-based parallel hard-type power hybrid systems. Two types of conventional ICEVs (gasoline and diesel) and two types of HEVs (gasoline-electric, diesel electric) were generated using vehicle and powertrain simulation tools and a Matlab-Simulink application programming interface. For gasoline and gasoline-electric HEV vehicles, the prediction accuracy for four types of LDV models was validated by conducting comparative analysis with the chassis dynamometer and OBD test data. The predicted results show strong correlation with the test data. The operating points of internal combustion engines and electric motors are well controlled in the high efficiency region and battery SOC was well controlled within ±1.6%. However, for diesel vehicles, we generated virtual diesel-electric HEV vehicle because there is no available vehicles with similar engine and vehicle specifications with ICE vehicle. Using a fuzzy logic-based parallel hybrid system in conventional ICEVs demonstrated that HEVs showed superior performance in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emission in most driving modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineered wood flooring with a densified surface layer for heavy-duty use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hua Fang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-density wood is required in wood flooring, especially in engineered wood flooring (EWF designed for heavy-duty applications. However, high-density wood resources are limited and their cost is high. A densification treatment makes it possible for low- or moderate-density woods to replace harder species by modifying them into high-performance and high-value products, such as engineered wood flooring for heavy-duty applications. The general objective of this study was to develop a prototype of engineered wood flooring using sugar maple hygro-thermally densified surface layers. The results showed that thin sugar maple lumber densified at 200 °C under the combined effects of steam, heat, and pressure with a heat-resistant fabric had great potential for the manufacturing of engineered wood flooring for heavy-duty use. As a result of treatment, it acquired high density, improved mechanical properties, and it had a relatively high dimensional stability and an attractive color. Tests in conditioning rooms showed that the EWF with a densified sugar maple (Acer saccharum March. surface layer presented the lowest amplitude distortion between the dry and humid conditions compared with the standard EWF (0.15 mm vs. 0.17mm and 0.25mm.

  17. Further validation of artificial neural network-based emissions simulation models for conventional and hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Nagy, Csaba; Conley, John J; Jarrett, Ronald P; Clark, Nigel N

    2006-07-01

    With the advent of hybrid electric vehicles, computer-based vehicle simulation becomes more useful to the engineer and designer trying to optimize the complex combination of control strategy, power plant, drive train, vehicle, and driving conditions. With the desire to incorporate emissions as a design criterion, researchers at West Virginia University have developed artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. The ANN models were trained on engine and exhaust emissions data collected from transient dynamometer tests of heavy-duty diesel engines then used to predict emissions based on engine speed and torque data from simulated operation of a tractor truck and hybrid electric bus. Simulated vehicle operation was performed with the ADVISOR software package. Predicted emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2] and oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)]) were then compared with actual emissions data collected from chassis dynamometer tests of similar vehicles. This paper expands on previous research to include different driving cycles for the hybrid electric bus and varying weights of the conventional truck. Results showed that different hybrid control strategies had a significant effect on engine behavior (and, thus, emissions) and may affect emissions during different driving cycles. The ANN models underpredicted emissions of CO2 and NO(x) in the case of a class-8 truck but were more accurate as the truck weight increased.

  18. Analysis and improvement of the reliability and longevity of diesel engines of commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, F.J.; Zalud, F.H.

    1985-09-01

    The high demands on quality, reliability and longevity of new engines require concrete data on technical-functional characteristics, reliability measures and life expectance, which also have to be included in the performance specifications. As an example some reliability measures of Diesel engines are given, which were installed in commercial vehicles. Conditions are quoted for which the reliability measures are valid and some problems of the longevity of engines and their components are discussed. The manufacturer can reach a satisfactory reliability of engines if he applies a reliability assurance program in which methods of reliability engineering play an important role.

  19. Development of ACC system for heavy-duty trucks; Ogata truck yo shakan seigyo kuruzu control no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, S.; Shibata, N. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okata, H.; Matsuoka, K. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) system for heavy duty trucks which is now on the market. The ACC system consists of the distance warning system with a scanning laser radar device and the conventional cruise control system. The ACC is carefully tuned taking the characteristics of heavy-duty trucks into consideration. That has made it possible to achieve lower degree of driver`s fatigue as well as higher ride comfort and easier driving. (author)

  20. NOx reduction in diesel fuel flames by additions of water and CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Natural gas has the highest heating value per unit mass (50.1 MJ/kg, LHV) of any of the hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., butane, liquid diesel fuel, gasoline, etc.). Since it has the lowest carbon content per unit mass, combustion of natural gas produces much less carbon dioxide, soot particles, and oxide of nitrogen than combustion of liquid diesel fuel. In view of anticipated strengthening of regulations on pollutant emissions from diesel engines, alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been experimentally introduced to replace the traditional diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks, transit buses, off-road vehicles, locomotives, and stationary engines. To help in applying natural gas in Diesel engines and increasing combustion efficiency, the emphasis of the present paper is placed on the detailed flame chemistry of methane-air combustion. The present work is the continued effort in finding better methods to reduce NO{sub x}. The goal is to identify a reliable chemical reaction mechanism for natural gas in both premixed and diffusion flames and to establish a systematic reduced mechanism which may be useful for large-scale numerical modeling of combustion behavior in natural gas engines.

  1. Comparison of Cooling System Designs for an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using an Organic Rankine Cycle on a Heavy Duty Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stanzel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex simulation model of a heavy duty truck, including an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC based waste heat recovery system and a vehicle cooling system, was applied to determine the system fuel economy potential in a typical drive cycle. Measures to increase the system performance were investigated and a comparison between two different cooling system designs was derived. The base design, which was realized on a Mercedes-Benz Actros vehicle revealed a fuel efficiency benefit of 2.6%, while a more complicated design would generate 3.1%. Furthermore, fully transient simulation results were performed and are compared to steady state simulation results. It is shown that steady state simulation can produce comparable results if averaged road data are used as boundary conditions.

  2. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  3. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  4. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  5. Comparison of Coal-Based Dimethyl Ether and Diesel as Vehicle Fuels from Well to Wheel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; HUANG Zhen

    2009-01-01

    With life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, a life cycle model of coal-based vehicle fuels (CBVFs) including coal-based dimethyl ether (CBDME) and coal-based diesel (CBD) is established. Their primary energy consumption (PEC) and global warming potential (GWP) from well to wheel including feedstock extraction, fuel production, fuel consumption in vehicle and energy transportation are calculated and compared. Results show that the life cycle PEC and GWP of CBD pathway are 1.17 and 1.34 times as CBDME pathway. Based on the above results, CBDME will become a choice with great potential to replace conventional petroleum-based diesel (CPBD) in China.

  6. Emission rates and comparative chemical composition from selected in-use diesel and gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; McDonald, Jacob D; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R

    2004-09-01

    Emission samples for toxicity testing and detailed chemical characterization were collected from a variety of gasoline- and diesel-fueled in-use vehicles operated on the Unified Driving Cycle on a chassis dynamometer. Gasoline vehicles included normal particle mass (particulate matter [PM]) emitters (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F), "black" and "white" smokers, and a new-technology vehicle (tested at 72 degrees F). Diesel vehicles included current-technology vehicles (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F) and a high PM emitter. Total PM emission rates ranged from below 3 mg/mi up to more than 700 mg/mi for the white smoker gasoline vehicle. Emission rates of organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), elements (metals and associated analytes), ions, and a variety of particulate and semi-volatile organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], nitro-PAH, oxy-PAH, hopanes, and steranes) are reported for these vehicles. Speciated organic analysis also was conducted on the fuels and lube oils obtained from these vehicles after the emissions testing. The compositions of emissions were highly dependent on the fuel type (gasoline vs. diesel), the state of vehicle maintenance (low, average, or high emitters; white or black smokers), and ambient conditions (i.e., temperature) of the vehicles. Fuel and oil analyses from these vehicles showed that oil served as a repository for combustion byproducts (e.g., PAH), and oil-burning gasoline vehicles emitted PAH in higher concentrations than did other vehicles. These PAH emissions matched the PAH compositions observed in oil.

  7. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2004-08-23

    Diesel and hybrid technologies each have the potential to increase light-duty vehicle fuel economy by a third or more without loss of performance, yet these technologies have typically been excluded from technical assessments of fuel economy potential on the grounds that hybrids are too expensive and diesels cannot meet Tier 2 emissions standards. Recently, hybrid costs have come down and the few hybrid makes available are selling well. Diesels have made great strides in reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, and are likely though not certain to meet future standards. In light of these developments, this study takes a detailed look at the market potential of these two powertrain technologies and their possible impacts on light-duty vehicle fuel economy. A nested multinomial logit model of vehicle choice was calibrated to 2002 model year sales of 930 makes, models and engine-transmission configurations. Based on an assessment of the status and outlook for the two technologies, market shares were predicted for 2008, 2012 and beyond, assuming no additional increase in fuel economy standards or other new policy initiatives. Current tax incentives for hybrids are assumed to be phased out by 2008. Given announced and likely introductions by 2008, hybrids could capture 4-7% and diesels 2-4% of the light-duty market. Based on our best guesses for further introductions, these shares could increase to 10-15% for hybrids and 4-7% for diesels by 2012. The resulting impacts on fleet average fuel economy would be about +2% in 2008 and +4% in 2012. If diesels and hybrids were widely available across vehicle classes, makes, and models, they could capture 40% or more of the light-duty vehicle market.

  8. Development of molecular marker source profiles for emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicle fleets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Glynis C; Christensen, Charles G; Schauer, James J; Tortorelli, James; Mani, Erin; Lawson, Douglas R; Clark, Nigel N; Gabele, Peter A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California's South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions of particulate matter were analyzed for organic tracer compounds, including hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Large intervehicle variation was seen in emission rate and composition, and results were averaged to examine the impacts of vehicle ages, weight classes, and driving cycles on the variation. Average profiles, weighted by mass emission rate, had much lower uncertainty than that associated with intervehicle variation. Mass emission rates and elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) ratios for gasoline vehicle age classes were influenced most by use of cold-start or warm-start driving cycle (factor of 2-7). Individual smoker vehicles had a large range of mass and EC/OC (factors of 40 and 625, respectively). Gasoline vehicle age averages, data on vehicle ages and miles traveled in the area, and several assumptions about smoker contributions were used to create emissions profiles representative of on-road vehicle fleets in the Los Angeles area in 2001. In the representative gasoline fleet profiles, variation was further reduced, with cold-start or warm-start and the representation of smoker vehicles making a difference of approximately a factor of two in mass emission rate and EC/OC. Diesel vehicle profiles were created on the basis of vehicle age, weight class, and driving cycle. Mass emission rate and EC/OC for diesel averages were influenced by vehicle age (factor of 2-5), weight class (factor of 2-7), and driving cycle (factor of 10-20). Absolute and relative emissions of molecular marker compounds showed

  9. Catalyst technologies for heavy duty commercial vehicles following the introduction of EU VI and US2010; The challenges of nitrogen oxide and particulate matter reduction for future engines; Katalysatortechnologien fuer schwere Nutzfahrzeuge im EU VI und US2010 Zeitalter; Die Herausforderung der Stickoxid- und Partikelverminderung fuer zukuenftige Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Emmerling, G.; Doering, A.; Richter, K.; Jacob, E. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)]|[MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); Scheeder, A.; Mueller, R.; Brueck, R. [Emitec GmbH, Lohmar (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Commercial vehicles can meet the European emission levels EU IV and EU V with either a particulate reduction catalyst or a selective catalytic reduction system. The US2007 - and US2010 - legislation has imposed even more stringent exhaust emission limits for commercial vehicles for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) as well. However, it can be expected that the upcoming, currently discussed EU VI emission legislation will be set to a similar level as the US2010 requirements, hence necessitating additional engine internal measures and a combined exhaust emission control system for minimization of both the PM and the NO{sub x} emissions. For the development of such emission control systems appropriately addressing the major decisive criteria of commercial vehicles, such as fuel consumption, compactness, weight and maintenance requirements is of utmost importance. The design concept and functionality of an optimized catalyst system for high-efficient control of NO{sub x} and PM, applicable also for high-EGR-engines, is shown based on engines test bench results. Modelgas test results and engine bench tests enable to present the interaction between the reactants (ammonia, nitrogen oxide and soot). As a surprising result it was found that the oxidation of soot takes places even in presence of the reducing agent ammonia without interference. This finding allows to combine two proven exhaust emission control systems, MAN AdBlue {sup registered} and MAN PM-KAT {sup registered}. The space gained in the silencer by replacing the traditional SCR-catalyst with a high-performance SCR-Catalyst is utilized to install a PM-METALIT {sup registered}. This is the most effective approach regarding operating cost, weight, as well as application- and maintenance-efforts required to meet the emission limit requirements for US2010 that has been demonstrated to date. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  11. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  12. 重卡悬架系统成本分析与价值研究%The cost analysis and value research on the suspension system of heavy-duty truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武晓强

    2015-01-01

    文章通过对重卡市场现有不同类型悬架系统的成本对比,简要分析了不同类型的悬架系统因成本差异及重量差异对车辆运营收益带来的价值影响,以此期望对重卡企业在悬架系统的改进和提升提供经济性参考;同时,结合重卡轻量化,为助力客户减少运营成本,提升运营收益进行研究探讨。%On the basis of cost comparison of existing different suspension systems of heavy-duty truck market, this paper analyzesthat different suspension systems impact on the value of vehicle operation revenue caused by cost variance and weight variation, so as to provide economic reference on developing and improving the suspension systems for heavy-duty companies. Meanwhile, combined with heavy-duty truck lightweight, this paper also researches on how to reduce operation cost and improve operating income for users.

