WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy metals sources

  1. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  2. Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China.

    Tan, Ji-Hua; Duan, Jing-Chun; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-Bin; Yu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7 ± 378.5 ng/m(3)), As (76.6 ± 49.1 ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6 ± 45.2 ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220 ng/m(3), 20.5 times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most

  3. Trends and sources for heavy metals in urban atmosphere

    Kemp, Kaare

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of a number of heavy metals in the air in three Danish cities have been measured by means of PIXE for more than two decades. The well-known capability of PIXE for fast and efficient analysis of aerosol samples has been employed for analysis of daily samples from several sites during the whole period. The main sources are traffic, domestic heating and long-range transport. Source apportionment and trends for single metals are assessed by means of simple statistical methods. The most striking change has occurred for the Pb concentration, which is reduced by almost a factor of 100 following the reduction of the Pb content in petrol. The main source of Cu, Cr and Zn is the traffic. The concentrations of these elements have been slightly increasing. The concentrations for most of the other heavy metals, which originate mainly from sources outside the cities, have been decreasing

  4. Trends and sources for heavy metals in urban atmosphere

    Kemp, Kåre

    2002-04-01

    The concentrations of a number of heavy metals in the air in three Danish cities have been measured by means of PIXE for more than two decades. The well-known capability of PIXE for fast and efficient analysis of aerosol samples has been employed for analysis of daily samples from several sites during the whole period. The main sources are traffic, domestic heating and long-range transport. Source apportionment and trends for single metals are assessed by means of simple statistical methods. The most striking change has occurred for the Pb concentration, which is reduced by almost a factor of 100 following the reduction of the Pb content in petrol. The main source of Cu, Cr and Zn is the traffic. The concentrations of these elements have been slightly increasing. The concentrations for most of the other heavy metals, which originate mainly from sources outside the cities, have been decreasing.

  5. incidence of heavy metals in kano metropolis drinking water sources

    userpc

    corrosion of brass fittings of certain submersible pumps and pipes used in borehole and taps specifically. The contamination of well with heavy metals might be due to seepage of sewage ... Chloride determination (Agumetric method):.

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Waterleaf from Various Sources in ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    Standard method was followed for sample treatment, digestion, and analysis of selected heavy metals: lead .... research laboratory, University of Ibadan. Each ... Survey of consumption of waterleaf in Ota: Over 500 ..... In Encyclopedia of.

  7. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments. Copyright © 2017

  8. Heavy metals

    Adriano, Domy; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Bolan, N.S.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    - Sources of Metals in the Environment - Environmental Contamination - Retention and Dynamics of Metals in Soils - Adsorption - Complexation - Precipitation - Bioavailability–Natural Attenuation Interactions - Biological Response to Metals - Soil Remediation

  9. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  10. Biotechnological recovery of heavy metals from secondary sources-An overview

    Hoque, Md E.; Philip, Obbard J.

    2011-01-01

    The demand for heavy metals is ever increasing with the advance of the industrialized world, whereas worldwide reserves of high-grade ores are diminishing. However, there exist large stockpiles of low and lean grade ores that are yet to be exploited. In addition, heavy metals that are present in a spectrum of waste streams including mine drainage, industrial effluents, river sediments, electronic scraps and ashes are also available for recovery and utilization. Heavy metal recovery from low and lean grade ores using conventional techniques such as pyrometallurgy, etc. chemical metallurgy encompass several inherent constraints like, high energy and capital inputs, and high risk of secondary environmental pollution. As environmental regulations become ever more stringent, particularly regarding the disposal of toxic wastes, the costs for ensuring environmental protection will continue to rise. Therefore, there is a need to utilize more efficient technologies to recover heavy metals from secondary sources in order to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. Biohydrometallurgy, which exploits microbiological processes to recover heavy metal ions, is regarded as one of the most promising and revolutionary biotechnologies. The products of such processes are deposited in aqueous solution thereby rendering them to be more amenable to containment, treatment and recovery. On top of this, biohydrometallurgy can be conducted under mild conditions, usually without the use of any toxic chemicals. Consequently, the application of biohydrometallurgy in recovery of heavy metals from lean grade ores, and wastes, has made it an eco-friendly biotechnology for enhanced heavy metal production.

  11. Size distribution, characteristics and sources of heavy metals in haze episode in Beijing.

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe

    2014-01-01

    Size segragated samples were collected during high polluted winter haze days in 2006 in Beijing, China. Twenty nine elements and 9 water soluble ions were determined. Heavy metals of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, V and Cd were deeply studied considering their toxic effect on human being. Among these heavy metals, the levels of Mn, As and Cd exceeded the reference values of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-2012) and guidelines of World Health Organization. By estimation, high percentage of atmospheric heavy metals in PM2.5 indicates it is an effective way to control atmospheric heavy metals by PM2.5 controlling. Pb, Cd, and Zn show mostly in accumulation mode, V, Mn and Cu exist mostly in both coarse and accumulation modes, and Ni and Cr exist in all of the three modes. Considering the health effect, the breakthrough rates of atmospheric heavy metals into pulmonary alveoli are: Pb (62.1%) > As (58.1%) > Cd (57.9%) > Zn (57.7%) > Cu (55.8%) > Ni (53.5%) > Cr (52.2%) > Mn (49.2%) > V (43.5%). Positive matrix factorization method was applied for source apportionment of studied heavy metals combined with some marker elements and ions such as K, As, SO4(2-) etc., and four factors (dust, vehicle, aged and transportation, unknown) are identified and the size distribution contribution of them to atmospheric heavy metals are discussed.

  12. Biotechnological recovery of heavy metals from secondary sources-An overview

    Hoque, Md E., E-mail: enamul.hoque@nottingham.edu.my [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Philip, Obbard J., E-mail: esejpo@nus.edu.sg [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore)

    2011-03-12

    The demand for heavy metals is ever increasing with the advance of the industrialized world, whereas worldwide reserves of high-grade ores are diminishing. However, there exist large stockpiles of low and lean grade ores that are yet to be exploited. In addition, heavy metals that are present in a spectrum of waste streams including mine drainage, industrial effluents, river sediments, electronic scraps and ashes are also available for recovery and utilization. Heavy metal recovery from low and lean grade ores using conventional techniques such as pyrometallurgy, etc. chemical metallurgy encompass several inherent constraints like, high energy and capital inputs, and high risk of secondary environmental pollution. As environmental regulations become ever more stringent, particularly regarding the disposal of toxic wastes, the costs for ensuring environmental protection will continue to rise. Therefore, there is a need to utilize more efficient technologies to recover heavy metals from secondary sources in order to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. Biohydrometallurgy, which exploits microbiological processes to recover heavy metal ions, is regarded as one of the most promising and revolutionary biotechnologies. The products of such processes are deposited in aqueous solution thereby rendering them to be more amenable to containment, treatment and recovery. On top of this, biohydrometallurgy can be conducted under mild conditions, usually without the use of any toxic chemicals. Consequently, the application of biohydrometallurgy in recovery of heavy metals from lean grade ores, and wastes, has made it an eco-friendly biotechnology for enhanced heavy metal production.

  13. Sources and speciation of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) and its effect on the separation technique

    Biollaz, S; Ludwig, Ch; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A literature search was carried out to determine sources and speciation of heavy metals in MSW. A combination of thermal and mechanical separation techniques is necessary to achieve the required high degrees of metal separation. Metallic goods should be separated mechanically, chemically bound heavy metals by a thermal process. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  14. Distribution and source apportionment studies of heavy metals in soil of cotton/wheat fields.

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals enriched agricultural soils have been the subject of great concern because these metals have potential to be transferred to the soil solution and afterward accumulated in food chain. To study the trace metal persistence in crop soil, 90 representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and anions (chloride, nitrates, phosphates and sulfates). Cluster and factor analysis techniques were used for the source identification of these excessive heavy metal levels and ecological risk was determined with potential ecological risk assessment. The degree of enrichment of eight studied heavy metals in comparison with the corresponding background levels decreased in order: Cd > Pb > Fe > Ni > Mn > As > Cu ~ Zn. Arsenic and cadmium exhibited 1.30- and 1.64-fold exceeded levels than threshold limits set by National environment quality standards, respectively. Cd in cotton field's soil may lead to higher potential risk than other heavy metals. On overall basis, the cumulative mean potential ecological risk for the district (207.75) corresponded to moderate risk level with higher contributions from As and Pb especially from Cd. Cadmium formed strong positive correlation with phosphate content of soil at p < 0.01. Cluster analysis indicated that Cluster 1 (extremely polluted) probably originated from anthropogenic inputs of phosphate fertilizer and past usage of arsenical pesticides.

  15. Heavy metal in sediments of Ziya River in northern China: distribution, potential risks, and source apportionment.

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2016-12-01

    The concentration partitioning between the sediment particle and the interstitial water phase plays an important role in controlling the toxicity of heavy metals in aquatic systems. The aim of this study was to assess the sediment quality in a polluted area of the Ziya River, Northern China. The contamination potential and bioavailability of six metals were determined from the concentrations of total metals and the bioavailable fractions. The results showed that the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb exceeded the probable effect concentration at several sites. The high geoaccumulation indices showed that the sediments were seriously contaminated by Cd. The ratio of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) to simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) was higher than 1, which indicated that the availability of metals in sediments was low. The risk assessment of interstitial waters confirmed that there was little chance of release of metals associated with acid-volatile sulfide into the water column. Values of the interstitial water criteria toxicity unit indicated that none of the concentrations of the studied metals exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Positive matrix factorization showed that the major sources of metals were related to anthropogenic activities. Further, if assessments are based on total heavy metal concentrations, the toxicity of heavy metals in sediment may be overestimated.

  16. Pollution assessment and source apportionment of heavy metals in contaminated site soils

    Zheng, Hongbo; Ma, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in soil were analyzed with a typical contaminated site as the case area. The pollution degree of the element was evaluated by indexes of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with potential ecological risk index model. Principal component analysis (PCA) model was simultaneously carried out to identify the main sources of heavy metals in topsoils. The results indicated that: 1. Mean values of 11 kinds of metals in topsoils were greater than respective soil background values, following the order: Zn>Pb>V>Cr>Cu>Ni>Co>As>Sb>Cd>Hg. Heavy metals with a certain accumulation in the research area were significantly affected by external factors. 2. Igeo results showed that Cd and Zn reached strongly polluted degree, while Pb with moderately to strongly polluted, Sb and Hg with moderately polluted, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr with unpolluted to moderately polluted, V and As with un-polluted. 3. Potential ecological risk assessment showed the degree of ecological risk with Cd at very high risk, Hg at high risk, Pb at moderate risk and others at low risk. The comprehensive risk of all the metals was very high. 4. PCA got three main sources with contributions, including industrial activities (44.18%), traffic and burning dust (26.68%) and soil parent materials (12.20%).

  17. Identification of sources of heavy metals in the Dutch atmosphere using air filter and lichen analysis

    de Bruin, M.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosol samples collected in an industrialized region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Correlation with wind direction and factor analysis were applied to the concentration data to obtain information on the nature and position of the sources. Epiphytic lichens were sampled over the country and analyzed for heavy metals (As, Cd, Sc, Zn, Sb). The data were interpreted by geographically plotting element concentrations and enrichment factors, and by factor analysis. Some pitfalls are discussed which are associated with the use of aerosol and lichen data in studies of heavy metal air pollution. 14 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  18. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xeyang@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  19. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian; He, Zhenli; Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  20. Spatial assessment and source identification of heavy metals pollution in surface water using several chemometric techniques.

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Habir, Nur Liyana Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Kamaruddin, Mohd Khairul Amri; Umar, Roslan; Azid, Azman

    2016-05-15

    This study presents the determination of the spatial variation and source identification of heavy metal pollution in surface water along the Straits of Malacca using several chemometric techniques. Clustering and discrimination of heavy metal compounds in surface water into two groups (northern and southern regions) are observed according to level of concentrations via the application of chemometric techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that Cu and Cr dominate the source apportionment in northern region with a total variance of 57.62% and is identified with mining and shipping activities. These are the major contamination contributors in the Straits. Land-based pollution originating from vehicular emission with a total variance of 59.43% is attributed to the high level of Pb concentration in the southern region. The results revealed that one state representing each cluster (northern and southern regions) is significant as the main location for investigating heavy metal concentration in the Straits of Malacca which would save monitoring cost and time. The monitoring of spatial variation and source of heavy metals pollution at the northern and southern regions of the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia, using chemometric analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deposition behavior, risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in reservoir sediments of Northeast China.

    Zhu, Lin; Liu, Jianwei; Xu, Shiguo; Xie, Zaigang

    2017-08-01

    Sediment cores from five reservoirs, located in the Liaoning and Jilin Provinces in Northeast China, were collected to investigate the accumulation and potential toxicity of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr) during a sampling campaign in February, 2015. The results showed that all the detected metals accumulated significantly, especially Cd, compared to their respective background values. Among these reservoirs, Biliuhe Reservoir had markedly increasing trends for organic matter and all the metals, among which Mn was elevated by 280% to 3411mg/kg in a core of only 18cm in depth. Xinlicheng Reservoir was characterized by heavy siltation and varying metal distribution due to its regular geometric features and pulsed flood events. The Enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (I geo ) indicated Cd was strongly enriched by anthropogenic inputs, with the values of EF and I geo greater than 8 and 3, respectively. The toxicity assessment calculated using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) implied the whole cores of Tanghe and Dahuofang and the upper cores of Biliuhe, Xinlicheng and Fengman exhibited toxicity to sediment-dwelling organisms. Cr contributed more to Q m-PEC than the other heavy metals, because only Cr exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) despite its low enrichment. According to the results of correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA), mining industries and agricultural activities within the basin were the main anthropogenic pollution sources for these heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  3. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  4. A modified receptor model for source apportionment of heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Huang, Ying; Deng, Meihua; Wu, Shaofu; Japenga, Jan; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2018-07-15

    Source apportionment is a crucial step toward reduction of heavy metal pollution in soil. Existing methods are generally based on receptor models. However, overestimation or underestimation occurs when they are applied to heavy metal source apportionment in soil. Therefore, a modified model (PCA-MLRD) was developed, which is based on principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression with distance (MLRD). This model was applied to a case study conducted in a peri-urban area in southeast China where soils were contaminated by arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). Compared with existing models, PCA-MLRD is able to identify specific sources and quantify the extent of influence for each emission. The zinc (Zn)-Pb mine was identified as the most important anthropogenic emission, which affected approximately half area for Pb and As accumulation, and approximately one third for Cd. Overall, the influence extent of the anthropogenic emissions decreased in the order of mine (3 km) > dyeing mill (2 km) ≈ industrial hub (2 km) > fluorescent factory (1.5 km) > road (0.5 km). Although algorithm still needs to improved, the PCA-MLRD model has the potential to become a useful tool for heavy metal source apportionment in soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Marine Sediments of East Coast of Tamil Nadu Affected by Different Pollution Sources.

    Harikrishnan, N; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Suresh Gandhi, M; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satapathy, K K

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the sediments of Periyakalapet to Parangipettai coast, east coast of Tamil Nadu, by using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The average heavy metal concentrations in the sediment samples were found in the order Al>Fe>Ca>Ti>K>Mg>Mn>Ba>V>Cr>Zn>La>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Cu. The average heavy metal concentrations were below the world crustal average. The degree of contamination by heavy metals was evaluated using pollution indices. The results of pollution indices revealed that titanium (Ti) and cadmium (Cd) were significantly enriched in sediments. Pearson correlation analysis was performed among heavy metal concentrations to know the existing relationship between them. Multivariate statistical technique was employed to identify the heavy metal pollution sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy metal contamination status and source apportionment in sediments of Songhua River Harbin region, Northeast China.

    Li, Ning; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    The Songhua River represents one of the seven major river systems in China. It flows through Harbin city with 66 km long, locating in the northern China with a longer winter time. This paper aimed to study concentration distributions, stability, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in 11 selected sections of the Songhua River Harbin region. Results showed that Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As exceeded their respective geochemical background values in sediments of most monitoring sections. Compared with other important rivers and lakes in China, Cr, Hg, Cd, and As pollutions in surface sediments were above medium level. Further analysis of chemical speciation indicated that Cr and As in surface sediments were relatively stable while Pb and Cd were easily bioavailable. Correlation analysis revealed sources of these metals except As might be identical. Pollution levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments presented higher in the mainstream region (45° 47.0' N ~ 45° 53.3' N, 126° 37.0' E ~ 126° 42.1' E). Source apportionment found Hejiagou and Ashi River were the main contributors to metal pollution of this region. Thus, anthropogenic activities along the Hejiagou and Ashi River should be restricted in order to protect the Songhua River Harbin region from metal contamination.

  7. Assessing heavy metal sources in sugarcane Brazilian soils: an approach using multivariate analysis.

    da Silva, Fernando Bruno Vieira; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Araújo, Paula Renata Muniz; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Vieira; da Silva, Roberto Felipe

    2016-08-01

    Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer and soils in the northeastern part of the country have been cultivated with the crop for over 450 years. However, so far, there has been no study on the status of heavy metal accumulation in these long-history cultivated soils. To fill the gap, we collect soil samples from 60 sugarcane fields in order to determine the contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. We used multivariate analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in soils. Analytical determinations were performed in ICP-OES after microwave acid solution digestion. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 1.9, 18.8, 6.4, 4.9, 11.2, and 16.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The principal component one was associated with lithogenic origin and comprised the metals Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis confirmed that 68 % of the evaluated sites have soil heavy metal concentrations close to the natural background. The Cd concentration (principal component two) was clearly associated with anthropogenic sources with P fertilization being the most likely source of Cd to soils. On the other hand, the third component (Pb concentration) indicates a mixed origin for this metal (natural and anthropogenic); hence, Pb concentrations are probably related not only to the soil parent material but also to industrial emissions and urbanization in the vicinity of the agricultural areas.

  8. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Pacyna, J M

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  9. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  10. Sources of heavy metals in sediments of the Hudson River Estuary

    Williams, S.C.; Simpson, H.J.; Olsen, C.R.; Bopp, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Sediments in the Hudson Estuary contain zinc, copper and lead from metal pollutants discharged to the harbor in the New York City area, from dispersed sources of contamination introduced upstream, and from natural weathering processes. The magnitude of the contribution from each of these three sources to particular sites can be estimated on the basis of total metal abundances, relative proportions of several metals, and other sediment properties. The pattern of recent heavy-metal contamination in Hudson sediments closely follows the distribution in sediments of 137 Cs which was derived over the past two decades from global fallout and local releases from a commercial nuclear reactor. Several simple empirical corrections related to grain size and mineralogy variations are suggested for comparing heavy-metal contamination levels of sandy continental shelf sediments with fine-grained estuarine and coastal sediments. Iron has little variation in Hudson sediments while manganese is greater in surface sediment of some low-salinity and fresh-water areas than deeper in the sediments, and generally less in the high-salinity area of rapid sediment deposition in New York harbor. Much of the pollutant Cu added to the harbor appears to be rapidly deposited in the sediments. (Auth.)

  11. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils.

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian; He, Zhenli; Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-12-15

    Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74-100% and 0-24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0-80% and 19-100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  13. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  14. Distribution and Identification of Sources of Heavy Metals in the Voghji River Basin Impacted by Mining Activities (Armenia

    A. V. Gabrielyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to assess the distribution of heavy metals in the waters and sediments of the Voghji River and its tributaries impacted by mining activity and to reveal the real source of each of the heavy metals in the environment for assessing the pollution level of heavy metals. Voghji River with two main tributaries (Geghi and Norashenik drain two mining regions. To identify distribution and pollution sources of heavy metals, the water and sediment samples were collected from eight sampling sites. The results of statistical analysis based on data sets of the period 2014–2016 showed that, after the influence of drainage water and wastewater of mining regions, heavy metal contents in the Voghji River basin dramatically increased. The waters of the Voghji River were highly polluted by Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb. The relation of metals content was highly changed due to anthropogenic impact disturbing the geochemical balance of the Voghji River. The water quality based on only heavy metal contents in the source of the Voghji River belongs to “good” chemical status, and in the sources of Geghi and Norashenik Rivers it is “moderate.” The water quality of Voghji and Norashenik Rivers is sharply worsening after the influence of mining activity, becoming “bad” chemical status. The research revealed the pollution sources of each metal.

  15. Quantitative identification and source apportionment of anthropogenic heavy metals in marine sediment of Hong Kong

    Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huaicheng; Liu, Lei

    2007-10-01

    Based on ten heavy metals collected twice annually at 59 sites from 1998 to 2004, enrichment factors (EFs), principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate linear regression of absolute principal component scores (MLR-APCS) were used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in marine sediment. EFs with Fe as a normalizer and local background as reference values was properly tested and suitable in Hong Kong, and Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, Hg and Cr mainly originated from anthropogenic sources, while Al, Mn and Fe were derived from rocks weathering. Rotated PCA and GIS mapping further identified two types of anthropogenic sources and their impacted regions: (1) electronic industrial pollution, riparian runoff and vehicle exhaust impacted the entire Victoria Harbour, inner Tolo Harbour, Eastern Buffer, inner Deep Bay and Cheung Chau; and (2) discharges from textile factories and paint, influenced Tsuen Wan Bay and Kwun Tong typhoon shelter and Rambler Channel. In addition, MLR-APCS was successfully introduced to quantitatively determine the source contributions with uncertainties almost less than 8%: the first anthropogenic sources were responsible for 50.0, 45.1, 86.6, 78.9 and 87.5% of the Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg, respectively, whereas 49.9% of the Ni and 58.4% of the Cr came from the second anthropogenic sources.

  16. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion

    Krook, J.; Martensson, A.; Eklund, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW

  17. Assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soils and their source apportionment: a Turkish district survey.

    Dartan, Güler; Taşpınar, Fatih; Toröz, İsmail

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of industrialization on the quality of agricultural soils in the district of Bandırma, Turkey, in terms of soil heavy metal contamination. Many soil and phosphogypsum samples were analyzed, and enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated. The average concentration gradient of metals in the soil (mg/kg) was As metal enrichments in the soil were found to be moderately high and significant. In the majority of soil samples, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Se, Pb, and Cr were moderately enriched whereas Sb and Cd were extremely highly enriched. A factor analysis (FA) was applied to the cross-correlations of the elements to identify their sources. Six significant factors were extracted with the help of FA, explaining 77.22 % of the total variance, and the elements loaded on these factors were interpreted. The evaluations of the factors showed that the study area has been exposed to heavy metal pollution from anthropogenic sources considering the high levels of Cr, Cd, Cu, P, V, Zn, Ni, Sb, and Pb in the soil and the higher EFs falling in the range of 2.54-372.87. Moreover, the soil concentrations of Mn, Mg, Co, Al, K, and Ca were also high, but they were of lithogenic in origin according to the FA.

  18. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    komla

    acute toxicity and sublethal chronic action the devastating effects that the accumulation - including ... the laboratory and kept in holding glass (a) Copper as CuSO,.5H,0 ... from 2 psu to 21 psu) depending on time of The choice of heavy metals for this s year. ... serving as substrate and food source for Salinity of test media.

  19. Source apportionment of heavy metals and their ecological risk in a tropical river basin system.

    Kumar, Balwant; Singh, Umesh Kumar

    2018-06-27

    Surface water and sediment samples were collected from Ajay River basin to appraise the behavior of heavy metals with surrounding environments and their inter-elemental relationships. Parameters like pH and organic carbon are having a minimal role in heavy metal distribution while some elements like Fe and Cu showed great affinity for organic matter based on linear regression analysis (LRA). Ficklin diagram justified that river basin is not contaminated through acidic pollutants. The river basin is highly enriched with Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni which were much higher than world average values, average shale standard, effect range low (ERL), and threshold effect level (TEL). PCA and LRA verified that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni were mainly derived from anthropogenic inputs, and others like Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co came from geogenic sources. Pollution indices revealed that river basin is moderately to highly contaminated by Cu, Cd, and Ni. Furthermore, Ajay River basin is under strong potential ecological risk based on the obtained value of risk index and probable effect level/effect range median quotient index. However, river basin is strongly influenced by lithological properties, diversified hydrogeological settings, mineralization and mobilization of subsurface materials, and urban and industrial effluents which are controlling the heavy metals.

  20. Source-specific speciation profiles of PM2.5 for heavy metals and their anthropogenic emissions in China.

    Liu, Yayong; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Xiao; Zheng, Haotian

    2018-08-01

    Heavy metals are concerned for its adverse effect on human health and long term burden on biogeochemical cycling in the ecosystem. In this study, a provincial-level emission inventory of 13 kinds of heavy metals including V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb from 10 anthropogenic sources was developed for China, based on the 2015 national emission inventory of primary particulate matters and source category-specific speciation profiles collected from 50 previous studies measured in China. Uncertainties associated with the speciation profiles were also evaluated. Our results suggested that total emissions of the 13 types of heavy metals in China are estimated at about 58000 ton for the year 2015. The iron production is the dominant source of heavy metal, contributing 42% of total emissions of heavy metals. The emissions of heavy metals vary significantly at regional scale, with largest amount of emissions concentrated in northern and eastern China. Particular, high emissions of Cr, Co, Ni, As and Sb (contributing 8%-18% of the national emissions) are found in Shandong where has large capacity of industrial production. Uncertainty analysis suggested that the implementation of province-specific source profiles in this study significantly reduced the emission uncertainties from (-89%, 289%) to (-99%, 91%), particularly for coal combustion. However, source profiles for industry sectors such as non-metallic mineral manufacturing are quite limited, resulting in a relative high uncertainty. The high-resolution emission inventories of heavy metals are essential not only for their distribution, deposition and transport studies, but for the design of policies to redress critical atmospheric environmental hazards at local and regional scales. Detailed investigation on source-specific profile in China are still needed to achieve more accurate estimations of heavy metals in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution and source analysis of heavy metal pollutants in sediments of a rapid developing urban river system.

    Xia, Fang; Qu, Liyin; Wang, Ting; Luo, Lili; Chen, Han; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua; Mei, Kun; Huang, Hong

    2018-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution of aquatic environments in rapidly developing industrial regions is of considerable global concern due to its potential to cause serious harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. This study assessed heavy metal contamination of sediments in a highly industrialized urban watershed of eastern China containing several historically unregulated manufacturing enterprises. Total concentrations and solid-phase fractionation of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were investigated for 39 river sediments using multivariate statistical analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR) methods to quantitatively examine the relationship between land use and heavy metal pollution at the watershed scale. Results showed distinct spatial patterns of heavy metal contamination within the watershed, such as higher concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the southwest and higher Cu concentration in the east, indicating links to specific pollution sources within the watershed. Correlation and PCA analyses revealed that Zn, Pb and Cd were dominantly contributed by anthropogenic activities; Cu originated from both industrial and agricultural sources; and Cr has been altered by recent pollution control strategies. The GWR model indicated that several heavy metal fractions were strongly correlated with industrial land proportion and this correlation varied with the level of industrialization as demonstrated by variations in local GWR R 2 values. This study provides important information for assessing heavy metal contaminated areas, identifying heavy metal pollutant sources, and developing regional-scale remediation strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human impact on fluvial sediments: distinguishing regional and local sources of heavy metals contamination

    Novakova, T.; Matys Grygar, T.; Bábek, O.; Faměra, M.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.

    2012-04-01

    Industrial pollution can provide a useful tool to study spatiotemporal distribution of modern floodplain sediments, trace their provenance, and allow their dating. Regional contamination of southern Moravia (the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic) by heavy metals during the 20th century was determined in fluvial sediments of the Morava River by means of enrichment factors. The influence of local sources and sampling sites heterogeneity were studied in overbank fines with different lithology and facies. For this purpose, samples were obtained from hand-drilled cores from regulated channel banks, with well-defined local sources of contamination (factories in Zlín and Otrokovice) and also from near naturally inundated floodplains in two nature protected areas (at 30 km distance). The analyses were performed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED XRF), ICP MS (EDXRF samples calibration, 206Pb/207Pb ratio), magnetic susceptibility, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and 137Cs and 210Pb activities. Enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) and magnetic susceptibility of overbank fines in near-naturally (near annually) inundated areas allowed us to reconstruct historical contamination by heavy metals in the entire study area independently on lithofacies. Measured lithological background values were then used for calculation of EFs in the channel sediments and in floodplain sediments deposited within narrow part of a former floodplain which is now reduced to about one quarter of its original width by flood defences. Sediments from regulated channel banks were found stratigraphically and lithologically "erratic", unreliable for quantification of regional contamination due to a high variability of sedimentary environment. On the other hand, these sediments are very sensitive to the nearby local sources of heavy metals. For a practical work one must first choose whether large scale, i.e. a really averaged regional contamination should be reconstructed

  3. The impact of seasonal varied human activity on characteristics and sources of heavy metals in metropolitan road dusts.

    Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Qingrui; Guo, Lijia; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-10-01

    Due to significant human activity, road dust is becoming contaminated by heavy metals in many cities. To comprehensively investigate the variation of contamination level and sources of heavy metals in road dust, 10 heavy metals in road dust samples from Beijing, China, in both summer and winter, were evaluated by spatial analysis using geographic information system (GIS) mapping technology and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) Model. Although the concentrations of some heavy metals between summer and winter had similarities, the differences of others and spatial distributions of heavy metals between summer and winter were considerable. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Fe were lower in winter, while those of Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher. According to the values of the Pollution Index (PI) and Nemerow Integrated Pollution Index (NIPI), there were no obvious differences between summer and winter, but the range between different sites in winter was nearly twice that of summer. Based on the PMF model, four sources of heavy metals in the dust samples were identified. Although the types of sources were consistent, the relative contributions of each source differed between summer and winter. Non-exhaust vehicle emissions was the most important source in summer (34.47 wt%), while fuel combustion contributed the largest proportion to the total heavy metals in winter (32.40 wt%). The impact of each source also showed spatial variation different trends in summer and winter. With the alteration of seasons, intensity of human activities also changed, such as the number of tourists, energy needs for building temperature regulation, construction, and the amount of pesticides and fertilizer. That might be the reason for the variation of heavy metal concentrations and relative contribution of their sources between summer and winter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Source identification, geochemical normalization and influence factors of heavy metals in Yangtze River Estuary sediment.

    Sun, Xueshi; Fan, Dejiang; Liu, Ming; Tian, Yuan; Pang, Yue; Liao, Huijie

    2018-06-18

    Sediment samples, including 40 surface samples and 12 sediment cores, were collected from 52 stations of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in 2015 and 2016. The 95% linear prediction intervals (LPI) and principal components analysis (PCA), were conducted to evaluate the metal sources and grain-size effect (GSE). The in situ physico-chemical properties of pH, Eh, DO, salinity, temperature and turbidity were combined to elucidate the relationships between environmental factors and the fate of heavy metals in the river-estuary-shelf system. This study indicates a decreasing trend of metals in sediments from the estuary towards the adjacent shelf and the river channel and that Zn, Cu and Cr are mainly derived from natural processes throughout the catchment, whereas Pb appears to have anthropogenic inputs via atmospheric deposition. Furthermore, considering the best fit regression lines between the concentrations of Al and heavy metals as well as the deficiencies of the conventional C elements /C Al method, we introduce an approach (Al-SN: Al-scope normalization) that can eliminate the GSE on heavy metals and be applied to other estuaries. After Al-scope normalization, the relatively constant levels of Zn, Cu and Cr that remain in sediments from the river channel to the estuary and shelf confirmed that the variation of grain size in sediments almost entirely explained the distribution patterns of sediment toxicity in the YRE, while the enrichment of Pb in estuarine sediments could be attributed to its chemical species and physico-chemical properties. The results further suggest that the relationship between grain size and spatial behavior of sediment pollutants should be given priority over the contamination assessment and provenance discrimination in estuarine or similar environments with complex sediment compositions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  6. heavy metals

    NICO

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. bSchool of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, ... ing the levels of toxic metals in food.15,19 Compared to ET-AAS or .... mum pressure 350 psi and maximum temperature 210 °C. The.

  7. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. - Highlights: • Ensemble models including stochastic gradient boosting and random forest are used. • The models were verified by cross-validation and SGB performed better than RF. • Heavy metal pollution sources on a local scale are identified and apportioned. • Models illustrate good suitability in assessing sources in local-scale agricultural soils. • Anthropogenic sources contributed most to soil Pb and Cd pollution in our case. - Multi-source and multi-phase pollution by heavy metals in agricultural soils on a local scale were identified and apportioned.

  8. Tracing Sources and Contamination Assessments of Heavy Metals in Road and Foliar Dusts in a Typical Mining City, China.

    Yang, Jie; Teng, Yanguo; Song, Liuting; Zuo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Road and foliar dust samples from four land-use districts of Panzhihua City, a famous V-Ti magnetite production area of China, were collected to investigate the sources and distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn). The results suggest that foliar samples had smaller particle size and higher heavy metal contents than road dusts. The contamination assessments of heavy metals were as follows: Pb and V (significant enrichment) > Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn (moderate enrichment) > Cd and Ni (minimal enrichment). Statistical analyses showed Pb, as the primary pollution element, originated from waste incineration and lead-fuel combustion. The sources of Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, V, and Mn were fugitive dust and traffic activities. Potential origins of Cu were corrosion of alloys used in vehicle components, vehicle covers, or other metallic surfaces and materials. The sources of Cd were different from any other heavy metals. Traffic and industrial activities were the main anthropogenic origins of heavy metals in dusts of Panzhihua, and more attention should be paid to heavy metal pollution in agricultural area.

  9. Tracing Sources and Contamination Assessments of Heavy Metals in Road and Foliar Dusts in a Typical Mining City, China.

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available Road and foliar dust samples from four land-use districts of Panzhihua City, a famous V-Ti magnetite production area of China, were collected to investigate the sources and distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn. The results suggest that foliar samples had smaller particle size and higher heavy metal contents than road dusts. The contamination assessments of heavy metals were as follows: Pb and V (significant enrichment > Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn (moderate enrichment > Cd and Ni (minimal enrichment. Statistical analyses showed Pb, as the primary pollution element, originated from waste incineration and lead-fuel combustion. The sources of Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, V, and Mn were fugitive dust and traffic activities. Potential origins of Cu were corrosion of alloys used in vehicle components, vehicle covers, or other metallic surfaces and materials. The sources of Cd were different from any other heavy metals. Traffic and industrial activities were the main anthropogenic origins of heavy metals in dusts of Panzhihua, and more attention should be paid to heavy metal pollution in agricultural area.

  10. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  11. Heavy Metal.

    Black, Susan

    2001-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that more than 1 million children ages 5 and under are afflicted with unsafe amounts of lead. Schools can be a source of lead poisoning. Other sources include playgrounds near freeways, playground equipment, contaminated soil, and technology rooms with lead-bearing supplies. Sidebars…

  12. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sediments of the luan river source water

    Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, B.; Cao, J.; Cao, Z.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of heavy metals enrichment in sediment were surveyed including the bio-available form analyzed for assessment of the Luan River source water quality. The approaches of sediment quality guidelines (SQG), risk assessment code and Hakanson potential ecological risk index were used for the ecological risk assessment. According to SQG, The results show that in animal bodies, Hg at the sampling site of Wuliehexia was 1.39 mg/kg, Cr at Sandaohezi was 152.37 mg/kg and Cu at Hanjiaying was 178.61 mg/kg exceeding the severe effect screening level. There were 90% of sampling sites of Cr and Pb and 50% sites of Cu exceeded the lowest effect screening level. At Boluonuo and Wuliehexia, the exchangeable and carbonate fractions for above 50% of sites were at high risk levels and that for above 30% of sites at Xiahenan and Wulieheshang were also at high risk levels. Other sites were at medium risk level. Compared to soil background values of China, Hg and Cd showed very strong ecological risk, and the seven heavy metals of Hg, Cd, Cu, As, Pb, Cr, Zn at ecological risk levels were in the descending order. The results could give insight into risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision-making for water source security. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Pollution Assessment and Sources Identification of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Nantaizi Lake, Middle China

    Ma, Jinlong; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jingdong

    2018-01-01

    The total contents of heavy metal elements including Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and As were investigated in sediments from the Nantaizi Lake in Hanyang district of Wuhan. The heavy metal pollution level of Nantaizi Lake was calculated by potential ecological risk index and the main sources of pollutants were researched by correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The results show that heavy metal concentration of Nantaizi Lake sediments is within the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995) level-II standard limitation. According to the result of potential ecological risk index, ecological hazard rank of heavy metal element of Nantaizi Lake sediments is: Cd>Cu>As>Pb>Zn>Cr, and whole water environment of lake is slightly polluted. Through correlation analysis and principal component analysis, it is found that industrial sewage and domestic wastewater in human activities are the main contributors to heavy metal sources of Nantaizi Lake, and chemical processes, such as endogenous microbial activities of lake etc., also affect heavy metal sources in sediments simultaneously.

  14. Irradiation of Liquid Fungi Isolated Media from Contaminated Sources with Heavy Metals Additive

    Tawfiq, E.; Mohamed, A.A.; El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Egyptian workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centres, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Wastewater, particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries, contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and bio sorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dis functions and cognitive impairment in children. Seventy six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi with respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni with maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55 and 0.55 mg/g by fungi Pb 3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, C r 8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni 27 (A. niger), respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as bio sorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. The F-ratio was 0.55 and gives non-significant as irradiated

  15. Spatial distribution and source identification of heavy metals in surface soils in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, China.

    Liang, Jie; Feng, Chunting; Zeng, Guangming; Gao, Xiang; Zhong, Minzhou; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Xin; He, Xinyue; Fang, Yilong

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the pollution degree and spatial distribution of heavy metals and determined their sources in topsoil in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, Hunan Province, China. We collected 6078 soil surface samples in different land use types. And the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, As, Mo, V, Mn, Fe and Cr were measured. The average contents of all heavy metals were lower than their corresponding Grade II values of Chinese Soil Quality Standard with the exception of Hg. However, average contents of twelve heavy metals, except for Mn, exceeded their background level in soils in Hunan Province. Based on one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mo and V were related to the anthropogenic source and there were statistically significant differences in their concentrations among different land use patterns. The spatial variation of heavy metal was visualized by GIS. The PMF model was used to ascertain contamination sources of twelve heavy metals and apportion their source contributions in Lianyuan soils. The results showed that the source contributions of the natural source, atmospheric deposition, industrial activities and agricultural activities accounted for 33.6%, 26.05%, 23.44% and 16.91%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Source identification and apportionment of heavy metals in urban soil profiles.

    Luo, Xiao-San; Xue, Yan; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cang, Long; Xu, Bo; Ding, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Because heavy metals (HMs) occurring naturally in soils accumulate continuously due to human activities, identifying and apportioning their sources becomes a challenging task for pollution prevention in urban environments. Besides the enrichment factors (EFs) and principal component analysis (PCA) for source classification, the receptor model (Absolute Principal Component Scores-Multiple Linear Regression, APCS-MLR) and Pb isotopic mixing model were also developed to quantify the source contribution for typical HMs (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in urban park soils of Xiamen, a representative megacity in southeast China. Furthermore, distribution patterns of their concentrations and sources in 13 soil profiles (top 20 cm) were investigated by different depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 cm). Currently the principal anthropogenic source for HMs in urban soil of China is atmospheric deposition from coal combustion rather than vehicle exhaust. Specifically for Pb source by isotopic model ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb), the average contributions were natural (49%)>coal combustion (45%)≫traffic emissions (6%). Although the urban surface soils are usually more contaminated owing to recent and current human sources, leaching effects and historic vehicle emissions can also make deep soil layer contaminated by HMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  19. Source identification of heavy metals in peri-urban agricultural soils of southeast China: An integrated approach.

    Hu, Wenyou; Wang, Huifeng; Dong, Lurui; Huang, Biao; Borggaard, Ole K; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian; He, Yue; Holm, Peter E

    2018-06-01

    Intensive human activities, in particular agricultural and industrial production have led to heavy metal accumulation in the peri-urban agricultural soils of China threatening soil environmental quality and agricultural product security. A combination of spatial analysis (SA), Pb isotope ratio analysis (IRA), input fluxes analysis (IFA), and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was successfully used to assess the status and sources of heavy metals in typical peri-urban agricultural soils from a rapidly developing region of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr in surface soils (0-20 cm) were 0.31, 11.2, 0.08, 35.6, 44.8, 119.0 and 97.0 mg kg -1 , respectively, exceeding the local background levels except for Hg. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that agricultural activities have significant influence on heavy metal accumulation in the surface soils. Isotope ratio analysis suggested that fertilization along with atmospheric deposition were the major sources of heavy metal accumulation in the soils. Based on the PMF model, the relative contribution rates of the heavy metals due to fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, industrial emission, and soil parent materials were 30.8%, 33.0%, 25.4% and 10.8%, respectively, demonstrating that anthropogenic activities had significantly higher contribution than natural sources. This study provides a reliable and robust approach for heavy metals source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area with a clear potential for future application in other regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals in natural pasture soil around copper-molybdenum mine in Northeast China.

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hong, Chen; Xing, Yi; Wang, Kang; Li, Yifei; Feng, Lihui; Ma, Silu

    2018-06-15

    The characterization of the content and source of heavy metals are essential to assess the potential threat of metals to human health. The present study collected 140 topsoil samples around a Cu-Mo mine (Wunugetushan, China) and investigated the concentrations and spatial distribution pattern of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mo and Cd in soil using multivariate and geostatistical analytical methods. Results indicated that the average concentrations of six heavy metals, especially Cu and Mo, were obviously higher than the local background values. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis divided these metals into three groups, including Cr and Ni, Cu and Mo, Zn and Cd. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution maps of heavy metals indicated that Cr and Ni in soil were no notable anthropogenic inputs and mainly controlled by natural factors because their spatial maps exhibited non-point source contamination. The concentrations of Cu and Mo gradually decreased with distance away from the mine area, suggesting that human mining activities may be crucial in the spreading of contaminants. Soil contamination of Zn were associated with livestock manure produced from grazing. In addition, the environmental risk of heavy metal pollution was assessed by geo-accumulation index. All the results revealed that the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soil were in agreement with the local human activities. Investigating and identifying the origin of heavy metals in pasture soil will lay the foundation for taking effective measures to preserve soil from the long-term accumulation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Source apportionment and heavy metal health risk (HMHR) quantification from sources in a southern city in China, using an ME2-HMHR model.

    Peng, Xing; Shi, GuoLiang; Liu, GuiRong; Xu, Jiao; Tian, YingZe; Zhang, YuFen; Feng, YinChang; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-02-01

    Heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, and Pb) can be bound to PM adversely affecting human health. Quantifying the source impacts on heavy metals can provide source-specific estimates of the heavy metal health risk (HMHR) to guide effective development of strategies to reduce such risks from exposure to heavy metals in PM 2.5 (particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm). In this study, a method combining Multilinear Engine 2 (ME2) and a risk assessment model is developed to more effectively quantify source contributions to HMHR, including heavy metal non-cancer risk (non-HMCR) and cancer risk (HMCR). The combined model (called ME2-HMHR) has two steps: step1, source contributions to heavy metals are estimated by employing the ME2 model; step2, the source contributions in step 1 are introduced into the risk assessment model to calculate the source contributions to HMHR. The approach was applied to Huzou, China and five significant sources were identified. Soil dust is the largest source of non-HMCR. For HMCR, the source contributions of soil dust, coal combustion, cement dust, vehicle, and secondary sources are 1.0 × 10 -4 , 3.7 × 10 -5 , 2.7 × 10 -6 , 1.6 × 10 -6 and 1.9 × 10 -9 , respectively. The soil dust is the largest contributor to HMCR, being driven by the high impact of soil dust on PM 2.5 and the abundance of heavy metals in soil dust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei; Xia, Bisheng

    2014-01-01

    Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s) at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05). The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River) had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River) had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account. PMID:25407421

  3. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Hong Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05. The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account.

  4. [Sources, pollution statue and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of Aibi Lake, Northwest China].

    Zhang, Zhao-Yong; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Jiang, Feng-Qing

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the surface sediment samples were harvested from Aibi Lake, and total contents of 8 heavy metals ( Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Hg, Cr, Ni and Cd) were determined. Then the sources, pollution statue, and potential ecological risk were analyzed by using multiple analysis methods. The results show that: (1) The order of the skewness for these 8 heavy metals is: Hg > Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Cu > Cr > Ni. (2) Multivariate statistical analysis shows that 8 heavy metals can be classified to 2 principle components, among which PC1 ( Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) is man-made source factor and mainly came from all kinds of waste of agriculture; PC2 ( Cu, Ni, Cr and As) is natural source and was mainly controlled by the background of the natural geography of this area. (3) Accumulation of index evaluation results show that the order of pollution degree values of 8 heavy metals in surface sediments of Aibi Lake is: Cd > Hg > Pb > Zn > As > Cu > Ni > Cr. In all samples, heavy metals Hg, Cd and Pb all belong to low and partial moderate pollution statue, while Zn, As, Cr, Ni and Cu belong to no pollution statue in majority samples. (4) Potential ecological risk assessment results show that the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of Aibi Lake mainly caused by Cd, Hg and Pb, and they accounting for 42.6%, 28.6% and 24.0% of the total amount, respectively, among which Cd is the main ecological risk factor, followed by Hg and Pb. In all samples, the potential ecological risk index values (RI) of 8 heavy metals are all lower than 150, and they are all at low ecological risk levels. However, this research also shows that there have high content of Cd and Pb in the sediment. Therefore, we should make long-term monitoring of the lake environment.

  5. Soil heavy metals

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  6. Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils: A Review of Sources, Chemistry, Risks and Best Available Strategies for Remediation

    Wuana, Raymond A.; Okieimen, Felix E.

    2011-01-01

    Scattered literature is harnessed to critically review the possible sources, chemistry, potential biohazards and best available remedial strategies for a number of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury and nickel) commonly found in contaminated soils. The principles, advantages and disadvantages of immobilization, soil washing and phytoremediation techniques which are frequently listed among the best demonstrated available technologies for cleaning up heavy met...

  7. Pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals in street dust of Suzhou, China.

    Lin, Manli; Gui, Herong; Wang, Yao; Peng, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals (HMs) in street dust of Suzhou, China, 23 sampling sites were selected and periodically sampled for 12 months. A total of 276 samples were collected, and the concentrations of selected HMs (e.g., Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn) were examined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrum analyzer. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn in the street dust of Suzhou were 112.9, 27.5, 19941.3, 410.3, 45.2, 75.6, and 225.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded their background values in local natural soils by 1.3-3.6-fold, whereas Fe, Mn, and V were all within their background values. However, enrichment factor analysis revealed that Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn, especially Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, were enriched in Suzhou street dust. The HMs showed no significant seasonal changes overall, but spatial distribution analysis implied that the high values of Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were mainly distributed in areas with frequent human activities. Results of multivariate techniques (e.g., Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster, and principal components analyses) suggested that Pb and Zn had complicated sources; Cu and V mainly originated from traffic sources; Fe and Mn mainly came from natural sources; and Cr was dominantly related to industrial district. Health risk assessment revealed that a single heavy metal might not cause both non-cancer and carcinogenic risks to local residents. Nevertheless, the sum of the hazard index of all selected HMs for children slightly exceeded the safety value, thereby implying that the HMs from Suzhou street dust can possibly produce significant risk to children. Cr was the priority pollutant in the study area because of its high concentration, high enrichment, and high contribution to non-cancer risk values.

  8. Environmental risk of heavy metal pollution and contamination sources using multivariate analysis in the soils of Varanasi environs, India.

    Singh, Shubhra; Raju, N Janardhana; Nazneen, Sadaf

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were collected from different locations covering dumping, road and agricultural area. The average concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits according to soil quality guidelines except Cu (copper) and Pb (lead) in dumping and road soils. Soil heavy metal contamination was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). The IPI of the metals ranged from 0.59 to 9.94, with the highest IPI observed in the dumping and road soils. A very significant correlation was found between Pb and Cu. The result of principal component analysis suggested that PC1 was mainly affected by the use of agrochemicals, PC2 was affected by vehicular emission and PC3 was affected by dumping waste. Meanwhile, PC4 was mainly controlled by parent material along with anthropogenic activities. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize the heavy metal levels in soils and thus protect human health.

  9. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    Vargas-García, María del Carmen; López, María José; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: ► Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. ► Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. ► Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. ► Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  10. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    Vargas-Garcia, Maria del Carmen, E-mail: mcvargas@ual.es; Lopez, Maria Jose, E-mail: mllopez@ual.es; Suarez-Estrella, Francisca, E-mail: fsuarez@ual.es; Moreno, Joaquin, E-mail: jcasco@ual.es

    2012-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  11. Risk assessment and source analysis of soil heavy metal pollution from lower reaches of Yellow River irrigation in China.

    Zhang, Pengyan; Qin, Chengzhe; Hong, Xin; Kang, Guohua; Qin, Mingzhou; Yang, Dan; Pang, Bo; Li, Yanyan; He, Jianjian; Dick, Richard P

    2018-08-15

    The level of concentration of heavy metal in soil is detrimental to soil quality. The Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation area in the lower-reach of Yellow River irrigation, as home to a large population and a major site to agricultural production, is vulnerable to heavy metal pollution. This study examined soil quality in Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation areas of Kaifeng, China. Pollution in soil and potential risks introduced by heavy metal accumulation were assessed using Nemerow, Geoaccumulation, and Hakanson's ecological risk indices. Statistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to model and present the spatiotemporal changes of the pollution sources and factors affecting the levels of pollution. The heavy metals found in the sampled soil are Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg. Among them, Cd is more concentrated than the others. The southwestern region of the studied area confronts the most serious heavy metal pollution. There exist spatial disparities of low concentrations of different heavy metals in the study area. Hg and Cd are found to pose the highest potential ecological risks. However, their risk levels are not the same across the study area. Levels concentration of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg in soil are highly correlated. In combination, they post an additional threat to the ecological environment. Transportation, rural settlements, and water bodies are found to be the major sources of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg pollution in the soil; among the major sources, transportation is the most significant factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis on the distribution characteristics and sources of soil heavy metals in suburban farmland in Xiangtan City

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Xinxin

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of the economy will inevitably have an impact on the farmland soil environment. The content of heavy metal is increasing day by day, and the heavy metal can enter people's body through different channels and endanger people's health. Based on agricultural land and crop types in accordance with the regional land use classification, using the method of the Single Factor Index and Comprehensive Pollution Index, the pollution status of heavy metals in farmland soil in the suburbs of Xiangtan city was studied and evaluated. At the same time, we use SPSS software to analyze the four heavy metal elements (Cu, Zn, As and Pb) and analyze their possible sources. The results showed that the farmland soils in Erhuan Road and Zhubu Port were polluted, and the farmland soil in Shuangma (an old industrial district) was not polluted; for different crop lands, orchards and vegetable lands were not contaminated, but rape and rice lands were contaminated. Pearson correlation analysis showed that Cu, As and Pb might come from the same pollution source, while Zn might come from other sources. Waste water from a chemical plant, crop types, automobile exhaust and other human factors may be important sources of soil pollution in agricultural fields.

  13. Source apportionment of heavy metals in agricultural soil based on PMF: A case study in Hexi Corridor, northwest China.

    Guan, Qingyu; Wang, Feifei; Xu, Chuanqi; Pan, Ninghui; Lin, Jinkuo; Zhao, Rui; Yang, Yanyan; Luo, Haiping

    2018-02-01

    Hexi Corridor is the most important base of commodity grain and producing area for cash crops. However, the rapid development of agriculture and industry has inevitably led to heavy metal contamination in the soils. Multivariate statistical analysis, GIS-based geostatistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modeling techniques were used to understand the levels of heavy metals and their source apportionment for agricultural soil in Hexi Corridor. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were lower than the secondary standard of soil environmental quality; however, the concentrations of eight metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) were higher than background values, and their corresponding enrichment factor values were significantly greater than 1. Different degrees of heavy metal pollution occurred in the agricultural soils; specifically, Ni had the most potential for impacting human health. The results from the multivariate statistical analysis and GIS-based geostatistical methods indicated both natural sources (Co and W) and anthropogenic sources (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn). To better identify pollution sources of heavy metals in the agricultural soils, the PMF model was applied. Further source apportionment revealed that enrichments of Pb and Zn were attributed to traffic sources; Cr and Ni were closely related to industrial activities, including mining, smelting, coal combustion, iron and steel production and metal processing; Zn and Cu originated from agricultural activities; and V, Ti and Mn were derived from oil- and coal-related activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Speciation of heavy metals in different grain sizes of Jiaozhou Bay sediments: Bioavailability, ecological risk assessment and source analysis on a centennial timescale.

    Kang, Xuming; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Duan, Liqin; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Liang, Xianmeng; Qu, Baoxiao

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination is an essential indicator of environmental health. In this work, one sediment core was used for the analysis of the speciation of heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in Jiaozhou Bay sediments with different grain sizes. The bioavailability, sources and ecological risk of heavy metals were also assessed on a centennial timescale. Heavy metals were enriched in grain sizes of Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu >Ni > Cr > As. Enrichment factors (EF) indicated that heavy metals in Jiaozhou Bay presented from no enrichment to minor enrichment. The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated that Jiaozhou Bay had been suffering from a low ecological risk and presented an increasing trend since 1940s owing to the increase of anthropogenic activities. The source analysis indicated that natural sources were primary sources of heavy metals in Jiaozhou Bay and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals presented an increasing trend since 1940s. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb were primarily derived from natural sources and that Zn and Cd were influenced by shipbuilding industry. Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb may originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As may be influenced by agricultural activities. Moreover, heavy metals in sediments of Jiaozhou Bay were clearly influenced by atmospheric deposition and river input. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of heavy metal risk and source in sediments of Dongting Lake wetland, mid-south China.

    Liang, Jie; Liu, Jiayu; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Lai, Xu; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Haipeng; Yuan, Yujie; Li, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments of Dongting Lake wetland were collected from ten sites to investigate variation trend, risk and sources of heavy metal distribution in dry seasons of 2011∼2013. The three-year mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg and As were 91.33, 36.27, 54.82, 4.39, 0.19 and 25.67, respectively, which were all higher than the corresponding background values. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used for the assessment of pollution level of heavy metals. The pollution risk of Cd, Hg and As were great and that of Cr needed urgent attention because of its obvious increase. Pollution load index (PLI) and geographic information system (GIS) methods were conducted to assess spatial and temporal variation of heavy metal contamination. Results confirmed an increased contamination contribution inflow from Xiang River. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to identify contribution sources of heavy metal, which showed anthropogenic origin mainly from mining, smelting, chemical industry and agricultural activity.

  16. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of the northern portion of the South China Sea shelf: distribution, contamination, and sources.

    Xu, Fangjian; Tian, Xu; Yin, Feng; Zhao, Yongfang; Yin, Xuebo

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in the surface sediments of the northern portion of the South China Sea (SCS) shelf collected between 2012 and 2014 were measured to assess the potential contamination levels and determine the environmental risks that are associated with heavy metals in the area. The measured concentrations in the sediments were 12.4-72.5 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 4.4-29.2 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 7.1-38.1 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 19.3-92.5 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 1.3-12.1 mg kg(-1) for As, 0.03-0.24 mg kg(-1) for Cd, and 8.5-24.4 mg kg(-1) for Pb. These results indicate that the heavy metal concentrations in the sediments generally meet the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria and suggest that the overall sediment quality of the northern portion of the SCS shelf has not been significantly impacted by heavy metal pollution. However, the enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo) clearly show that elevated concentrations of Cd occur in the region. A Pearson's correlation analysis was performed, and the results suggest that Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn have a natural origin; Cd is primarily sourced from anthropogenic activities, with partial lithogenic components, and As and Pb may be affected by factors such as varying input sources or pathways (i.e., coal burning activities and aerosol precipitation). Heavy metal contamination mostly occurred to the east of Hainan Island, mainly because of the rapid economic and social developments in the Hainan Island. The results of this study will be useful for marine environment managers for the remediation of pollution sources.

  17. Contamination characteristics and source apportionment of heavy metals in topsoil from an area in Xi'an city, China.

    Chen, Xiuduan; Lu, Xinwei

    2018-04-30

    As soil-extractable elements potentially pose ecological and health risks, identifying their contamination characteristics and sources is crucial. Therefore, to understand topsoil trace elements in the urban ring zone from the Second Ring Road to the Third Ring of Xi'an city in China, we determined the concentrations of Zn, Co, V, As, Cu, Mn, Ba, Ni and Pb, and analyzed the sources of the contamination. The results showed that the individual pollution indices of Pb, Co, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, As, and V were 1.79, 1.48, 1.41, 1.33, 1.20, 1.07, 1.04, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. Evaluation with the aid of the pollution load index (PLI) indicated slight soil contamination by these elements in the study area. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method, we identified four sources of contamination, namely (1) a natural source, (2) traffic emission source, (3) industrial emission source, and (4) mixed source. PMF is an effective tool for source apportionment of heavy metals in topsoil. The contribution rates of the natural source, traffic source, mixed source, and industrial source to the heavy metal contamination were specified as 25.04%, 24.71%, 24.99%, and 25.26%, respectively. Considering the above, any attempt to reduce the soil environmental cost of urban development, has to take into account the heavy metal contamination of the topsoil from industries, traffic, and other activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Source identification and exchangeability of heavy metals accumulated in vegetable soils in the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China.

    Qiutong, Xu; Mingkui, Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Vegetable production in China is suffering increasingly heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agricultural, industrial and other activities. It is of practical significance to understand the effects of human activities on the accumulation and exchangeability of soil heavy metals in vegetable fields. In this study, seventy-two arable layer samples of vegetable soils were collected from the Shaoxing coastal plain, a representative region of the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China for characterizing the effects of fertilization methods on accumulation and exchangeable heavy metals in soils (Exchangeable heavy metals in the soil samples were extracted by 0.01molL -1 CaCl 2 ). The different origins of heavy metals in the vegetable soils were investigated by multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Marked increases were noted for soil heavy metals due to long-term manure or chemical fertilizer application. Three significant components were extracted by PCA, explaining 78.86% of total variance. Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, and Al were associated in lithogenic components, while an anthropogenic origin was identified for Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg. However, As level was due to the geochemical background and was not linked to soil management. The results obtained by cluster analysis elucidated individual relationships between metals and agreed with PCA. Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the soils that were mainly associated with the application of chemical fertilizers, organic manures or other activities regarding soil management. Although the origin of Cd, Hg, and As was also attributed to soil management, other sources like vehicle exhaust or aerial depositions were not discarded as possible contributors. Soil amended with organic fertilizer contained more Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr; whereas the soil amended with chemical fertilizer had more Cd. Application of fertilizers also had significant effect on the

  19. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil for a township in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Jiang, Yanxue; Chao, Sihong; Liu, Jianwei; Yang, Yue; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Aichen; Cao, Hongbin

    2017-02-01

    Human activities contribute greatly to heavy metal pollution in soils. Concentrations of 15 metal elements were detected in 105 soil samples collected from a typical rural-industrial town in southern Jiangsu, China. Among them, 7 heavy metals-lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel-were considered in the health risk assessment for residents via soil inhalation, dermal contact, and/or direct/indirect ingestion. Their potential sources were quantitatively apportioned by positive matrix factorization using the data set of all metal elements, in combination with geostatistical analysis, land use investigation, and industrial composition analysis. Furthermore, the health risks imposed by sources of heavy metal in soil were estimated for the first time. The results indicated that Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Co accumulated in the soil, attaining a mild pollution level. The total hazard index values were 3.62 and 6.11, and the total cancer risks were 9.78 × 10 -4 and 4.03 × 10 -4 for adults and children, respectively. That is, both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by soil metals were above acceptable levels. Cr and As require special attention because the health risks of Cr and As individually exceeded the acceptable levels. The ingestion of homegrown produce was predominantly responsible for the high risks. The potential sources were apportioned as: a) waste incineration and textile/dyeing industries (28.3%), b) natural sources (45.4%), c) traffic emissions (5.3%), and d) electroplating industries and livestock/poultry breeding (21.0%). Health risks of four sources accounted for 23.5%, 32.7%, 7.4%, and 36.4% of the total risk, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediments from a source water reservoir

    Changming Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediment samples were collected from a source water reservoir in Zhejiang Province, East of China to investigate pollution characteristics and potential ecological risk of heavy metals. The BCR sequential extraction method was used to determine the four chemical fractions of heavy metals such as acid soluble, easily reducible, easily oxidizable and residual fractions. The heavy metals pollution and potential ecological risk were evaluated systematically using geoaccumulation index (Igeo and Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′. The results showed that the sampling sites from the estuaries of tributary flowing through downtowns and heavy industrial parks showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites. Chemical fractionation showed that Mn existed mainly in acid extractable fraction, Cu and Pb were mainly in reducible fraction, and As existed mainly in residual fraction in the surface sediments despite sampling sites. The sampling sites from the estuary of tributary flowing through downtown showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher proportions of acid extractable and reducible fractions than the other sampling sites, which would pose a potential toxic risk to aquatic organisms as well as a potential threat to drinking water safety. As, Pb, Ni and Cu were at relatively high potential ecological risk with high Igeo values for some sampling locations. Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′ showed the surface sediments from the tributary estuaries with high population density and rapid industrial development showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher heavy metal pollution levels and potential ecological risk in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites.

  1. Concentration, Source, and Potential Human Health Risk of Heavy Metals in the Commonly Consumed Medicinal Plants.

    Kohzadi, Shadi; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Loqmani, Hozan; Maleki, Afshin

    2018-04-26

    A trend toward the use of traditional and herbal medicines has developed nowadays, and there is a growing concern regarding them being polluted with heavy metals. This study measured the heavy metal concentrations in eight different types of medicinal herbs and eight different types of herbal distillates sold in the markets in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran. The concentration of some metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Mg) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the associated health risk for adults and children was estimated. The mean concentration of all the metals was within the permissible limits set by the WHO. The medicinal herbs contained significantly more Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn (p distillates. However, the concentrations of Cu and Hg were higher in the herbal distillates. The non-carcinogenic risks of consumption of traditional medicines in adults and children were assessed based on the target hazard quotients (THQs). The THQs for individual metals (except Al and Cr) from individual herbs were less than 1, which is considered as safe for human consumption.

  2. Combining emission inventory and isotope ratio analyses for quantitative source apportionment of heavy metals in agricultural soil.

    Chen, Lian; Zhou, Shenglu; Wu, Shaohua; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Baojie; Li, Yan; Wang, Junxiao

    2018-08-01

    Two quantitative methods (emission inventory and isotope ratio analysis) were combined to apportion source contributions of heavy metals entering agricultural soils in the Lihe River watershed (Taihu region, east China). Source apportionment based on the emission inventory method indicated that for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, the mean percentage input from atmospheric deposition was highest (62-85%), followed by irrigation (12-27%) and fertilization (1-14%). Thus, the heavy metals were derived mainly from industrial activities and traffic emissions. For Ni the combined percentage input from irrigation and fertilization was approximately 20% higher than that from atmospheric deposition, indicating that Ni was mainly derived from agricultural activities. Based on isotope ratio analysis, atmospheric deposition accounted for 57-93% of Pb entering soil, with the mean value of 69.3%, which indicates that this was the major source of Pb entering soil in the study area. The mean contributions of irrigation and fertilization to Pb pollution of soil ranged from 0% to 10%, indicating that they played only a marginally important role. Overall, the results obtained using the two methods were similar. This study provides a reliable approach for source apportionment of heavy metals entering agricultural soils in the study area, and clearly have potential application for future studies in other regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  4. Heavy metal pollution assessment, source identification, and health risk evaluation in Aibi Lake of northwest China.