  13. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  14. Volatile organic compounds from the exhaust of light-duty diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Sheng-You; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2012-12-01

    The exhaust gas constituents of light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs), including total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by a dynamometer study following federal test procedure-75 (FTP-75) and highway fuel economy cycle. The average fuel consumption of these LDDVs was 0.126 L km-1 for FTP-75, with about 10% fuel consumption savings for highway driving. The average emission factors of NMHC, CO and NOx for light-duty vehicles were 0.158/0.132 (90% of THC), 1.395/1.138, and 1.735/1.907 g km-1 for FTP-75/Highway, respectively. Styrene, n-propylbenzene, n-undecane, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and ethylbenzene were the dominant VOCs of LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors were about 10-60 mg kg-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, butyraldehyde, and m-tolualdehyde were the major carbonyl species from LDDV exhaust, and the emission factors ranged from 1 to 10 mg km-1. The ozone formation potentials of m,p-xylene, o-ethyltoluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, o-xylene, n-propylbenzene, styrene, and isoprene were >50 mg-O3 km-1. In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde revealed high ozone formation potential of carbonyl species, with values ranging from 10 to 95 mg-O3 km-1. Based on the exhaust constituents and ozone formation potential observed, diesel vehicles could be an important air pollution source for urban and industrial areas.

  15. Method for analyzing articulated torques of heavy-duty six-legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hongchao; Gao, Haibo; Ding, Liang; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan

    2013-07-01

    The accuracy of an articulated torque analysis influences the comprehensive performances of heavy-duty multi-legged robots. Currently, the extremal estimation method and some complex methods are employed to calculate the articulated torques, which results in a large safety margin or a large number of calculations. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, an analysis method for the articulated torque is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot. First, the rearmost leg that experiences the maximum normal contact force is confirmed when the robot transits a slope. Based on the ant-type and crab-type tripod gaits, the formulas of classical mechanics and MATLAB software are employed to theoretically analyze the relevant static torques of the joints. With the changes in the joint angles for the abductor joint, hip joint, and knee joint, variable tendency charts and extreme curves are obtained for the static articulated torques. Meanwhile, the maximum static articulated torques and the corresponding poses of the robot are also obtained. According to the poses of the robot under the maximum static articulated torques, ADAMS software is used to carry out a static simulation analysis. Based on the relevant simulation curves of the articulated torques, the maximum static articulated torques are acquired. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are higher than the static simulation values, and the maximum error value is approximately 10%. The proposed method lays a foundation for quickly determining accurate articulated torques to develop heavy-duty six-legged robots.

  16. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitronaphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  17. Integrated assessment of health, crop, and climate impacts of mitigating excess diesel NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Anenberg, S.; Miller, J.; Vicente, F.; Du, L.; Emberson, L.; Lacey, F.; Malley, C.; Minjares, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), impacting human health, crop yields, and climate worldwide. Diesel cars, trucks, and buses produce 70% of global land transportation emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), a key PM2.5 and ozone precursor. Despite progressive tightening of regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that real-world diesel NOx emissions in 11 markets representing 80% of global diesel vehicle sales are on average 24% higher than certification limits indicate. This excess NOx contributed an estimated 33,000 additional ozone- and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including 6% of all EU-28 ozone- and PM2.5-related premature deaths. Next-generation diesel NOx standards and in-use compliance (more stringent than Euro 6/VI standards) could avoid 358,000 (5%) of global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040 and up to 4% of ozone-related crop production loss regionally. Impacts of NOx-induced changes in aerosols, methane, and ozone on the global climate are found to present a small net positive radiative forcing (i.e., climate disbenefit), likely outweighed by the climate benefits of reductions to co-emitted black carbon aerosol. In some markets (Australia, Brazil, China, Mexico, and Russia), Euro 6/VI standards alone can achieve most (72-98%) of these health benefits. In India and the EU-28, reducing Euro 6 real-world NOx emissions through strengthened type-approval and in-use emissions testing programs (including market surveillance and expanded emissions test procedure boundaries) would achieve one-third of the health benefits from adopting next generation standards. Our results indicate that implementing stringent and technically feasible NOx emission regulations for diesel vehicles can substantially improve public health.

  18. 40 CFR 80.594 - What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.594 Section 80.594 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... likely be available in its marketing area after June 1, 2006 and through 2010; (ii) If after 2003...

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Thermoelectric Model on Vehicle Turbocharged Diesel Engine Intercooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Minfeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermoelectric gas-solid heat transfer numerical model was established between an air-cooling tube-fin intercooler’s intake and cooling air passage channel on vehicle turbocharged diesel engine. The outlet temperature of intake air, the output power of the thermoelectric components and the thermal conversion efficiency are considered as the research objectives. When load value is constant, the outlet temperature of intake air decreases with the number of thermocouples increases and there exist maximum values for output power and thermal conversion efficiency; when the number of thermocouples is constant, there is little effect on the outlet temperature of intake air with the load value increases. When the load was been optimal designed, set the load value throughout equals to the value of thermoelectric component total internal resistance, the values of the maximum output power was increased by 20.3% and the thermal conversion efficiency was increased from 1.78 to 3.48%.

  20. Revision of IVE model using on-board emission measurements for diesel vehicles and application of revised IVE model%利用柴油车车载排放测试对IVE模型的修正及模型应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛佳平; 张清宇; 田伟利

    2011-01-01

    IVE模型是国内外应用较为广泛的机动车排放模型之一,为了使该模型在计算机动车排放时更为符合当地实际情况,本文首先将13辆我国道路上典型柴油车的车载排放测试数据与IVE模型基本排放因子进行了对比研究,获得了模型基本排放因子的修正系数,然后将修正后的IVE模型应用于宁波市机动车污染物排放因子的计算,获得宁波市各类型车辆的排放因子.结果表明,模型基本排放因子与排放测试结果相接近的污染物顺序依次为CO、NOX、HC;宁波市机动车CO的启动排放因子远远高于其他污染物,相当于HC和NOX启动排放因子的20倍左右;宁波市机动车运行排放因子中,公交车污染物排放因子最大,其次是重型货车和乘用车,最后是轻型货车.%IVE model is one of the widely used international vehicle emission models. In order to make it more adaptive to vehicles in local area such as China, basic emission factors in IVE model are revised in this study. Firstly,basic emission factors of diesel vehicles in IVE model are compared with on-board emission measurements of 13 typical diesel vehicles, and revised coefficients are acquired. Then, revised IVE model is used to calculate vehicle emission factors in Ningbo. Results show that basic emission factors of CO in IVE model are mostly close to on-board emission measurements, following NOx and HC. Start-up emission factors of CO from vehicles in Ningbo are much higher than other pollutants, which are about 20 times HC and NOx. Running emission factors of bus are the highest, following heavy-duty truck, passenger car, and light-duty truck.

  1. Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingnan Hu; Ye Wu; Zhishi Wang; Zhenhua Li; Yu Zhou; Haitao Wang; Xiaofeng Bao; Jiming Hao

    2012-01-01

    The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO,HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated.Using a portable emissions measurement system,16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method.The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 ± 0.6) L/100 km,while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 ± 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies.Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models,the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca.20% higher fuel efficiency.HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low,with the average at (0.05 ± 0.02) g/km and (0.38 ± 0.15) g/km,respectively.The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 ± 0.17) g/krn,about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts.Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies,configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies,indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination.A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified.To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area,traffic planning also needs improvement.

  2. Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Haitao; Bao, Xiaofeng; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO, HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated. Using a portable emissions measurement system, 16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method. The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 +/- 0.6) L/100 km, while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 +/- 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies. Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models, the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca. 20% higher fuel efficiency. HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low, with the average at (0.05 +/- 0.02) g/km and (0.38 +/- 0.15) g/km, respectively. The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 +/- 0.17) g/km, about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts. Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies, configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies, indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination. A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified. To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area, traffic planning also needs improvement.

  3. AdBlue as a reducing agent for the decrease of NO{sub x} emissions from diesel engines of commercial vehicles; AdBlue als Reduktionsmittel fuer die Absenkung der NO{sub x}-Emissionen aus Nutzfahrzeugen mit Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautwein, W.P.

    2003-09-01

    The Parliament of the European Union has issued stricter emission standards (Euro 4 and 5) for diesel engines of HD (heavy duty) commercial vehicles for the years 2005 and 2008. After comparing and testing various technical options the European manufactures of HD commercial vehicles have agreed on one method, the ''selective catalytic reduction'' (SCR) and on one reducing agent, AdBlue, an aqueous solution of urea. The European automobile industry plans to successively equip HD vehicles with the SCR technology. The automobile industry assumes that mineral oil industry and trade will make available the reducing agent AdBlue via a separate tanking system at their public service stations - eventually in a balanced distribution throughout Europe. This report describes the activities of national and international committees engaged in the introduction of the SCR/urea technology. It also outlines questions as yet unresolved with respect to the new technical and logistic requirements. (orig.) [German] Das Parlament der Europaeischen Union hat fuer die Jahre 2005 und 2008 verschaerfte Abgasnormen fuer Dieselmotoren von schweren Nutzfahrzeugen (EURO 4 und EURO 5) verabschiedet. Nach Vergleich und Erprobung verschiedener technischer Moeglichkeiten haben sich die europaeischen Hersteller von schweren Nutzfahrzeugen auf ein Verfahren, die ''selektive katalytische Reduktion'' (SCR) und ein Reduktionsmittel ''waessrige Harnstoffloesung'' (AdBlue) geeinigt. Die europaeische Automobilindustrie plant, ab dem Jahr 2004 schwere Nutzfahrzeuge mit der SCR-Technik sukzessive auszuruesten. Die Automobilindustrie geht davon aus, dass die Mineraloelwirtschaft das Reduktionsmittel AdBlue ueber ein separates Betankungssystem an ihren oeffentlichen Tankstellen schliesslich flaechendeckend zur Verfuegung stellt. Der Bericht schildert die Aktivitaeten nationaler und internationaler Gremien, die sich mit der Einfuehrung der SCR

  4. Research on the dynamic mechanical characteristics and turning tool life under the conditions of excessively heavy-duty turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Genghuang; Liu, Xianli; Yan, Fugang

    2012-09-01

    The dynamic mechanical characteristics of excessively heavy-duty cutting were analyzed based on the cutting experiments with 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel used in hydrogenated cylindrical shells. By investigating the influence of dynamic mechanical characteristics on the tools' failure in limited heavy-duty cutting processes, the model of dynamic shearing force in the cutting area was established. However, the experimental results showed that the dynamic shear flow stress in the cutting area greatly influenced the tools' fatigue. The heavy-duty cutting tool was damaged in the form of a shearing fracture. Through a comprehensive analysis of the theory, the critical condition of the tools' fracture under extreme loading was established.

  5. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  6. Factors influencing the number distribution and size of the particles emitted from a modern diesel vehicle in real urban traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, C. C.; Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Rubio, J. R.; Pujadas, M.