    Zhaoyong, Zhang; Xiaodong, Yang; Shengtian, Yang

    2018-01-08

    This study sought to analyze heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe) pollution status in the waters of Aibi Lake in northwest China through the use of an applied comprehensive pollution index, health risk model, and multivariate statistical analyses in combination with the lake's land use types. Results showed that (1) the maximum (average) values of the heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe were 0.0644 (0.0123), 0.0006 (0.0002), 0.0009 (0.0032), 0.1235 (0.0242), 0.0061 (0.0025), and 0.0222 (0.0080) μg/L, respectively. Among these, in all the samples, Pb and Ni exceeded the standard and acceptable values put forth by the World Health Organization by 21.13 and 25.67%, respectively. Ni also exceeded (30.16%) the third grade of the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water of China. The levels of the six heavy metals were all within the fishery and irrigation water quality standard ranges in China. (2) The average values for single pollution index of heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe were 1.000, 0.0006, 0.0009, 3.000, 0.060, and 0.070, respectively, among which Ni levels indicated moderate to significant pollution, while others indicated healthy levels. (3) Health risk evaluation showed that the R n values for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were 1.8 × 10 -4 , 5.33 × 10 -9 , 4.80 × 10 -7 , 1.08 × 10 -6 , and 2.51 × 10 -7  a -1 , respectively, of which, in all samples, Pb and Ni contents all exceeded the maximum acceptable risk levels according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the U.S. Environment Protection Agency. (4) Combining with multivariate statistical analyses along with the land use distribution within the lake basin, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Mn were mainly influenced by the agriculture production and emission from urban lives and traffics, and Fe mainly originated from the natural environment. The results of this research can provide reference values for heavy metal pollution

  5. Source identification of heavy metal contamination using metal association and Pb isotopes in Ulsan Bay sediments, East Sea, Korea

    Chae, Jung Sun; Choi, Man Sik; Song, Yun Ho; Um, In Kwon; Kim, Jae Gon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of Cu, Zn, and Pb in sediments were higher than the Korean TEL at one-third of all sites. • The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor. • Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as endmembers using Pb isotopes. • The major anthropogenic Pb sources were identified as imported ores from Australia and Peru. • Isotope ratios in anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay to offshore could be identified. - Abstract: To determine the characteristics of metal pollution sources in Ulsan Bay, East Sea, 39 surface and nine core sediments were collected within the bay and offshore area, and analyzed for metals and stable lead (Pb) isotopes. Most surface sediments (>95% from 48 sites) had high copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and Pb concentrations that were as much as 1.3 times higher than background values. The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor, and the next largest source was from shipbuilding companies located at the mouth of the Taehwa River. Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as end-members using Pb isotopes. Isotopic ratios for the anthropogenic Pb revealed that the sources were imported ores from Australia, Peru, and the United States. In addition, Pb isotopes of anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay toward offshore could be determined

  6. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  7. Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran

    Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Sharifi, Reza; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Kermani, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines some heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in urban soils of 23 cities in Isfahan province, central Iran. For this purpose, 83 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-MS. Results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher than background values, while Co, Cr and Ni concentrations are close to the background. Compared with heavy metal concentrations in selected cities around the world, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in urban soils of Isfahan are relatively enriched. Moreover, natural background concentrations of Co, Cr and Ni in Isfahan province soil are high and the apparent enrichment relative to other major cities of the world is due to this high background contents. Calculated contamination factor (CF) confirmed that As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are extremely enriched in the urban soils. Furthermore, pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) highlighted that highly contaminated cities are mostly affected by pollution from traffic, industries and Shahkuh Pb-Zn mine. Based on hazard quotients (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR) calculated in this study, human health risk (particularly for Pb and Cd) have reached alarming scales. Results from principle component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) introduces three sources for soils heavy metals including mine and industries (mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd and As); urban activities (particularly for Cu, Pb and Zn); and geogenic source (Ni, Co and Cr).

  8. Distributions and contamination assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediments of western Laizhou Bay: Implications for the sources and influencing factors.

    Zhang, Pan; Hu, Rijun; Zhu, Longhai; Wang, Peng; Yin, Dongxiao; Zhang, Lianjie

    2017-06-15

    Heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and As) contents in surface sediments from western Laizhou Bay were analysed to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern and their contamination level. As was mainly concentrated in the coastal area near the estuaries and the other metals were mainly concentrated in the central part of the study area. The heavy metals were present at unpolluted levels overall evaluated by the sediment quality guidelines and geoaccumulation index. Principal component analysis suggest that Cu, Pb and Cd were mainly sourced from natural processes and As was mainly derived from anthropogenic inputs. Meanwhile, Cr originated from both natural processes and anthropogenic contributions. Tidal currents, sediments and human activities were important factors affecting the distribution of heavy metals. The heavy metal environment was divided into four subareas to provide a reference for understanding the distribution and pollution of heavy metals in the estuary-bay system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Transfer characteristic and source identification of soil heavy metals from water-level-fluctuating zone along Xiangxi River, three-Gorges Reservoir area].

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qiang; Nie, Xiao-Qian; Huang, Ying-Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Transfer characteristics of heavy metals and their evaluation of potential risk were studied based on determining concentration of heavy metal in soils from water-level-fluctuating zone (altitude:145-175 m) and bank (altitude: 175-185 m) along Xiangxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir area. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) was employed for heavy metal source identification and source apportionment. Results demonstrate that, during exposing season, the concentration of soil heavy metals in water-level-fluctuation zone and bank showed the variation, and the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in shallow soil, but increased in deep soil at water-level-fluctuation zone. However, the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in both shallow and deep soil at bank during the same period. According to the geoaccumulation index,the pollution extent of heavy metals followed the order: Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr, Cd is the primary pollutant. FA and FA-MLR reveal that in soils from water-level-fluctuation zone, 75.60% of Pb originates from traffic, 62.03% of Cd is from agriculture, 64.71% of Cu and 75.36% of Cr are from natural rock. In soils from bank, 82.26% of Pb originates from traffic, 68.63% of Cd is from agriculture, 65.72% of Cu and 69.33% of Cr are from natural rock. In conclusion, FA-MLR can successfully identify source of heavy metal and compute source apportionment of heavy metals, meanwhile the transfer characteristic is revealed. All these information can be a reference for heavy metal pollution control.

  10. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. Then bacterial antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the Agar disc diffusion method. Results: Generally, 100% of E. faecalis strains separated from human and livestock sources (i.e. sheep showed penicillin (P/ kanamycin (K/ nitrofurantoin (N/ loracarbef (L/ Ciprofloxacin (Cc/ ampicillin (AN/ nalidixic acid (NA/ sulfamethoxazole (S antibiotics resistance patterns. In addition, 55% of isolated E. faecium showed P/S/AN/NA antibiotics resistance patterns. Each strain showed a resistance to at least two aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, E. faecalis strains from human and the livestock sources showed 94% and 100% of resistance to nitrofurantoin, respectively. The effects of different metal concentrations was evaluated in both strains. The agar dilution method was applied in this stage. Hg at 0.05 mmol/L of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed toxicity to both the human and livestock Enterococcus strains. Cadmium at 1 mmol/L and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations had the most toxicity to E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, respectively. Obviously, toxicity to bacteria is less than other metals. As a result, Zn/Ni/Cu/Co resistance pattern is suggested for both strains. Finally, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns were monitored simultaneously. Conclusion: Almost all E. faecalis strains isolated from humans and livestock showed antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of P/K/L/Cc/S/AN/NA/Zn/Cu/Co simultaneously. Moreover, 55% of E

  11. Heavy metals in soils and sediments from Dongting Lake in China: occurrence, sources, and spatial distribution by multivariate statistical analysis.

    Zhang, Yaxin; Tian, Ye; Shen, Maocai; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-03-03

    Heavy metal contamination in soils/sediments and its impact on human health and ecological environment have aroused wide concerns. Our study investigated 30 samples of soils and sediments around Dongting Lake to analyze the concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the samples and to distinguish the natural and anthropogenic sources. Also, the relationship between heavy metals and the physicochemical properties of samples was studied by multivariate statistical analysis. Concentration of Cd at most sampling sites were more than five times that of national environmental quality standard for soil in China (GB 15618-1995), and Pb and Zn levels exceeded one to two times. Moreover, Cr in the soil was higher than the national environmental quality standards for one to two times while in sediment was lower than the national standard. The investigation revealed that the accumulations of As, Cd, Mn, and Pb in the soils, and sediments were affected apparently by anthropogenic activities; however, Cr, Fe, and Ni levels were impacted by parent materials. Human activities around Dongting Lake mainly consisted of industrial activities, mining and smelting, sewage discharges, fossil fuel combustion, and agricultural chemicals. The spatial distribution of heavy metal in soil followed the rule of geographical gradient, whereas in sediments, it was significantly affected by the river basins and human activities. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that heavy metals in soils were associated with pH and total phosphorus (TP), while in sediments, As, Cr, Fe, and Ni were closely associated with cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH, where Pb, Zn, and Cd were associated with total nitrogen (TN), TP, total carbon (TC), moisture content (MC), soil organic matter (SOM), and ignition lost (IL). Our research provides comprehensive approaches to better understand the potential sources and the fate of contaminants in lakeshore soils and sediments.

  12. Pollution, ecological-health risks, and sources of heavy metals in soil of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Li, Leiming; Min, Xiuyun; Luo, Yongming

    2018-06-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially the northeastern region, is not a pure land any more due to recently increasing anthropogenic activities. This study collected soil samples from 70 sites of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to evaluate pollution, ecological-health risks, and possible pollution sources of heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil were relatively high. Values of geo-accumulation index exhibited that Hg pollution was the most serious meanwhile Hg possessed the strongest enrichment feature based on enrichment factor values. The modified degrees of contamination showed that about 54.3% and 17.1% of sampling sites were at moderate and high contamination degree while pollution load indexes illustrated that 72.9% and 27.1% of sampling sites possessed moderate and high contamination level, respectively. Ecological risk indexes of heavy metals in soil ranged from 234.6 to 3759.0, suggesting that most of sites were under considerable/very high risks. Cancer risks for adults and children were determined as high and high-very high levels while non-cancer risks for children were high although those for adults were low. Industrial source contributed to the main fraction of ecological and health risks. Summarily speaking, heavy metals in soil of the study area has caused significantly serious pollution and exerted high potential ecological and health risks, especially for children who are more susceptible to hurt from pollutants. Therefore, more efficient and strict pollution control and management in study area should be put out as soon as possible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of heavy metals in water in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia: From source to consumption

    Khalaf, Baydaa; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities, such as heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the heavy metals concentrations in a water reticulation system of Negeri Sembilan. 25 stations were selected along Sungai Linggi (upstream of intake point) and through there reticulation system of Sungai Linggi Water Treatment Plant encompassing raw water through to the last point of use. Sampling activities were carried out in June and July 2016. The samples taken were analysed for heavymetals using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). In addition other water quality parameters were measured in situ (pH, water temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen) and analysed in the laboratory (BOD, COD, TSS, NH3-N, TOC and residual chlorine). The results showed a high level of Ca in the distribution system, while in the treatment plant it was normal, as well as Fe is decreased. Meanwhile Mn is decreased after treatment processes. The concentrations of DO and temperature in the tap water exceeded the standard concentrations.

  14. [Source apportionment of soil heavy metals in Jiapigou goldmine based on the UNMIX model].

    Ai, Jian-chao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    The paper determines 16 kinds of metal elements' concentration in soil samples which collected in Jipigou goldmine upper the Songhua River. The UNMIX Model which was recommended by US EPA to get the source apportionment results was applied in this study, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ag concentration contour maps were generated by using Kriging interpolation method to verify the results. The main conclusions of this study are: (1)the concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and Ag exceeded Jilin Province soil background values and enriched obviously in soil samples; (2)using the UNMIX Model resolved four pollution sources: source 1 represents human activities of transportation, ore mining and garbage, and the source 1's contribution is 39. 1% ; Source 2 represents the contribution of the weathering of rocks and biological effects, and the source 2's contribution is 13. 87% ; Source 3 is a comprehensive source of soil parent material and chemical fertilizer, and the source 3's contribution is 23. 93% ; Source 4 represents iron ore mining and transportation sources, and the source 4's contribution is 22. 89%. (3)the UNMIX Model results are in accordance with the survey of local land-use types, human activities and Cd, Hg and Pb content distributions.

  15. Heavy metal pollution in reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China: Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Zhonghua; Cai, Yongjiu

    2018-09-01

    Reservoirs play more and more important role in providing potable water in many developing countries, including the China. In the present study, pollution characteristics, source and health risk of dissolved heavy metals in 19 representative reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China were investigated. The results presented great spatial heterogeneity in heavy metal concentrations among the studied reservoirs due to the disturbances by different anthropogenic activities. Several reservoirs had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals compared with others, FengTan (FT) reservoir (0.34μg/L in dry season), Cr in reservoirs of HuangShi (HS) and ZheLin (ZL) with values of 4.16μg/L and 3.45μg/L in dry season respectively, and Al in reservoirs of JiaoKou (JK), GuTian (GT) and DouShui (DS) with values of 1011μg/L, 1036μg/L and 1001μg/L in wet season, respectively. Furthermore, there was a great difference in the seasonal variation of heavy metals, especially for Al and Pb in wet season characterized with relatively high values of 643μg/L and 0.67μg/L, respectively. Accordingly, Al was identified with a great health risk to living beings in view of its mean value in wet season, which greatly exceeded the criteria for drinking water of China, WHO and US EPA. Furthermore, As might be the greatest concern of health risk in this region considering its high carcinogenic risk to the local residents around the reservoirs of OuYangHai (OYH), DS, ZhiXi (ZX) and HS. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that there was great heterogeneity in the sources of these heavy metals in the hilly area of southern China. Therefore, specific measures, such as controls on point source pollution control and tailings, should be taken for maintaining drinking water safety and aquatic ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in two species of Tillandsia in relation to atmospheric emission sources in Argentina

    Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Carreras, Hebe A.; Perez, Carlos A.; Pignata, Maria L.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia permutata A. Cast. to accumulate heavy metals was evaluated in relation to potential atmospheric emission sources in Argentina. The sampling areas (n = 38) were chosen in the province of Cordoba, located in the center of Argentina, and categorized according to land use, anthropogenic activities and/or distance to potential heavy metal emission sources. In each sampling site, pools of 40-50 individuals of each species were made from plants collected along the four cardinal directions. The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br of these samples were measured by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis with Synchrotron Radiation. Each species was submitted to a cluster analysis in order to discriminate different groups of heavy metals as tracers of natural or anthropogenic sources. A Contamination Factor (CF) was calculated using the concentrations of the elements in each sample compared to their concentrations in the control samples. Finally, the rank coefficients of correlation between the CFs and the categorical variables characteristic of each site (land use and anthropogenic load) were analyzed. A positive correlation was found for T. capillaris between the CFs of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and the urban-industrial category, whereas the CF values for Zn and Pb were positively correlated with the road category. In T. permutata there was a positive correlation between the CF of Zn and the urban-industrial category and the CF of Pb with the road category. We therefore conclude that T. capillaris is a more efficient metal accumulator in passive biomonitoring studies

  17. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in two species of Tillandsia in relation to atmospheric emission sources in Argentina

    Wannaz, Eduardo D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina); Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina); Perez, Carlos A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS/CNPq, Caixa Postal 6192, 13038-970 Campinas (Brazil); Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: pignata@com.uncor.edu

    2006-05-15

    The ability of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia permutata A. Cast. to accumulate heavy metals was evaluated in relation to potential atmospheric emission sources in Argentina. The sampling areas (n = 38) were chosen in the province of Cordoba, located in the center of Argentina, and categorized according to land use, anthropogenic activities and/or distance to potential heavy metal emission sources. In each sampling site, pools of 40-50 individuals of each species were made from plants collected along the four cardinal directions. The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br of these samples were measured by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis with Synchrotron Radiation. Each species was submitted to a cluster analysis in order to discriminate different groups of heavy metals as tracers of natural or anthropogenic sources. A Contamination Factor (CF) was calculated using the concentrations of the elements in each sample compared to their concentrations in the control samples. Finally, the rank coefficients of correlation between the CFs and the categorical variables characteristic of each site (land use and anthropogenic load) were analyzed. A positive correlation was found for T. capillaris between the CFs of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and the urban-industrial category, whereas the CF values for Zn and Pb were positively correlated with the road category. In T. permutata there was a positive correlation between the CF of Zn and the urban-industrial category and the CF of Pb with the road category. We therefore conclude that T. capillaris is a more efficient metal accumulator in passive biomonitoring studies.

  18. Ecological risk assessment and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediment from the Liaohe River protected area, China.

    Ke, Xin; Gui, Shaofeng; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Chunyong; Guo, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Surface sediment samples collected from 19 sites in the Liaohe River protected area were analysed for heavy metals to evaluate their potential ecological risk. The results demonstrated that the degree of pollution from seven heavy metals decreases in the following sequence: cadmium(Cd)>arsenic(As)>copper(Cu)>nickel(Ni)>lead(Pb)>chromium(Cr)>zinc(Zn). The metal speciation analysis indicated that Cd, Pb and Zn were dominated by non-residual fractions and have high mobility and bioavailability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources. Based on the potential ecological risk index (PERI), geo-accumulation index (I geo ) and risk assessment code (RAC), Cd made the most dominant contribution, with a high to very high potential ecological risk being determined in this studied area. Moreover, in reference to the results of multivariate statistical analyses, we deduced that Cd and Zn originated from agriculture sources within the Liaohe River protected area, whereas Cu, Cr and Ni primarily originated from natural sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study the Possibility of measuring Heavy Metals Arising from Gold Mining Sample using 252Cf Neutron Source

    Soliman, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Mining activities contribute immensely to trace element pollution .The present work studied the possibility of measuring heavy metals arising from gold mining areas Eastern Desert in Egypt using the isotopic 252 Cf neutron source. 38.5 g of the sample is irradiated in a neutron field of 252 Cf for 36.75 days and 0.3 mg of the sample is irradiated at the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS) built in the vertical thermal column of the ET-RR-2 reactor . The induced activities in the samples are measured using two high resolution f ray spectrometry systems (including two calibrated HPGe detectors). The kο standardization neutron activation analysis (kο-NAA) method was used to analyze the sample under investigation. Thermal to epithermal flux ratio fat the two irradiation positions are measured. The obtained results indicated that the values of the suspected heavy metals such as sodium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, arsenic, ruthenium and tantalum were higher than the background values, signifying accumulation of these heavy metals due to gold mining activities .The accuracy and precision of the method has been evaluated

  20. Source Identification of Heavy Metals in Soils Surrounding the Zanjan Zinc Town by Multivariate Statistical Techniques

    M.A. Delavar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accumulation of heavy metals (HMs in the soil is of increasing concern due to food safety issues, potential health risks, and the detrimental effects on soil ecosystems. HMs may be considered as the most important soil pollutants, because they are not biodegradable and their physical movement through the soil profile is relatively limited. Therefore, root uptake process may provide a big chance for these pollutants to transfer from the surface soil to natural and cultivated plants, which may eventually steer them to human bodies. The general behavior of HMs in the environment, especially their bioavailability in the soil, is influenced by their origin. Hence, source apportionment of HMs may provide some essential information for better management of polluted soils to restrict the HMs entrance to the human food chain. This paper explores the applicability of multivariate statistical techniques in the identification of probable sources that can control the concentration and distribution of selected HMs in the soils surrounding the Zanjan Zinc Specialized Industrial Town (briefly Zinc Town. Materials and Methods: The area under investigation has a size of approximately 4000 ha.It is located around the Zinc Town, Zanjan province. A regular grid sampling pattern with an interval of 500 meters was applied to identify the sample location, and 184 topsoil samples (0-10 cm were collected. The soil samples were air-dried and sieved through a 2 mm polyethylene sieve and then, were digested using HNO3. The total concentrations of zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and copper (Cu in the soil solutions were determined via Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0 for Windows. Correlation Matrix (CM, Principal Component Analyses (PCA and Factor Analyses (FA techniques were performed in order to identify the probable sources of HMs in the studied soils. Results and

  1. Speciation, sources, and risk assessment of heavy metals in suburban vegetable garden soil in Xianyang City, Northwest China

    Wang, Lijun; Tao, Wendong; Smardon, Richard C.; Xu, Xue; Lu, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Intensive anthropogenic activities can lead to soil heavy metal contamination resulting in potential risks to the environment and to human health. To reveal the concentrations, speciation, sources, pollution level, and ecological risk of heavy metals in vegetable garden soil, a total of 136 soil samples were collected from three vegetable production fields in the suburbs of Xianyang City, Northwest China. These samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Hg in vegetable garden soil were higher than the corresponding soil element background values of Shaanxi Province. The heavy metals studied in vegetable garden soil were primarily found in the residual fraction, averaging from 31.26% (Pb) to 90.23% (Cr). Considering the non-residual fractions, the mobility or potential risk was in the order of Pb (68.74%)>Co (60.54%)>Mn (59.28%) >Cd (53.54%) ≫Ni (23.36%) >Zn (22.73%)>Cu (14.93%)>V (11.81%)>Cr (9.78%). Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and As in the studied soil were related to soilforming parent materials, while Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd, Co, and Pb were associated with the application of plastic films, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as traffic emissions and industrial fumes. Cr, Ni, V, and As presented low contamination levels, whereas Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn levels were moderate, and Cd and Hg were high. Ecological risk was low for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, with high risk observed for Cd and Hg. The overall pollution level and ecological risk of these heavy metals were high.

  2. Speciation, sources, and risk assessment of heavy metals in suburban vegetable garden soil in Xianyang City, Northwest China

    Wang, Lijun; Tao, Wendong; Smardon, Richard C.; Xu, Xue; Lu, Xinwei

    2017-07-01

    Intensive anthropogenic activities can lead to soil heavy metal contamination resulting in potential risks to the environment and to human health. To reveal the concentrations, speciation, sources, pollution level, and ecological risk of heavy metals in vegetable garden soil, a total of 136 soil samples were collected from three vegetable production fields in the suburbs of Xianyang City, Northwest China. These samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Hg in vegetable garden soil were higher than the corresponding soil element background values of Shaanxi Province. The heavy metals studied in vegetable garden soil were primarily found in the residual fraction, averaging from 31.26% (Pb) to 90.23% (Cr). Considering the non-residual fractions, the mobility or potential risk was in the order of Pb (68.74%)>Co (60.54%)>Mn (59.28%) >Cd (53.54%) ≫Ni (23.36%) >Zn (22.73%)>Cu (14.93%)>V (11.81%)>Cr (9.78%). Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and As in the studied soil were related to soilforming parent materials, while Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd, Co, and Pb were associated with the application of plastic films, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as traffic emissions and industrial fumes. Cr, Ni, V, and As presented low contamination levels, whereas Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn levels were moderate, and Cd and Hg were high. Ecological risk was low for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, with high risk observed for Cd and Hg. The overall pollution level and ecological risk of these heavy metals were high.

  3. Occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in surface sediments from a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    He, Wei; Bai, Ze-Lin; Liu, Wen-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Surface sediment from large and eutrophic Lake Chaohu was investigated to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China. Total concentration of PCBs (Σ34PCBs) in Lake...... and microbial degradation accounted for 34.2 % and 65.8 % of total PCBs using PMF, and PMF revealed that natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals accounted for 38.1 % and 61.8 %, respectively. CA indicated that some toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd, In, Tl, and Hg) were associated with Ca–Na–Mg minerals......, and Hg were at levels of environmental concern. The sediment in the drinking water source area (DWSA) was threatened by heavy metals from other areas, and some fundamental solutions were proposed to protect the DWSA....

  4. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  5. Heavy metals in marine coastal sediments: assessing sources, fluxes, history and trends.

    Frignani, Mauro; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Examples are presented from the Adriatic Sea, the Ligurian Sea and the Venice Lagoon to illustrate different approaches to the study of anthropogenic metals in marine coastal sediments. These examples refer to studies of areal distribution and transport mechanisms, individuation of the sources, sediment dating, chronology of the fluxes, present and past trends. In particular, some of the findings achieved in studying the Venice Lagoon are discussed from the point of view of anthropogenic changes both in sediment composition and contaminant fluxes.

  6. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Spectrophotometer (AAS) 2ID using their respective lamp and wavelengths. Calculation ... (Table 2). Concentration of heavy metals in the cassava. Lead and chromium were not significantly ..... Market basket survey for some heavy metals in ...

  7. Source apportionment and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in water and sediments of Buriganga River, Bangladesh, using multivariate analysis and pollution evaluation indices.

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Buriganga River in the capital city Dhaka, Bangladesh, were studied to understand the level of heavy metals and their source apportionment. The results showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals both in water and sediment samples were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the permissible limits recommended by the Bangladesh government and other international organizations. Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd were found in sediment samples. However, average concentrations of metals both in water and sediment samples were above the effect range median. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (Cd) yielded different results in water samples despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) showed strong correlations with HPI and Cd and provided better assessment of pollution levels. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed the elevated value of Cr, Pb, and Cd in access of background values. The measured elements were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) and examining correlations in order to explain the content, behavior, and source apportionment of metals. PMF resulted in a successful partitioning of variances into sources related to background geochemistry and contaminant influences. However, the PMF approach successfully demarcated the major sources of metals from tannery, paint, municipal sewage, textiles, and agricultural activities.

  8. Combination of magnetic parameters and heavy metals to discriminate soil-contamination sources in Yinchuan--a typical oasis city of Northwestern China.

    Xia, Dunsheng; Wang, Bo; Yu, Ye; Jia, Jia; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Shujing

    2014-07-01

    Various industrial processes and vehicular traffic result in harmful emissions containing both magnetic minerals and heavy metals. In this study, we investigated the levels of magnetic and heavy metal contamination of topsoils from Yinchuan city in northwestern China. The results demonstrate that magnetic mineral assemblages in the topsoil are dominated by pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multi-domain (MD) magnetite. The concentrations of anthropogenic heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and the magnetic properties of χlf, SIRM, χARM, and 'SOFT' and 'HARD' remanence are significantly correlated, suggesting that the magnetic minerals and heavy metals have common sources. Combined use of principal components and fuzzy cluster analysis of the magnetic and chemical data set indicates that the magnetic and geochemical properties of the particulates emitted from different sources vary significantly. Samples from university campus and residential areas are mainly affected by crustal material, with low concentrations of magnetic minerals and heavy metals, while industrial pollution sources are characterized by high concentrations of coarse magnetite and Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Traffic pollution is characterized by Pb and Zn, and magnetite. Magnetic measurements of soils are capable of differentiating sources of magnetic minerals and heavy metals from industrial processes, vehicle fleets and soil parent material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial treatment of heavy metal leachates

    Alvarez Aliaga, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Ore-mining metallurgy and other industrial activities represent the source of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Physico-chemical processes are employed for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters. However, limitations due to the cost-effectiveness and use of contaminating reagents make these processes not environmentally friendly. (Author)

  10. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, distribution and source apportionment in the sediment from Feni River estuary, Bangladesh.

    Islam, Md Saiful; Hossain, M Belal; Matin, Abdul; Islam Sarker, Md Shafiqul

    2018-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution in sediment resources may pose serious threat to ecosystem and human health through food web. In this study, surface sediment samples of 10 stations along the Feni River estuary were analyzed to profile the accumulation, sources and pollution levels of heavy metals. The results revealed that the average contents (μg g -1 ) of eight selected heavy metals followed the order of Mn (37.85) > Cr (35.28) > Ni (33.27) > Co (31.02) > Pb (6.47) > Ag (1.09) > As (0.85) > Hg (0.71), and the concentrations varied spatially and seasonally with relatively higher levels at upward stations and during the rainy season. According to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the sediment samples were heavily contaminated with Ag and Hg, and moderately with Co. Threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC) values indicated that the concentration of only Ni and Cr were likely to occasionally exhibit adverse effects on the ecosystem. Enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I geo ) and contamination factor (CF) analyses revealed that Ag, Co and Hg were at moderate to high pollution levels and the rests (As, Cr, Ni, Pb and Mn) were at no to low pollution levels. Potential ecological risk index (PERI) also showed that Ag, Co and Hg were the most potential ecological risk factor being determined in this studied area. Correlation matrix combined with multivariate principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggest that Ag, Co, Ni and Hg originated from anthropogenic sources (agrochemicals, silver nanoparticles anti-microbial agent, silver plating), whereas As, Cr, Pb and Mn primarily originated from natural geological background. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  12. Optimization of a polarized source for in vivo x-ray fluorescence analysis of platinum and other heavy metals

    Lewis, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method was used to optimize a polarized photon source for the x-ray fluorescence analysis of platinum and other heavy metals in vivo. The source consisted of a 140 kVp, 25 mA x-ray tube with the photons plane-polarized by 90 o scattering. The use of plane-polarized photons results in a significant reduction in background when the fluorescent radiation is measured along the direction of polarization. A Monte Carlo computer programme was written to simulate the production and interaction of polarized photons in order to determine the optimal polarizing material and dimensions, together with beam width and geometrical arrangement of source, polarizer and beam collimators. Calculated photon energy distributions are compared with experimental data to test the validity of the model. (author)

  13. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in the surface soil of source-control stormwater infiltration devices - Inter-site comparison.

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Branchu, Philippe; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2017-02-01

    Stormwater runoff infiltration brings about some concerns regarding its potential impact on both soil and groundwater quality; besides, the fate of contaminants in source-control devices somewhat suffers from a lack of documentation. The present study was dedicated to assessing the spatial distribution of three heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc) in the surface soil of ten small-scale infiltration facilities, along with several physical parameters (soil moisture, volatile matter, variable thickness of the upper horizon). High-resolution samplings and in-situ measurements were undertaken, followed by X-ray fluorescence analyses and spatial interpolation. Highest metal accumulation was found in a relatively narrow area near the water inflow zone, from which concentrations markedly decreased with increasing distance. Maximum enrichment ratios amounted to >20 in the most contaminated sites. Heavy metal patterns give a time-integrated vision of the non-uniform infiltration fluxes, sedimentation processes and surface flow pathways within the devices. This element indicates that the lateral extent of contamination is mainly controlled by hydraulics. The evidenced spatial structure of soil concentrations restricts the area where remediation measures would be necessary in these systems, and suggests possible optimization of their hydraulic functioning towards an easier maintenance. Heterogeneous upper boundary conditions should be taken into account when studying the fate of micropollutants in infiltration facilities with either mathematical modeling or soil coring field surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  16. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Samuel J. Cobbina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72 water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and cadmium (Cd were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Mean levels (mg/l of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg, 0.031 and 0.002 (As, 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb, 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn, and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd, respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  17. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-08-28

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  18. Heavy metals in our foodstuffs

    1983-11-01

    The special group ''chemistry of food and forensic chemistry'' of the Association of German Analytical Chemists in Munich in 1983 issued a statement on that subject. The publication points out how heavy metals (examples: lead, cadmium and mercury) make their way into the foodstuffs, how many heavy metals are contained in our foodstuffs, which heavy metals are indispensable minerals and which aren't, and which heavy metals are ingested with food. It concludes by discussing how heavy metal contamination of our food can be prevented.

  19. 10 GHz multicharged-heavy-ion source CAPRICE for all metallic and gaseous elements

    Bourg, F.; Geller, R.; Jacquot, B.

    1987-01-01

    A new compact multiply charged E.C.R. ion source completely enclosed by an iron return yoke is described. A new coaxial 10 GHz microwave accessibility is operating. This allows a very compact two stages source in an entirely removable vacuum chamber and a very easy increasing possibility of the axial magnetic field value. Then two different working modes are possible. A classical mode (ω ce =ω rf , 100% cw, rf power 300 W, coils supply 20 kW) gives same performance than all the other reliable larger 10 GHz sources. A second mode (100% cw, rf power 600 W, coils supply 33 kW) operates with an additional resonant surface ω ce =2ω rf and increases by a factor 3 or 4 all currents on high charge states. Total extraction current is multiplied by a factor of 4 just as it would do by using a classical 20 GHz source by increase in density. This new resonant surface is unfortunately stopped in its radial part by the wall of the vacuum chamber due to a too low 10 GHz sextupole (0,4 T). Presently a better sextupole (0,8 T) is being built in order to work with both whole resonant surfaces inside the plasma chamber and perhaps so to improve charge states distribution by rising the plasma life time. On the other hand both the removable vacuum chamber and the coaxial rf feeder are well fitted to produce all metallic ions in long run and high intensity by working without any insulator inside the plasma chamber and by a good cleaning possibility. One shows cw spectra of 10 metallic elements from Al to Au and one can observe an exponential decrease for Ca, Ag and Au. This remark indicates a possible easy way to yield high charge states of all metals. One can expect to regulate all the lightest elements like Al, Si, Fe, Ni, Mo, Ta and W for 100 h. For example a good (within 1%) regulation of a 15 μA 56 Fe 7+ for 10 h is partly shown. (orig.)

  20. Applications of stochastic models and geostatistical analyses to study sources and spatial patterns of soil heavy metals in a metalliferous industrial district of China

    Zhong, Buqing; Liang, Tao; Wang, Lingqing; Li, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    An extensive soil survey was conducted to study pollution sources and delineate contamination of heavy metals in one of the metalliferous industrial bases, in the karst areas of southwest China. A total of 597 topsoil samples were collected and the concentrations of five heavy metals, namely Cd, As (metalloid), Pb, Hg and Cr were analyzed. Stochastic models including a conditional inference tree (CIT) and a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM) were applied to identify the sources and partition the contribution from natural and anthropogenic sources for heavy metal in topsoils of the study area. Regression trees for Cd, As, Pb and Hg were proved to depend mostly on indicators of anthropogenic activities such as industrial type and distance from urban area, while the regression tree for Cr was found to be mainly influenced by the geogenic characteristics. The FMDM analysis showed that the geometric means of modeled background values for Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Cr were close to their background values previously reported in the study area, while the contamination of Cd and Hg were widespread in the study area, imposing potentially detrimental effects on organisms through the food chain. Finally, the probabilities of single and multiple heavy metals exceeding the threshold values derived from the FMDM were estimated using indicator kriging (IK) and multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK). The high probabilities exceeding the thresholds of heavy metals were associated with metalliferous production and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals transported from the urban and industrial areas. Geostatistics coupled with stochastic models provide an effective way to delineate multiple heavy metal pollution to facilitate improved environmental management. - Highlights: • Conditional inference tree can identify variables controlling metal distribution. • Finite mixture distribution model can partition natural and anthropogenic sources. • Geostatistics with stochastic models

  1. Applications of stochastic models and geostatistical analyses to study sources and spatial patterns of soil heavy metals in a metalliferous industrial district of China

    Zhong, Buqing; Liang, Tao, E-mail: liangt@igsnrr.ac.cn; Wang, Lingqing; Li, Kexin

    2014-08-15

    An extensive soil survey was conducted to study pollution sources and delineate contamination of heavy metals in one of the metalliferous industrial bases, in the karst areas of southwest China. A total of 597 topsoil samples were collected and the concentrations of five heavy metals, namely Cd, As (metalloid), Pb, Hg and Cr were analyzed. Stochastic models including a conditional inference tree (CIT) and a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM) were applied to identify the sources and partition the contribution from natural and anthropogenic sources for heavy metal in topsoils of the study area. Regression trees for Cd, As, Pb and Hg were proved to depend mostly on indicators of anthropogenic activities such as industrial type and distance from urban area, while the regression tree for Cr was found to be mainly influenced by the geogenic characteristics. The FMDM analysis showed that the geometric means of modeled background values for Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Cr were close to their background values previously reported in the study area, while the contamination of Cd and Hg were widespread in the study area, imposing potentially detrimental effects on organisms through the food chain. Finally, the probabilities of single and multiple heavy metals exceeding the threshold values derived from the FMDM were estimated using indicator kriging (IK) and multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK). The high probabilities exceeding the thresholds of heavy metals were associated with metalliferous production and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals transported from the urban and industrial areas. Geostatistics coupled with stochastic models provide an effective way to delineate multiple heavy metal pollution to facilitate improved environmental management. - Highlights: • Conditional inference tree can identify variables controlling metal distribution. • Finite mixture distribution model can partition natural and anthropogenic sources. • Geostatistics with stochastic models

  2. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China.

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-12-11

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index I(geo) and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. I(geo) classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes.

  3. Heavy metals in the gold mine soil of the upstream area of a metropolitan drinking water source.

    Ding, Huaijian; Ji, Hongbing; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Aixing; Guo, Xinyue; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Briki, Mergem

    2016-02-01

    Pinggu District is adjacent to the county of Miyun, which contains the largest drinking water source of Beijing (Miyun Reservoir). The Wanzhuang gold field and tailing deposits are located in Pinggu, threatening Beijing's drinking water security. In this study, soil samples were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings piles and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, as well as heavy metal contents and particle size fraction to study the relationship between degree of pollution degree and particle size. Most metal concentrations in the gold mine soil samples exceeded the background levels in Beijing. The spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was the same, while that of Cr and Ni was relatively similar. Trace element concentrations increased in larger particles, decreased in the 50-74 μm size fraction, and were lowest in the pollution, but moderate to no Ni, Cr, and Hg pollution. The Tucker 3 model revealed three factors for particle fractions, metals, and samples. There were two factors in model A and three factors for both the metals and samples (models B and C, respectively). The potential ecological risk index shows that most of the study areas have very high potential ecological risk, a small portion has high potential ecological risk, and only a few sampling points on the perimeter have moderate ecological risk, with higher risk closer to the mining area.

  4. Spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a century-old nonferrous metal mining and smelting area in China.

    Gong, Xing; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-12-01

    This study first presents the spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a nonferrous metal mine area in China. Unconfined groundwater was polluted by Pb, Zn, As, and Cu, in order, while confined karst water in the mines showed pollution in the following sequence: Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, and As. Pollution by Pb was widespread, while Zn, As, Cu, and Cd were found to be high in the north-central industrial region and to decrease gradually with distance from smelters and tailings. Vertically, more Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have accumulated in shallow Quaternary groundwater, while more As have migrated into the deeper fracture groundwater in the local discharge area. Zn, Cd, and Cu concentrations in groundwater along the riverside diminished owing to reduced wastewater drainage since 1977, while samples in the confluence area were found to have increasing contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cu, and Cd since industrialization began in the 1990s. Sources of heavy metals in groundwater were of anthropogenic origin except for Cr. Pb originated primarily from airborne volatile particulates, wastewater, and waste residues and deposited continuously, while Zn, Cd, and Cu were derived from the wastewater of smelters and leakage of tailings, which corresponded to the related soil and surface residue researches. Elevated As values around factories might be the result of chemical reactions. Flow patterns in different hydrogeological units and adsorption capability of from Quaternary sediments restricted their cross-border diffusion.

  5. Heavy metals anthropogenic pollutants in Austria

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    Several heavy metals from anthropogenic sources are emitted in the atmosphere damaging the air quality and the human health, besides they accumulate on the soil and lately are transmitted into the human food chain. Therefore at international level there is a concern to reduce them. Austrian heavy metals emissions (cadmium, mercury and lead) during 1990-2002 are given including an analysis of causes and sources. Lead is the main pollutant and the main sector responsible is the industry. 5 figs. (nevyjel)

  6. Contamination source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil around municipal solid waste incinerator: A case study in North China.

    Ma, Wenchao; Tai, Lingyu; Qiao, Zhi; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Kaixuan; Chen, Guanyi

    2018-08-01

    Few studies have comprehensively taken into account the source apportionment and human health risk of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in high population density area. In this study, 8 elements (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, and As) in fly ash, soil samples from different functional areas and vegetables collected surrounding the MSWI in North China were determined. The single pollution index, integrated Nemerow pollution index, principal component analysis (PCA), absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) model and dose-response model were used in this study. The results showed that the soils around the MSWI were moderately polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg, and heavily polluted by As and Cd. MSWI had a significant influence on the distribution of soil heavy metals in different distances from MSWI. The source apportionment results showed that MSWI, natural source, industrial discharges and coal combustion were the four major potential sources for heavy metals in the soils, with the contributions of 36.08%, 29.57%, 10.07%, and 4.55%, respectively. MSWI had a major impact on Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg contamination in soil. The non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk posed by soil heavy metals surrounding the MSWI were unacceptable. The soil heavy metals concentrations and health risks in different functional areas were distinct. MSWI was the predominate source of non-carcinogenic risk with the average contribution rate of 36.99% and carcinogenic risk to adult male, adult female and children with 4.23×10 -4 , 4.57×10 -4 , and 1.41×10 -4 respectively, implying that the impact of MSWI on human health was apparent. This study provided a new insight for the source apportionment and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of MSWI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Applications of stochastic models and geostatistical analyses to study sources and spatial patterns of soil heavy metals in a metalliferous industrial district of China.

    Zhong, Buqing; Liang, Tao; Wang, Lingqing; Li, Kexin

    2014-08-15

    An extensive soil survey was conducted to study pollution sources and delineate contamination of heavy metals in one of the metalliferous industrial bases, in the karst areas of southwest China. A total of 597 topsoil samples were collected and the concentrations of five heavy metals, namely Cd, As (metalloid), Pb, Hg and Cr were analyzed. Stochastic models including a conditional inference tree (CIT) and a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM) were applied to identify the sources and partition the contribution from natural and anthropogenic sources for heavy metal in topsoils of the study area. Regression trees for Cd, As, Pb and Hg were proved to depend mostly on indicators of anthropogenic activities such as industrial type and distance from urban area, while the regression tree for Cr was found to be mainly influenced by the geogenic characteristics. The FMDM analysis showed that the geometric means of modeled background values for Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Cr were close to their background values previously reported in the study area, while the contamination of Cd and Hg were widespread in the study area, imposing potentially detrimental effects on organisms through the food chain. Finally, the probabilities of single and multiple heavy metals exceeding the threshold values derived from the FMDM were estimated using indicator kriging (IK) and multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK). The high probabilities exceeding the thresholds of heavy metals were associated with metalliferous production and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals transported from the urban and industrial areas. Geostatistics coupled with stochastic models provide an effective way to delineate multiple heavy metal pollution to facilitate improved environmental management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L"−"1). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ"1"8O, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L"−"1. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ"1"5N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with

  9. 18O isotopic characterisation of non-point source contributed heavy metals (Zn and Cu) contamination of groundwater

    Datta, P.S.; Manjaiah, K.M.; Tyagi, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many urbanised areas, fast depletion and severe degradation of the of groundwater resource with contaminants such as nitrate, fluoride, and heavy metals is a common phenomenon, resulting in zonal disparity in fresh water availability. Therefore, for protection of groundwater from pollution and depletion, it is a matter of concern for the planners and decision makers to clearly characterise the sources of contamination and to search for an alternative approach for groundwater development and management. In this context, a new approach is presented here, based on monitoring of 18 O stable isotopic and heavy metals composition of groundwater, to clearly characterise non-point source contributed heavy metals pollution of groundwater in northern parts of Delhi area. In the investigated area, the Cu content in the groundwater ranges from 3-41 μg/l and Zn content ranges from 5-182 μg/l, showing considerable variation from location to location as well as within the small parts of a location. Wide variation in the 18 O stable isotope content of groundwater (δ value of -5.7 per mille to -8.5 per mille) is due to significant variation in the δ 18 O-contents of rainfall with space and time, as well as intensity and distribution of rainfall. Enrichment in 18 O composition with increasing Cu and Zn levels in groundwater suggest that infiltration of rain water, irrigation water and surface run-off water from the surrounding farm lands, along with agrochemicals and other salts present in the soil, to be the main processes causing groundwater contamination. The concentration of Cu and Zn in groundwater vary spatially, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge, amounts of fertiliser applied and wastes disposed, adsorption/dispersion of species in the soils and lateral mixing of groundwater. Two opposite mechanisms adsorption and redistribution of infiltrating water along with Zn and Cu species in the soil zone are likely to affect the movement of the Zn and Cu species

  10. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  11. Heavy Metal Stars

    2001-08-01

    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  12. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Water Sources From Enyigba Pb-Zn District South Eastern Nigeria

    Nnabo Paulinus N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of thirty 30 water samples were collected from the Enyigba PbZn mining district to assess the contamination of the water sources as a result of mining of lead and zinc minerals in the area. This comprises of 12 samples of surface water 14 from mine ponds and 4 from underground borehole water. The samples were acidified to stabilize the metals for periods more than four days without the use of refrigeration. The acidified water samples were analysed by a commercial laboratory at Projects Development Institute PRODA Enugu using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy AAS. The elements determined by this method are lead Pb zinc Zn copper Cu arsenic As cadmium Cd nickel Ni manganese Mn and cobalt Co. The result and analysis of contamination factor showed that in surface water Cd had the highest concentration followed by As and Pb while Ni had the lowest. In mine ponds Cd also had the highest concentration and followed by Pb and As and Ni the lowest. In borehole water Cd has the highest concentration followed by Pb and As while Ni had the lowest concentration. Compared to WHO permissible limits the contamination of the heavy metals in all water sources are in order CdAsPbNiZnCu. In surface water the order is CdAsPbNiZnCu in mine ponds it is CdPbAsNiZnCu and in borehole water the order is CdAsPbZnNiCu. The calculated contamination factors show very high contamination status for Cd Pb and As. These levels of contamination and values indicate that under the prevailing conditions and environmental regulations in Nigeria the mining district would face major and hazardous discharges of these metals to the water sources.

  13. Spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbon in the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China.

    Yang, Xiaolong; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Anguo; Mao, Yuze; Li, Qiang; Zong, Humin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-06-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in surface sediments were investigated in the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China in May, 2013. Ecological risk assessment indicated that most heavy metals cause low ecological risk to the estuarine environment, with the exception of Cd and Hg (considerable and moderate risk, respectively). Principal component analysis in combination with correlation analysis among heavy metals, PHCs and geological factors (e.g., granularity) was used to identify possible sources of pollutants in Shuangtaizi Estuary. Results showed that the main pollution sources of the area come from anthropogenic factors, such as sewage discharge and oil exploitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Nansi Lake, Eastern China

    Jianshu Lv; Bin Dai; Zulu Zhang; Yuanyuan Sun; Shuang Li; Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    The study is conducted to investigate the spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk of seven heavy metals in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, Eastern China. A total of 29 samples were collected in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, and were analyzed for three nutrients (TN, TOC and TP), two major metals (Al and Fe), as well as seven trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Fe and Al were 14.41, 0.22, 71.10, 30.1, 0.048, 29.14, 90.2, 30,816 and 70,653 mg kg -1 , respectively, and the mean contents of these metals were higher than the background values with the exception of Cu and Fe. The spatial distribution indicated that the contents of all seven heavy metals were characterized by relatively higher contents in the upper lake than the lower lake. The hotspots with high values of As, Cd and Hg were associated with the river mouths, and the hotspots of Pb were mainly located around the dam in the central part, while no significant associations were displayed between spatial distribution of Cr, Cu, Zn and the river mouths. The mean enrichment factor (EF) values of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 2.03, 2.93, 3.21 and 2.18, respectively, showing their moderate enrichment, while Cr, Cu and Zn with mean EF values of 1.19, 0.89 and 1.01 were deficiency to minimal enrichment. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses suggested that PC1 controlled by Cr, Cu and Zn was a lithogenic component, and come from parent rocks leaching. PC2 including Cd and partially Hg represented the factor from industrial wastewater discharge. PC3 showed elevated loadings of As and partially Cd, and could be attributed to the agricultural practices. While PC4 including Pb and partially Hg, was dominated by coal combustion. The results of potential ecological risk suggested that sediment environment of Nansi Lake suffered from high ecological risk. (author)

  15. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  16. Sources of heavy metals in surface sediments and an ecological risk assessment from two adjacent Plateau reservoirs.

    Binbin Wu

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and arsenic (As in surface water and sediments were investigated in two adjacent drinking water reservoirs (Hongfeng and Baihua Reservoirs on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Southwest China. Possible pollution sources were identified by spatial and statistical analyses. For both reservoirs, Cd was most likely from industrial activities, and As was from lithogenic sources. For the Hongfeng Reservoir, Pb, Cr and Cu might have originated from mixed sources (traffic pollution and residual effect of former industrial practices, and the sources of Hg included the inflows, which were different for the North (industrial activities and South (lithogenic origin Lakes, and atmospheric deposition resulting from coal combustion. For the Baihua Reservoir, the Hg, Cr and Cu were primarily derived from industrial activities, and the Pb originated from traffic pollution. The Hg in the Baihua Reservoir might also have been associated with coal combustion pollution. An analysis of ecological risk using sediment quality guidelines showed that there were moderate toxicological risks for sediment-dwelling organisms in both reservoirs, mainly from Hg and Cr. Ecological risk analysis using the Hakanson index suggested that there was a potential moderate to very high ecological risk to humans from fish in both reservoirs, mainly because of elevated levels of Hg and Cd. The upstream Hongfeng Reservoir acts as a buffer, but remains an important source of Cd, Cu and Pb and a moderately important source of Cr, for the downstream Baihua Reservoir. This study provides a replicable method for assessing aquatic ecosystem health in adjacent plateau reservoirs.

  17. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Nieto, Gastón Leonardo; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. ► Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. ► Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  18. Levels and sources of heavy metals and PAHs in sediment of Djibouti-city (Republic of Djibouti).

    Mahdi Ahmed, Moussa; Doumenq, Pierre; Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Syakti, Agung Dhamar; Asia, Laurence; Chiron, Serge

    2017-07-15

    Selected heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in marine sediment from 28 sites Djibouti city. The concentrations of trace elements varied from 0 to 288.1mg/kg with relative abundance of trace metals in sediments was in the order of Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Co>Pb>Cd. Zn, Cu and Ni exceeded consensus based sediment quality guideline values 7, 14, 15 sites respectively. Enrichment factor and pollution load index showed relatively low to moderate contamination. The concentrations of total 16 PAHs varied widely depending on the sample location and ranged from 2.65 to 3760.11ng·g -1 , with the mean concentration value of 387.87ng·g -1 . Compositions and relative abundance of individual PAH using molecular diagnostic ratio using congener's m/z 178 and 202 indicated pyrolytic origin and reflecting a petroleum combustion, grass/wood and coal combustion and a petrogenic source. This study represents the first pollution baseline and a reference for future studies in Djibouti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Size distribution and source identification of total suspended particulate matter and associated heavy metals in the urban atmosphere of Delhi.

    Srivastava, Arun; Jain, V K

    2007-06-01

    A study of the atmospheric particulate size distribution of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations has been carried out for the city of Delhi. Urban particles were collected using a five-stage impactor at six sites in three different seasons, viz. winter, summer and monsoon in the year 2001. Five samples from each site in each season were collected. Each sample (filter paper) was extracted with a mixture of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The acid solutions of the samples were analysed in five-particle fractions by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The impactor stage fractionation of particles shows that a major portion of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (i.e. metal mass viz. Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Fe are also concentrated in the PM0.7 mode. The only exceptions are size distributions pertaining to Cu and Ca. Though, Cu is more in PM0.7 mode, its presence in size intervals 5.4-1.6microm and 1.6-0.7microm is also significant, whilst in case of Ca there is no definite pattern in its distribution with size of particles. The average PM10.9 (i.e. Source apportionment reveals that there are two sources of TSPM and PM10.9, while three and four sources were observed for PM1.6 (i.e. <1.6microm) and PM0.7, respectively. Results of regression analyses show definite correlations between PM10.9 and other fine size fractions, suggesting PM10.9 may adequately act as a surrogate for both PM1.6 and PM0.7, while PM1.6 may adequately act as a surrogate for PM0.7.

  20. Source apportionment of heavy metals and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in a subtropical urban area in Australia.

    Huston, R; Chan, Y C; Chapman, H; Gardner, T; Shaw, G

    2012-03-15

    Due to prolonged droughts in recent years, the use of rainwater tanks in urban areas has increased in Australia. In order to apportion sources of contribution to heavy metal and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in Brisbane, a subtropical urban area in Australia, monthly tank water samples (24 sites, 31 tanks) and concurrent bulk deposition samples (18 sites) were collected during mainly April 2007-March 2008. The samples were analysed for acid-soluble metals, soluble anions, total inorganic carbon and total organic carbon, and characteristics such as total solid and pH. The Positive Matrix Factorisation model, EPA PMF 3.0, was used to apportion sources of contribution to the contaminants. Four source factors were identified for the bulk deposition samples, including 'crustal matter/sea salt', 'car exhausts/road side dust', 'industrial dust' and 'aged sea salt/secondary aerosols'. For the tank water samples, apart from these atmospheric deposition related factors which contributed in total to 65% of the total contaminant concentration on average, another six rainwater collection system related factors were identified, including 'plumbing', 'building material', 'galvanizing', 'roofing', 'steel' and 'lead flashing/paint' (contributing in total to 35% of the total concentration on average). The Australian Drinking Water Guideline for lead was exceeded in 15% of the tank water samples. The collection system related factors, in particular the 'lead flashing/paint' factor, contributed to 79% of the lead in the tank water samples on average. The concentration of lead in tank water was found to vary with various environmental and collection system factors, in particular the presence of lead flashing on the roof. The results also indicated the important role of sludge dynamics inside the tank on the quality of tank water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using stable lead isotopes to trace heavy metal contamination sources in sediments of Xiangjiang and Lishui Rivers in China.

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Wang, Xin-Jun; Hu, Qin-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Lead isotopes and heavy metal concentrations were measured in two sediment cores sampled in estuaries of Xiangjiang and Lishui Rivers in Hunan province, China. The presence of anthropogenic contribution was observed in both sediments, especially in Xiangjiang sediment. In the Xiangjiang sediment, the lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratio, than natural Pb isotope signature (1.198 and 2.075 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, respectively), indicated a significant input of non-indigenous Pb with low (206)Pb/(207)Pb and high (208)Pb/(206)Pb. The corresponding concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Zn, Mn and Pb) were much higher than natural values, suggesting the contaminations of heavy metals from extensive ore-mining activities in the region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  3. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of some heavy metals in ...

    The contamination of the aquatic systems with heavy metals from natural anthropogenic sources has become a global problem which poses threats to ecosystems and natural communities. Hence this study reviews the effects of heavy metals in freshwater fishes. Fishes bioaccumulate heavy metals (including cadmium, zinc ...

  4. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  5. Spatial distribution, environmental risk and source of heavy metals in street dust from an industrial city in semi-arid area of China

    Han Xiufeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risks associated with Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust collected from Baotou, a medium-sized industrial city in a semi-arid area of northwest China, were assessed by using enrichment factor and the potential ecological index. Their spatial distributions and sources in the dust were analyzed on the basis of geostatistical methods and multivariate statistical analysis, respectively. The results indicate that street dust in Baotou has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Co in the dust was significantly enriched. Cr and Pb were from moderate to significant enrichment. Cu and Zn were from minimal to moderate enrichment, whereas Mn, Ni and V in the dust were from deficient to minimal enrichment. The ecological risk levels of Co and Pb in the dust were moderate to considerable and low to moderate, respectively, whereas those of other heavy metals studied in the dust presented low ecological risk. Different distribution patterns were found among the analyzed heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Cr, Mn, Ni and V originated from nature and industrial activities. Cu, Pb and Zn derived mainly from traffic sources, and Co was mainly from construction sources.

  6. Application of stochastic models in identification and apportionment of heavy metal pollution sources in the surface soils of a large-scale region.

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-16

    As heavy metals occur naturally in soils at measurable concentrations and their natural background contents have significant spatial variations, identification and apportionment of heavy metal pollution sources across large-scale regions is a challenging task. Stochastic models, including the recently developed conditional inference tree (CIT) and the finite mixture distribution model (FMDM), were applied to identify the sources of heavy metals found in the surface soils of the Pearl River Delta, China, and to apportion the contributions from natural background and human activities. Regression trees were successfully developed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, and Hg in 227 soil samples from a region of over 7.2 × 10(4) km(2) based on seven specific predictors relevant to the source and behavior of heavy metals: land use, soil type, soil organic carbon content, population density, gross domestic product per capita, and the lengths and classes of the roads surrounding the sampling sites. The CIT and FMDM results consistently indicate that Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr in the surface soils of the PRD were contributed largely by anthropogenic sources, whereas As, Ni, and Hg in the surface soils mostly originated from the soil parent materials.

  7. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    Sandau, E.; Sandau, P.; Pulz, O.

    1996-01-01

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  8. [Source identification and potential ecological hazards assessment of trace metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China].

    Zhang, Zhao-Yong; Jilili, Abuduwailil; Jiang, Feng-Qing

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the contents of ten metalloid/heavy metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr) in soil samples collected from three sections including the central Urumqi-Akesu, eastern Blikun-Yiwu and western Zhaosu-Tekesi in Tianshan Mountains were determined, and their sources were identified by using typical statistical and multivariate statistical methods. The potential ecological risks of these heavy metals were assessed by employing pollution index method, potential ecological risk index and the background values of Tianshan Mountains, and Xinjiang, and also the Second National Standard of the Soil Qualities of China. The results showed that the contents of the heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn Zn and Cr) and metalloid As were all higher than the soil background values of the Tianshan Mountain or Xinjiang, and their variation co- efficients belonged to the medium variation. In general, the contents of the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains were low. Principal component analysis showed that the ten metalloid/heavy metals could be identified as two principal components, among which PC1 (Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) could be seen as 'human influence sources factor', PC2 (Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and As) as 'natural sources factor'. Mn and As had larger loads both in PC1 and PC2, and they could be co-influenced by human and natural sources. The pollution assessment showed that Hg and Cd in central Urumuqi-Akesu section and As in western Zhaosu-Tekesi section were all at alert level, while the other heavy metals in other sections were all at security level. From the comprehensive pollution indices (P(z)) of heavy metals, it was found that the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soils of central Urumqi-Akesu section were at low pollution level, but those in the other two sections were at clean level. The potential ecological risk assessment showed that the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(i)r) and the ecological damage index (RI) of Hg

  9. Heavy ion fusion sources

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A ∼ I 8/3 . We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally

  10. HEAVY METALS IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARD SOILS

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.

  11. Toxicity of heavy metals in the environment

    Oehme, F.W

    1978-01-01

    ... as the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity resulting from heavy metal chemicals. The more common toxic heavy metals, along with their biochemistry and associated clinical syndromes, are then described...

  12. Chemometric evaluation of heavy metal pollutions in Patna region of the Ganges alluvial plain, India: implication for source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra

    2018-03-28

    While metal pollution and distribution in soil are well documented for many countries, the situation is more serious in developing countries because of the rapid increase in industrialization and urbanization during last decades. Although it is well documented in developed countries, data about substantial metal pollution in Indian soil, especially in eastern Ganges alluvial plain (GAP), are limited. In this study, eight different blocks of Patna district located in eastern GAP were selected to investigate the contamination, accumulation, and sources of metals in surface soil considering different land use types. Additionally, human health risk assessment was estimated to mark the potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect of metals in soil. The concentration of all metals (except Pb) in soil was below the Indian standard limit of the potential toxic element for agricultural soil. Pb was the most abundant in soil, followed by Zn and Cu, and accounted for 52, 33 and 8% of the total metal. In terms of land use types, roadside soil detected higher concentrations of all metals, followed by park/grassland soil. Principal component analysis results indicated traffic pollution and industrial emissions are the major sources of heavy metals in soil. This was further confirmed by strong inter-correlation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb). Human health risk assessment results indicated ingestion via soil as the primary pathway of heavy metal exposure to both adults and children population. The estimated hazard index was highest for Pb, suggesting significant non-carcinogenic effect to both adults and children population. The children were more prone to the non-carcinogenic effect of Pb than adults. However, relatively low cancer risk value estimated for all metals suggested non-significant carcinogenic risk in the soil.

  13. Source Identification and Sequential Leaching of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Collected from Selected Dump Sites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    , E.E. Awokunmi; , S.S. Asaolu; , O.O Ajayi; , A.O. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Ten heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Sn) in fractioned and bulk soil samples collected from four dump sites located in AdoEkiti and Ikere -Ekiti, South western Nigeria were analysed using a modified Tessier’s procedure and acid digestion to obtain the distribution pattern of metal in this region. The metals were found to have been distributed in all phases with Fe, Cr, and Sn dominating the residual fraction (90.12 - 94.88%), Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn were found in all the extrac...

  14. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  15. Application of the positive matrix factorization approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediments. A case study on the Mexican Pacific Coast.

    González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes.

  16. Occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in surface sediments from a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    He, Wei; Bai, Ze-Lin; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jørgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    Surface sediment from large and eutrophic Lake Chaohu was investigated to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China. Total concentration of PCBs (Σ34PCBs) in Lake Chaohu was 672 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw), with a range of 7 to 3999 pg g(-1) dw, which was lower than other water bodies worldwide. The majority of heavy metals were detected at all sampling locations, except for Sr, B, and In. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ca, Mn, Sr, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg were similar to that reported for other lakes globally. Concentrations of K, Mg, Na, Li, Ga, and Ag were greater than the average, whereas those of Cr, Ni, and Cu were lower. Cluster analysis (CA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) yielded accordant results for the source apportionment of PCBs. The technical PCBs and microbial degradation accounted for 34.2 % and 65.8 % of total PCBs using PMF, and PMF revealed that natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals accounted for 38.1 % and 61.8 %, respectively. CA indicated that some toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd, In, Tl, and Hg) were associated with Ca-Na-Mg minerals rather than Fe-Mn minerals. The uncorrelated results between organic matter revealed by pyrolysis technology and heavy metals might be caused by the existence of competitive adsorption between organic matter and minerals. PCBs and heavy metals were coupling discharge without organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), but with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). No sediment sample exceeded the toxic threshold for dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) set at 20 pg toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ) g(-1), (max dl-PCBs, 10.9 pg TEQ g(-1)). However, concentrations of Ag, Cd, and Hg were at levels of environmental concern. The sediment in the drinking water source area (DWSA) was threatened by heavy metals from other areas, and some

  17. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  18. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution of Lakes along the Mid-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China: Intensity, Sources and Spatial Patterns

    Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu

    2013-01-01

    Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Geo-accumulation index (Ig) analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes. PMID:23442559

  20. Survey of Heavy Metal Contamination in Water Sources in the Municipality of Torola, El Salvador, through In Situ Sorbent Extraction

    Enriqueta Anticó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in water resources directly affects consumer health. The quality of surface water resources in Central America is usually low due to the presence of metals and other pollutants. The lack of analytical instrumentation to perform routine monitoring of water has encouraged the development of easy tools to facilitate the determination of heavy metals in waters in remote sites. In this study, we evaluated the use of different sorbents, such as Adsorbsia As600 (titanium dioxide, Iontosorb Oxin, 8-hydroxyquinoline bearing functional groups, and Duolite GT-73, with thiol functionality, for Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Al extraction. It was found that both Adsorbsia As600 and Iontosorb Oxin allowed the adsorption of all metals, and the recovery was achieved using either HCl or ethylenediaminetetraacetic sodium salt (EDTA solutions. Hence, Adsorbsia As600 was employed for in situ sampling in the metal contamination evaluation of water samples (from 15 wells and nine storage tanks from the municipality of Torola, Mozarán, El Salvador. The developed procedure allowed all the metals in the samples to be detected, and Ni and Al were found to be above Salvadoran guidelines for drinking water quality.

  1. The concentration, source and potential human health risk of heavy metals in the commonly consumed foods in Bangladesh.