    2012-09-01

    Particle emissions from diesel engine cars depend firstly on exhaust aftertreatment systems but the use of the vehicle becomes also crucial. In urban areas, this use depends on: transport demand, route choices, traffic density, street conditions, weather, driver behaviour and topographical characteristics of the roads. Nowadays, most diesel vehicles in urban areas across Europe are equipped with exhaust aftertreatment systems aiming to reduce the total mass of emitted particles. In comparison to earlier aftertreatment systems, the implementation of modern procedures is causing a reduction in the size of the emitted particles up to a nanometric range. The main goal of this work is the characterization of particle size and number distribution in the submicrometric range from a modern diesel vehicle emission in real traffic conditions in the city of Madrid with the purpose of assessing the actual weight of the different city parameters influencing the particle emission. In order to accomplish this objective, up to 12 on board emission measurement experiments have been performed with a Euro IV Diesel passenger car driving along a single urban circuit in Madrid City. To cover the main external factors, stretch, traffic conditions and driving directions have been considered as independent variables for this study. Assuming a proper car operating conditions, the results show that street characteristics, vehicle density and topographic features are the main factors conditioning the particle emission. Extrapolating our results, a diesel standard passenger car circulating across a city like Madrid can emit more nanoparticles per kilometre (up to 114% more in this study) at peak hour than at off peak hour. Moreover, the driving direction can also influence dramatically the emission of nanoparticles per second. This difference in the emission rate depends on the street but in our study it can be higher than 110% depending on the driving direction.

  7. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  8. Morphological and semi-quantitative characteristics of diesel soot agglomerates emitted from commercial vehicles and a dynamometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chin-Hsiang; LEE Whei-May; LIAW Jiun-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Diesel soot aggregates emitted from a model dynamometer and 11 on-road vehicles were segregated by a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The elemental contents and morphological parameters of the aggregates were then examined by scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and combined with a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processor. Two mode-size distributions of aggregates collected from diesel vehicles were confirmed. Mean mass concentration of 339 mg/m3 (dC/dlogdp) existed in the dominant mode (180-320 nm). A relatively high proportion of these aggregates appeared in PM1, accentuating the relevance regarding adverse health effects. Furthermore, the fBm processor directly parameterized the SEM images of fractal like aggregates and successfully quantified surface texture to extract Hurst coefficients (H) of the aggregates. For aggregates from vehicles equipped with a universal cylinder number, the H value was independent of engine operational conditions. A small H value existed in emitted aggregates from vehicles with a large number of cylinders. Generally, this study found that aggregate fractal dimension related to H was in the range of 1.641-1.775, which is in agreement with values reported by previous TEM-based experiments. According to EDS analysis, carbon content ranged in a high level of 30%-50% by weight for diesel soot aggregates. The presence of Na and Mg elements in these sampled aggregates indicated the likelihood that some engine enhancers composed of biofuel or surfactants were commonly used in on-road vehicles in Taiwan. In particular, the morphological H combined with carbon content detection can be useful for characterizing chain-like or cluster diesel soot aggregates in the atmosphere.

  9. Kinetic study of diesel soot oxidation: application to simulation of diesel particulate filter regeneration; Etude cinetique de la combustion des suies diesel: application a la modelisation de la regeneration du filtre a particule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, Ch.

    2005-11-15

    Because of their toxicity, soot are considered as the most important pollutant from Diesel engines. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is widely deployed in Europe to address the significant reductions in particulate emissions required by increasingly stringent emission standards, both for heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars. Such a DPF filtrates above 99% of soot emissions and must be regularly regenerated. The use of additive allows to decrease the soot oxidation temperature to values which can be reached by appropriate engine tuning. The soot addition is a dominant parameter for the development of regeneration strategies. Its influence must be correctly represented by models. This Ph-D was performed at IFP in collaboration with ADEME and was supported by the LCSR at Orleans. The aim of the present research is to develop a kinetic mechanism characteristic of Diesel soot oxidation, which can be integrated into a DPF regeneration model and used for engine control. The oxidation study was based on soot characterisation and reaction kinetics investigations. The samples of Diesel soot were collected, without and with Cerium/Iron additive, by using two engines points representative of two normalized European cycles (ECE and EUDC). Thermal and composition analyses with techniques such as XPS, XRD or TEM were used to determine their physical and chemical properties. Their oxidation kinetics was experimentally studied on a synthetic gas bench (SGB) with a fixed bed reactor. Different tests were performed: temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), Isothermal oxidation (IO), and sequential oxidation. The results allowed to correlate Diesel soot physical and chemical properties with their oxidation rate. A kinetic model was developed, which is based on global carbon consummation law and distinguishes the oxidation of different soot components. The simulation results agree very well with the experimental results of Diesel soot oxidation. (author)

  10. 78 FR 36369 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...\\ See 49 CFR 553.21. \\4\\ Optical character recognition (OCR) is the process of converting an image of... that the documents submitted be scanned using the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process, thus... benefits of the standards achieved during this critical initial phase of the program by providing the...

  11. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... within a test group based on engine code, transmission type and gear ratios, final drive ratio, and other... configurations within each test group and transmission type (instead of configurations within each base level and... performed on the basis of test group and transmission type (instead of the model-type basis specified in...

  12. A seat suspension with a rotary magnetorheological damper for heavy duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. S.; Ning, D. H.; Yang, J.; Du, H.; Zhang, S. W.; Li, W. H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the development of an innovative seat suspension working with a rotary magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Compared with a conventional linear MR damper, the well-designed rotary MR damper possesses several advantages such as usage reduction of magnetorheological fluid, low sealing requirements and lower costs. This research starts with the introduction of the seat suspension structure and the damper design, followed by the property test of the seat suspension using an MTS machine. The field-dependent property, amplitude-dependent performance, and the frequency-dependent performance of the new seat suspension are measured and evaluated. This research puts emphasis on the evaluation of the vibration reduction capability of the rotary MR damper by using both simulation and experimental methods. Fuzzy logic is chosen to control the rotary MR damper in real time and two different input signals are considered as vibration excitations. The experimental results show that the rotary MR damper under fuzzy logic control is effective in reducing the vibrations.

  13. 77 FR 34149 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... their mission-critical life-saving work without risking that abnormal conditions of the emission control... property-saving work without risk of losing power, speed or torque due to abnormal conditions of the... upgrades or enhancements, this process occurs within the new and in-use fleet with various degrees...

  14. Innovative roller bearings for transmissions in heavy-duty drives; Innovative Waelzlagertechnik fuer Kupplungen in Schwerantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asch, A.; Lindenthal, H. [Voith Turbo GmbH und Co. KG, Heidenheim (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Universal joint couplings are used, e.g. in heavy-duty drives in rolling plants where hitch shock loads occur. They must be designed for maximum momentum capacity. As a rule, roller bearings have higher transmission efficiencies than sliding element bearings. The contribution describes a new technology for longer life of the bearings in which the protective effects of the universal joint are considered. [German] Kreuzgelenke sind Ausgleichskupplungen, die beispielsweise in stossbelasteten Schwerantrieben der Walzwerkstechnik eingesetzt werden. Bei diesen Schwerantrieben muessen sie in erster Linie fuer hoechste Drehmomentkapazitaet ausgelegt werden. Waelzlager bieten dabei generell hoehere Uebertragungswirkungsgrade als Alternativen mit Gleitelementen. Der Beitrag stellt eine neue Entwicklung zur gezielten Steigerung der Lagerlebensdauer vor, bei der Stuetzwirkungen der Gelenkkonstruktion beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  15. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS, the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1113-87 - Calculation and payment of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including... price index in year i. (5) The values of COC50, COC90, MC50 and F will be determined for each...

  17. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  18. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel trucks based on on-road measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Hao, Xuewei; Shen, Xianbao; Jiang, Xi; Wu, Bobo; Yao, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (NPAH) emissions from 18 diesel trucks of different sizes and with different emission standards were tested in Beijing using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Both the gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs and NPAHs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the laboratory. The emission factors (EFs) of the total PAHs from light-duty diesel trucks (LDDTs), medium-duty diesel trucks (MDDTs) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were 82229.11 ± 41906.06, 52867.43 ± 18946.47 and 93837.35 ± 32193.14 μg/km, respectively, much higher than the respective values of total NPAHs from their counterpart vehicles. The gaseous phase had an important contribution to the total PAHs and NPAHs, with a share rate of approximately 69% and 97% on average, respectively. The driving cycle had important impacts on the emissions of PAHs and NPAHs, especially for LDDTs and HDDTs. Higher emissions of PAHs and NPAHs were detected on non-highway roads compared to that on highways for these two types of vehicles. Compared to the results of different studies, the difference in the EFs of PAHs and NPAHs can reach several orders of magnitudes, which would introduce errors in the development of an emission inventory of PAHs and NPAHs.

  19. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  20. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  1. CFD Studies of Combustion in Direct Injection Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Non-Premixed Combustion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gavudhama Karunanidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the simulation process of non-premixed combustion in a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine has been described. Direct injection diesel engines are used both in heavy duty vehicles and light duty vehicles. The fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The fuel mixes with the high pressure air in the combustion chamber and combustion occurs. Due to the non-premixed nature of the combustion occurring in such engines, non-premixed combustion model of ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 can be used to simulate the combustion process. A 4-stroke diesel engine corresponds to one fuel injector hole without considering valves was modeled and combustion simulation process was studied. Here two types of combustion chambers were compared. Combustion studies of both chambers:- shallow depth and hemispherical combustion chambers were carried out. Emission characteristics of both combustion chambers had also been carried out. The obtained results are compared. It has been found that hemispherical combustion chamber is more efficient as it produces higher pressure and temperature compared to that of shallow depth combustion chamber. As the temperature increases the formation of NOx emissions and soot formation also get increased.

  2. Air quality benefits of universal particle filter and NOx controls on diesel trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Harley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of black carbon/particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions on urban and regional scales. These emissions are relevant to both air quality and climate change. Since 2010 in the US, new engines are required to be equipped with emission control systems that greatly reduce both PM and NOx emissions, by ~98% relative to 1988 levels. To reduce emissions from the legacy fleet of older trucks that still remain on the road, regulations have been adopted in Califonia to accelerate the replacement of older trucks and thereby reduce associated emissions of PM and NOx. Use of diesel particle filters will be widespread by 2016, and universal use of catalytic converters for NOx control is required by 2023. We assess the air quality consequences of this clean-up effort in Southern California, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), and comparing three scenarios: historical (2005), present day (2016), and future year (2023). Emissions from the motor vehicle sector are mapped at high spatial resolution based on traffic count and fuel sales data. NOx emissions from diesel engines in 2023 are expected to decrease by ~80% compared to 2005, while the fraction of NOx emitted as NO2 is expected to increase from 5 to 18%. Air quality model simulations will be analyzed to quantify changes in NO2, black carbon, particulate matter, and ozone, both basin-wide and near hot spots such as ports and major highways.

  3. A perspective on the potential development of environmentally acceptable light-duty diesel vehicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerle, R; Schuetzle, D; Adams, W.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1985, an international technical focus was placed upon potential human health effects associated with exposure to diesel emissions. A substantial data base was developed on the composition of diesel emissions; the fate of these emissions in the atmosphere; and the effects of whole particles and their chemical constituents on microorganisms, cells, and animals. Since that time, a number of significant developments have been made in diesel engine technology that require a new l...

  4. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  5. Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion (LTC-D) "FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Solicitation for University Research and Graduate Automotice Technology Education (GATE) Centers of Excellence"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolf Reitz; P. Farrell; D. Foster; J. Ghandhi; C. Rutland; S. Sanders

    2009-07-31

    The engine industry is currently facing severe emissions mandates. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources are a major source of concern. For example, US EPA mandates require emissions of particulate and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust to drop at least 90 percent between 1998 and 2010. Effective analysis of the combustion process is required to guide the selection of technologies for future development since exhaust after-treatment solutions are not currently available that can meet the required emission reduction goals. The goal of this project is to develop methods to optimize and control Low Temperature Combustion Diesel technologies (LTC-D) that offers the potential of nearly eliminating engine NOx and particulate emissions at reduced cost over traditional methods by controlling pollutant emissions in-cylinder. The work was divided into 5 Tasks, featuring experimental and modeling components: 1.) Fundamental understanding of LTC-D and advanced model development, 2.) Experimental investigation of LTC-D combustion control concepts, 3.) Application of detailed models for optimization of LTC-D combustion and emissions, 4.) Impact of heat transfer and spray impingement on LTC-D combustion, and 5.) Transient engine control with mixed-mode combustion. As described in the final report (December 2008), outcomes from the research included providing guidelines to the engine and energy industries for achieving optimal low temperature combustion operation through using advanced fuel injection strategies, and the potential to extend low temperature operation through manipulation of fuel characteristics. In addition, recommendations were made for improved combustion chamber geometries that are matched to injection sprays and that minimize wall fuel films. The role of fuel-air mixing, fuel characteristics, fuel spray/wall impingement and heat transfer on LTC-D engine control were revealed. Methods were proposed for transient engine operation during

  6. Disturbance rejection in diesel engines for low emissions and high fuel efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.H.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Keulen, T.A.C. van; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a novel and time-efficient control design for modern heavy-duty diesel engines using a variable geometry turbine and an exhaust gas recirculation valve. The goal is to simultaneously and robustly achieve low fuel consumption and low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particul

  7. Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Nieuwenhof, R. van den; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  8. Integrated emission management for cost optimal EGR-SCR balancing in diesels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Mentink, P.R.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a cost-based optimization method is experimentally demonstrated on a Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the actual engine-aftertreatment state, this model-based Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy minimizes operational (fuel and AdBlue) costs within emission constr

  9. Integrated emission management for cost optimal EGR-SCR balancing in diesels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Mentink, P.R.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a cost-based optimization method is experimentally demonstrated on a Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the actual engine-aftertreatment state, this model-based Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy minimizes operational (fuel and AdBlue) costs within emission

  10. Experimental validation of extended NO and soot model for advanced HD diesel engine combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Baert, R.S.G.; Somers, L.M.T.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2009-01-01

    A computationally efficient engine model is developed based on an extended NO emission model and state-of-the-art soot model. The model predicts exhaust NO and soot emission for both conventional and advanced, high-EGR (up to 50%), heavy-duty DI diesel combustion. Modeling activities have aimed at l

  11. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  12. Cyclic oxygenates: a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.; Frijters, P.; Luijten, C.; Somers, B.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) directinjection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM

  13. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  14. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; van Vliet, A. P.; Boot, M. D.; Somers, L. M. T.; Baert, R. S. G.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemilunlinescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the

  15. Cyclic oxygenates: a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.; Frijters, P.; Luijten, C.; Somers, B.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) directinjection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM re

  16. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  17. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of...

  18. Digital Image Analysis Algorithm For Determination of Particle Size Distributions In Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, O.; Ballesteros, R.; Gomez, A.

    One of the most serious problems associated to Diesel engines is pollutant emissions, standing out nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. However, although current emis- sions standards in Europe and America with regard to light vehicles and heavy duty engines refer the particulate limit in mass units, concern for knowing size and number of particles emitted by engines is being increased recently. This interest is promoted by last studies about particle harmful effects on health and is enhanced by recent changes in internal combustion engines technology. This study is focused on the implementation of a method to determine the particle size distribution made up in current methodology for vehicles certification in Europe. It will use an automated Digital Image Analysis Algorithm (DIAA) to determine particle size trends from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of filters charged in a dilution system used for measuring specific particulate emissions. The experimental work was performed on a steady state direct injection Diesel en- gine with 0.5 MW rated power, being considered as a typical engine in middle power industries. Particulate size distributions obtained using DIAA and a Scanning Mobil- ity Particle Sizer (SMPS), nowadays considered as the most reliable technique, were compared. Although number concentration detected by this method does not repre- sent real flowing particle concentration, this algorithm fairly reproduces the trends observed with SMPS when the engine load is varied.

  19. Stress Analysis and Fatigue Analysis of Front Axle of Heavy-Duty Truck using ANSYS Ncode Design Life for Different Loading Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant L. Aghav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Front axle of heavy duty truck is the important component of vehicle and needs good design under the various loading conditions of the complete vehicle. Aim of the project is to stress analysis and predict the life of front axle for vertical, and vertical and braking loading case. The fatigue life of front axle is generally estimated by stress life approach and strain life approach method. Front axle beam assembly was modeled in the NX cad software. Meshing and Stress analysis is performed by ANSYS workbench and fatigue analysis is performed by NCODE design life ANSYS tool under different loading cases. Fatigue life of axle obtained by FEA method is more than 2 x 105 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical loading case. Similarly, Fatigue life of axle obtained is more than 4 x 103 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical and braking loading case. The max stress region is below spring pad of axle for vertical loading and in the goose neck of axle for vertical and braking loading case

  20. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  1. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1998 Through March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OIT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOX and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulate. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OIT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1,2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and

  2. Weldability of 780 MPa Super-High Strength Heavy-Duty Truck Crossbeam Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-nan; DI Hong-shuang; ZHANG Chit; DU Lin-xiu; DONG Xue-xir

    2012-01-01

    CO2-shielded welding experiments of newly developed, 780 MPa super-high strength heavy-duty truck crossbeam steel were conducted, and the microstructure, microhardness, mechanical properties, and impact tough- hess of the welded joint were studied. The evolution of the microstructure of the welded joint occurred as follows.. welding seam (acicular ferrite+proeutectoid ferrite)→fusion zone (granular bainite-long strip M/A island)→coarse grain zone (granular bainite-long strip or short bar M/A island)→fine grain zone (ferrite+ pearlite+ blocky M/A is- land)→mixed grained zone (ferrite+granular bainite+blocky M/A island)→base metal (proeutectoid ferrite+gran- ular bainite-hlocky or granular M/A island). Increasing the density of the grain boundaries can effectively improve the impact toughness, and the blocky M/A island hindered crack propagation more effectively than the long strip M/A island. The new hot-rolled 780 MPa super-high strength steel had excellent weldability. The welding technology was applied under the following conditions: welding voltage was 20 to 21 V, welding current was 200 to 210 A, and the gas flow rate was 25 L/rain.

  3. Test and Analysis for Spraying Ammonia in Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华祥; 刘敬平; 贺力克; 陈方; 申奇志; 骆锐; 周正

    2011-01-01

    A certain amount of ammonia reducer were directly injected into the 4102BZLQ Diesel engine' s combustion chamber when the combustion temperature decreases to 1 573 - 1 073 K, NOx generated could be reduced to 1.11 g/( kW· h). Based on PRF combustion mechanism, NO was tested by using the heavy-duty diesel engine test cycle of ESC thirteen conditions , the ammonia spray angle and amount were tested and optimized in different conditions. The test results show that the thermal efficiency of Diesel engine does not decrease while NO exhaust decreases.

  4. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  5. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-24 Test vehicles and engines. (a... such as current or previous model year emission data vehicles, fuel economy data vehicles, and... required by paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section does not affect the emissions or fuel economy values,...

  6. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  7. Deformation Compensation of Ram Components of Super-heavy-duty CNC Floor Type Boring and Milling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fenghe; QIAO Lijun; XU Yaoling

    2012-01-01

    Ram is a very important component of super-heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC) floor type boring-milling machine,and deformation of ram is a significant source causing errors in machining process.To compensate the deformation error of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring-milling machine,based on force analysis theory,the law and compensation measures of deformation of ram are researched.Based on the principle of torque (force) balance of the ram components,the formulas of compensation forces and compensation torques are derived,the relations between compensation forces (compensation torques)and the stroke distance of the ram are given.According to theoretical analysis results and the structural characteristics of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring and milling machine of TK6932,rods compensation,hydrostatic pressure compensation and wire rope compensation measures are taken to compensate the deformation error of ram.The experiments and computer simulation results show that the straightness of the ram at its overhanging end meets the national machinery industry standards.

  8. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  9. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, John H.

    2005-12-19

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis

  10. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Stang

    2005-12-31

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full

  11. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  12. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; de Jager, B.; Willems, F.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat reco

  13. Emission characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine fueled with gas-to-liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; ZHANG Wugao; FANG Junhua; HUANG Zhen

    2007-01-01

    Emission characteristics of a turbocharged,intercooled,heavy-duty diesel engine operating on neat gas-toliquids (GTL) and blends of GTL with conventional diesel were investigated and a comparison was made with those of diesel fuel.The results show that nitrogen oxides (NOx),smoke,and particulate matter (PM) emissions can be decreased when operating on GTL and diesel-GTL blends.Engine emissions decrease with an increase of GTL fraction in the blends.Compared with diesel fuel,an engine operatingon GTL can reduce NOx,PM,carbon monoxide (CO),and hydrocarbon (HC) by 23.7%,27.6%,16.6% and 12.9% in ECE R49 13-mode procedure,respectively.Engine speed and load have great influences on emissions when operating on diesel-GTL blends and diesel fuel in the turbocharged diesel engine.The study indicates that GTL is a promisingalternative fuel for diesel engines to reduce emissions.

  14. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch eGiechaskiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories are used to quantify sources and identify trends in the emissions of air pollutants. They use vehicle-specific emission factors that are typically determined in the laboratory, through remote-sensing, vehicle chasing experiments and, more recently, on-board Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Although PEMS is widely applied to measure gaseous pollutants, their application to Solid Particle Number (SPN emissions is new. In this paper, we discuss the current status of determining SPN emission factors both on the chassis dynamometer and on-road using PEMS-SPN. First, we determine the influence of the measurement equipment, ambient temperature, driving style and cycle characteristics, and the extra mass of the PEMS equipment on the SPN emissions. Afterward, we present the SPN emissions under type-approval conditions as well as on the road of two heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF (one Euro VI, two light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF, one light-duty vehicle equipped with a Port Fuel Injection engine (PFI, and seven Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI passenger cars (two Euro 6. We find that cold-start and strong accelerations tend to substantially increase SPN emissions. The two heavy-duty vehicles showed emissions around 2×10^13 p/km (Euro V truck and 6×10^10 p/km (Euro VI truck, respectively. One of the DPF-equipped light-duty vehicles showed emissions of 8×10^11 p/km, while the other one had one order of magnitude lower emissions. The PFI car had SPN emissions slightly higher than 1×10^12 p/km. The emissions of GDI cars spanned approximately from 8×10^11 p/km to 8×10^12 p/km. For the cars without DPF, the SPN emissions remained within a factor of two of the laboratory results. This factor was on average around 0.8 for the Euro 6 and 1.6 for the Euro 5 GDIs. The DPF equipped vehicles showed a difference of almost one order of magnitude between laboratory and on-road tests

  15. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  16. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly en

  17. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly en

  18. On-road measurements of vehicle NO2/NOx emission ratios in Denver, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Robert J.; Dubé, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Eilerman, Scott J.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Brown, Steven S.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emitted by on-road combustion engines are important contributors to tropospheric ozone production. The NOx fraction emitted as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is usually presumed to be small but can affect ozone production and distribution, and this fraction is generally not reported in emissions inventories. We have developed an accurate method for determination of this primary NO2 emission and demonstrated it during measurement of on-road vehicle emission plumes from a mobile laboratory during July and August 2014 in the region between Denver and Greeley in Colorado. During a total of approximately 90 h of sampling from an instrumented mobile laboratory, we identified 1867 vehicle emission plumes, which were extracted using an algorithm that looks for rapid and large increases in measured NOx. We find a distribution of NO2/NOx emissions similar to a log-normal profile, with an average emission ratio of 0.053 ± 0.002 per sampled NOx plume. The average is not weighted by the total NOx emissions from sampled vehicles, which is not measured here, and so may not represent the NO2/NOx ratio of the total NOx emission if this ratio is a function of NOx itself. Although our current data set does not distinguish between different engine types (e.g., gasoline, light duty diesel and heavy duty diesel), the ratio is on the low end of recent reports of vehicle fleet NO2 to NOx emission ratios in Europe.

  19. 8×4重型自卸车制动性能分析%The analysisof braking performance for 8 × 4 heavy-duty dump truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 赵刚; 章健国

    2014-01-01

    以某8×4重型自卸车为分析对象,建立了四轴汽车的制动力学模型,对该车在满载、超载情况下进行各轴载荷的计算,前、中、后桥制动力矩和制动力分配分析,在此基础上,提出了多轴汽车的行车制动性能分析方法,并与该车制动性能0型试验结果数据进行对比。实例分析结果表明,该方法简单、实用,能对四轴汽车行车制动性能进行有效分析。%Taking a 8 × 4 heavy-duty dump truck for the analysis of the object, the establishment of a four-axle system dynamics model car, the car at full load and overload conditions for the calculation of each axle load, front, middle and rear axle brake torque and manufacturing power distribution analysis. On this basis, an analysis method for braking performance of four-axle vehicle is proposed, and with the braking performance of the vehicle type-0 test result data are compared. The results of real sample analysis show that the method proposed is simple,pragmatic and can effectively analyze the braking performance of four-axle vehicles.