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Seven food items, namely, meat, egg, fish, milk, vegetables, cereals and fruits were collected from Bogra district, Bangladesh to evaluate the levels of heavy metal and associated health risk to the adults and children. The samples were analyzed for the quantification of selected heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer followed by acid digestion. In general, the highest concentrations of the studied metals were detected in vegetables, cereals, and fruits. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in the foods were 0.058-10, 0.036-25, 0.045-40, 0.005-7.1, 0.001-5.5 and 0.005-13 mg/kg fw, respectively. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major groups of the studied metals and showed significant anthropogenic contributions of the Ni, Cu, and As in foods. Health risk assessment was evaluated in terms of target hazard quotient and target carcinogenic risk (TR) which showed that the intake of some metals through foods were higher than the recommended values, consequently consumption of the foods may be associated with non-carcinogenic health risks. Nonetheless, elevated levels of As and Pb were also found to be associated with lifetime carcinogenic risk to the consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils

    Jarvis, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    Inputs of heavy metals to soils have increased recently and there is much concern that they may be toxic at various stages along the food chain and ultimately to man. Cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead move from geochemical sources to plants and then to animals and man; they then are returned in various forms to soil to complete the cycle. The ways in which heavy metals may be added to soils are reviewed. They include: aerial inputs by air pollution, fertilizers, pesticides, farm slurries and sewage sludge. Possibly the source of contamination which is to have the most impact on soils used for the production of crops is sewage sludge. The fate of heavy metal added to soils is discussed in relation to form, mobility, uptake by plants, effect of soil conditions on availability to plants, and toxicity to animals. 56 references.

  3. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  4. Sources identification and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bortala River, Northwest China.

    Zhang, Zhaoyong; Juying, Li; Mamat, Zulpiya; QingFu, Ye

    2016-04-01

    The current study focused on the Bortala River - a typical inland river located in an oasis of arid area in northwestern China. The sediment and soil samples were collected from the river and drainage basin. Results showed that: (1) the particle size of the sand fraction of the sediments was 78-697 µm, accounting for 78.82% of the total samples; the average concentrations of eight heavy metals fell within the concentration ranges recommended by the Secondary National Standard of China, while the maximum concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Hg exceeded these standards; (2) results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that Cu, Ni, As, and Zn originated primarily from natural geological background, while Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr in the sediments originated from human activities; (3) results of the enrichment factor analysis and the geo-accumulation index evaluation showed that Cd, Hg, and Pb were present in the surface sediments of the river at low or partial serious pollution levels, while Zn, Cr, As, Ni, and Cu existed at zero or low pollution levels; (4) calculation of the potential ecological hazards index showed that among the eight tested heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cr were the main potential ecological risk factors, with relative contributions of 25.43%, 22.23%, 21.16%, and 14.87%, respectively; (5) the spatial distribution of the enrichment factors (EF(S)), the Geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), and the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(r)(i)) for eight heavy metals showed that there was a greater accumulation of heavy metals Pb, Cd, and Hg in the sediments of the central and eastern parts of the river. Results of this research can be a reference for the heavy metals pollution prevention, the harmony development of the ecology protection and the economy development of the oases of inland river basin of arid regions of China, Central Asia and also other parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring of Hazardous Inorganic Pollutants and Heavy Metals in Potable Water at the Source of Supply and Consumers end of a Tropical Urban Municipality

    Shah, A. B.; Singh, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    River water is not only an indispensable source for irrigation but also plays a vital role for drinking water supply for most of the urban municipalities. Water from rivers is pumped at specific sites and after treatment at municipal water treatment plants supplied as domestic potable water supply. The present study was undertaken to assess the suitability of Gomti river water at Gaughat being used as the source of water supply for Lucknow city and to evaluate post-treatment potable water quality at the consumer end by monitoring the levels of inorganic pollutants (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate) and heavy metals. Municipal water supply at Gaughat showed marked variations in the levels of p H (7.13-8.63) and electrical conductivity (375.66-571.67μS/cm). The amount of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate was observed 26.25, 0.082, 6.9 and 1.82 mg/l respectively at Gaughat. Also, the levels of heavy metals in the municipal water source at Gaughat varied significantly for Fe (0.33-1.65 mg/l), Cu (0.077-0.108 mg/l), Cd (0.03-0.052 mg/l), Pb (0.68-0.96 mg/l) and Cr (0.036-0.065 mg/l). Water at the user end was also contaminated as the concentration of analysed inorganic pollutants and heavy metals were correspondingly higher than observed at the source. While comparing potable water at the user end of Lucknow municipality with the BIS (Drinking Water Specifications) and WHO standards for drinking water, the concentration of all studied heavy metals and other inorganic contaminants were much above the permissible levels, thus posing a serious threat to the public health.

  6. The ecological risk, source identification, and pollution assessment of heavy metals in road dust: a case study in Rafsanjan, SE Iran.

    Mirzaei Aminiyan, Milad; Baalousha, Mohammed; Mousavi, Rouhollah; Mirzaei Aminiyan, Farzad; Hosseini, Hamideh; Heydariyan, Amin

    2018-05-01

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination in road dust is a potential environmental and human health threat. The sources, concentrations, spatial distribution, and ecological risk of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in road dust in Rafsanjan City, Iran, were investigated. Pollution was assessed using the enrichment factor (EF). The potentially harmful effects of HMs were evaluated by calculating the potential ecological risk factor of individual metals (E r ) and of multiple metals (RI) using the Hakanson method. Correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to identify HM pollution sources. The concentrations of HMs in road dust were higher (ca. 5-10 folds) than their natural background values. The EF and E r increased according to the following order Cu > Pb > As > Zn > Cd > Cr > Ni and Cu > Cd > Pb > As > Ni > Zn > Cr, respectively. Thus, Cu is regarded as the pollutant of highest concern. Based on potential ecological risk index (RI) spatial distribution, all parts of Rafsanjan are characterized by significantly high potential ecological risk. HM concentration heat maps, PCA, and correlation analysis suggest that Cu, Pb, As, Cd, and Zn may have originated from the same source and follow the same spatial distribution pattern. These metals originated mainly from anthropogenic sources like copper mining and smelting plants, industrial and chemical activities, inordinate application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farmlands, and heavy traffic. Ni and Cr are likely to origniate from the industrial activities and traffic load in Rafsanjan City.

  7. Frozen White-Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Korean Markets as a Source of Aeromonas spp. Harboring Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance Genes.

    De Silva, Benthotage C J; Hossain, Sabrina; Dahanayake, Pasan S; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2018-05-24

    As the most consumed shrimp variety, white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) owns a high market demand in Korea. This study sought to screen the frozen white-leg shrimp for Aeromonas spp. harboring antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance characteristics. A total of 44 Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated and tested for antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal tolerance followed by PCR-based detection of resistance genes and integrons. It was observed that resistance to ampicillin and oxacillin was 100% among isolates. Besides, 95%, 89%, 86%, 80%, 66%, and 43% of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, cephalothin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem, respectively, and less resistance to other antibiotics was also observed. Cr resistance was the highest (91%) among five heavy metals tested, whereas 57%, 32%, 20%, and 9% of the isolates were tolerant to Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg, respectively. The PCR assays implied the presence of qnrB, qnrS, tetA, tetE, aac(6')-Ib, and aphAI-IAB, and intI1 genes among 80%, 77%, 18%, 30%, 9%, 0.25%, and 82% of the isolates, respectively. There were 35 (80%) integron 1-positive isolates harboring qacE2, dfrA1, orfC, orfD, aadB, catB3, oxa-10, and aadA1 genes in varying combinations. In addition, heavy metal resistance genes, CopA, merA, and CzcA were positive in 9%, 7%, and 27% of the isolates, respectively. According to these outcomes, the frozen white-leg shrimp in Korean markets can be suggested as a source of multidrug and heavy metal-resistant Aeromonas spp. that carries genetic determinants.

  8. Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem

    komla

    The distribution and occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment, water and benthic animals of the Lagos lagoon ... The concentrations of the metals detected in the lagoon sediment and water ..... waste products contaminating water sources.

  9. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from these sources were discovered to pose severe toxicological risks to the environment and human health. Samples of mosses were collected at eight different locations in each ...

  10. Risk assessment, spatial distribution, and source apportionment of heavy metals in Chinese surface soils from a typically tobacco cultivated area.

    Liu, Haiwei; Wang, Haiyun; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jumin; Peng, Yaodong; Li, Xiuchun; Shi, Yi; He, Kuanxin; Zhang, Qiming

    2018-06-01

    The heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields in Jiangxi Province were analyzed, and the mean heavy metal concentrations were 3.55, 0.19, 25.89, 14.96, 0.25, 10.89, 27.80, and 44.00 mg/kg, respectively. Spatial distribution analysis showed that the highest concentrations were recorded in the north-western, south-western, and mid-eastern parts of the study area. The index of geo-accumulation and pollution index indicated modest enrichment with Cd and Hg, which were the only two metals posing a potentially high ecological risk to the local agricultural environment. The health risk assessment showed no considerable non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risks for children and adults from these elements. The principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) found that the variations in the Cr and Ni concentrations were largely on account of the soil parent rocks, but the As, Cd, Cu, and Hg variations in the soil were largely owing to agricultural practices of years. However, the main factor influencing Pb and Zn was atmospheric deposition.

  11. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  12. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...

  13. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As.

  14. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  15. Potential bioavailability assessment, source apportionment and ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediment of Brisbane River estuary, Australia.

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2017-04-15

    A weak acid extraction was used to mobilize the loosely bound metals in estuary sediment samples. More than 30% of Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn Ni, Pb and Zn were leached from the sediment showing that these metals are significantly present in the bioavailable form. PCA/APCS identified three sources of the metals, namely: lithogenic accounting for 72%, shipping related contributing 15% and traffic related representing 13% of the total load. Application of pollution index (PI) and modified pollution index (MPI) revealed that the sediment range from unpolluted to heavily polluted while ecological risk index (RI) classifies the sediment as posing low ecological risk modified ecological risk index (MRI) suggests considerable to very high ecological risk. To provide holistic insights into the ecological risks posed by metals, enrichment factor, MPI and MRI are recommended for the assessment of sediment in complex environments such as estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  18. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Apel, William A. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in

  19. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report

    Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M.; Apel, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in

  20. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  1. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  2. Sediment baseline study of levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Lake Nicaragua

    Scheibye, Katrine; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2014-01-01

    Selected metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in sediment samples from 24 sites in Lake Nicaragua sampled May 2010 to provide a baseline of pollution levels. Cu exceeded the Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guideline (CBSQG) Threshold Effect Concentrations (TECs) at 21...... showed that the CBSQG TECs were exceeded by naphthalene at five sites. The sum concentrations of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs (∑PAH16) ranged from 0.01mgkg(-1)dw to 0.64mgkg(-1)dw. The highest ∑PAH16 concentration was found upstream in River Mayales and the PAH composition revealed a heavy PAH fraction (e....... This study concluded that areas of Lake Nicaragua represent an important pollution baseline for future studies in this lake and other tropical lakes....

  3. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  4. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Ruehling, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  5. Enrichment and geochemical mobility of heavy metals in bottom sediment of the Hoedong reservoir, Korea and their source apportionment.

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Kang, Min-Ju; Yu, Soonyoung; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ha, Kyoochul; Shin, Seong-Cheon; Park, Jung Han

    2017-10-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of bottom sediment in the Hoedong reservoir were studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the reservoir as traps for trace metals. Roadside soil, stream sediment and background soil were also studied for comparison. Sequential extractions were carried out, and lead isotopic compositions of each extraction were determined to apportion Pb sources. Besides, particle size distribution of roadside soil, and metal concentrations and Pb isotopes of each size group were determined to characterize metal contamination. In result, Zn and Cu were enriched in sediment through roadside soil. The data on metal partitioning implied that Zn posed potential hazards for water quality. Meanwhile, the noticeable reduction of the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb isotopic ratio in the acid-soluble fraction in the size group 200 μm - 2 mm of national roadside soil indicated that this size group was highly contaminated by automotive emission with precipitation of acid-soluble secondary minerals during evaporation. Based on the Pb isotopic ratios, the dry deposition of Asian dust (AD) and non-Asian dust (NAD) affected roadside soil, while the effects of AD and NAD on bottom sediment appeared to be low given the low metal concentrations in sediment. Metal concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions indicated that sediments were a mixture of background and roadside soil. Source apportionment calculations showed that the average proportion of traffic Pb in bottom and stream sediments was respectively 34 and 31% in non-residual fractions, and 26 and 28% in residual fraction. The residual fraction of sediments appeared to be as contaminated as the non-residual fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible source and pattern distribution of heavy metals content in urban soil at Kuala Terengganu town center

    Foo, Toon Fong; Poh, Seng Chee; Asrul Azani Mahmood; Norhayati Mohd Tahir

    2008-01-01

    Total concentration of five trace metals (Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn) and two major elements (Al and Fe) as well as soil parameters (soil organic matter, pH and cation exchange capacity) were measured in soils of Kuala Terengganu town center. 40 surface soils (0-20 cm) were collected during the month of August, 2005. The soil samples (< 600 μm) were subjected to acid digestion and the concentration of total metal was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Results show that the range of metals observed were 4.16-40.90 mg/ kg, 83.70 - 380.80 mg/ kg, 2940.00 - 28600.00 mg/ kg below detection limit (BDL) - 4.88 mg/ kg, 20.00 - 219.00 mg/ kg, 7.47 - 171.00 mg/ kg and 8840.00 - 62500.00 mg/ kg for Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd, Pb, Zn and Al, respectively. Factor and Pearsons correlation analyses suggest that the Fe, Mn and Al originates from the parent materials, whereas the possible sources of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn are due to anthropogenic input such as vehicular traffic and metal corrosion since there are no major industrial activities in Kuala Terengganu. In addition, calculation of enrichment factors (Efs) for trace metals showed that Pb, Cd and Zn were significantly enriched, providing additional support to the contention that Pb, Cd and Zn level in Kuala Terengganu town center soils are due to human related activities. (author)

  7. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Beauty and ...

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential carcinogenicity of human exposure to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on African black and beauty soaps. Hence, this study examines the presence of some heavy metals in selected African black and beauty soaps commonly used in ...

  8. Source discrimination of heavy metals in sediment and water of To Lich River in Hanoi City using multivariate statistical approaches.

    Thuong, Nguyen Thi; Yoneda, Minoru; Ikegami, Maiko; Takakura, Masato

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, and Cd were determined to evaluate the level of contamination of To Lich River in Hanoi City. All metal concentrations in 0-10-cm water samples, except Mn, were lower than the maximum permitted concentration for irrigation water standard. Meanwhile, concentrations of As, Cd, and Zn in 0-30-cm sediments were likely to have adverse effects on agriculture and aquatic life. Sediment pollution assessment was undertaken using enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index (I geo). The I geo results indicated that the sediment was not polluted with Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, and the pollution level increased in the order of Cu < Pb < Zn < As < Cd. Meanwhile, significant enrichment was shown for Cd, As, Zn, and Pb. Cluster and principal component analyses suggest that As and Mn in sediment were derived from both lithogenic and anthropogenic sources, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Ni originated from anthropogenic sources such as vehicular fumes for Pb and metallic discharge from industrial sources and fertilizer application for other metals.

  9. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  10. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems.

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  11. Temporal-spatial variation and source apportionment of soil heavy metals in the representative river-alluviation depositional system.

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Ji, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    The contributions of major driving forces on temporal changes of heavy metals in the soil in a representative river-alluviation area at the lower of Yangtze River were successfully quantified by combining geostatistics analysis with the modified principal component scores & multiple linear regressions approach (PCS-MLR). The results showed that the temporal (2003-2014) changes of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr presented a similar spatial distribution pattern, whereas the Cd and Hg showed the distinctive patterns. The temporal changes of soil Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr may be predominated by the emission of the shipbuilding industry, whereas the significant changes of Cd and Hg were possibly predominated by the geochemical and geographical processes, such as the erosion of the Yangtze River water and leaching because of soil acidification. The emission of metal-bearing shipbuilding industry contributed an estimated 74%-83% of the changes in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, whereas the geochemical and geographical processes may contribute 58% of change of Cd in the soil and 59% of decrease of Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel polymer-based nanocomposites for application in heavy metal pollution remediation

    Kotzé-Jacobs, L

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available and kidney damage and also cancer ? Heavy metals can accumulate in food sources through heavy metal contamination of soil and plants ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Removal of heavy metals ? Small volume applications: ion exchange ? Larger volumes eg. acid mine... pollution, treatment shortfalls at municipalities and contaminated surface water discharges ? Accumulation of heavy metals and endocrine disrupters ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 Introduction: Heavy metals ? Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, As etc. ? Exposure can cause liver...

  13. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  14. Heavy metals in sea turtles

    Witkowski, S.A. (Millersville State College, PA); Frazier, J.G.

    1982-07-01

    Bone and barnacle samples from sea turtles (Hepidochelys olivacea) in Ecuador were analyzed for manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead. Analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that zinc and iron levels in bone and barnacles were greater than copper, manganese and lead levels. The significance of the findings is difficult to interpret because so little is known about baseline levels and physiological effects of heavy metals in the animals. (JMT)

  15. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    O. N. Korinovskaya; V. N. Gryshko

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen) G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart.) Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC)) in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderm...

  16. A Method for Identifying Pollution Sources of Heavy Metals and PAH for a Risk-Based Management of a Mediterranean Harbour

    Ombretta Paladino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for assessing harbour pollution by heavy metals and PAH and the possible sources of contamination is proposed. The procedure is based on a ratio-matching method applied to the results of principal component analysis (PCA, and it allows discrimination between point and nonpoint sources. The approach can be adopted when many sources of pollution can contribute in a very narrow coastal ecosystem, both internal and outside but close to the harbour, and was used to identify the possible point sources of contamination in a Mediterranean Harbour (Port of Vado, Savona, Italy. 235 sediment samples were collected in 81 sampling points during four monitoring campaigns and 28 chemicals were searched for within the collected samples. PCA of total samples allowed the assessment of 8 main possible point sources, while the refining ratio-matching identified 1 sampling point as a possible PAH source, 2 sampling points as Cd point sources, and 3 sampling points as C > 12 point sources. By a map analysis it was possible to assess two internal sources of pollution directly related to terminals activity. The study is the prosecution of a previous work aimed at assessing Savona-Vado Harbour pollution levels and suggested strategies to regulate the harbour activities.

  17. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  18. Assessment and source identification of pollution risk for touristic ports: Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of 4 marinas of the Apulia region (Italy).

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Piccinni, Alberto Ferruccio

    2017-01-30

    The Apulia region in Italy has the longest Adriatic coastline; thus, maritime tourism is the driving force for its economic development. Pollution risk for four representative touristic ports of the region was assessed by determining the concentrations of 10 metals, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) congeners, and the main nutrients. The cumulative mean Effects Range-Median quotient (mERMq) was used to assess the hazard degree, while the distribution patterns and content ratios of different PAH sediment concentrations were investigated to identify the pollution sources. Principal component analyses indicated an anomalous pollution trend for one of the small touristic ports assessed; this trend emerged from contamination by heavy metals and PAHs to a larger extent than expected, considering the main activity in this port, especially in its inner basin. The reason of this anomaly is thought to be the hydrodynamic and/or other stress factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of heavy metals sources in the Mexico city atmosphere, using the proton induced x-ray analytical technique and multifactorial statistics techniques

    Hernandez M, B.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: to identify the heavy metals present in the air, and its concentrations. To know the behavior from the polluting chemical elements to the long of an annual cycle corresponding to 1990, based on the concentrations of the same ones, obtained through the PIXE technique. To identify the suitable statistical methods to use to the data of metals concentration in form of total suspended particle (PST), found in this investigation. To relate the concentrations and the meteorological parameters considered to be able to suggest the possible pollution sources. In function of the obtained results, to serve as base to the decisions making and measures control that are planned by diverse institutions focused to the problem of the atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM). (Author)

  20. Distribution, speciation, environmental risk, and source identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China.

    Xu, Daoquan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Kefu

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and speciation of several heavy metals, i.e., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China, were studied comparatively. The mean contents of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were 1.72, 38.07, 0.18, 51.54, and 142.16 mg/kg, respectively, which were about 1.5-6 times higher than their corresponding regional sediment background values. Metal speciation obtained by the optimized BCR protocol highlighted the bioavailable threats of Cd, Cu, and Zn, which were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (the labile phase). Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that in sediments, As and Cr were mainly derived from natural and industrial sources, whereas fertilizer application might lead to the elevated level of Cd. Besides, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were related to traffic activities. The effects-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that Hg, Pb, and Zn could pose occasional adverse effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. However, based on the potential ecological risk assessment (PER) and risk assessment code (RAC), Cd was the most outstanding pollutant and posed the highest ecological hazard and bioavailable risk among the selected metals. Moreover, the metal partitioning between water and sediments was quantified through the calculation of the pseudo-partitioning coefficient (K P), and result implied that the sediments in this karst aquatic environment cannot be used as stable repositories for the metal pollutants.

  1. Assessment of pollution and identification of sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Changshou Lake in a branch of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Liang, Ao; Wang, Yechun; Guo, Hongtao; Bo, Lei; Zhang, Sheng; Bai, Yili

    2015-10-01

    To assess the heavy metal pollution in Changshou Lake, sediments were collected from nine sites at three periods (dry, normal, and wet) in 2013. The Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn levels were then determined. The index of geoaccumulation (I geo) and the sediment pollution index (SPI) were applied to the sediment assessment, and Pearson's correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were performed to identify common pollution sources in the basin. The results showed that heavy metals presented significant spatial variations with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, and As concentrations of 29.66~42.58, 0.62~0.91, 24.91~37.96, 21.18~74.91, 41.65~86.86, 0.079~0.152, and 20.17~36.88 mg kg(-1), respectively, and no obvious variations were found among the different periods. The average contents of the metals followed the order Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, which showed a high pollution in the sediments collected from open water and at the river mouth. The assessment results indicated that toxic heavy metals presented obvious pollution with I Hg of 0.64~1.36 (moderately polluted), I Cd of 1.66~2.22 (moderately to heavily polluted), and I As of 1.21~2.07 (moderately to heavily polluted). The heavy metal pollution states followed the order Cd > As > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr, and the SPI showed that the sediment collected from open water area was more polluted than those obtained from the tributaries and the river mouth. Cr, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, As, and Zn were mainly attributed to sediment weathering with Hg, Pb, and Cu and partially due to domestic sewage from the upper reaches. These results indicate that the more attention should be paid to the inner loads of sediment in order to achieve improvements in reservoir water quality after the control of external pollution.

  2. Tracing sediment sources in the Williams River catchment using caesium-137 and heavy metals: towards an assessment of the relative importance of surface erosion and gully erosion

    Krause, A.K.; Kalma, J.D.; Loughran, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent sediment sourcing in the 1175km 2 Williams River catchment near Newcastle, NSW, has involved the use of caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and heavy metals to identify zones of erosion and estimate erosion rates. Sediment sources to the Williams River include sheet erosion from forested and grazed lands, stream channels (especially banks), gullies and roads. The fallout environmental radioisotope 137 Cs was used to assess the erosion status of five vegetated slopes using soil sampling along transects. The net loss or gain of 137 Cs at each sampling point was compared with the 137 Cs level at a reference site at the slope crest. Net soil loss at each point was calculated from an Australian regression model relating net soil loss from runoff-erosion plots to 137 Cs deficit in soils (n=34; r=0.84). Net soil gain was calculated using the regression model in reverse mode. A weighted net soil loss (or gain) was then calculated for each slope transect. Results showed low net soil loss, ranging from zero to 0.64 t ha -1 yr 1 , suggesting that slopes were not major contributors of sediment to the Williams River. A small sub-catchment south of Wirragulla Hill, typical of the lower Williams region, was selected for more detailed tracing of sediment sources. The catchment contains gullies, sheet-erosion exposed sub-soil, grassland and one unsealed road. Heavy metals and 137 Cs have been used to fingerprint the sources, and these measurements will be compared with suspended sediment collected from drainage water in the creek. Only preliminary results have been obtained for this component of the study. The paper will assess these two approaches for the identification of sediment sources and discuss practical applications in water resources management

  3. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal by Algae

    Seema Dwivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Instead of using mainly bacteria, it is also possible to use mainly algae to clean wastewater because many of the pollutant sources in wastewater are also food sources for algae. Nitrates and phosphates are common components of plant fertilizers for plants. Like plants, algae need large quantities of nitrates and phosphates to support their fast cell cycles. Certain heavy metals are also important for the normal functioning of algae. These include iron (for photosynthesis, and chromium (for metabolism. Because marine environments are normally scarce in these metals, some marine algae especially have developed efficient mechanisms to gather these heavy metals from the environment and take them up. These natural processes can also be used to remove certain heavy metals from the environment. The use of algae has several advantages over normal bacteria-based bioremediation processes. One major advantage in the removal of pollutants is that this is a process that under light conditions does not need oxygen. Instead, as pollutants are taken up and digested, oxygen is added while carbon dioxide is removed. Hence, phytoremediation could potentially be coupled with carbon sequestration. Additionally, because phytoremediation does not rely on fouling processes, odors are much less a problem. Microalgae, in particular, have been recognized as suitable vectors for detoxification and have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to physicochemical treatments. Uptake of metals by living microalgae occurs in two steps: one takes place rapidly and is essentially independent of cell metabolism – “adsorption” onto the cell surface. The other one is lengthy and relies on cell metabolism – “absorption” or “intracellular uptake.” Nonviable cells have also been successfully used in metal removal from contaminated sites. Some of the technologies in heavy metal removals, such as High Rate Algal Ponds and Algal Turf Scrubber, have been justified for

  4. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  5. Characteristics and Sources of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 during a Typical Haze Episode in Rural and Urban Areas in Taiyuan, China

    Kankan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 samples were collected in the rural and urban areas of Taiyuan, China during a typical haze episode and the heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 were analyzed. The haze was characterized by start-up stage with a daily mean PM2.5 of 149.34 ± 52.33 and 146.73 ± 18.96 μg m−3 in the rural and urban sites, respectively, a peak stage (288.20 ± 12.43 and 323.44 ± 5.23 μg m−3, and a weakening stage (226.59 ± 12.43 and 195.60 ± 2.93 μg m−3. The concentrations of PM2.5 in the rural and urban sites in the peak stage were 5.9 and 5.5 times higher than those in the normal stage, respectively. The order of concentrations of heavy metals in PM2.5 at the rural and urban sites were the same and are listed as follows: Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd > As. Pb at the rural site, As at the urban site, and Cd at the both sites failed to meet the air quality standard. The concentrations of Pb and Zn were higher at the rural site than those at the urban site. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources of heavy metals for the rural area were raw coal combustion and soil/road dust, and for the urban area were coal combustion/industrial emissions, road/soil dust, and vehicle emissions/oil combustion.

  6. Sources and Health Risks of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 in a Campus in a Typical Suburb Area of Taiyuan, North China

    Kankan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate air pollution and the public health burden of heavy metals in PM2.5 in a campus with a population of approximately 40,000 in a typical suburb area of Taiyuan, North China, PM2.5 measurements were conducted during the spring and winter of 2016. The average concentrations of PM2.5 in spring and winter were 97.3 ± 35.2 µg m−3 and 205.9 ± 91.3 µg m−3, respectively. The order of concentration of heavy metals in PM2.5 was as follows: Zn > Pb > Mn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > As, in both spring and winter. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in winter and the concentrations of Cr in both spring and winter in this study were significantly higher than the corresponding air quality standard values. Road/soil dust, industrial emissions/coal combustion, and vehicle emissions/oil combustion and coal combustion/industrial emissions, road/soil dust, and vehicle emissions/oil combustion were identified by principal component analysis to be the major sources of heavy metals for spring and winter, respectively. The carcinogenic risks posed by Cr via the three exposure pathways (except for inhalation exposure to children and by Pb via ingestion exposure exceeded the acceptable level for both children and adults. The non-carcinogenic risks posed by Mn via inhalation for both children and adults, and by Cr and Pb for children via ingestion exceeded the acceptable level.

  7. Heavy Metal Contents in Some Commonly Consumed Vegetables

    dell

    This work reports on the levels of cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and ... source of both heavy metals and essential trace elements due to their ... content, clay mineral and other soil chemical ... addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-.

  8. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Freshwater Fishes from ...

    MBI

    2015-12-24

    Dec 24, 2015 ... indicate that the concentrations of the heavy metals in the samples are generally well above the respective recommended ... weathering processes on rocks and soils (Babel and. Opiso ..... Source apportionment of suspended.

  9. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  10. Oil Spill Related Heavy Metal: A Review

    Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Hafizan Juahir; Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Mohammad Azizi Amran; Che Noraini Che Hasnam; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Syahril Hirman Azmee; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill occurs every day worldwide and oil contamination is a significant contributor for the higher levels of heavy metals in the environment. This study is purposely to summarize the heavy metals which significant to major oil spill incidents around the world and effects of toxic metals to human health. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning heavy metals contamination and oil spills. Overall, the heavy metals most frequently been detected in oil spill related study where Pb>Ni>V>Zn>Cd and caused many effects to human health especially cancer. In conclusion, the comparison of heavy metal level between the post - spill and baseline levels must be done, and implementation of continuous monitoring of heavy metal. In addition, the result based on the strategies must be transparent to public in order to maintaining human health. (author)

  11. Heavy metals in trees and energy crops - a literature review

    Johnsson, Lars

    1995-12-01

    This literature review deals with the use of energy crops for cleaning of soils from heavy metals. It also deals with the use of low accumulating energy crops to be used on strongly contaminated soils where a low uptake of heavy metals is preferred, for example on mining deposits. In addition to the efforts to reduce the sources for heavy metal contamination of soils (for example commercial fertilizers and atmospheric deposition) the uptake and removal of heavy metals from the soils by the use of energy crops have recently been discussed as a method for cleaning of soils. Species from the Salix family (willow) have a greater potential for accumulating heavy metals than cereals which makes them interesting for this purpose. The Salix family consists of species with a great genetic variation. This will probably make it possible to find or develop clones with different characteristics suitable for cleaning of contaminated soils as well as for plant covering of soils that are extremely contaminated by heavy metals. In the former case an accumulation of heavy metals in the harvested parts, the shoots, is preferred. In the later case clones that do not accumulate heavy metals and maybe also clones with only root accumulation are preferred. There are also Salix clones with a specific accumulation of heavy metals which makes it possible to clean soils from a toxic metal and at the same time avoid the risk for deficiency of essential metals, for example Zn. The greatest potential to clean soils by the use of energy crops, is when the contamination levels in the soils are low, the areas to clean are large and when the time needed for cleaning is of minor importance. The most suitable soils are those where the metal contamination is located in the top soil layer and where the heavy metal concentrations in the sub soil layer are still low. 58 refs, 8 tabs, 1 fig

  12. Heavy metal levels in Sokoto metropolis as a result of local ...

    new user

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... and geological factors) or human activities (industrial and agricultural activities) ... mulation of heavy metal; aluminium, cadmium, chromium iron, copper .... Traditional utensils: potentials sources of poisoning by heavy metals.

  13. Distribution, sources and contamination assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of the South Yellow Sea and northern part of the East China Sea.

    Lu, Jian; Li, Anchun; Huang, Peng

    2017-11-15

    Surface sediment samples collected from the South Yellow Sea and northern part of the East China Sea during spring and autumn, respectively, were analyzed for grain size, aluminum, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) to evaluate heavy metal levels and the contamination status. The results showed that all of the heavy metal concentrations met the standard criteria of the Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality. Both the EFs and a multivariate analysis (PCA) indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn were mainly from natural contributions, while Pb was influenced by anthropogenic inputs, especially during autumn. The geoaccumulation index of Pb near the mouth of the Yangtze River suggested that the pollution degree in autumn was heavier than that in spring, which might be caused by the greater river discharge in summer and more heavy metal adsorption with finer grain sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): Implications for historical pollution

    Xu, Yonghang, E-mail: yonghang_xu@163.com [Open Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Environmental Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Qinqin [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Coast and Island Management Technology Study, Fujian Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361013 (China); Yi, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin, Xijie; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai; Chen, Jian [Open Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Environmental Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ∼ 70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were < 1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China. - Highlights: • Grain size, clay mineral and Pb isotope were used to identify sediment sources. • The contribution of Yangtze River to northern of Taiwan Strait was quantified. • Enrichment factors indicated Cu and Pb have increased over the last decades. • Coal combustion was the prevailing contamination source. • The anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranged from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010.