  20. Non-Tactical Vehicle Replacement for the Department of the Navy’s Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    NTV fleet. Through the course of research and analysis, many areas found that warranted continued study. This paper proposes the following areas of...56  xi Figure 34.  Biodiesel Production Targets through 2022. Source: The Biomass Research and Development Board (2012...81  Figure 51.  Average Retail Fuel Prices in the U.S. Source: U.S. Department of Energy (2016

  1. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  2. Numerical Evaluation ofThe Performance ofA Compression Ignition Cng Engine For Heavy DutyTrucksWithAn Optimum Speed PowerTurbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13 litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the performances of the after treatment system.

  3. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Exceptions b. Heavy-Duty Engine Types and Gross Vehicle Weight Classes c. Dual-Fuel Standards 2. Useful Life... first type, dedicated alternative fueled vehicles or engines, are only capable of operating on one type of fuel. Dual-fueled vehicles or engines, the second type, can operate on two types of fuel,...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1807-01 - Vehicle labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1807-01 Vehicle labeling. (a) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle subject to the applicable emission standards of this subpart, shall, at the time of... under 40 CFR 85.1505 must comply with the labeling requirements contained in 40 CFR 85.1510; (ix)...

  5. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  6. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    flexural strength, lowest apparent porosity and water absorption of EAF slag based tile was attained at the composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag--30 wt.% ball clay--10 wt.% feldspar--20 wt.% silica. The properties of ceramic tile made with EAF slag waste (up to 40 wt.%), especially flexural strength are comparable to those of commercial ceramic tile and are, therefore, suitable as high flexural strength and heavy-duty green ceramic floor tile. Continuous development is currently underway to improve the properties of tile so that this recycling approach could be one of the potential effective, efficient and sustainable solutions in sustaining our nature.

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XI, INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE FOR OFF-HIGHWAY VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO FAMILIARIZE THE TRAINEE WITH THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM AS THEY RELATE TO DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, (2) ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS, (3) MAGNETIC FORCE ON A CONDUCTOR, (4) ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, (5) OHM'S LAW, (6) METER…

  8. Modelling of NO{sub x} emission factors from heavy and light-duty vehicles equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L.M., E-mail: monalisa@unifor.br [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, C.M. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Moreno-Tost, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Farias, T.L. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Alternative SCR materials. {yields} Catalysts used in heavy-duty vehicles are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. {yields}Zeolites containing transition metal ions as catalysts for urea SCR has increased. {yields} FeZSM5 catalyst can be a possible candidate as far as pollutants regulation is considered. {yields} Regarding N{sub 2}O emissions mordenite based SCR do not emit this pollutant. - Abstract: NO{sub x} emission standards are becoming stringiest over the world especially for heavy-duty vehicles. To comply with current and future regulations some vehicle manufacturers are adopting exhaust aftertreatment systems known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The catalysts are based on Vanadium (Va) and the reductant agent based on ammonia. However, Va is listed on the California Proposition 65 List as potentially causing cancer and alternatives are being studied. This paper presents a model based on neural networks that integrated with a road vehicle simulator allows to estimate NO{sub x} emission factors for different powertrain configurations, along different driving conditions, and covering commercial, zeolite and mordenite alternatives as the base monolith for SCR. The research included the experimental study of copper based and iron based zeolites (ZSM5 and Cuban natural mordenite). The response of NO{sub x} conversion efficiency was monitored in a laboratory for varying space velocity, oxygen, sulfur, water, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emulating the conditions of a Diesel engine exhaust along a trip. The experimental data was used for training neural networks and obtaining a mathematical correlation between the outputs and inputs of the SCR system. The developed correlation was integrated with ADVISOR road vehicle simulator to obtain NO{sub x} emission factors and to test each SCR system installed on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles for standardized driving cycles and real measured driving cycles. Despite having lower NO

  9. Driving into Euroland with AdBlue. Environmental friendly diesel technology for utility vehicles; Mit AdBlue ins Euroland. Umweltfreundliche Dieseltechnologie fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The SCR-diesel technology introduced by DaimlerChrysler has already established itself successfully in the field of utility vehicles under the name BlueTec. This drive technique already meets today the exhaust gas limiting values of tomorrow and is now also available for buses. (orig.)

  10. Vehicle emissions and fuel consumption of diesel vehicles fueled with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends%乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振斌; 倪计民; 张惜辉; 叶年业; 郝汝林; 麦瑞礼

    2012-01-01

    Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a diesel passenger car and a diesel minibus on road were measured to investigate the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends. The experimental data from the car fueled with an E10 blend that contains 10% ethanol and 4% butanol by volume, was compared with those from the fossil diesel, it resulted in decreases of 10.42% in NOX emissions, 27.43% in HC+NOX emissions and 2.13% in PM emissions. The fuel consumption also declined by 7.66% and 3.71% under the car in constant velocity conditions of 90 and 120 km/h, respectively. Nevertheless, the results showed increases of 31.43% in CO emissions and 4.48% in fuel consumption for the car in terms of New European Driving Cycle or NEDC. Yet the E10 mixture in the minibus reduced the emissions of free acceleration exhaust smoke by 31.11%. This research demonstrates the practical applications of ethanol-butanol- diesel blends for improving vehicle emissions and fuel consumption.%为了研究乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性,该文对分别使用乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料和柴油的在用柴油轿车的排放性能和燃油经济性,以及在用柴油客车的自由加速排气烟度排放进行了对比试验.研究结果表明:相对于柴油,在用柴油轿车使用E10(体积比,乙醇10%、丁醇4%、柴油86%)混合燃料的NOx排放减少10.42%,HC+NOx排放减少27.43%,微粒(PM)排放减少2.13%,90和120km/h等速行驶燃料消耗量分别减少7.66%和3.71%;然而CO排放增加31.43%,工况循环综合燃料消耗量增加4.48%.此外,在用柴油客车使用E10混合燃料的自由加速排气烟度排放减少31.11%.该研究结果对于完善乙醇柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性具有实用价值.

  11. 柴油汽车SCR技术的应用研究%Application Study of SCR Technology to Diesel Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; 陈靖芯; 王燕; 刘蕴青

    2013-01-01

    The analysis is made about the reason why the domestic manufacturers apply SCR technology to meet the Europe IV emission standard. The SCR system's composition and working principle, SCR technology application of diesel vehicle are introduced. The major factors affecting the NOX transformation efficiency of SCR system are re-searched.%  分析国内厂家采用SCR技术满足欧Ⅳ排放的原因,介绍SCR 系统的组成和工作原理、柴油汽车SCR系统的应用方案,研究影响SCR 系统NOX转化效率的主要因素。

  12. Alveolar epithelial cells (A549) exposed at the air-liquid interface to diesel exhaust: First study in TNO's powertrain test center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Alblas, M.J.; Jedynska, A.D.; Steenhof, M.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Ras, M.G. van

    2013-01-01

    Air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures enable in vitro testing ofmixtures of gases and particles such as diesel exhaust (DE). The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of exposing human lung epithelial cells at the ALI to complete DE generated by a heavy-duty truck in the sta

  13. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  14. Caracterização das emissões de aldeídos de veículos do ciclo diesel Emission of aldehydes from light duty diesel vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui de Abrantes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar as emissões de acetaldeído e formaldeído, substâncias nocivas para a saúde das pessoas e cujas emissões dos veículos a diesel ainda não estão regulamentadas. MÉTODOS: Testes padronizados foram realizados em quatro veículos leves comerciais do ciclo diesel, testados num dinamômetro de chassis, usando o procedimento de teste FTP-75. Os poluentes foram analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que a emissão de acetaldeído variou de 5,9 a 45,4 mg/km e a de formaldeído variou de 16,5 a 115,2 mg/km. A emissão média para a soma dos aldeídos foi de 58,7 mg/km, variando de 22,5 mg/km a 160 mg/km. A proporção entre os dois se manteve constante, próximo de 74% de formaldeído e 26% de acetaldeído. CONCLUSÕES: A emissão de aldeídos provenientes de veículos movidos a diesel foi significativa quando comparada com as emissões reais dos veículos de ignição por centelha ou com o limite previsto para os veículos do ciclo Otto na legislação brasileira. O estabelecimento de limites de emissão para essas substâncias para veículos a diesel mostra-se importante, considerando o crescimento da frota de veículos a diesel, a toxicidade desses compostos e sua participação como precursores nas reações de formação de gás ozônio na baixa troposfera.OBJECTIVE: To characterize acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions, which are harmful gases to human health and not yet regulated for diesel engines. METHODS: Standardized tests were performed in four diesel light duty commercial vehicles, using a frame dynamometer and test procedure FTP-75. The pollutants were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Results have shown acetaldehyde emission ranged from 5.9 to 45.4 mg/km, and formaldehyde emission from 16.5 to 115.2 mg/km. The average emission for aldehyde sum was 58.7 mg/km, ranging from 22.4 to 160.6 mg/km. The proportion between the two

  15. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  16. Impacts of Ambient Temperature and Pressure on PM2.5 Emission Profiles of Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the environmental factors on the emissions of particulate matter (PM) number, size distribution and mass size distribution from diesel passenger cars was evaluated. Particle measurements from five modern light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDV) were performed in June and November 2011. Commercial low sulfur diesel fuel (less than 50 ppm) was used during the testing of these vehicles which were not equipped with after-treatment devices. The dynamometer test was based on the Economic Commission of Europe (ECE) 15 cycles. The results indicate that PM2.5 emissions from LDDV are significantly affected by ambient temperature and pressure. A comparison of the emissions concentration of PM2.5 in these two different months showed that the number concentration in June was (3.8 ± 0.69) × 107 cm-3 and (2.5 ± 0.66) × 107 cm-3 in November. The PM concentration of about 30 nm diameter was 25 ± 6% of the total emissions in November while only 14 ± 3% of total emissions in June. In the 60 nm to 2.5 μm test range, November data shows less of a contribution for number than data from June testing. The concentration of mass emissions in June was (325 ± 44) mg/m3 and (92 ± 30) mg/m3 in November. The contribution of the number of PM particles in November testing is lower than testing in June by 34% and the mass concentration in November is 70% lower than that in June. With the decrease of ambient temperature and the increase of ambient pressure, both the oxygen concentration in cylinder and air-fuel ratio are increased, which caused lower particle number and mass emissions during November testing. The size distribution is also altered by these changes: the more efficient in-cylinder combustion resulted in a higher proportion of particles in the 30 nm and smaller range than for other particle sizes.

  17. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Knock in a Dual Fuel Gas/Diesel Compression Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Gharehghani, A.; S. M. Mirsalim; S. A. Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Conventional compression ignition engines can easily be converted to a dual fuel mode of operation using natural gas as main fuel and diesel oil injection as pilot to initiate the combustion. At the same time, it is possible to increase the output power by increasing the diesel oil percentage. A detailed performance and combustion characteristic analysis of a heavy duty diesel engine has been studied in dual fuel mode of operation where natural gas is used as the main fuel and diesel oil as p...

  18. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  19. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles Final Report Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    maintained to avoid losses due to uneven pavement , and representative of most installations. • Track Weather Station: ATC setup equipment to measure and...driver, he felt that the conventional utility truck provide a better, more rigid ride. Acceleration of the vehicle is very poor. The vehicles

  20. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Gen; Liu Wanhua

    2008-01-01

    The 25 years' production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earth silicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal verroicularizing process for obtaining satisfied vermicularity. Using top kiss risers, enlarging kissing areas and expanding covering width and making ingates to freeze eadier are the effective measures to eliminate shrinkage, blowhole and oxide inclusions in the vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads.

  1. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. Using top kiss risers, enlarging kissing areas and expanding covering width and making ingates to freeze earlier are the effective measures to eliminate shrinkage, blowhole and oxide inclusions in the vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads.

  2. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  3. Noise and vibration reduction of diesel engine vehicle making use of the active control engine mount (ACM) system; Active control engine mount (ACM) wo mochiita diesel engine tosaisha no seishukusei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, K.; Hirade, T.; Hyodo, Y.; Aihara, T.; Shikata, T. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    An active control engine mount (ACM) system is described, which aims at reducing noise and vibration of diesel engine vehicles. ACM systems are arranged on the front and rear mounts, and reduce the noise by lowering the spring constant. The main body of an ACM system is a hydraulic mount, and is provided with a hydraulic pressure amplifier that makes use of liquid resonance, an electromagnetic actuator that converts hydraulic pressure into force, and a load sensor that detects the force that is transmitted to the vehicle body. The controller of an ACM control system feeds electric currents as needed to an actuator so as to keep the transmission of force to the minimum so that load sensor signals will be zero. The actuator employed in this report can augment the force generated there. All the parameters for the calculation model are optimized so that controllable input amplitude will increase. In the diesel engine vehicle into which ACM systems are incorporated, vibration during the idling operation is damped by approximately 10dB, the resultant vibration level as low as that of a gasoline engine vehicle. Harmonic components are also lowered in addition the second-order component. The same is true for the booming noise that is generated by a vehicle that is running, which is again damped by approximately 10dB. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NOx emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NOx ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NOx ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NOx emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NOx ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NOx ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NOx ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NOx ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles. Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NOx ratio of 0.8% has possibly linked to underestimation of the total HONO budget and

  5. Analysis of Non-Tactical Vehicle Utilization at Fort Carson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Wagons Passenger Vans Sport Utility Vehicles Light- Duty Trucks Medium- Duty Trucks Heavy- Duty Trucks Buses Total/ Average # Vehicles...ranging far away from the base. One went to the Army’s Piñon Canyon training facility in southern Colorado while the other (a 12-psgr executive

  6. 某重型燃气轮机的燃烧特性分析%Analysis on Combustion Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Gas Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力军; 杨海峰; 孙远伟; 阴松凯

    2014-01-01

    为了深入研究某重型燃气轮机燃烧室的燃烧性能,在燃烧性能试验基础上,本文建立了包括扩压器、旋流器、火焰筒等部件在内的环管燃烧室全尺寸UG模型和数学模型。用Realizable k-ε湍流模型模拟气相湍流流动,离散项(DPM)模型用以模拟柴油雾化颗粒的随机运动,燃烧化学反应与湍流间的耦合采用EDC多步反应模型预测,压力与速度耦合计算采用SIMPLE算法。在与试验相同的操作条件下,对环管燃烧室的两相流流动、燃烧、传热过程以及燃烧性能进行了3种负荷状态下的CFD数值模拟。计算结果与试验值相符合。对比分析所得结论为改进燃烧室设计和燃烧室性能改善提供了依据。%For intensive studying combustion characteristics of a heavy-duty gas turbine combustor, full-scale UG and mathematics models of one-tube combustor are developed including components of gas turbine diffuser , swirler and flame tube based on its combus-tion performance trail.Realizable k-εturbulence model is used to simulate turbulent gas flow , DPM model is employed in modeling at-omized particles random movement of light diesel , EDC multistep reaction model is adopted for the coupling prediction of combustion reaction and turbulence, and SIMPLE algorithm is used for coupling calculation of pressure and velocity .The process of two-phase flow, combustion, heat transfer and combustion performance of three load types are CFD simulated under the same operating conditions with the trail.Calculated results are consistent with the experiment .The conclusions by comparing analysis give the basis of combustor design and its combustion performance improvement .

  7. Sulfur Management of NOx Adsorber Technology for Diesel Light-Duty Vehicle and Truck Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Howard L.; Wang, Jerry C.; Yu, Robert C. (Cummins, Inc.); Wan, C. Z. (Engelhard Corp.); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2003-10-01

    Sulfur poisoning from engine fuel and lube is one of the most recognizable degradation mechanisms of a NOx adsorber catalyst system for diesel emission reduction. Even with the availability of 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber will be deactivated without an effective sulfur management. Two general pathways are currently being explored for sulfur management: (1) the use of a disposable SOx trap that can be replaced or rejuvenated offline periodically, and (2) the use of diesel fuel injection in the exhaust and high temperature de-sulfation approach to remove the sulfur poisons to recover the NOx trapping efficiency. The major concern of the de-sulfation process is the many prolonged high temperature rich cycles that catalyst will encounter during its useful life. It is shown that NOx adsorber catalyst suffers some loss of its trapping capacity upon high temperature lean-rich exposure. With the use of a disposable SOx trap to remove large portion of the sulfur poisons from the exhaust, the NOx adsorber catalyst can be protected and the numbers of de-sulfation events can be greatly reduced. Spectroscopic techniques, such as DRIFTS and Raman, have been used to monitor the underlying chemical reactions during NOx trapping/ regeneration and de-sulfation periods, and provide a fundamental understanding of NOx storage capacity and catalyst degradation mechanism using model catalysts. This paper examines the sulfur effect on two model NOx adsorber catalysts. The chemistry of SOx/base metal oxides and the sulfation product pathways and their corresponding spectroscopic data are discussed. SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-3245 {copyright} 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed

  8. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades.

  9. Experimental Study on Vehicle Integration of a Compound Regeneration System for Diesel Particulate Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xinyun; Zhang, Weifeng; Yao, Guangtao; Xu, Zhengfei; He, Jinyong

    A compound regeneration system has shown potential in DPF regeneration. The system consists of FBC, burner and DOC to adapt to high sulfur in China. An aging test of 60,000 km and environmental compatibility test in cold zone, tropical zone and plateau is carried out, with the system integrated on Foton BJ1049V9JD6-SB light duty diesel. Statistics show aging of DPF promotes filtration efficiency because of microstructure change. Both DOC and engine aging are important elements of HC and CO increase. The working effect in cold zone and tropical zone and adaptability of regeneration device in plateau are discussed. The results reflect strong adaptability of regeneration device and discover the main difficulty for system application, which refers to overproof emissions due to aged DOC.

  10. Toward improved catalytic low-temperature NOx removal in diesel-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingstedt, Fredrik; Arve, Kalle; Eränen, Kari; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2006-04-01

    The potential of different catalytic after treatment techniques to meet future diesel emission standards, which are strongly shifted toward urban driving conditions including cold start, are critically discussed in this Account and evaluated for their suitability for commercial applications. The dominating techniques in this field are NO(x) storage, urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and HC-SCR. Each of these techniques have significant disadvantages such as sulfur sensitiveness and regeneration requirements of NO(x)-storage materials, infrastructure issues and formation of ammonium nitrate (at low temperatures) for urea-SCR, and low-temperature activity of HC-SCR catalysts. Ways to overcome these disadvantages in commercial applications may involve optimized regeneration strategies, reactor modifications, flow reversal, closed-loop NO(x) feedback systems, nonthermal plasma, and/or hydrogen-assisted catalyses, etc.

  11. Thermoelectric generator systems for waste heat usage in diesel electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heghmanns, Alexander; Schimke, Robert; Beitelschmidt, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerpermechanik (IFKM); Geradts, Karlheinz [Bombardier Transportation (Switzerland) AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    It is widely known, that the main part of the life cycle costs of diesel electric locomotives are the consumption costs for diesel fuel. On top of that the rising awareness of politics and society for environment protection and rising prices for energy shift that topic into the focus. One possibility to lower the fuel consumption is to recover the exhaust waste heat of the combustion engine. This can be achieved by converting the energy of the exhaust into mechanical energy (e.g. Steam Expander) or into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Using a high power TEG in a diesel electric locomotive is advantageous because of the electrified powertrain. That means there is a considerably high demand of electric power in almost all driving states. The challenge is to develop a system with a sufficient efficiency in order to achieve a short return of investment period. Up to now some TEG system prototypes have been developed for automotive applications. For example a combination of a TEG with the EGR, where cooling of the exhaust gas is necessary, proved to be promising. But because of the low temperature gradient in the EGR the output power is very limited. In future automotive systems the TEG could be integrated directly into the exhaust tract which leads to high temperature gradients and promises a higher power output. The challenge is to develop an efficient TEG material and a system which withstands the mechanical stress caused by the thermal cycles. For diesel electric locomotives a relatively good efficiency can be achieved by using a heat transfer oil circuit as intermediary heat carrier instead of integrating the TEG directly into the exhaust tract. This offers the advantage of using the better heat transfer between exhaust and oil compared to the heat transfer directly from exhaust to the TEG. Therefore a high power can be transmitted. Furthermore it is possible to collect the waste heat of secondary heat sources like the brake resistor. Another

  12. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chirico

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diesel particulate matter (DPM is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC and the final vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF. The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC<0.5, while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23–0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, primary particles with a mobility diameter above 5 nm were 300±19 cm−3, and only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O

  13. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Tritscher, T.; Richter, R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Wehrle, G.; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2010-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA) and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and the third vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA) concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC) with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC < 0.5), while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23-0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O/C) ranging from 0.10 to 0.19. Five hours of oxidation led to a more oxidized OA with an O/C range of 0

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Gordon

    2013-09-01

    producing SOA than the emissions from older vehicles. About 30% of the non-methane organic gas emissions from the newer (LEV1 and LEV2 vehicles could not be speciated, and the majority of the SOA formed from these vehicles appears to be associated with these unspeciated organics. These results for light-duty gasoline vehicles contrast with the results from a companion study of on-road heavy-duty diesel trucks; in that study late model (2007 and later diesel trucks equipped with catalyzed diesel particulate filters emitted very little primary PM, and the photo-oxidized emissions produced negligible amounts of SOA.

  15. NVH Performance Study of a Heavy-duty Truck’s Powertrain Mount%重型汽车动力总成悬置NVH性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    运伟国; 王邵斌; 杨少华

    2014-01-01

    The powertrain mount system of a heavy-duty truck is studied. The vibration isolation principle of the system and the fundamental principle for design are analyzed theoretically. Furthermore, through the numerical simulation and real testing of the vehicle, the frequency distribution of the rigid-body modal of the powertrain, energy decoupling degrees of modals of different orders, the vibration isolation rate of the powertrain mount and the vibration RMS values at some key points in the cab, are studied respectively for 4 point suspension and 4+2 point suspension arrangements of the truck’s powertrain. The results show that the 4 point suspension arrangement is better for the vehicle traveling on a nice even road than the other. However, the 4+2 point suspension arrangement is recommended for vibration reduction of the vehicles traveling on poor uneven roads.%以某重型汽车动力总成悬置系统为研究对象,从理论上分析动力总成悬置的隔振原理及设计的基本原则,通过仿真计算与实车试验相结合研究重型汽车常见的4点悬置与4+2点悬置布置型式对动力总成刚体模态频率分布、各阶模态解耦、悬置在各工况时的隔振效率及驾驶室内关键点振动的影响。结果表明:4点悬置布置型式在车辆行驶于良好路面时均表现出较好的性能,但当路面状况差时,为有效缓减路面冲击应该考虑采用4+2点悬置布置型式。

  16. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer-supplied production...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01 Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing. Any manufacturer obtaining certification under this subpart...

  18. SCR use for the China IV regulations of diesel commercial vehicles%SCR助柴油商用车实现国IV排放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林斌

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the current situation of car emissions regulations in our country and the use of advanced diesel commercial vehicle car exhaust post-processing of SCR in foreign countries, analysis the principle of SCR system, points out that SCR technology is a shortcut to achieve stringent emission regulations for diesel commercial vehicles of our country.%分析了我国汽车排放法规现状,及国外先进的柴油商用车尾气SCR后处理技术应用和SCR系统机构原理,指出SCR技术是一条可供我国柴油商用车实现严格排放法规的捷径。

  19. 76 FR 11083 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... as not having a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the... approval into the SIP two new rules, 10 CSR 10-2.385 Control of Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle Idling Emissions for the Kansas City Ozone Maintenance Area and 10 CSR 10-5.385 Control of Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle...