  15. The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): Implications for historical pollution

    Xu, Yonghang; Sun, Qinqin; Yi, Liang; Yin, Xijie; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ∼ 70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were < 1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China. - Highlights: • Grain size, clay mineral and Pb isotope were used to identify sediment sources. • The contribution of Yangtze River to northern of Taiwan Strait was quantified. • Enrichment factors indicated Cu and Pb have increased over the last decades. • Coal combustion was the prevailing contamination source. • The anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranged from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010

  16. Comprehensive risk assessment and source identification of selected heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, As) in tidal saltmarsh sediments of Shuangtai Estuary, China.

    Liu, Chang-Fa; Li, Bing; Wang, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yuan; Cai, Heng-Jiang; Wei, Hai-Feng; Wu, Jia-Wen; Li, Jin

    2017-10-06

    Heavy metals do not degrade and can remain in the environment for a long time. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, and As, on environmental quality, pollutant enrichment, ecological hazard, and source identification of elements in sediments using data collected from samples taken from Shuangtai tidal wetland. The comprehensive pollution indices were used to assess environmental quality; fuzzy similarity analysis and geoaccumulation index were used to analyze pollution accumulation; correlation matrix, principal component analysis, and clustering analysis were used to analyze pollution source; environmental risk index and ecological risk index were used to assess ecological risk. The results showed that the environmental quality was either clean or almost clean. Pollutant enrichment analysis showed that the four sub-regions had similar pollution-causing metals to the background values of the soil element of the Liao River Plain, which were ranked according to their similarity. Source identification showed that all the elements were correlated. Ecological hazard analysis showed that the environmental risk index in the study area was less than zero, posing a low ecological risk. Ecological risk of the six elements was as follows: As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn.

  17. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  18. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern - a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems

    Kintrup, J. [Chemistry Lab., Wessling GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Wuensch, G. [Lehrgebiet Analytische Chemie, Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic ''sewer slime impact'' is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto. (orig.)

  20. Modeling of Heavy Metal Transformation in Soil Ecosystem

    Kalinichenko, Kira; Nikovskaya, Galina N.

    2017-04-01

    The intensification of industrial activity leads to an increase in heavy metals pollution of soils. In our opinion, sludge from biological treatment of municipal waste water, stabilized under aerobic-anaerobic conditions (commonly known as biosolid), may be considered as concentrate of natural soil. In their chemical, physical and chemical and biological properties these systems are similar gel-like nanocomposites. These contain microorganisms, humic substances, clay, clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds, and so on involved into heteropolysaccharides matrix. It is known that microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of different nature substances in soil and its health maintenance. The regularities of transformation of heavy metal compounds in soil ecosystem were studied at the model of biosolid. At biosolid swelling its structure changing (gel-sol transition, weakening of coagulation contacts between metal containing nanoparticles, microbial cells and metabolites, loosening and even destroying of the nanocomposite structure) can occur [1, 2]. The promotion of the sludge heterotrophic microbial activities leads to solubilization of heavy metal compounds in the system. The microbiological process can be realized in alcaligeneous or acidogeneous regimes in dependence on the type of carbon source and followed by the synthesis of metabolites with the properties of flocculants and heavy metals extragents [3]. In this case the heavy metals solubilization (bioleaching) in the form of nanoparticles of hydroxycarbonate complexes or water soluble complexes with oxycarbonic acids is observed. Under the action of biosolid microorganisms the heavy metals-oxycarbonic acids complexes can be transformed (catabolised) into nano-sizing heavy metals- hydroxycarbonates complexes. These ecologically friendly complexes and microbial heteropolysaccharides are able to interact with soil colloids, stay in the top soil profile, and improve soil structure due

  1. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a mesophilic heavy-metals-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomicrobium sp. from an enrichment culture using phosphogypsum as a sulfate source

    Azabou, Samia; Mechichi, Tahar; Patel, Bharat K.C.; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, was isolated from a 6 month trained enrichment culture in an anaerobic media containing phosphogypsum as a sulfate source, and, designated strain SA2. Cells of strain SA2 were rod-shaped, did not form spores and stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Desulfomicrobium (average sequence similarity of 98%) with Desulfomicrobium baculatum being the most closely related (sequence similarity of 99%). Strain SA2 used thiosulfate, sulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors and produced sulfide. Strain SA2 reduced sulfate contained in 1-20 g/L phosphogypsum to sulfide with reduction of sulfate contained in 2 g/L phosphogypsum being the optimum concentration. Strain SA2 grew with metalloid, halogenated and non-metal ions present in phosphogypsum and with added high concentrations of heavy metals (125 ppm Zn and 100 ppm Ni, W, Li and Al). The relative order for the inhibitory metal concentrations, based on the IC 50 values, was Cu, Te > Cd > Fe, Co, Mn > F, Se > Ni, Al, Li > Zn

  3. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  4. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  5. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    Scheloske, Stefan E-mail: stefan.scheloske@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Maetz, Mischa; Schuessler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  6. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  7. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metal contamination in coastal areas of South China has been reviewed. • Heavy metal levels were closely related to economic development in past decades. • Heavy metal levels from Hong Kong continually decreased from the early 1990s. • Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in mollusk. • Levels of heavy metals in part of seafood exceeded the safety limit. -- Abstract: Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit

  8. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for

  9. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND CRUDE PROTEIN ...

    UNICORN

    to quantify heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and crude protein content of these species that are sold in ... in protein, omega 3 and low fat content. Furthermore ... high levels of cadmium can cause kidney and liver damage in man [6]. Motivation .... analysis. Determination of heavy metals in the edible tissues of the organisms.

  10. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention

  11. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solution by melanin nanopigment obtained from marine source: Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    Manirethan, Vishnu; Raval, Keyur; Rajan, Reju; Thaira, Harsha; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan

    2018-05-15

    The difficulty in removal of heavy metals at concentrations below 10 mg/L has led to the exploration of efficient adsorbents for removal of heavy metals. The adsorption capacity of biosynthesized melanin for Mercury (Hg(II)), Chromium (Cr(VI)), Lead (Pb(II)) and Copper (Cu(II)) was investigated at different operating conditions like pH, time, initial concentration and temperature. The heavy metals adsorption process was well illustrated by the Lagergren's pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted excellently to Langmuir isotherm. Maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm for Hg(II) was 82.4 mg/g, Cr(VI) was 126.9 mg/g, Pb(II) was 147.5 mg/g and Cu(II) was 167.8 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption of heavy metals on melanin is favorable, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Binding of heavy metals on melanin surface was proved by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Contemplating the results, biosynthesized melanin can be a potential adsorbent for efficient removal of Hg(II), Cr(VI), Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Sharizal Hasan; Mohd Lias Kamal; NorShahrizan Mohd Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  13. The experiment and research on the migration of the heavy metal

    He Zhijie; Le Renchang; Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang

    2007-01-01

    A device available to observe the heavy metal's migration is designed. We discovered that mixed with α-radioactive source such as U, Th etc., the heavy metal processes the obvious upward migration ability because of α-disintegration. The heavy metals and He nuclei can come into being Cluster. When the specific gravity of Clusters is smaller than that of the air, the Clusters of the heavy metal have the ability of upward migration. (authors)

  14. Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus ...

    Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus papillio from the mangrove swamps of the Bukuma oilfield, Rivers State. ... Generally elevated metal levels in both tissues were recorded at the stations with wellheads, implicating oil-related activities as the main source of contamination. However, the levels in ...

  15. Concentration of heavy metals from traffic emissions on plant ...

    In recent years, emission and combustion of fossils and fuels have been identified as primary sources of atmospheric metallic burden. Detailed information about this is not readily available in Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury and cadmium} ...

  16. Heavy Metal Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/heavymetalbloodtest.html Heavy Metal Blood Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Heavy Metal Blood Test? A heavy metal blood test ...

  17. Spatial-temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of typical Heavy Metals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China Based on Localized Air Pollutants Emission Inventory and WRF-CMAQ modelling

    Tian, H.; Liu, S.; Zhu, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of air pollutants have caused worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available emission factors for varied source categories, we established the comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of hazardous air pollutants including 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China for the period of 2012 for the first time. The annual emissions of these pollutants were allocated at a high spatial resolution of 9km × 9km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, the total heavy metal emissions from this region represented about 10.9% of the Chinese national total emissions. The areas with high emissions of heavy metals were mainly concentrated in Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Tianjin. Further, WRF-CMAQ modeling system were applied to simulate the regional concentration of heavy metals to explore their spatial-temporal variations, and the source apportionment of these heavy metals in BTH region was performed using the Brute-Force method. Finally, integrated countermeasures were proposed to minimize the final air pollutants discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China. Keywords: heavy metals; particulate matter; emission inventory; CMAQ model; source apportionment Acknowledgment. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377012 and 21177012) and the Trail Special Program of Research on the Cause and Control Technology of Air Pollution under the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0201501).

  18. Effects of Heavy Metals from Soil and Dust Source on DNA Damage of the Leymus chinensis Leaves in Coal-Mining Area in Northwest China.

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Lu, Zhongming; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Mumbengegwi, Dzivaidzo; Crittenden, John

    2016-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from mining activities has been considered as a critical issue to the health of living organisms. However, few efforts have been made in distinguishing the main pathway of organism genetic damage by heavy metals related to mining activities. Therefore, we investigated the genetic damage of Leymus chinensis leaf cells, the air particulate matter (PM) contents, and concentrations of the main heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg) in soil and foliar dust samples collected from seven experiment points at the core mining area and one control point 20 kilometers away from the core mining area in Inner Mongolia in 2013. Comet assay was used to test the genetic damage of the Leymus chinensis leaf cells; the Tail DNA% and Tail Moment were used to characterize the genetic damage degree of the plant cells. The comet assay results showed that the cell genetic damage ratio was up to 77.0% in experiment points but was only 35.0% in control point. The control point also had the slight Tail DNA% and Tail Moment values than other experiment groups. The cell damage degree of the control group was 0.935 and experiment groups were 1.299-1.815. The geo-accumulation index and comperehensive pollution index(CPI) were used to characterize heavy metal pollution in foliar dust samples, and single factor pollution index and CPI were used to characterize the heavy metal pollution in soil samples. The CPIfoliar dust of control group was 0.36 and experiment groups were 1.45-2.57; the CPIsoil of control group was 0.04 and experiment groups were 0.07-0.12. The results of correlation analyze showed that Air Quality Index (AQI) -CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.955**)>Damage degree-CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.923**)>Damage degree-AQI(r = 0.908**)>Damage degree-CPIsoil (r = 0.824*). The present research proved that mining activity had a high level of positive correlation with organism genetic damage caused by heavy metals through comparing with the control point; soil and atmosphere were both the

  19. Distribution and possible sources of some heavy metals in the sediment cores at the front bay (Carter) and Labor Island (Khor Maksar), Aden (Yemen)

    Ali, Anis Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Metal contents (Cd, Co,Cu,Fe,Mn,Pb an Zn) in the sediments are measured in the same cores that collected and determined by using atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) method. two areas were chosen in Aden, Labor Island, and front Bay. The vertical sequence of sedimentary structures reflected variations in processes and rates of sedimentation with ti,e. The difference in metal concentration between the recent (upper) and the historical (lower) sediments is defined as the anthropogenic metal concentration. the series of studied cores, gave a regional picture of the sediments, metal fluxes, the calculated budgets for sediments, and metal deposition. Statistically, significant correlations (p<0.01) between concentrations of selected metals were observed, fractions < 100μm and < 250μm are the best to accumulate the heavy metals. Improvement of the situation in the two studied areas during the last decades is reflected by the decrease in anthropogenic fluxes into these areas. (author)

  20. The influence of heavy metals on the production of extracellular polymer substances in the processes of heavy metal ions elimination.

    Mikes, J; Siglova, M; Cejkova, A; Masak, J; Jirku, V

    2005-01-01

    Wastewaters from a chemical industry polluted by heavy metal ions represent a hazard for all living organisms. It can mean danger for ecosystems and human health. New methods are sought alternative to traditional chemical and physical processes. Active elimination process of heavy metals ions provided by living cells, their components and extracellular products represents a potential way of separating toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. While the abilities of bacteria to remove metal ions in solution are extensively used, fungi have been recognized as a promising kind of low-cost adsorbents for removal of heavy-metal ions from aqueous waste sources. Yeasts and fungi differ from each other in their constitution and in their abilities to produce variety of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with different mechanisms of metal interactions. The accumulation of Cd(2+), Cr(6+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) by yeasts and their EPS was screened at twelve different yeast species in microcultivation system Bioscreen C and in the shaking Erlenmayer's flasks. This results were compared with the production of yeast EPS and the composition of yeast cell walls. The EPS production was measured during the yeast growth and cell wall composition was studied during the cultivations in the shaking flasks. At the end of the process extracellular polymers and their chemical composition were isolated and amount of bound heavy metals was characterized. The variable composition and the amount of the EPS were found at various yeast strains. It was influenced by various compositions of growth medium and also by various concentrations of heavy metals. It is evident, that the amount of bound heavy metals was different. The work reviews the possibilities of usage of various yeast EPS and components of cell walls in the elimination processes of heavy metal ions. Further the structure and properties of yeasts cell wall and EPS were discussed. The finding of mechanisms mentioned

  1. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa

    Polidoro, Beth A.; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T.; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-01-01

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. - Highlights: • Several coastal stream sediments in American Samoa are high in lead and mercury. • Organophosphate pesticides, including Parathion, are present in coastal streams. • More research is needed on the sources, fate and impacts of these contaminants.

  2. Investigations of biofilms in the sewerage system of a highly contaminated industrial and mining area for the localization of heavy metal sources. Final report

    Cichos, C.; Singliar, U.

    1993-02-01

    The high heavy metal loading of the river Freiberger Mulde is largely caused by contaminations arising from the drainage area of the town of Freiberg. The diffuse input from the dewatering surface likely makes an important contribution to this pollution. The elimination of the reasons for the pollutant input into the sewerage and, thus, for the extremely high contamination of the sewage sludges requires a localization of sources and transport ways. For this purpose the method of investigation of biofilms on the sewer surface can be applied as a reliable method. For the industrial and mining area of Freiberg besides the different branches of industry especially the secondary emissions from deposits of old mining and metallurgical plants as well as from the extremely loaded surface of soil play an important role. The investigation of sewerage biofilms in the area considered have shown that the input of nickel and tin into the sewer is mainly caused by industry. Sources of zinc and copper above all are domestic wastewaters, whereas lead is originated from the surface run-off. Especially high pollutions of arsen and cadmium were found obviously arising from mining and production scraps. The results obtained should be the basis of activities for definite interruption of the pollutant input into the sewer system. They are a contribution to the restoration of the hydrographical network of Mulde/Elbe. (orig.) [de

  3. Biomolecules for Removal of Heavy Metal.

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Patents reveal that heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to identify the role of biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, natural compounds containing aromatic acid etc. for heavy metal removal by bio sorption. It has been observed that efficiency of biomolecules can be increased by functionalization e.g. cellulose functionalization with EDTA, chitosan with sulphur groups, alginate with carboxyl/ hydroxyl group etc. It was found that the porous structure of aerogel beads improves both sorption and kinetic properties of the material. Out of polypeptides metallothionein has been widely used for removal of heavy metal up to 88% from seawater after a single centrifugation. These cost effective functionalized biomolecules are significantly used for remediation of heavy metals by immobilizing these biomolecules onto materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  5. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  7. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    Bode, P.; De Bruin, M.; Aalbers, Th.G.; Meyer, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  8. Heavy metal(loid)s and organic contaminants in groundwater in the Pearl River Delta that has undergone three decades of urbanization and industrialization: Distributions, sources, and driving forces.

    Huang, Guanxing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Chunyan; Li, Liangping; Chen, Zongyu

    2018-09-01

    Urbanization and industrialization have increased groundwater resource demands, and may drive the change of heavy metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in groundwater in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the distributions, sources, and driving forces of heavy metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in groundwater in the PRD is vital for water resource management in this region. In this study, eight heavy metal(loid)s and fifty-five organic chemicals in groundwater across the PRD were investigated. The results show that undrinkable groundwater related to heavy metal(loid)s was mainly due to high concentrations of Fe (19.3%) and As (6.8%). Eighteen organic contaminants were detected in groundwater in the PRD, where the most frequently detected organic contaminant was naphthalene, and its detection rate was 2.51%. In 5.3% of all groundwater samples, one or more organic contaminants were found. All detected organic contaminants, except ones without allowable limits, in groundwater were at concentrations below allowable limits of China. The mean concentrations of heavy metal(loid)s in granular aquifers were higher than those in fissured and karst aquifers, especially for Fe and As. Except Se, the mean concentrations of other heavy metal(loid)s and the frequency of detection of organic contaminants in groundwater in urbanized and peri-urban areas were higher than those in non-urbanized areas, especially for Hg, Co, and organic contaminants. Fe, As, and Se in groundwater mainly originated from the release of Fe/As/Se rich sediments. The former two were driven by reduction reactions, while the latter was driven by oxidation resulting from the infiltration of NO 3 - . In contrast, other five heavy metal(loid)s and organic contaminants in groundwater mainly originated from the anthropogenic sources, such as the infiltration of industrial sewage. It is evident that urbanization and industrialization are two powerful driving forces for

  9. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for cleaning up contaminated sites, which is ... A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been ...

  10. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological ...

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics

    ISSN 1597-6343. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics ... analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer – coupled with a hydride ... presence of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead. (Pb) in ...

  12. Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building

    Nor Aimi abdul Wahab; Fairus Muhamad Darus; Norain Isa; Siti Mariam Sumari; Nur Fatihah Muhamad Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in settled surface dust were collected from nine residential buildings in different areas in Seberang Prai Tengah District, Pulau Pinang. The samples of settled surface dust were collected in 1 m 2 area by using a polyethylene brush and placed in the dust pan by sweeping the living room floor most accessible to the occupants. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results show that the range of heavy metals observed in residential buildings at Seberang Prai Tengah were in the range of 2.20-14.00 mg/ kg, 1.50-32.70 mg/ kg, 1.50-76.80 mg/ kg and 14.60-54.40 mg/ kg for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the investigated areas followed the order: Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. Statistical analysis indicates significant correlation between all the possible pairs of heavy metal. The results suggest a likely common source for the heavy metal contamination, which could be traced most probably to vehicular emissions, street dust and other related activities. (author)

  13. Coke industry and steel metallurgy as the source of soil contamination by technogenic magnetic particles, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Wawer, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Application of integrated magnetic, geochemical and mineralogical methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of forest topsoils exposed to the industrial emissions was the objective of this manuscript. Volume magnetic susceptibility (κ) in three areas of southern Poland close to the coke and metallurgical plants was measured directly in the field. Representative topsoil samples were collected for further chemical and mineralogical analyses. Topsoil magnetic susceptibility in the studied areas depended mainly on the content of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and decreased downwind at increasing distance from the emitters. In the vicinity of coking plants a high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed, especially the most carcinogenic ones with four- and five-member rings. No significant concentration of TMPs (estimated on the base of κ values) and heavy metals (HM) was observed in area where the coke plant was the only pollution source. In areas with both coke and metallurgical industry, higher amounts of TMPs, PAHs and HM were detected. Morphological and mineralogical analyses of TMPs separated from contaminated soil samples revealed their high heterogeneity in respect of morphology, grain size, mineral and chemical constitution. Pollution load index and toxicity equivalent concentration of PAHs used for soil quality assessment indicated its high level of pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M.A. Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. - Highlights: • Co-exposure to multiple heavy metals in drinking water needs better understanding • Low-cost technologies for arsenic removal needs urgent attention • Protonated alginate needs further research for drinking water applications • Community level and PoU devices need improvement and cost reduction • Developing countries are most affected by heavy metals in drinking water

  15. Microbes in Heavy Metal Remediation: A Review on Current Trends and Patents.

    Mishra, Geetesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in the environmental samples like soil, water and runoff water is a worldwide problem. Such contamination of environmental matrices by the heavy metals accumulates due to various activities involving human driven sources and industries, although agriculture and sewage disposal are the largest source for the heavy metal contamination. Disposal of heavy metals or waste products containing heavy metals in the environment postures a trivial threat to public safety and health. Heavy metals are persistence and they can also cause biomagnifications and accumulate in food chain. Microbial bioremediation of heavy metal is emerging as an effective technique. Microbial bioremediation is a highly efficient environmental friendly procedure which also reduces the cost of cleanup process associated with heavy metal contamination. New methods for removal of heavy metals from the environmental samples are under development and most recent advancements have been made in exploring the knowledge of metal-microbes interactions and its use for heavy metal remediation. This review paper will focus on the microbial bioremediation process and highlight some of the newly developed patented methods for microbial bioremediation of the heavy metals from the environmental samples using microbial populations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat, E-mail: Schowdhury@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Mazumder, M.A. Jafar [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Attas, Omar [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Husain, Tahir [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. - Highlights: • Co-exposure to multiple heavy metals in drinking water needs better understanding • Low-cost technologies for arsenic removal needs urgent attention • Protonated alginate needs further research for drinking water applications • Community level and PoU devices need improvement and cost reduction • Developing countries are most affected by heavy metals in drinking water.

  17. Mobile heavy metal fractions in soils

    Horak, O.; Kamel, A.A.; Ecker, S.; Benetka, E.; Rebler, R.; Lummerstorfer, E.; Kandeler, E.

    1994-01-01

    A long term outdoor experiment was conducted in plastic containers (50 litres) with three soils, contaminated by increasing concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and vanadium. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of heavy metal contamination on soil microbial processes as well as the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Spring barley, followed by winter endive were grown as experimental crops in a first vegetation period, while spring wheat was grown during the second year. The soil microbial activities, indicated by arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase, and substrate-induced respiration, decreased with increasing heavy metal contamination. Significant correlations were observed between the inhibition of soil microorganisms and the easily mobilizable heavy metal fractions of soils, extracted by a solution of 1 M ammoniumacetate at pH = 7. The heavy metal accumulation in vegetative and generative parts of the crop plants also showed a good agreement with mobilizable soil fractions. The results of the experiment indicate, that the extraction with ammoniumacetate can be used as a reference method for determination of tolerable heavy metal concentrations in soils. (authors)

  18. Gender identity and the electric guitar in heavy metal music

    Kelly, Philip

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I will attempt to outline the gendered characteristics of heavy metal and the electric guitar and address the question: has society’s impression of heavy metal as a primarily masculine pursuit been so imbedded in Western culture that we will never see a female heavy metal band achieve the same level of success as a male heavy metal band?

  19. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  20. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  1. Heavy metals: teeth as environmental biomarkers

    Lumbau, Aurea Maria Immacolata; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca; Carboni, Donatella; Ginesu, Sergio; Falchi, Simonetta; Schinocca, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals in tooth matrix and to determine the factors that affect their presence. During tooth development and mineralization several metals can be absorbed in the tooth matrix, thus allowing us to use them as biological markers.

  2. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    El, Dorry Hamza; Siam, Rania; Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2014-01-01

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II

  3. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    V. Jena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  4. Heavy metal pollution in marine mollusks from the coastal waters of ...

    Studies of heavy metals in four marine mollusks, Thais haemastoma, T. nodosa, Nerita senegalensis and P. perna, have been conducted. This involved the assessment of levels of heavy metal pollution from point sources in the Korle lagoon and the determination of the extent to which these metals are transported by ...

  5. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  6. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  7. [Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].

    Lauková, A

    1994-01-01

    Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies.

  8. Biomonitoring of some heavy metal contaminations from a steel ...

    Soil and plants growing in the vicinity of industrial areas display increased concentrations of heavy metals and give an indication of the environmental quality. The contamination source for aluminum, iron, nickel and lead in the Botanical garden of Mobarakeh Steel Company was recognized by analyzing the leaves and ...

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking Water sources in Sokoto metropolis in North-western Nigeria. ... Tap water samples had similar conductivity values (180 -190μS/m), sachet water samples had conductivity values ranging from 80μS/m to 260μS/m while well water samples had highest ...

  10. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  11. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  12. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  13. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Obi, E.; Akunyili, Dora N.; Ekpo, B.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2006-01-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO 3 .The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies

  14. Heavy Metal Pollution Around International Hatay Airport

    Abdullah Özkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the heavy metal pollution in the agricultural lands around Hatay airport and travel possible alteration in the amount of heavy metal on the land in accordance with the distance to the airport. For this purpose, the airport was chosen as the center and 27 soil samples were obtained around the airport at 2 km intervals in depth ranging from 0 to 30 cm. Lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chrome (Cr, cobalt (Co, aluminium (Al, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn elements in soil samples were analysed using MP-AES instrument by DTPA method. (3 repetition for each sample. As a result of the analysis, heavy metal concentrations were found as Pb 0-1.45 mg/kg, Cd 0-0.220 mg/kg, Ni 0-3.95 mg/kg, Cr 0-0.780 mg/kg, Co 0-0.270 mg/kg, Al 0-0.700 mg/kg, Fe 1.47- 16.2 mg/kg, Cu 0.400-5.35 mg/kg, Mn 0-19 mg/kg and Zn 0.050-3.14 mg/kg. When comparing the obtained data through this study with allowable concentrations of heavy metals in soil of Environment and Forest Directorates Guidance, it was determined that the heavy metal concentration of the soil does not pose any problems in terms of heavy metal pollution. Besides, iron concentration was decreased when the distance to the airport is increased.

  15. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  16. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS (REVIEW)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To review scientific sources on the distribution of heavy metals among the components of freshwater ecosystems. Findings. The review of the works of many scientists showed that heavy metals are widespread in the biotic and abiotic components of freshwater ecosystems. The article highlights the distribution of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments, natural food base, fish organs and tissues. It has been shown that as a result of global pollution of the ecosystem, the majority of...

  18. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  20. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  1. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment

    Barganska, Z.; Beyer, A; Klimaszewska, K.; Namiesnik, J.; Tobiszewski, M.; Rutkiewicz, I.

    2010-01-01

    15 th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (15 th ICHMET) is a continuation of a series of conferences that have been held since 1975. These conferences typically draw 500-1000 participants from countries in many parts of the world. The ICHMETs are the only forum that provide an integrated perspective on research and policy initiatives on all heavy metals in a trans-disciplinary context. There is a need to understand not only the unique features and behavior of individual heavy metals but also the differences, similarities and interactions of different metals at the ecosystem, systemic and cellular levels if we are to deal with the problems of global heavy metal pollution in a sustainable manner. The presented contributions concerned problems: (1) trend tracking/analysis of heavy metals data; (2) analytical tools and techniques; (3) heavy metals in the marine environment; (4) accumulation in foods and crops; (5) soil contamination; (6) heavy metals in sediments and remediation technologies; (7) effects on human health; (8) heavy metals in the atmosphere; (9) sources, emissions and control of heavy metals; (10) phytoremediation; (11) wastewater treatment; (12) heavy metals in the historical pollution record.

  2. Pyrolized biochar for heavy metal adsorption

    Removal of copper and lead metal ions from water using pyrolized plant materials. Method can be used to develop a low cost point-of-use device for cleaning contaminated water. This dataset is associated with the following publication:DeMessie, B., E. Sahle-Demessie , and G. Sorial. Cleaning Water Contaminated With Heavy Metal Ions Using Pyrolyzed Banana Peel Adsorbents. Separation Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker Incorporated, New York, NY, USA, 50(16): 2448-2457, (2015).

  3. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  4. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metals ...

    Physicochemical properties of municipal dumpsite compost in Kano metropolis and concentration of heavy metals were investigated. Analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry (Buck Scientific VPG 210). The results shows that the compost pH (6.63-8.19), electric conductivity of compost (638-933μs/cm), ...

  5. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  6. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Callinectes amnicola and ...

    The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organisms is as a result of pollutants discharge generated by anthropogenic and natural activities which has become a tremendous concern in developing nations. The levels of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, zinc and nickel in the tissue of Callinectes amnicola and ...

  7. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    This study investigates the presence of heavy metal contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus. Adult C. nigrodigitatus and L. niloticus were obtained from fishermen in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria. Water samples were also collected during the wet and dry seasons of the year in the same locality.

  8. Heavy metal levels, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... out to assess the microbial, physicochemical and heavy metal characteristics of soil samples from five different waste collection sites within the University of Benin, Benin City and evaluated using standard analytical and classical microbiological methods.

  9. On chemical activity of heavy metal oxides

    Mechev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of solid oxides of heavy nonferrous metals with sulfur and carbon is investigated. The results are discussed. Direct dependence of chemical activity of oxides on disordering of their crystal lattice at heating is established. Beginning of interaction in the systems studied is accompanied by change of oxide conductivity type

  10. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    Chamier, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available on various substrates introduced the possibility for portable and on-site instant verification of heavy metal pollutants. In this work, the favorable properties of the mercury-sensitive fluorescent molecule, Rhodamine 6G hydrozone derivative (RS), were...

  11. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  12. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    a

    emissions from automobile exhaust, waste incineration, land disposal of wastes, use of .... of total organic carbon increased from 2.0 ± 1.5 % in the top soil to 3.42 ± 0.83 ..... Thus, accumulation of heavy metals in the soil has potential to restrict.

  13. Heavy metal pollution of man and environment - A historical perspective

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    1989-01-01

    'Normal' levels of heavy metals are disturbingly close to toxic levels. This may be a man-made or natural phenomenon. The man-made exposure to heavy metals started thousands of years ago. In some European populations in the past the lead level was orders of magnitude higher than now, where it is comparable with the prehistoric level. The former high contamination of human populations was due to intake of metals from immediate sources (utensils, drugs, etc) not to their dispersion in the environment. A dramatic decrease of lead level in man occurred recently, when the majority of the immediate sources disappeared, but when at the local (but not at the global) scale the environmental level of metals increased. The current flow of metals into the global atmosphere, similar to the pre-industrial flow, is still dominated by natural processes, such as biological methylization of metals. This leads to an enrichment of the airborne particles in metals up to several orders of magnitude above the crustal abundances. It is not the magnitude of emissions of metals into the global atmosphere that marks a new role of man in the biosphere, but the mass of anthropogenic mobilization of raw materials now reaching the geological dimensions. (author)

  14. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries.

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M A Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  16. Source apportionment of soil heavy metals using robust absolute principal component scores-robust geographically weighted regression (RAPCS-RGWR) receptor model.

    Qu, Mingkai; Wang, Yan; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2018-06-01

    The traditional source apportionment models, such as absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR), are usually susceptible to outliers, which may be widely present in the regional geochemical dataset. Furthermore, the models are merely built on variable space instead of geographical space and thus cannot effectively capture the local spatial characteristics of each source contributions. To overcome the limitations, a new receptor model, robust absolute principal component scores-robust geographically weighted regression (RAPCS-RGWR), was proposed based on the traditional APCS-MLR model. Then, the new method was applied to the source apportionment of soil metal elements in a region of Wuhan City, China as a case study. Evaluations revealed that: (i) RAPCS-RGWR model had better performance than APCS-MLR model in the identification of the major sources of soil metal elements, and (ii) source contributions estimated by RAPCS-RGWR model were more close to the true soil metal concentrations than that estimated by APCS-MLR model. It is shown that the proposed RAPCS-RGWR model is a more effective source apportionment method than APCS-MLR (i.e., non-robust and global model) in dealing with the regional geochemical dataset. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy ion source and preaccelerator for the NUMATRON

    Sakurada, Yuzo; Mizobuchi, Akira

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the present status of the heavy ion source and the preaccelerator for the NUMATRON. It has become clear that a combination of different types of ion sources gives much advantage for optimum operations: a use of the PIG source is best suited for metallic ions, while the duoplasmatron and the single stage ECR source provide better gaseous ions with low charge states. It is suggested that an increase of the preacceleration up to 750kV by the cockcroft-Walton enables acceptance of lower charge states from the ion source. (author)

  18. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  19. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid

    Wahlund, J.-E.; Andrews, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an ESA/M5 spacecraft mission to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×1019 kg of (16) Psyche make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, 4.5 g cm-3, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. (16) Psyche orbits the Sun with semi-major axis 2.9 AU, 3º inclination, and is as yet unexplored in-situ.