  20. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Appelman, W.A.J.; Verheul, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However estimates of the emissions of these metals from road

  1. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Appelman, W.A.J.; Verheul, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However estimates of the emissions of these metals from road

  2. Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5, and black carbon (BC. These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three factors corresponding to gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, and the urban background. Using the source profiles, we calculate fuel-based emission factors for each type of exhaust. The MCMA's gasoline-powered vehicles are considerably dirtier, on average, than those in the US with respect to CO and aldehydes. Its diesel-powered vehicles have similar emission factors of NOx and higher emission factors of aldehydes, particle number, and BC. In the fleet sampled during AML driving, gasoline-powered vehicles are responsible for 97% of mobile source emissions of CO, 22% of NOx, 95–97% of aromatics, 72–85% of carbonyls, 74% of ammonia, negligible amounts of particle number, 26% of PM2.5, and 2% of BC; diesel-powered vehicles account for the balance. Because the mobile lab spent 17% of its time waiting at stoplights, the results may overemphasize idling conditions, possibly resulting in an underestimate of NOx and overestimate of CO emissions. On the other hand, estimates of the inventory that do not correctly account for emissions during idling are likely to produce bias in the opposite direction. Nevertheless, the fuel-based inventory suggests that mobile

  3. Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5, and black carbon (BC. These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three factors corresponding to gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, and the urban background. Using the source profiles, we calculate fuel-based emission factors for each type of exhaust. The MCMA's gasoline-powered vehicles are considerably dirtier, on average, than those in the US with respect to CO and aldehydes. Its diesel-powered vehicles have similar emission factors of NOx and higher emission factors of aldehydes, particle number, and BC. In the fleet sampled during AML driving, gasoline-powered vehicles are found to be responsible for 97% of total vehicular emissions of CO, 22% of NOx, 95–97% of each aromatic species, 72–85% of each carbonyl species, 74% of ammonia, negligible amounts of particle number, 26% of PM2.5, and 2% of BC; diesel-powered vehicles account for the balance. Because the mobile lab spent 17% of its time waiting at stoplights, the results may overemphasize idling conditions, possibly resulting in an underestimate of NOx and overestimate of CO emissions. On the other hand, estimates of the inventory that do not correctly account for emissions during idling are likely to produce bias in the opposite direction.The resulting fuel

  4. Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. A.; Williams, A. E.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Marr, L. C.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC). These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three factors corresponding to gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, and the urban background. Using the source profiles, we calculate fuel-based emission factors for each type of exhaust. The MCMA's gasoline-powered vehicles are considerably dirtier, on average, than those in the US with respect to CO and aldehydes. Its diesel-powered vehicles have similar emission factors of NOx and higher emission factors of aldehydes, particle number, and BC. In the fleet sampled during AML driving, gasoline-powered vehicles are found to be responsible for 97% of total vehicular emissions of CO, 22% of NOx, 95-97% of each aromatic species, 72-85% of each carbonyl species, 74% of ammonia, negligible amounts of particle number, 26% of PM2.5, and 2% of BC; diesel-powered vehicles account for the balance. Because the mobile lab spent 17% of its time waiting at stoplights, the results may overemphasize idling conditions, possibly resulting in an underestimate of NOx and overestimate of CO emissions. On the other hand, estimates of the inventory that do not correctly account for emissions during idling are likely to produce bias in the opposite direction.The resulting fuel-based estimates of emissions are lower than in the official inventory for CO and NOx

  5. Requirement of today's diesel passenger vehicles regarding low temperature stability of the fuel; Anforderungen heutiger PKW-Dieselfahrzeuge an die Kaeltefestigkeit des Kraftstoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, U. [Aral AG, Bochum (Germany); Bonnke, D. [Esso AG, Hamburg (Germany); Brand, K.U. [Deutsche BP AG, Hamburg (Germany); Guttmann, H. [VEBA-Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Hagenow, G. [RWE-DEA Aktiengesellschaft fuer Mineraloel und Chemie, Hamburg (Germany); Mueller-Belau, J. [Deutsche Shell AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the cold operability limit of diesel fuels is currently carried out in the Ford Escort 1.6D, based on testing method CEC M-11-T-91. The test vehicle used here is a vehicle model from the 80's, which is represented in this design only in a small number of items (<1% market share within the diesel passenger car pool) in the German market. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the requirement of today's vehicles regarding low temperature stability of the fuel and should the situation arise replace the Ford Escort 1.6D by an actual vehicle. Therefore passenger cars equipped with different diesel engines were selected, representative for the current vehicle population, and the cold operability behaviour was determined by two reference fuels. The results show that the operability limit mainly depends on the fuel filter systems with respectively without a fuel preliminary heating. Vehicles without any preliminary heating system have a high requirement to the low temperature stability of diesel fuels. Vehicles with a complex diesel filter preliminary heating system achieve the operability limit of -22 C even with the critical reference fuel with regard to a low temperature stability. A direct dependence on the laboratory testing method CFPP and the operability in the vehicle tests could not be identified. Vehicles of the series VW Golf 1,9 TDI or VW Passat 1,9 TDI PD seam to be suitable to determine the operability. Both have a relatively high requirement to the low temperature stability of diesel fuels and a relatively high market share. This investigation even shows, that only the balance of vehicle concepts and fuel quality assure sufficient and acceptable operability for the customer by low temperatures. (orig.) [German] Die Bestimmung der Kaelte-Fahrbarkeitsgrenze (Operability) von Dieselkraftstoffen (DK) wird derzeit im Ford Escort 1.6D auf Basis der Pruefmethode CEC M-11-T-91 durchgefuehrt. Der hier eingesetzte

  6. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  7. Variations in speciated emissions from spark-ignition and compression-ignition motor vehicles in California's south coast air basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Eric M; Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Sagebiel, John C; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Chow, Judith C; Gabele, Peter A; Crews, William; Snow, Richard; Clark, Nigel N; Wayne, W Scott; Lawson, Douglas R

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study examined the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the contributions of spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine exhaust to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presents the chemical composition profiles of SI and CI engine exhaust from the vehicle-testing portion of the study. Chemical analysis of source samples consisted of gravimetric mass, elements, ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) thermal/optical methods, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, alkanes, and polar organic compounds. More than half of the mass of carbonaceous particles emitted by heavy-duty diesel trucks was EC (IMPROVE) and emissions from SI vehicles contained predominantly OC. Although total carbon (TC) by the IMPROVE and STN protocols agreed well for all of the samples, the STN/IMPROVE ratios for EC from SI exhaust decreased with decreasing sample loading. SI vehicles, whether low or high emitters, emitted greater amounts of high-molecular-weight particulate PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and coronene) than did CI vehicles. Diesel emissions contained higher abundances of two- to four-ring semivolatile PAHs. Diacids were emitted by CI vehicles but are also prevalent in secondary organic aerosols, so they cannot be considered unique tracers. Hopanes and steranes were present in lubricating oil with similar composition for both gasoline and diesel vehicles and were negligible in gasoline or diesel fuels. CI vehicles emitted greater total amounts of hopanes and steranes on a mass per mile basis, but abundances were comparable to SI exhaust normalized to TC emissions within measurement uncertainty. The combustion-produced high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in used

  8. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  9. On-board measurements of gaseous pollutant emission characteristics under real driving conditions from light-duty diesel vehicles in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Lang, Jianlei; Li, Song; Tian, Liang

    2016-08-01

    A total of 15 light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs) were tested with the goal of understanding the emission factors of real-world vehicles by conducting on-board emission measurements. The emission characteristics of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at different speeds, chemical species profiles and ozone formation potential (OFP) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from diesel vehicles with different emission standards were analyzed. The results demonstrated that emission reductions of HC and NOx had been achieved as the control technology became more rigorous from Stage I to Stage IV. It was also found that the HC and NOx emissions and percentage of O2 dropped with the increase of speed, while the percentage of CO2 increased. The abundance of alkanes was significantly higher in diesel vehicle emissions, approximately accounting for 41.1%-45.2%, followed by aromatics and alkenes. The most abundant species were propene, ethane, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method was adopted to evaluate the contributions of individual VOCs to OFP. The results indicated that the largest contributors to O3 production were alkenes and aromatics, which accounted for 87.7%-91.5%. Propene, ethene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1-butene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene were the top five VOC species based on their OFP, and accounted for 54.0%-64.8% of the total OFP. The threshold dilution factor was applied to analyze the possibility of VOC stench pollution. The majority of stench components emitted from vehicle exhaust were aromatics, especially p-diethylbenzene, propylbenzene, m-ethyltoluene, and p-ethyltoluene.

  10. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel...

  11. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend.

  12. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... light or heavy duty motor vehicle equipped with an engine certified to the nonroad provision of 40 CFR... standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. (a)(1) Every new motor vehicle (or new motor vehicle... with respect to any Otto-cycle or diesel heavy-duty vehicle which uses an engine which has not...

  13. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an... July 20, 1994, EPA promulgated a rule that sets forth, among other things, regulations providing the... 13, California Code of Regulations, section 2025. \\6\\ The definition of yard truck is at section 2025...

  14. On-road measurement of NH3 and N2O emissions from a Euro V heavy-duty vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Mendoza-Villafuerte, Pablo; Bonnel, Pierre; Lilova, Velizara; Hill, Leslie; Perujo, Adolfo; Astorga, Covadonga

    2016-08-01

    The use of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) to abate NOx vehicular emissions brings new concerns on the emissions of the byproducts NH3 and N2O. Therefore, NH3 and N2O on-road emissions from a Euro V truck equipped with a SCR were measured in real time using a QCL-IR. Results bring to light possibility to perform this kind of real time measurements for other pollutants besides, hydrocarbons, NOx, CO and CO2. The capability to measure NH3 and N2O in a second-by-second basis will allow applying the currently agreed regulatory emissions evaluation for gaseous compounds. Average N2O emission factors calculated applying the current PEMS-based data analysis to all available windows from the tests ranged from 0.063 g/kWh to 0.139 g/kWh. Average NH3 concentrations ranged from 0.9 ppm to 5.7 ppm. Although calculated average N2O and NH3 emissions were within current limits, NOx emissions were substantially higher than Euro V limits under the studied conditions.

  15. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  16. The G6 - a heavy-duty six-wheeled shunting locomotive; Dreiachsige Hochleistungsrangierlokomotive G6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Tim [Vossloh Locomotives GmbH, Kiel (Germany). Entwicklung und Standardisierung

    2009-03-15

    With the three-axle shunter G6, exhibited at Innotrans 2008, the renowned producer of rail vehicles Vossloh Locomotives GmbH marks the beginning of a generational change - not only for three-axle but also for four-axle locomotives. In order to replace the type G765C the G6 has been developed in close cooperation with potential customers. Their request concerning robustness and reliability as well as the equipment options set standards for central driver's cab locomotives in general and lead the way for future four-axle replacements within the Vossloh product family. (orig.)

  17. Public health impacts of excess NOx emissions from Volkswagen diesel passenger vehicles in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossière, Guillaume P.; Malina, Robert; Ashok, Akshay; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Speth, Raymond L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2017-03-01

    In September 2015, the Volkswagen Group (VW) admitted the use of ‘defeat devices’ designed to lower emissions measured during VW vehicle testing for regulatory purposes. Globally, 11 million cars sold between 2008 and 2015 are affected, including about 2.6 million in Germany. On-road emissions tests have yielded mean on-road NOx emissions for these cars of 0.85 g km-1, over four times the applicable European limit of 0.18 g km-1. This study estimates the human health impacts and costs associated with excess emissions from VW cars driven in Germany. A distribution of on-road emissions factors is derived from existing measurements and combined with sales data and a vehicle fleet model to estimate total excess NOx emissions. These emissions are distributed on a 25 by 28 km grid covering Europe, using the German Federal Environmental Protection Agency’s (UBA) estimate of the spatial distribution of NOx emissions from passenger cars in Germany. We use the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model to predict the corresponding increase in population exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone in the European Union, Switzerland, and Norway, and a set of concentration-response functions to estimate mortality outcomes in terms of early deaths and of life-years lost. Integrated over the sales period (2008-2015), we estimate median mortality impacts from VW excess emissions in Germany to be 1200 premature deaths in Europe, corresponding to 13 000 life-years lost and 1.9 billion EUR in costs associated with life-years lost. Approximately 60% of mortality costs occur outside Germany. For the current fleet, we estimate that if on-road emissions for all affected VW vehicles in Germany are reduced to the applicable European emission standard by the end of 2017, this would avert 29 000 life-years lost and 4.1 billion 2015 EUR in health costs (median estimates) relative to a counterfactual case with no recall.

  18. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  19. Effect of measurement protocol on organic aerosol measurements of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Seigneur, Christian; Charron, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; Polo, Lucie

    2016-09-01

    Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were diluted with filtered air and sampling was performed on filters and polyurethane foams (PUF) and (2) a Dekati Fine Particle Sampler (FPS) in which emissions were diluted with purified air and sampled with on-line instruments (PTR-ToF-MS, HR-ToF-AMS, MAAP, CPC). Significant differences in the concentrations of organic carbon (OC) measured by the instruments are observed. The differences can be explained by sampling artefacts, differences between (1) the time elapsed during sampling (in the case of filter and PUF sampling) and (2) the time elapsed from emission to measurement (in the case of on-line instruments), which vary from a few seconds to 15 min, and by the different dilution factors. To relate elapsed times and measured concentrations of OC, the condensation of SVOC between the gas and particle phases is simulated with a dynamic aerosol model. The simulation results allow us to understand the relation between elapsed times and concentrations in the gas and particle phases. They indicate that the characteristic times to reach thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases may be as long as 8 min. Therefore, if the elapsed time is less than this characteristic time to reach equilibrium, gas-phase SVOC are not at equilibrium with the particle phase and a larger fraction of emitted SVOC will be in the gas phase than estimated by equilibrium theory, leading to an underestimation of emitted OC if only the particle phase is considered or if the gas-phase SVOC are estimated

  20. Special analyses of tailpipe gases - method development and applications. Development of measuring methods for unregulated components from otto and diesel engines. Final report; Pakokaasujen erikoisanalyysit - menetelmien jatkokehittaeminen ja soveltava koetoiminta. Paeaestoejen maeaeraet ja mittaaminen, mallilaskelmat. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, M.

    1998-07-01

    The project was a continuation to the previous MOBILE -project 204T (1993 - 1995). During the three year period (1996 - 1998) new measuring techniques were developed or the already earlier started topics were further processed, as stated below. The aim of the project is to improve monitoring techniques of the unregulated tailpipe emissions and to supply tools for more comprehensive evaluation of the health and environmental effects of automotive emissions as a whole. The following was developed: Construction of particle sampling device for low emitting vehicles; Construction of sampling technique for the semivolatile phase of the tailpipe gas; evaluation of different techniques; Application of Ames mutagenicity test for the semivolatiles of diesel and otto-engine exhausts; Application of the modified Ames mutagenicity test to minimum sample amounts or emissions of low response; Effect of sampling conditions of particulates and semivolatiles (PUP) on sample amount and quality; Applications of the particulate and PUF sampling technique to low-emittive otto-engine technologies or aftertreatment concepts (LPO, CNG, M85, TWC, lean-burn, GDI) and fuel flexible vehicle emissions (ethanol mixtures); Participation a European round-robin test for the PAH analysis of diesel engine particulates; Adoption and DNPH - FTIR comparison of monitoring technique for aldehyde speciation from modal heavy-duty diesel engine test; Evaluation of the CIMS real-time monitoring technique for low concentrations of emission components. Comparison with FTIR and conventional analytical techniques for aldehyde and HC speciation, verification of the measurement techniques in use at VTT; Spreadsheet for conversion of FTIR ppm trace into mass emissions; Evaluation of the various measuring techniques for the particulate sizing of diesel and otto-engine emissions, purchase of the device; Establishing a data bank for unregulated+regulated emission species based on 1993 - 1998 results obtained at VTT

  1. Design and implementation of Shaanxi Heavy-Duty Truckfile management system%陕重汽档案管理系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾琼

    2014-01-01

    针对陕重汽档案信息化落后,管理效率低下,以及档案业务现状,设计与实现了陕重汽档案管理系统,分别从系统功能设计、模块设计、数据库设计和系统实现的主要技术这四部分来阐述。%For Shaanxi Heavy-Duty Truck file information backward, inefficient management, as well as archives business situation, design and implementation of the Shaanxi Heavy-Duty Truck file management system, respectively, from the system functional design, module design, database design and system implementation of these four parts to the main technical elaborate.

  2. Underground diesel use - fuel for thought. [USA - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Knight, D.L.; Roberts, W.K.; Knight, T.J. (Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Describes the use of diesel equipment at the Galatia Mine, Saline County, IL (USA). The Galatia Mine is a dual-seam underground mine. Diesel equipment covered includes: personnel vehicles; diesel forklifts; diesel front-end loaders; service vehicles; maintenance; boom trucks; fuel and lube vehicles; mobile ramcar rock duster; rock grader; diesel bolters; and a portable diesel generator. The use of diesel equipment for longwall set up and recovery and diesel equipment maintenance, ventilation and emission control is also discussed. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Megacity pollution by modern Diesel cars: New insights into the nature and formation of volatile nano-particles with high lung intrusion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F.; Reichl, U.; Muschik, Ch.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Pirjola, L.; Rönkkö, T.; Keskinen, J.; Rothe, D.; Lähde, T.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol particles generated by Diesel vehicles represent mayor health affecting air pollutants in cities and near motor ways. To mitigate the Diesel particle pollution problem, Diesel vehicles become increasingly fitted or retro-fitted with modern exhaust after treatment systems (ATS), which remove most engine-generated primary particles, particularly soot. Unfortunately however, ATS have undesired side effects including also the formation of low vapour pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to volatile nucleation particles (NUP). NUP are substantially smaller (diameters: 5-15 nm) than soot particles (diameters: 40-100 nm), and therefore may be termed real nano-particles. NUP can intrude with maximum efficiency the lowest, least protected, and most vulnerable compartment of the human lung. However, the chemical nature and mechanism of formation of NUP are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, we have made the first on line and off line measurements of low vapour pressure NUP precursor gases in the exhaust of a modern heavy duty Diesel vehicle engine, operated with and without ATS and combusting low and ultra-low sulphur fuels including also bio fuel. In addition, we have made accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations. The on line measurements involved a CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) method originally developed by MPIK. They took place directly in the Diesel exhaust and had a large sensitivity and a fast time response (1 s). The off line measurements involved adsorption of exhaust gases on stainless steel, followed by thermo desorption and detection of desorbed exhaust molecules by CIMS. We find that modern Diesel ATS strongly increase the formation of hydroxyl radicals, which induce conversion of fuel sulphur to the important NUP precursor gaseous sulphuric acid. We also find that appreciable amounts of di-carboxylic acids survive the passage of the ATS or are even formed by the

  4. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    emitted by newer vehicles appears to be more efficient (higher yielding) in producing SOA than the emissions from older vehicles. About 30% of the nonmethane organic gas emissions from the newer (LEV1 and LEV2) vehicles could not be speciated, and the majority of the SOA formed from these vehicles appears to be associated with these unspeciated organics. By comparing this study with a companion study of diesel trucks, we conclude that both primary PM emissions and SOA production for light-duty gasoline vehicles are much greater than for late-model (2007 and later) on-road heavy-duty diesel trucks.

  5. Public Health Impacts of Excess NOX Emissions from Volkswagen Diesel Passenger Vehicles: a comparison between Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossiere, G.; Barrett, S. R. H.; Malina, R.; Dedoussi, I. C.; Eastham, S. D.; Ashok, A.

    2016-12-01

    In September 2015, the Volkswagen Group admitted the use of an illegal emissions control system that activates during vehicle testing for regulatory purposes. Globally, 11 million diesel cars sold between 2008 and 2015 are affected, including about 2.6 million in Germany and 480,000 in the United States. On-road tests suggest that NOx emissions for these cars amount to 0.85 g/km on average, over four times the applicable European limit of 0.18 g/km and more than 20 times the corresponding EPA standard. This study quantifies and compares the human health impacts and costs associated with excess emissions from VW cars driven in Germany and in the United States. A distribution of emissions factors built from existing on-road measurements is combined with sales data and a vehicle fleet model to estimate total excess NOx emissions in each country. In Europe, we used the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model to predict the increase in population exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone due to the excess NOx emissions in Germany. The corresponding quantities in the US case were obtained using an adjoint-based air pollution model derived from the GEOS-Chem model. A set of concentration-response functions allowed us to estimate mortality outcomes in terms of early deaths in the US and in Europe. Integrated over the sales period (2008 - 2015), we estimate median mortality impacts from VW excess emissions in Germany to be 1,100 (95% CI: 0 to 3,000) early deaths in Europe, corresponding to 3.9 billion EUR (95% CI: 0 to 10 billion) in associated costs. Another 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths is expected in the US as a result of excess emissions released in the country, corresponding to 450 million USD in social costs. We find that excess NOx emissions in Europe have 5 times greater health impacts per kilogram than those in the US due to the higher population density and more NOx-sensitive background conditions in Europe. The gas ratios in the two regions support this

  6. Improve Designing for Heavy-duty Automobile Hydraulic Tank%某重型汽车液压油箱的改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高军

    2012-01-01

    本文分析了某重型汽车车载液压动力系统失效的原因,介绍了液压油箱设计原则,并对液压油箱进行了改进设计。%this article analyzed the failing reason of heavy-duty automobile hydraulic system, and introduced designing principle of hydraulic tank, also redesigned the hydraulic tank.

  7. Dual fuel diesel engine operation using LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, Al; Nutu, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine fuelling with LPG represents a good solution to reduce the pollutant emissions and to improve its energetic performances. The high autoignition endurance of LPG requires specialized fuelling methods. From all possible LPG fuelling methods the authors chose the diesel-gas method because of the following reasons: is easy to be implemented even at already in use engines; the engine does not need important modifications; the LPG-air mixture has a high homogeneity with favorable influences over the combustion efficiency and over the level of the pollutant emissions, especially on the nitrogen oxides emissions. This paper presents results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on operation of a LPG fuelled heavy duty diesel engine at two operating regimens, 40% and 55%. For 55% engine load is also presented the exhaust gas recirculation influence on the pollutant emission level. Was determined the influence of the diesel fuel with LPG substitution ratio on the combustion parameters (rate of heat released, combustion duration, maximum pressure, maximum pressure rise rate), on the energetic parameters (indicate mean effective pressure, effective efficiency, energetic specific fuel consumption) and on the pollutant emissions level. Therefore with increasing substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG are obtained the following results: the increase of the engine efficiency, the decrease of the specific energetic consumption, the increase of the maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate (considered as criteria to establish the optimum substitute ratio), the accentuated reduction of the nitrogen oxides emissions level.

  8. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels.

  9. Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

    An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local

  10. Particle filters on light diesel vehicles - a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters; Partikelfiltre pae lette dieselkoeretoejer - en samfundsoekonomisk analyse af fremskyndelse af partikelfiltre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, M.; Larsen, Thommy; Carlsen, Kirsten; Mulvad Jeppesen, L.

    2006-09-15

    Emission of particles into the atmosphere is one of the biggest air pollution problems of our times. The emission of particles causes severe health problems such as respiratory and circulatory diseases, lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and even causes premature deaths. The emission of particles comes from a number of different sources, where traffic is a considerable contributor. The effects of particle emissions from the traffic on the population are substantial, as the emission comes from mobile sources which create a high local pollution in city areas and in consequence high exposure of the local population. Exhaust particle emissions come mainly from diesel engines, and the introduction of particle filters would have a considerable impact on particle emissions. Vehicle emissions regulation is controlled by the EU. The coming emission regulation, EURO 5, is expected to be put into effect by the beginning of 2010. The current suggestions for the EURO 5 restrictions on particles are set so strict that they will be impossible to fulfil without a particle filter. This report performs a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters on all light vehicles (<3,500 kg). The analysis assumes that all newly registered diesel powered cars and vans should have a factory installed particle filter from the beginning of 2007. This thereby gives a period of three years before implementation of the EURO 5. (au)

  11. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-04-01

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 +/- 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m(3) of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 +/- 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 +/- 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m(-3) (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust.

  12. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter [University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX {sup registered}) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 {+-} 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m{sup 3} of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 {+-} 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 {+-} 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m{sup -3} (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. (orig.)

  13. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... of marker solvent yellow 124. (2) All motor vehicle and NRLM diesel fuel shall be free of solvent... yellow 124 shall be considered motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel, as appropriate. (5)...

  14. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  15. Evaluation of the particle measurement programme (PMP) protocol to remove the vehicles' exhaust aerosol volatile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, B; Chirico, R; Decarlo, P F; Clairotte, M; Adam, T; Martini, G; Heringa, M F; Richter, R; Prevot, A S H; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C

    2010-10-01

    European regulation for Euro 5/6 light duty emissions introduced the measurement of non-volatile particles with diameter >23 nm. The volatile phase is removed by using a heated dilution stage (150 degrees C) and a heated tube (at 300-400 degrees C). We investigated experimentally the removal efficiency for volatile species of the specific protocol by conducting measurements with two Euro 3 diesel light duty vehicles, a Euro 2 moped, and a Euro III heavy duty vehicle with the system's heaters on and off. The particle number distributions were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). An Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was used to identify the non-refractory chemical composition of the particles. A Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) was used to measure the black carbon concentration. The results showed that the condensed material in the accumulation mode (defined here as particles in the diameter range of approximately 50-500 nm) was removed with an efficiency of 50-90%. The (volatile) nucleation mode was also completely evaporated or was decreased to sizes <23 nm; thus these particles wouldn't be counted from the particle counter, indicating the robustness of the protocol.

  16. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  17. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  18. FY2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  19. 静压轴承在重型数控滚齿机上的应用%Application of hydrostatic bearing on heavy-duty CNC hobbing machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪重道; 徐金芳; 林勤

    2011-01-01

    Centering several ways hobbing machine table compared to heavy-duty CNC hobbing machine YK31320 example to explain how to determine the type of hydrostatic bearing,parameters and the effect after application.%将滚齿机工作台的几种定心方式作了比较,以重型数控滚齿机YK31320为例,阐述了如何确定静压轴承的类型、参数以及应用后的效果.

  20. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to