  20. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    Mgina

    accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. To study such ... heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area. ... mine is about 100 kilometers east of Lake. Victoria and 20 ...

  1. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  2. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    Agadaga

    Key words: Heavy metals, freshwater, concentrations, quality, variation, distribution. ... prevalence of heavy metals in inland water of lower River. Niger drain are scarce ..... Niger waters at Ajaokuta were found to be low and within guideline.

  3. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban ... water is not mentioned by WHO, but all the samples analyzed were found to ... Key words: Drinking water quality, Heavy metals, Maximum admissible limit, ...

  4. Phytoremediation of heavy metals with several efficiency enhancer ...

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Key words: phytoremediation, heavy metal, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, multi-functional method. ... population in the twentieth century, heavy metal ... This natural and environmental friendly technology is.

  5. heavy metals and cyanide distribution in the villages surrounding ...

    detection limit) were higher in the wells closest to the Tailing Storage Facility ... Key Words: Heavy metals pollution, Total cyanide, ground water pollution and ..... cyanide, heavy metals and probably other hazardous substances, leakage of.

  6. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    FLEXI-DONEST

    the use of private electricity generating sets, in recent times, have ... soil and evaluate the impact of heavy metal on soil degradable ..... a reasonable length of time by herbivores may .... Heavy Metals in Root, Stem and Leaves of Acalypha.

  7. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs

  8. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    Lo, H.M.; Lin, K.C.; Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z.; Lin, C.Y.; Liu, W.F.; Fang, G.C.; Lu, C.; Chiang, C.F.; Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO 3 and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K d (l g -1 ) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K d (l g -1 ) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions

  9. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    Lo, H.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hmlo@cyut.edu.tw; Lin, K.C. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jiangguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.Y. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, W.F. [Department of Electronical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, G.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Lu, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, C.F. [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO{sub 3} and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions.

  10. Heavy metal transport in large river systems: heavy metal emissions and loads in the Rhine and Elbe river basins

    Vink, Rona; Behrendt, Horst

    2002-11-01

    Pollutant transport and management in the Rhine and Elbe basins is still of international concern, since certain target levels set by the international committees for protection of both rivers have not been reached. The analysis of the chain of emissions of point and diffuse sources to river loads will provide policy makers with a tool for effective management of river basins. The analysis of large river basins such as the Elbe and Rhine requires information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of both emissions and physical information of the entire river basin. In this paper, an analysis has been made of heavy metal emissions from various point and diffuse sources in the Rhine and Elbe drainage areas. Different point and diffuse pathways are considered in the model, such as inputs from industry, wastewater treatment plants, urban areas, erosion, groundwater, atmospheric deposition, tile drainage, and runoff. In most cases the measured heavy metal loads at monitoring stations are lower than the sum of the heavy metal emissions. This behaviour in large river systems can largely be explained by retention processes (e.g. sedimentation) and is dependent on the specific runoff of a catchment. Independent of the method used to estimate emissions, the source apportionment analysis of observed loads was used to determine the share of point and diffuse sources in the heavy metal load at a monitoring station by establishing a discharge dependency. The results from both the emission analysis and the source apportionment analysis of observed loads were compared and gave similar results. Between 51% (for Hg) and 74% (for Pb) of the total transport in the Elbe basin is supplied by inputs from diffuse sources. In the Rhine basin diffuse source inputs dominate the total transport and deliver more than 70% of the total transport. The diffuse hydrological pathways with the highest share are erosion and urban areas.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in drinking water due to mining ...

    Mining and smelting activities are the main causes for the increasing pollution of heavy metals from water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, ...

  12. Evaluation of heavy metal contamination using environmetrics and indexing approach for River Yamuna, Delhi stretch, India

    Richa Bhardwaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the current status of heavy metal pollution in River Yamuna, Delhi stretch. The concentrations of Nickel, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, and Zinc in water samples have been studied during December 2013–August 2015. The overall mean concentration of heavy metals was observed in the following order Fe > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr > Pb > Cd. Correlation analysis formed two distinct groups of heavy metals highlighting similar sources. This was further corroborated by results from principal components analysis that showed similar grouping of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd into PC1 having one common source for these heavy metals and PC2 (Cu, Cr having another common source. Further, our study pointed out two sites i.e. Najafgarh drain and Shahdara drain outlet in river Yamuna as the two potential sources responsible for the heavy metal contamination. Based on heavy metal pollution index value (1491.15, we concluded that our study area as a whole is critically polluted with heavy metals under study due to pollutant load from various anthropogenic activities.

  13. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  15. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North ...

  16. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents

    Ayangbenro, Ayansina Segun; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2017-01-01

    Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal. PMID:28106848

  17. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents

    Ayansina Segun Ayangbenro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal.

  18. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2005-01-01

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted

  19. Heavy metals hazards from Nigerian spices.

    Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Offor, Samuel James; Njoku, Chinonso Judith; Ofoma, Ifeoma Victoria; Chukwuogor, Chiaku Chinwe; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    Natural spices are commonly used by the people in Nigeria. They may be easily contaminated with heavy metals when they are dried and then pose a health risk for the consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of heavy metals in some commonly consumed natural spices namely Prosopis Africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica, Monodora tenuifolia and Capsicum frutescens sold in the local markets of Awka, Anambra state, South East Nigeria to estimate the potential health risk. The range of heavy metal concentration was in the order: Zn (14.09 - 161.04) > Fe (28.15 - 134.59) > Pb (2.61 - 8.97) > Cr (0.001 - 3.81) > Co (0.28 - 3.07) > Ni (0.34 - 2.89). Pb, Fe and Zn exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for spices. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) of the spices varied from 0.06-0.5. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) were all below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The lead levels in Prosopis africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica and Capsicum frutescens which are 8-30 times higher than the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 0.3 mg/kg. Lead contamination of spices sold in Awka (south east Nigeria) may add to the body burden of lead. A good quality control for herbal food is important in order to protect consumers from contamination. food products, spices, potential toxic metals, risk assessment, public health.

  20. Heavy metals in emergent trees and pioneers from tropical forest with special reference to forest fires and local pollution sources in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Breulman, G; Markert, B; Weckert, V; Herpin, U; Yoneda, R; Ogino, K

    2002-02-21

    Leaf samples of tropical trees, i.e. Dryobalanops lanceolata (Kapur paji), Dipterocarpaceae and Macaranga spp. (Mahang), Euphorbiaceae were analyzed for 21 chemical elements. The pioneer Macaranga spp. exhibited higher concentrations for the majority of elements compared to the emergent species of Dryobalanops lanceolata, which was attributed to the higher physiological activity of the fast growing pioneer species compared to emergent trees. Lead showed rather high concentrations in several samples from the Bakam re-forestation site. This is suggested to be caused by emissions through brick manufacturing and related activities in the vicinity. A comparison of Dryobalanops lanceolata samples collected in 1993, 1995 and 1997 in the Lambir Hills National Park revealed that certain heavy metals, i.e. Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti showed higher values in 1997 compared to the previous years, which could indicate an atmospheric input from the haze caused by the extensive forest fires raging in Borneo and other parts of Southeast Asia.

  1. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  2. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  3. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in construction and demolition wastes from five sources (chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates).

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Gu, Yilu; Xie, Tian; Zhen, Guangyin; Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-06-01

    Total concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) were measured among 63 samples of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes collected from chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates within China for risk assessment. The heavy metal contamination was primarily concentrated in the chemical and metallurgical industries, especially in the electroplating factory and zinc smelting plant. High concentrations of Cd were found in light industry samples, while the residential and recycled aggregate samples were severely polluted by Zn. Six most polluted samples were selected for deep research. Mineralogical analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with element speciation through European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, revealed that a relatively slight corrosion happened in the four samples from electroplating plants but high transfer ability for large quantities of Zn and Cu. Lead arsenate existed in the acid extractable fraction in CI7-8 and potassium chromium oxide existed in the mobility fraction. High concentration of Cr could be in amorphous forms existing in CI9. The high content of sodium in the two samples from zinc smelter plants suggested severe deposition and erosion on the workshop floor. Large quantities of Cu existed as copper halide and most of the Zn appeared to be zinc, zinc oxide, barium zinc oxide, and zincite. From the results of the risk assessment code (RAC), the samples from the electroplating factory posed a very high risk of Zn, Cu, and Cr, a high risk of Ni, a middle risk of Pb, and a low risk of Cd. The samples from the zinc smelting plant presented a high risk of Zn, a middle risk of Cu, and a low risk of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni.

  4. Metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-06-01

    We have developed a family of metal vapor vacuum are (MEVVA) high current metal ion sources. The sources were initially developed for the production of high current beams of metal ions for heavy ion synchrotron injection for basic nuclear physics research; more recently they have also been used for metal ion implantation. A number of different embodiments of the source have been developed for these specific applications. Presently the sources operate in a pulsed mode, with pulse width of order 1 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, and since the ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma are in general multiply ionized the ion energy is up to several hundred keV. Beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Nearly all of the solid metals of the Periodic Table have been use to produce beam. A number of novel features have been incorporated into the sources, including multiple cathodes and the ability to switch between up to 18 separate cathode materials simply and quickly, and a broad beam source version as well as miniature versions. here we review the source designs and their performance. 45 refs., 7 figs

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  6. Heavy metal burden of the Pinnau river

    1993-01-01

    The water phase and sediment of the Pinnau river were investigated for their heavy-metal pollution. Tests for the elements chromium, mercury, nickel, arsenic, lead, copper, cadmium, zinc and iron were carried through with sediment samples in 1984 and 1989 and with water samples in 1987 and 1989. Whereas no significant changes in the levels of these metals were found in the water phase during the two-year period of invetigation, slightly reduced levels of zinc, cadmium and mercury were established in the sediment in 1989 as compared to 1984. (orig.) [de

  7. Heavy Metals Pollution in Lake Mariut

    Saad, M.A.H.; Ezzat, A.A.E.; El-Rayis, O.A.; Hafez, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in the water of the heavily polluted Lake Mariut (Egypt) during August 1978 to September 1979 as well as the accumulation of these metals in the different parts of the common fish, Tilapia species, were studied. The study represents a second part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The mean concentrations of the measured Zn, Gu, Fe, Mn and Cd in the lake water were 10.9, 4.2, 19.1, 26.2 and 0.62 μg/l, respectively

  8. Health concerns of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Cooksey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    There is a long history and an overwhelming amount of data on the toxicity of heavy metal compounds. Here a brief look is taken of some aspects of the toxicity of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, chosen for their historical importance and environmental significance, highlighting especially the contrast between the acute and chronic toxicity of purely inorganic species and their organic derivatives. For further details of other toxic metal compounds, the reader might like to consult "Elements of murder: a history of poison" by John Emsley (2005, Oxford University Press).

  9. Multivariate statistical study of heavy metal enrichment in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary

    Liu, W.X.; Li, X.D.; Shen, Z.G.; Wang, D.C.; Wai, O.W.H.; Li, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis identified the heavy metal accumulation layers of sediment profiles and showed the various sources of metals in the estuary. - The concentrations and chemical partitioning of heavy metals in the sediment cores of the Pearl River Estuary were studied. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients and principal component analysis results, Al was selected as the concentration normalizer for Pb, while Fe was used as the normalizing element for Co, Cu, Ni and Zn. In each profile, sections with metal concentrations exceeding the upper 95% prediction interval of the linear regression model were regarded as metal enrichment layers. The heavy metal accumulation mainly occurred at sites in the western shallow water areas and east channel, which reflected the hydraulic conditions and influence from riparian anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals in the enrichment sections were evaluated by a sequential extraction method for possible chemical forms in sediments. Since the residual, Fe/Mn oxides and organic/sulfide fractions were dominant geochemical phases in the enriched sections, the bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments was generally low. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the metal-enriched sediment sections also revealed the influence of anthropogenic sources. The spatial distribution of cumulative heavy metals in the sediments suggested that the Zn and Cu mainly originated from point sources, while the Pb probably came from non-point sources in the estuary

  10. Heavy metals in the hydrological cycle

    Astruc, M.; Lester, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problems associated with heavy metals in the hydrological cycle is presented. Research and practical experience from a broad spectrum of disciplines are drawn together concentrating on the following themes: water quality, domestic and industrial wastes, sludge and dredge materials, soil interactions, effects on aquatic ecosystems, organometallics (with particular reference to tin compounds), speciation, the marine environment and health effects. One paper is within INIS scope and is processed separately. (U.K.)

  11. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  12. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  13. Polution of the environment by heavy metals

    Houtman, J.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the problems caused by pollution of the environment by heavy metals and the important role played by nuclear examination methods such as activation analysis and particle induced X-ray emission. A number of examples taken from work initiated by the interuniversitair Reactor Instituut, demonstrate that this research should be continued and extended, particularly in relation to the expected increase in the use of coal for energy generation in electricity centres. (C.F.)

  14. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom].

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2012-03-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  15. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals.

  16. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Bioethanol production from recovered napier grass with heavy metals.

    Ko, Chun-Han; Yu, Fan-Chun; Chang, Fang-Chih; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hwang, Wen-Song; Tu, Ta-Chih

    2017-12-01

    Using plants to absorb and accumulate heavy metals from polluted soil, followed by the recycling of explants containing heavy metals, can help achieve the goal of reverting contaminated soil to low heavy-metal content soil. However, the re-use of recovered explants can also be problematic. Meanwhile, bioethanol has become a popular energy source. In this study, napier grass was used for the remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals (artificially contaminated soil). The influence of bioethanol production from napier grass after phytoremediation was also investigated. The concentration of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the contaminated soil was 1000, 100, and 250 mg/kg, respectively. After napier grass phytoremediation, the concentration (dry biomass) of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the explants was 2701.97 ± 173.49, 6.1 ± 2.3, and 74.24 ± 1.42 mg/kg, respectively. Biomass production in the unpolluted soil was 861.13 ± 4.23 g. The biomass production ratio in high Zn-polluted soil was only 3.89%, while it was 4.68% for Cd and 21.4% for Cr. The biomass obtained after napier grass phytoremediation was pretreated using the steam explosion conditions of 180 °C, for 10 min, with 1.5% H 2 SO 2 , followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for Zn-polluted biomass was 90% of the unpolluted biomass, while it was 77% for Cd, and approximately the same for Cr. The fermentation efficiency of the heavy-metal-containing biomass was higher than the control biomass. The fermentation ethanol concentration obtained was 8.69-12.68, 13.03-15.50, and 18.48-19.31 g/L in Zn, Cd, and Cr environments, respectively. Results show that the heavy metals had a positive effect on bacteria fermentation. However, the fermentation efficiency was lower for biomass with severe heavy metal pollution. Thus, the utilization of napier grass phytoremediation for bioethanol production has a positive effect on the sustainability of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017

  18. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  19. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  20. On the structure of heavy metals

    Friedel, J.

    1958-01-01

    The properties of the last series of Mendeleef's table are compared with those of the elements of the preceding series. This comparison suggests an electronic structure of the 'transition metal' type, with narrow bands, at the beginning of this series (up to certain phases at least of plutonium); then of the rare earth metal type, with independent non-saturated internal layers, further on in the series. The 5 f orbits seem to play an important part in these two types of structure, from uranium on. A more detailed study of the very heavy elements (americium and beyond) and alloys would allow these conclusions to be confirmed. Certain general points, concerning the nature of homopolar connections and paramagnetism in the transition metals, are developed in an additional section. (author) [fr

  1. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  2. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z.; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD Mn in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community

  3. To study the recovery of L-Cysteine using halloysite nanotubes after heavy metal removal

    Thakur, Juhi

    2016-04-01

    Industrial wastes are a major source of soil and water pollution that originate from mining industries, chemical industries, metal processing industries, etc. These wastes consist of a variety of chemicals including phenolics, heavy metals, etc. Use of industrial effluent and sewage sludge on agricultural land has become a common practice in the world which results in these toxic metals being transferred and ultimately concentrate in plant tissues from water and the soil. The metals that get accumulated, prove detrimental to plants themselves and may also cause damage to the healths of animals as well as man. This is because the heavy metals become toxins above certain concentrations, over a narrow range. As a further matter, these metals negatively affect the natural microbial populations as well, that leads to the disruption of fundamental ecological processes. However, many techniques and methods have been advanced to clear the heavy metal polluted soils and waters. One important method is by removing heavy metals with the help of amino acids like L-Cysteine and L-Penicillamine. But also, economy of removal of pollutant heavy metals from soils and waters is a major concern. Present study helps in decreasing the cost for large-scale removal of heavy metals from polluted water by recovering the amino acid (L-Cysteine) after removal of nickel (Ni+2) at a fixed pH, by binding the Ni+2 with halloysite nanotubes(HNT), so that L-Cysteine can be reused again for removal of heavy metals.

  4. Assessment of spatial distribution of soil heavy metals using ANN-GA, MSLR and satellite imagery.

    Naderi, Arman; Delavar, Mohammad Amir; Kaboudin, Babak; Askari, Mohammad Sadegh

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to assess and compare heavy metal distribution models developed using stepwise multiple linear regression (MSLR) and neural network-genetic algorithm model (ANN-GA) based on satellite imagery. The source identification of heavy metals was also explored using local Moran index. Soil samples (n = 300) were collected based on a grid and pH, organic matter, clay, iron oxide contents cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined for each sample. Visible/near-infrared reflectance (VNIR) within the electromagnetic ranges of satellite imagery was applied to estimate heavy metal concentrations in the soil using MSLR and ANN-GA models. The models were evaluated and ANN-GA model demonstrated higher accuracy, and the autocorrelation results showed higher significant clusters of heavy metals around the industrial zone. The higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn was noted under industrial lands and irrigation farming in comparison to barren and dryland farming. Accumulation of industrial wastes in roads and streams was identified as main sources of pollution, and the concentration of soil heavy metals was reduced by increasing the distance from these sources. In comparison to MLSR, ANN-GA provided a more accurate indirect assessment of heavy metal concentrations in highly polluted soils. The clustering analysis provided reliable information about the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals and their sources.

  5. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Tumen, Fikret, E-mail: ftumen@firat.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol{sup -1} for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}H{sup o} values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low {Delta}H{sup o} values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  6. Heavy metal toxicity and iron chlorosis

    DeKock, P C

    1956-01-01

    The toxicity of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, chromium, and manganese to mustard was studied in water culture, utilizing either the ionic form or the EDTA chelate of the metal in the presence of either ferric chloride or ferric EDTA. In presence of ferric chloride the activity of the metals in producing chlorosis was as given above, i.e. in the order of stability of their chelates. In the presence of ferric versenate, toxicity of the ionic metal was much reduced. The metal chelates gave very little indication of toxicity with either form of iron. It was found that the ratio of total phosphorus to total iron was higher in chlorotic plants than in green plants, irrespective of which metal was causing the toxicity. Copper could be demonstrated in the phloem cells of the root using biscyclohexanone-oxalydihydrazone as histochemical reagent. It is postulated that transport of iron probably takes place in the phloem as an active process. It would appear that as a major part of the iron in plant cells is attached to nucleo- or phospho-proteins, the heavy metals must be similarly attached to phospho-proteins.

  7. Concentration of selected heavy metals in water of the Juru River ...

    HP

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Key words: Heavy metals, pollution, river, inductively couple plasma. INTRODUCTION ... the community especially in the fishing industry and a source of ... most productive mudflats for cockle farming in Peninsular. Malaysia ...

  8. Case report: heavy metal burden presenting as Bartter syndrome.

    Crinnion, Walter J; Tran, Jessica Q

    2010-12-01

    Maternal transfer of heavy metals during fetal development or lactation possibly contributed to the clinical manifestations of Bartter syndrome and developmental delay in the offspring. An 11-month-old child diagnosed with Bartter syndrome and failure to thrive was treated concurrently for elevated metal burden while he was undergoing standard medical interventions. Treatment with body-weight doses of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) reduced the body burden of lead, beryllium, copper, mercury, and cadmium at the three- and sixth-month follow-up tests. During the course of the six-month treatment, the patient gained 2.4 kg (5.2 lb) and grew approximately 9.5 cm (3.75 in). His weight shifted from significantly below the 5th percentile in weight to within the 5th percentile, and from below the 5th to within the 10th percentile for length. The child's acquisition of lead, beryllium, and copper correspond to his mother's history of stained glass assembly and occurred during fetal development or lactation, since there were no other identifiable sources that could have contributed to the heavy metal burden. Tests for known genetic mutations leading to Bartter syndrome were all negative. This case report highlights the potential benefit of DMSA for treatment of heavy metal body burden in infants who present with Bartter syndrome.

  9. A review of phytoremediation technology: heavy metals uptake by plants

    Sumiahadi, A.; Acar, R.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal is one of the serious environmental pollutions for now days as impact of industrial development in several countries. Heavy metals give toxic effects on human health and cause several serious diseases. Several techniques have been using for removing heavy metal contaminants from the environmental but these techniques have limitations such as high cost, long time, logistical problems and mechanical complexity. Phytoremediation can be used as an alternative solution for heavy metal remediation process because of its advantages as a cost-effective, efficient, environment- and eco-friendly technology based on the use of metal-accumulating plants. According to previous studies, several plants have a high potential as heavy metals bioaccumulator and can be used for phytoremediation process of heavy metals.

  10. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Imitation Biological Treatment Overview

    Pan, Chang; Chen, Jun; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Zhongkai; Cheng, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the treatment methods of heavy metal pollution in soils were analyzed, the existence and transformation of heavy metals in soil were explored, and the mechanism of heavy metal absorption by plants was studied. It was concluded that the main form of plants absorb heavy metals in the soil is exchangeable. The main mechanism was that the plant cell wall can form complex with heavy metals, so that heavy metals fixed on the cell wall, and through the selective absorption of plasma membrane into the plant body. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of the adsorbed material was analyzed. According to the results of some researchers, it was found that the mechanism of adsorption of heavy metals was similar to that of plants. According to this, using adsorbent material as the main material, Imitate the principle of plant absorption of heavy metals in the soil to removing heavy metals in the soil at one-time and can be separated from the soil after adsorption to achieve permanent removal of heavy metals in the soil was feasibility.

  11. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  12. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    soil was significantly correlated, and no significant correlation between the other indicators. Through the analysis of transportation transfer coefficient showed: Pb, As and Cr are not easy to transport aboveground part from the underground, but Cd and Hg are relatively easy to transport stems from rhizome, the migration of five heavy metals in the aerial part is relatively strong, and heavy metal of stems is easily transported to the leaves. P. notoginseng does not belong to the enrichment of heavy metals in crops, especially for Hg in soil with strong patience. In survey area, the content of heavy metals of P. notoginseng's planting soil is relatively high, and the heavy metals As, Pb, Cr, Cd of P. notoginseng also exist heavy metals exceeded problems. Due to the presence of heavy metals in crops internal absorption and translocation of special laws, accumulation of heavy metals varied significantly in different parts of P. notoginseng. The overall, the performance for the heavy metal content of the underground parts is more than aboveground, it explain heavy metals of P. notoginseng plants is still the main source of the soiL Therefore, the key to control of planting area soil environmental quality and reduce exogenous harmful substances secondary pollution of soil in the cultivation process are to study and solve the heavy metals pollution problem of P. notoginseng.

  13. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Appelman, W.A.J.; Verheul, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However estimates of the emissions of these metals from road

  14. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  15. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One-century sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in western Taihu Lake, China.

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Shenglu; Zhu, Qing; Li, Baojie; Wang, Junxiao; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Lian; Wu, Shaohua

    2018-05-16

    Long-term trends of sediment compositions are important for assessing the impact of human activities on the sediment and protecting the sediment environment. In this study, based on the contents of heavy metals and the Pb isotope ratios in lake sediments, atmospheric dustfall and soil in Yixing, China, the representative heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd) in lake sediments from western Taihu Lake were studied. The evolution history of heavy metals in the local environment was constructed for the past 100 years. From 1892 to the 1990s, the anthropogenic fluxes of the representative heavy metals were negligible, indicating minimal anthropogenic emissions of heavy metals. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic fluxes of the representative heavy metals began to increase, concurrent with the economic growth and development in the western Taihu Lake Basin after the Chinese economic reform. The maximum flux percentage of the heavy metals in the sediments, caused by human activities, is 23.0% for Zn, 31.6% for Pb, 39.5% for Cr and 85.3% for Cd, indicating that most of the Cd comes from human activities. The Cd content in the western Taihu Lake Basin was significantly higher than that in the other areas, and the rapid development of the industry in the western Taihu Lake Basin and ceramics in Yixing led to the enrichment of heavy metals in local sediments. Since the 21st century, measures have been taken to control the pollution of heavy metals, including the increase in local government attention and the deployment of environmental monitoring technology. However, heavy metal content remains high, and the Pb content is still increasing. The ratios of Pb isotopes show that the main sources of heavy metals in the western Taihu Lake sediments, the local soil of Yixing and the atmospheric dustfall are coal combustion, leaded gasoline combustion, industrial wastewater and domestic sewage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  18. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K + ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 micros. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described

  19. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  20. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc is manifested both in inhibition of lettuce growth and determined, above all, by the nature contamination, soil properties and biological specificity of the test plants.

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking Water ... composition was analysed using X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. Majority of the water samples had neutral pH (6.80 – 7.20) few were slightly alkaline and one was acidic. ... Heavy metals (copper and lead), rare earth metals (gallium, rubidium, ...

  2. Fractionation, characterization and speciation of heavy metals in ...

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation ...

  3. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  4. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    The most dominant A. candidus on the isolation plates exhibited the highest activity for biosorption of heavy metals. The results indicate that fungi of contaminated soils have high level of metal biosorption capacities. Keywords: Fungi, industrial wastewater, biosorption, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  5. Applicability of concentration factors for the heavy metals hazard identification

    Guzzi, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) used as criteria for heavy metals hazards identification are inadequate. These considerations is based on the argument that the BCF-BAF model was developed and validated for xenobiotic synthetic organic substances and that does not recognize the complex internal metal dynamic of uptake, the internal sequestration, and the essentially of some heavy metals [it

  6. Predicting toxic heavy metal movements in upper Sanyati catchment ...

    Water samples from boreholes located in areas where mining, mineral processing and agricultural activities were dominant, yielded the highest values of toxic heavy metals. Dilution Attenuation Factor (DAF) for each toxic heavy metal was calculated to observe metal behaviour along the contaminant path for each season.

  7. Use of heavy ions to model radiation damage of metals

    Shirokov, S.V.; Vyshemirskij, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    The methods for modeling radiation damage of metals using heavy ions are reviewed and the results obtained are analyzed. It is shown that irradiation of metals with heavy ion can simulate neutron exposure with the equivalent dose with adequate accuracy and permits a detailed analysis of radiation damage of metals

  8. Performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metal mixtures.

    Expósito, Nora; Kumar, Vikas; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Giménez Papiol, Gemma

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals). Chemical speciation of heavy metals has been estimated with Eh-pH diagram and Visual MINTEQ software; heavy metal and free heavy metal ion concentrations were used as input data, together with microalgae growth inhibition, for Dr. Fit software. The final goal was to assess the suitability of the ecotoxicological test based on the growth inhibition of microalgae cultures, and the mathematic models based on these results, for regulatory and decision-making purposes. The toxicity of a given heavy metal is not only determined by its chemical speciation; other chemical and biological interaction play an important role in the final toxicity. Raphidocelis subcapitata 48h-h-EC50 for tested heavy metals (especially Cu and Zn) were in agreement with previous studies, when ion metal bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. Nevertheless, the calculated growth inhibition was not in agreement with the obtained inhibition when exposed to the artificial mixture of heavy metals or the natural sample. Interactions between heavy metal ions and the compounds of the culture media and/or the natural sample determine heavy metal bioavailability, and eventually their toxicity. More research is needed for facing the challenge posed by pollutant mixtures as they are present in natural environments, and make microalgae-based assays suitable for pollution management and regulatory purposes. Copyright

  9. EVALUATION OF RETENTION POND AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND BMPS FOR TREATING PARTICULATE-BOUND HEAVY METALS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF - 2007

    The sources of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff are diverse (e.g., highways, road surfaces, roofs) and the release of metals into the environment is governed by several complex mechanisms. Heavy metals in stormwater are associated with suspended particulate materials that ...

  10. Heavy metal pollution in immobile and mobile components of lentic ecosystems-a review.

    Meena, Ramakrishnan Anu Alias; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Ameen, Fuad; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Gu, Feng Long

    2018-02-01

    With growing population and urbanization, there is an increasing exploitation of natural resources, and this often results to environmental pollution. In this review, the levels of heavy metal in lentic compartments (water, sediment, fishes, and aquatic plants) over the past two decades (1997-2017) have been summarized to evaluate the current pollution status of this ecosystem. In all the compartments, the heavy metals dominated are zinc followed by iron. The major reason could be area mineralogy and lithogenic sources. Enormous quantity of metals like iron in estuarine sediment is a very natural incident due to the permanently reducing condition of organic substances. Contamination of cadmium, lead, and chromium was closely associated with anthropogenic origin. In addition, surrounding land use and atmospheric deposition could have been responsible for substantial pollution. The accumulation of heavy metals in fishes and aquatic plants is the result of time-dependent deposition in lentic ecosystems. Moreover, various potential risk assessment methods for heavy metals were discussed. This review concludes that natural phenomena dominate the accumulation of essential heavy metals in lentic ecosystems compared to anthropogenic sources. Amongst other recent reviews on heavy metals from other parts of the world, the present review is executed in such a way that it explains the presence of heavy metals not only in water environment, but also in the whole of the lentic system comprising sediment, fishes, and aquatic plants.

  11. Heavy metal removal using reverse osmosis

    Lucia Gajdošová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study reverse osmosis characteristics for copper, nickel and zinc removal from technological aqueoussolutions. Reverse osmosis (RO is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retainsthe solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. A polyamide thin-film composite membrane TW30-1812-50was used. The difference in flux decline is significant. There is a significant difference in flux decline depending on the anions of usedheavy metal salts. The heavy metal concentration also has a significant influence on the membrane separation. There is alsoa significant difference in flux decline depending on the transmembrane pressure.

  12. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  13. Heavy metal decontamination of sludges and soils. Pt. 2

    Niemann, J.

    1993-06-01

    This research project deals with decontamination technology for contaminated soil and sediments. A pilot plant for the decontamination of soil contaminated with heavy metals has been erected and is operated. The process is arranged in two steps: - heavy metal contaminated solid is decontaminted with acidic extraction. - the heavy metals are separated in a recyclable formation from the process solution you gain in the first process step. Heavy metal contaminated soil, heavy metal contaminated sediments (habour sediments) as well as residue from a soil regeneration plant have been successfully decontaminated in the pilot plan. An adaption of the process is necessary for various materials. High rates of mobilisation of heavy metals (e.g. lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc) were obtained, especially with soil which contains less organic matter. (orig.). 54 figs., 30 tabs., 45 refs [de

  14. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    Sharma, Sandeep K.; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Christen, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC 50 in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far

  15. Distribution of heavy metals in Tamshui mangrove forest ecosystem

    Chiu, C Y; Chou, C H

    1990-06-01

    Tamsui estuary area is one of the few places in Taiwan where mangrove is still growing. Heavy metals, carried by the water of the Tamsui river, are accumulated in the estuary soil. Most heavy metals in soil, however, are immobile under reducing conditions and are fixed in the large amount of organic matter present. Heavy metals are distributed at different concentrations in various tissues of Kandelia candel as well as grasses of Phragmites communis, Imperata cylindrica, and Cyperus malaccensis growing in the swamp area. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher root than in stems and leaves. The absorption of heavy metals by the plants was less in soil that was frequently submerged. Kandelia candel seems to have no special tolerance to copper and zinc. The soil environment which favors reduced availability of heavy metals may help Kandelia candel adapt to growth in the polluted estuary.

  16. Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils in Nigeria: A Review

    J. J. Musa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents the health risks of heavy metals such as: lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni and arsenic (As etc contamination in soils. The review reveals the major sources of these metals which are urban and industrial effluents, deterioration of sewage pipe, treatment water works, sewage sludge, fertilizers and pesticides. It also reveals the adopted standard for drinking water (maximum tolerable limit by FAO, JECFA and WHO which are as follows: 0.05mg/L, 0.05mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 0.001mg/L, 0.02mg/L, 15mg/L, 0.3mg/L, 0.5mg/L, 0.01mg/L, 0.05mg/L and 0.05mg/L for Pb, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Se, As and Cd respectively. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of increasing concern because of food safety issues, potential health risks such as neurological disorder, cancer, kidney damage, fragile bone etc and their detrimental effects on soil ecosystem. However, the regular monitoring of levels of these metals from dump sites, effluents and sewages in soil and drinking water is essential to prevent excessive buildup of these metals thereby increasing toxicity and elevating the public health risk.

  17. Effect of heavy metal and EDTA application on heavy metal uptake ...

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Cadmium, lead and ... removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn (Prasad and ... collected for the analysis of heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr ... One hundred millgram (100 mg) of leaf tissues ..... Variability for the fatty acid.

  18. Leaching of heavy metals from timah langat amang

    Shukri bin Othman

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated leaching studies of amang from Timah Langat for heavy metals showed that the material was rather stable. From almost 24 types of heavy metals contained in the material, the metal that leached out most was Al, followed by Pb, U, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, Y and La but at smaller quantities. The studies also showed that amang was very porous. The high seepage rate resulted in the solubilities of the metals not reaching equilibrium. In that situation, the leaching of heavy metals from amang was dependent on the seepage rate of water, the height of the material, the volume of water that seeped through and the solubility of the metals

  19. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Gomes, J. F. P

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through test and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. The chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, an increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slag samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-through test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5 % (Ca and 1% (other elements.

    Este articulo contiene los resultados obtenidos en ensayos de lixiviación de escorias de acero (horno electrico y cuchara ejecutados siguiendo la metodologia de flujo dinámico así como el ensayo normalizado DIN 38414-S4. El primer ensayo intenta simular el comportamiento de lixiviación de las escorias en vertedero. Para las escorias ensayadas se han complementado los ensayos con el análisis químico de los lixiviados y se ha verificado un aumento de la liberación de metales pesados. El ensayo DIN 38414-S4 se ha utilizado para evaluar la lixiviación por agua de metales pesados, en muestras de escorias originales. Despues de un año de ensayos, se han observado niveles muy bajos de lixiviación. Los elementos mas lixiviados han sido calcio y magnesio. No obstante, en los ensayos de flujo dinámico, el calcio y el magnesio lixiviados de las escorias sólidas era menor de 0,5% y el resto de los otros metales era inferior a 0,1%. Los lixiviados obtenidos con el ensayo DIN 38414-S4 presentan, como era de esperar, valores

  20. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  1. Heavy metals from Kueishantao shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, offshore northeast Taiwan

    Chen, Xue-Gang; Lyu, Shuang-Shuang; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Lebrato, Mario; Li, Xiaohu; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Shallow water hydrothermal vents are a source of heavy metals leading to their accumulation in marine organisms that manage to live under extreme environmental conditions. This is the case at Kueishantao (KST) shallow-sea vents system offshore northeast Taiwan, where the heavy metal distribution in vent fluids and ambient seawater is poorly understood. This shallow vent is an excellent natural laboratory to understand how heavy and volatile metals behave in the nearby water column and ecosystem. Here, we investigated the submarine venting of heavy metals from KST field and its impact on ambient surface seawater. The total heavy metal concentrations in the vent fluids and vertical plumes were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than the overlying seawater values. When compared with deep-sea hydrothermal systems, the estimated KST end-member fluids exhibited much lower concentrations of transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn) but comparable concentrations of toxic metals such as Pb and As. This may be attributed to the lower temperature of the KST reaction zone and transporting fluids. Most of the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, As, Y, and Ba) in the plumes and seawater mainly originated from hydrothermal venting, while Cd and Pb were largely contributed by external sources such as contaminated waters (anthropogenic origin). The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the surface seawater indicated that seafloor venting impacts ambient seawater. The measurable influence of KST hydrothermal activity, however, was quite localized and limited to an area of heavy metals emanating from the yellow KST hydrothermal vent were: 430-2600 kg Fe, 24-145 kg Mn, 5-32 kg Ba, 10-60 kg As, 0.3-1.9 kg Cd, and 2-10 kg Pb. This study provides important data on heavy metals from a shallow-sea hydrothermal field, and it helps to better understand the environmental impact of submarine shallow hydrothermal venting.

  2. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health

  3. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2014-06-02

    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthetic biology for microbial heavy metal biosensors.

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-02-01

    Using recombinant DNA technology, various whole-cell biosensors have been developed for detection of environmental pollutants, including heavy metal ions. Whole-cell biosensors have several advantages: easy and inexpensive cultivation, multiple assays, and no requirement of any special techniques for analysis. In the era of synthetic biology, cutting-edge DNA sequencing and gene synthesis technologies have accelerated the development of cell-based biosensors. Here, we summarize current technological advances in whole-cell heavy metal biosensors, including the synthetic biological components (bioparts), sensing and reporter modules, genetic circuits, and chassis cells. We discuss several opportunities for improvement of synthetic cell-based biosensors. First, new functional modules must be discovered in genome databases, and this knowledge must be used to upgrade specific bioparts through molecular engineering. Second, modules must be assembled into functional biosystems in chassis cells. Third, heterogeneity of individual cells in the microbial population must be eliminated. In the perspectives, the development of whole-cell biosensors is also discussed in the aspects of cultivation methods and synthetic cells.

  5. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP

    Bhatti, A.; Perveen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Metals contamination is a persistent problem at many contaminated sites. In the U.S., the most commonly occurring metals at Superfund sites are lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury. The presence of metals in surface and ground waters, and soils can pose a significant threat to human health and ecological systems. Surface water and groundwater many be contaminated with metals from wastewater discharges or by direct contact with metals contaminated soils, sludges, mining wastes and debris. Due to use of sewage water and industrial effluents for agriculture in NWFP, there is a great threat to the human and animal health. In a survey of sewage water from three channels, it was found that 10 out of 18 samples ha lead content above the safe limits, while two in cadmium and 8 in chromium. While in soils irrigated with these channels, all the 18 samples were high in Cu and Pb, and 6 in Mn. As regards plants growing on these soils, samples of garlic, 4 of wheat and 3 of berseem were high in Pb. Cd content was high in 5 garlic samples, 5 wheat and 3 berseem. Effluents from two industries were high in Pb and four in Ni. In another study, all the nine water samples were high in Cu, 3 in Cd, and 6 in Pb. A survey of 20 Industries in Industrial Estate Hattar showed that all the effluent samples collected from these Industries were above the safe limits in Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. From these studies, it seems that use of sewage water and industrial effluents for longer period can create heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP. (author)

  7. Adsorption of heavy metal in freeway by asphalt block

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals are toxic, persistent, and carcinogenic in freeway. Various techniques are available for the removal of heavy metals from waste water among soils during freeway including ion-exchange, membrane filtration, electrolysis, coagulation, flotation, and adsorption. Among them, bio-sorption processes are widely used for heavy metal and other pollutant removal due to its sustainable, rapid and economic. In this paper, heavy metal removal facilitated by adsorption in plants during freeway was illustrated to provide concise information on exploring the adsorption efficiency.

  8. Heavy metals in the cell nucleus - role in pathogenesis.

    Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna; Pawlas, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    People are exposed to heavy metals both in an occupational and natural environment. The most pronounced effects of heavy metals result from their interaction with cellular genetic material packed in form of chromatin. Heavy metals influence chromatin, mimicking and substituting natural microelements in various processes taking place in the cell, or interacting chemically with nuclear components: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. This paper is a review of current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals on chromatin, exerted at the level of various nuclear components.

  9. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Miriama Kopernická; Luboš Harangozo; Radovan Stanovič; Pavol Trebichalský; Petra Kavalcová

    2014-01-01

    In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86...

  10. Bioremediation of Toxic Heavy Metals: A Patent Review.

    Verma, Neelam; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover, these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development. Remedy: Bioremediation is the 'green' imperative technique for the heavy metal removal without creating secondary metabolites in the ecosystem. The metabolic potential of several bacterial, algal, fungal as well as plant species has the efficiency to exterminate the heavy metals from the contaminated sites. Different strategies like bioaccumulation, biosorption, biotransformation, rhizofilteration, bioextraction and volatilization are employed for removal of heavy metals by the biological species. Bioremediation approach is presenting a splendid alternate for conventional expensive and inefficient methods for the heavy metal removal. The patents granted on the bioremediation of toxic heavy metals are summarized in the present manuscript which supported the applicability of bioremediation technique at commercial scale. However, the implementation of the present information and advanced research are mandatory to further explore the concealed potential of biological species to resume the originality of the environment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  12. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Levels of Cu, Mn, Pd and Zn in mushroom samples analysed were ... metal concentration in soil and fungal factors such as species ..... Levels of trace elements in the fruiting bodies ... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals.

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metals Level of River Kaduna at Kaduna ...

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... status and the implications of the heavy metal pollution on human health and the environment. ... metals discharged into the river especially from the industries and municipal ...

  14. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    EJIRO

    Key words: Biosorption, bacteria, heavy metal, dead bacterial cells, immobilization. INTRODUCTION ... Moreover, the metals cannot be degraded to harmless products and ... a sterile plastic container and taken immediately to the laboratory.

  15. Waste printing paper as analogous adsorbents for heavy metals in ...

    user

    heavy metals uptake from aqueous solutions but the recovery efficacy as economic and environmental ... system. 1 . Wastes containing metals are directly or indirectly discharge into the environment ... According to World health Organization. 5.

  16. Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Kano Herbal ...

    2017-09-23

    Sep 23, 2017 ... toxic metals in the body system of the consumers of these herbal preparations in order to attain to safe and effective ..... heavy metal availability and vegetation recovery at a grown ... World Health Organization (WHO,. 2007).

  17. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  18. Rhizofiltration of heavy metals from the tannery sludge by the ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The accumulation of toxic metals in the plants was significantly increased, with increasing exposure time ..... in the conversion of organic carbon into carbon dioxide. It ... Once absorbed by the plants, toxic or heavy metals can.

  19. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  20. Heavy Metal Analyses and Nutritional Composition of Raw and ...

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Nutritional composition, heavy metals, fresh water fishes, marine water fishes, lagoons. Introduction. Fish is an .... the flame and 90% passed out as waste. The flame ..... metals in surface water, sediments, fish and periwinkles of ...

  1. Data mining using multivariate statistical analysis: The case of heavy metals in sediments of the Msimbazi Creek mangrove wetland

    A. Mrutu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove wetlands are important biological systems that usually filter out organic and inorganic contaminants from the wastewaters before entering the ocean. Our previous work showed that sediments of the Msimbazi Creek wetland are contaminated with heavy metals and the amounts decreased with increasing depth. However, the hidden relationships between the heavy metals and clay particles were not fully understood based on the numerical data. Therefore this work used the data from literature and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software to study how significant the relationships are and predict the sources of heavy metals and clays. The results showed that Cd is the only metal that showed insignificant correlations with other heavy metals (with Pb and Zn while the rest of heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlation (except Pb vs. Ni. Cluster analysis classified the heavy metals based on the concentration and the first 50 cm cores (0-50 cm had higher heavy metals and % clay than the second 50 cm cores (51-100 cm. The results from the factor analysis suggests that Pb, Cd, Ni, and clay owe their source mostly from anthropogenic activities while Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and sand come from both anthropogenic and natural sources. These results support our previous suggestions that heavy metals and clays found in this wetland have mostly anthropogenic origin. However, we recommend isotopic tracing studies in order to accurately identify the origins of the heavy metals and clays in sediments of Msimbazi Creek mangrove wetland.

  2. IOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE AND TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS FOR BIOTA OF FRESHWATER BODIES (REVIEW)

    I. Hrytsyniak; N. Kolesnyk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the sources of scientific information on biological functions of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd) and their negative effect on biota of fresh water bodies. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that the majority of the studied heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cum and Co) played an important role in vital functions of freshwater organisms. The significance of other studied heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) is probable or unknown. Besides bi...

  3. INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE ROADSIDE SOIL AT MORENA DISTRICT IN INDIA

    Laxmi Kant Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of natural environment due to release of heavy metals from various sources is a widespread problem throughout the world. This study explains the effect of heavy metal contaminants in Roadside soil of Morena district. Twelve air dried surface soil samples were collected from 50cm – 1m (point A) and twelve from 30m (point B) away from the roadside along a road with a distance of 50 km. Heavy metals were found in both points with highest concentration at 50cm – 1m (point A). Roadside s...

  4. Determination of Heavy Metals in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Collected from Different Cultivation Regions

    Zhou, Dan; Fu, Yurong; Lai, Weiyong; Zhang, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    20 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were collected from Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan province in China. The contents of heavy metals of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were determined and compared. The results indicated that geographical source might be a major factor to influence the contents of heavy metals of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Compared to the criteria of heavy metals, the contents of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd in almost...

  5. Prototype inverted sputter source for negative heavy ions

    Minehara, Eisuke; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Shiroh

    1977-10-01

    A sputter source from which negative heavy ion beam is extracted through a tungsten wire and disc ionizer was built and tested. An alkali metal surface ionization gun with the ionizer is described, and also performance of the surface ionization gun and of the sputter source for negative heavy ions using the gun is reported. The gun was tested for three alkali metals, i.e. sodium, potassium and cesium. Total potassium beam current of 1-2mA was obtained at entrance aperture of the magnet. Sputtering materials and gases for producing negative heavy ions are carbon, copper, aluminium, molybdenum, oxygen and air. With carbon and leakage air, the beam intensities analyzed are: 2-5μA (at Faraday cup) and 4.6-11μA (at exit slit) for C - , 3-5μA (at Faraday cup) and 6.8-11μA (at exit slit) for 2C - , and 11-15μA (at Faraday cup) and 25-34μA (at exit slit) for O - . Total beam current at the entrance aperture was 200-400μA. (auth.)

  6. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    Andersen, A; Hovmand, M F; Johnsen, I

    1978-10-01

    Transport of heavy metals from the atmosphere to the soil and vegetation takes place by dust fall, bulk precipitation, and gas/aerosol adsorption processes. Atmospheric dry and wet deposition of the heavy metals lead, zinc, nickel, vanadium, iron, and copper over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations throughout the area for 12 months. Epigeic bryophytes, epiphytic lichen, and topsoil samples were analyzed. A linear correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes was found. An exponential correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil was noted. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described, and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished. (10 diagrams, 8 graphs, 13 references, 2 tables)

  7. Experimental testing facilities for ultrasonic measurements in heavy liquid metal

    Cojocaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nicolescu, D.; Nitu, A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM), like lead or its alloy, Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE), makes them attractive as coolant candidates in advanced nuclear systems. The opaqueness, that is common to all liquid metals, disables all optical methods. For this reason ultrasound waves are used in different applications in heavy liquid metal technology, for example for flow and velocity measurements and for inspection techniques. The practical use of ultrasound in heavy liquid metals still needs to be demonstrated by experiments. This goal requires heavy liquid metal technology facility especially adapted to this task. In this paper is presented an experimental testing facility for investigations of Heavy Liquid Metals acoustic properties, designed and constructed in RATEN ICN. (authors)

  8. Toxic Heavy Metals: Materials Cycle Optimization

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1992-02-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  9. Scaling behavior of heavy fermion metals

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a, Chernova str. Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are fundamental systems in physics that are best studied experimentally, which until very recently have lacked theoretical explanations. This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as heavy-fermion (HF) metals and two-dimensional (2D) Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the scaling behavior of HF metals can be described within the framework of a fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) and an extended quasiparticle paradigm that allow us to explain the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in strongly correlated Fermi systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Having analyzed the collected facts on strongly correlated Fermi systems with quite a different microscopic nature, we find these to exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior at FCQPT. We show both analytically and using arguments based entirely on the experimental grounds that the data collected on very different strongly correlated Fermi systems have a universal scaling behavior, and materials with strongly correlated fermions can unexpectedly be uniform in their diversity. Our analysis of strongly correlated systems such as HF metals and 2D Fermi systems is in the context of salient experimental results. Our calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, the scales and thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties are in good agreement with experimental facts.

  10. Heavy metals in superficial sediment of Algiers Bay

    Benamar, M.A.; Toumert, C.L.; Chaouch, L.; Bacha, L.; Tobbeche, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected in 33 stations from the bay of Algiers for the potential sources of pollution. the analyses were made x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) the results give information about level of concentrations morphology of the bay (funnel form of bay). only Co,Mn,Fe, and Cd present a particular repartition (unrelated to the sedimentary facies). the level pollution bu heavy metals of the bottom sediments in algiers bay have been compared with those of Surkouk considered as a region with low anthropogenic activities

  11. Heavy metals contamination: implications for health and food safety

    Yulieth C. Reyes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals in water resources, soil and air poses one of the most severe problems that compromise food safety and public health at global and local level. In this review, the specific problem of contamination by mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the environment and food is presented. A description of the sources of contamination, exposure in living beings, accumulation and retention in food and consumer products is carried out. Study cases and results in some countries included Colombia are discussed.

  12. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel

    Clausen, J.; Rastogi, S.C.

    1977-08-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chromium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P < 0.1). Nineteen percent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally high blood level of carboxyhemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed.

  13. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Heavy metal contamination in canned foods

    Sand, W.A.; Flex, H.; Allan, K.F.; Mahmoud, R.M.; Abdel-Haleem, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper aims to the study of contamination of different foodstuffs, that are consumed frequently in our daily life, such as tomatoes concentrate, jam, tuna, and bean, as a result of canning in glass or tin cans. The effect of the storage time on the contamination of the aforementioned foods with heavy metals was also investigated. The technique used for the simultaneous determination of these elements was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique was selected due to its high accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity. In the light of the obtained results it was suggested that tin cans is the best choice for canning jam and it is suitable also for preserving tuna. On the other hand, glass utensils were found to be the most suitable for preserving tomatoes concentrate. detailed studies are needed to throw more light on the effect of canning material on the concentration level of both essential and toxic trace elements in bean

  15. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-01-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated

  16. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Hartong, J; Szpak, J; Hamric, T; Cutright, T

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  17. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  18. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  19. Heavy metal levels in soil samples from highly industrialized Lagos ...

    Anyakora

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The effect of heavy metals on the environment is of serious concern and threatens life in all forms. Environmental ... have affected the quality of soil due to contamination of soil with heavy metals and the consequent effects on the ..... tested for remediation of chromium-contaminated soils. (Collen, 2003).

  20. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  1. Selected mineral and heavy metal concentrations in blood and ...

    Unknown

    Pb in the dead vultures were generally above values characteristic of heavy metal poisoning. ... of the food chain), may accumulate and concentrate heavy metals in their ..... µg/g wet weight) (Honda et al., 1990), which validates the order of ...

  2. Heavy metals concentration in various tissues of two freshwater ...

    Heavy metals like cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead and mercury were measured in the various tissues of Labeo rohita and Channa striatus and in the water samples collected from ... The values of heavy metals concentration in the present study are within the maximum permissible levels for drinking water and fish.

  3. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  4. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and health implication in ...

    Studies of common heavy metals were conducted at Onitsha, Anambra State, the most urbanized city in Southeastern Nigeria. It was discovered that both surface and subsurface water were heavily polluted. Seven (7) heavy metals namely: arsenic (As+2), cadmium (Cd+2), lead (Pb+2), mercury (Hg+2), zinc (Zn+2), copper ...

  5. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  6. Occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in indoor settled ...

    The results showed widespread heavy metals contamination especially Fe and Zn, which were present as the highest concentration while Cd was the lowest in the settled particles (dust). The order of occurrence of heavy metals in settled particles (dust) collected indoor in 2007 and 2008 respectively were as follows, ...

  7. Heavy metal biosorption sites in Penicillium cyclopium | Tsekova ...

    The biomass of Penicillium cyclopium was subjected to chemical treatment to study the role of the functional groups in the biosorption of heavy metal ions. The modifications of the functional groups were examined with infrared spectroscopy. Hydroxyl groups were identified as providing the major sites of heavy metal ...

  8. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    Summary: This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while VOCs were determined by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector ...

  9. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Acacia ...

    Many organic and inorganic pollutants, including heavy metals are being transported and mixed with the cultivated soils and water. Heavy metals are the most dangerous pollutants as they are nondegradable and accumulate and become toxic to plants and animals. An experiment was conducted in the glasshouse to ...

  10. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from an electroplating industrial effluent samples that uses copper, cadmium and lead for plating. These isolates were characterized to evaluate their ...

  11. assessment of heavy metals concentration in drinking water ...

    userpc

    guidelines (WHO 2005). Findings suggest that continues water quality monitoring should be carried out to check the concentration levels of heavy metals in that area, to prevent them from been above the limit of WHO. Keywords: Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers, Heavy Metals, Water, Kauru Local. Government Area.

  12. Uptake and elimination kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm ...

    Earthworm inoculation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil is thought to catalyze the bioremediation. Most bioremediation studies focus on the petroleum hydrocarbon content and not on the heavy metals. Here, the uptake kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm in used engine oil contaminated soil was investigated.

  13. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    ajl2

    karst caves and water systems in the caves are well developed. So, heavy metals can contaminate cave envi- ronment and affect cave animals. Karst topography is widely distributed in Guizhou province, China, accounting for 73.8% of the total land area. So, the examination of heavy metal pollution in cave soil and water ...

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in under crown Olea europaea L forest ...

    Heavy metal concentration in plants increased in site irrigation with wastewater. Zn, Pb and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in soils and Pb, Cr and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in roots of plants irrigated with wastewater. It was concluded that the use of wastewater in urban forest enriched the soils with heavy metals ...

  15. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  16. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  17. Heavy metal contamination of some vegetables from pesticides and ...

    Vegetable farming in developing countries is characterized by the indiscriminate application of pesticides and the resultant pollution of agricultural soil with heavy metals that form constituents of these pesticides. These heavy metals have long term toxicity to human and other biota in the ecosystem. This problem is ...

  18. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and ...

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal and trace element composition of the powdered aerial parts of Origanum sipyleum L. and its water extract. Methods: The heavy metal and trace elements content of the powdered plant material and 2 % aqueous extract were evaluated by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with silicon ...

  19. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  20. Heavy metals – a silent threat to health

    Karolina Kosek-Hoehne

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution makes it impossible to produce goods and food from products completely free from heavy metals contamination. That is why we should focus on reducing the amount of heavy metals to the minimum when it comes to the world around us.

  1. selected heavy metals in some vegetables produced through ...

    toshiib

    Haramaya University; P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 10013 ... and trace elements that have potential health benefits [1]. ... leads to a build-up of heavy metals in soils and foods [3]. Exposure of ... Based on the effect of heavy metals on ... (Buck Scientific Model 210VGP AAS, East Norwalk, USA) with air-acetylene flame.

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution of Vegetable Crops Irrigated with Wastewater ...

    User

    Cr (< 0.006), Cd (< 0.002) and Co (< 0.005), soil Fe (164.38; 162.92), Mn (39.39; 20.09), Cu (7.21; ... extent of heavy metal contamination, steps must be taken to reduce human activities at the sites. ...... The degree of toxicity of heavy metals to.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in soil ...

    Distribution pattern of heavy metals in petrol stations, abattoirs, mechanic workshops and hospital incinerator sites were Mn > Zn > Pb > Cd, while for dumpsites Zn > Mn > Pb > Cd. Pollution index indicated that soil qualities varied between slightly contaminated to severely polluted status. This showed that the heavy metal ...

  4. An integrated heavy metal emission inventory in Alsace and Baden-Wurtemberg

    Veaux, Ch.; Zundel, T.; Rentz, O.

    1997-01-01

    The emissions of the heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn into the air, water and by-products, caused by stationary combustion plants in Baden-Wurtemberg (Germany) and Alsace (France) aRe assessed. The main emphasis of the study is on the development of an adequate, process specific tool allowing to determine multi-media heavy metal emissions by bottom ash or slag, filter ash, by-products of the flue gas desulfurization device (FGD by-products), and flue gas from the use of fossil fuels in Baden-Wurtemberg and Alsace. The heavy metal mass streams are analysed systematically with regard to fuel composition, boiler type, operation mode and flue gas treatment devices to define representative plants with regard to the partitioning of heavy metal streams. For these representative plants, partition factors, which characterise the distribution of heavy metals streams. The emission factors are derived from the partition factors and the heavy concentrations in the fuels used. Then, the emission factors are associated with data on emission sources referring to the configuration of combustion installations and activity data (annual consumption of fuel) to assess the heavy metal emissions in the study region. Heavy metal emissions through bottom ash, filter ash, FGD by-products and flue gas as well as heavy metal deposition in plants are assessed for the sectors 'public power plants', industrial combustion' and 'domestic heating' for the base year 1992. The results are available for Baden-Wurtemberg and Alsace for each heavy metal, sector, emission pathway, and combustion technique. (authors)

  5. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  6. A Study on Characteristics of Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Subway Station

    Kim, Chun-Huem; Yoo, Dong-Chul; Kwon, Young-Min; Han, Woong-Soo; Kim, Gi-Sun; Park, Mi-Jung; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the atmospheric heavy metal concentrations in the particulate matter inside the subway stations of Seoul. In particular, we examined the correlation between the heavy metals and studied the effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation. In six selected subway stations in Seoul, particulate matter was captured at the platforms and 11 types of heavy metals were analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of iron was the highest out of the heavy metals in particulate matter, followed by copper, potassium, calcium, zinc, nickel, sodium, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium in that order. The correlation analysis showed that the correlations between the heavy metals was highest in the following order: (Cu vs Zn) , (Ca vs Na) , (Ca vs Mn) , (Ni vs Cr) , (Na vs Mn) , (Cr vs Cd) , (Zn vs Cd) , (Cu vs Cd) , (Ni vs Cd) , (Cu vs Ni) , (K vs Zn) , (Cu vs K) , (Cu vs Cr) , (K vs Cd) , (Zn vs Cr) , (K vs Ni) , (Zn vs Ni) , (K vs Cr) , and (Fe vs Cu) . The correlation coefficient between zinc and copper was 0.937, indicating the highest correlation. Copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and cadmium, which are generated from artificial sources in general, showed correlations with many of the other metals and the correlation coefficients were also relatively high. The effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation was also investigated in this study. Cultured cell was exposed to 10 mg/l or 100 mg/l of iron, copper, calcium, zinc, nickel, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium for 24 hours. The cell proliferation in all the heavy metal-treated groups was not inhibited at 10 mg/l of the heavy metal concentration. The only exception to this was with the cadmium-treated group which showed a strong cell proliferation inhibition. This study provides the fundamental data for the understanding of simultaneous heavy metal exposure tendency at the time of particulate matter exposure in subway stations and the identification of heavy metal

  7. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan.

    Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Zakir, Shahida; Ihsanullah; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Akbar Ali; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in drinking water sources (surface and groundwater) collected from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The potential health risks of heavy metals to the local population and their possible source apportionment were also studied. Heavy metal concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometer and compared with permissible limits set by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were higher than their respective permissible limits, while Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations were observed within their respective limits. Health risk indicators such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated for adults and children separately. CDIs and HRIs of heavy metals were found in the order of Cr > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb and Cd > Ni > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn, respectively. HRIs of selected heavy metals in the drinking water were less than 1, indicating no health risk to the local people. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses showed that geologic and anthropogenic activities were the possible sources of water contamination with heavy metals in the study area.

  8. Sewage sludge pyrolysis - the distribution of heavy metals

    Kistler, R.; Widmer, F.; Brunner, P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper informs about the heavy metal contents of sewage sludges and discusses the origin of household, industry and surface sewerage of the respective heavy metals. The study aimed at assessing whether and in how far heavy metal volatility may be checked by reducing the temperature during sewage sludge pyrolysis. The testing equipment used was made of glass/silica glass. Instead of in particles heavy metals were precipitated in the gaseous state. Except from mercury heavy metals are retained by the ashes up to temperatures from 450 to 555/sup 0/C. Due to the persistence of mercury care should be taken to keep the sewerage clear of it from the very beginning. Emissions caused by reactor materials can be avoided by choosing appropriate pyrolysis reactors.

  9. [Biosorption of heavy metals in fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium].

    Cui, Pei-wu; Hu, Wei; Hu, Ya-qiang; Tan, Zhao-yang

    2014-09-01

    To explore the biosorption technology of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium. Four factors including fungal mycelium amount, adsorption time, pH value and temperature were employed to estimate the fungal biomass adsorption conditions for removing the heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction. Then an orthogonal experimental design was taken to optimize the biosorption process, and the removal efficiency was also evaluated. Under the optimized conditions of 1.0 g/50 mL Fluoritum decoction, 3 hours adsorption time, pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C, a result of 70.12% heavy metals removal rate was accomplished with 35.99% calcium ion loss. The study indicates that removing of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction through fungal mycelium is feasible, and the experiment results can also provide a basis for further research on biosorption of heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine

  10. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Fariborz Khodadadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones. Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of olivine, pyroxene and spinel (Kil et al., 2010. In such areas, the prevailing cold climate, during the serpentinization, chloritization and epidotiization, the activity of the solvent, such as chloride, fluoride, carbonates, sulfide, sulfosalt would be able to import the elements such as magnesium and iron, copper and zinc into the soil and groundwater. The study area is located in northwestern Iran. This area is located in the northwest of the city of Khoy. Because of the proximity to the north and northwest Khoy plains with ophiolite rocks, the soil of this region could possibly show the potential of contamination with heavy metals. Due to the toxicity and disease of unauthorized grades of these elements in groundwater in the study area, this study is focused on the more contaminated groundwater of the areas. Materials and methods In this study, over a period of 5 days, sampling from 42 water sources, including fountains, aqueducts, wells, piezometers and wells in operation, was performed. The container was washed with acid and then rinsed 3 times with the water sample. The pH and temperature of the water in the samples was measured in the field. Then to each of the samples was taken from 2 to 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (This causes that the metal elements would not adsorbed or precipitated by these particles and pH of the samples was measured with litmus paper to reach level 2. This was done to ensure the consolidation of the water samples. Analysis of

  11. Prevalence of exposure of heavy metals and their impact on health consequences.

    Rehman, Kanwal; Fatima, Fiza; Waheed, Iqra; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Even in the current era of growing technology, the concentration of heavy metals present in drinking water is still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in different countries of the world. Drinking water contaminated with heavy metals namely; arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, chromium, zinc, and lead is becoming a major health concern for public and health care professionals. Occupational exposure to heavy metals is known to occur by the utilization of these metals in various industrial processes and/or contents including color pigments and alloys. However, the predominant source resulting in measurable human exposure to heavy metals is the consumption of contaminated drinking water and the resulting health issues may include cardiovascular disorders, neuronal damage, renal injuries, and risk of cancer and diabetes. The general mechanism involved in heavy metal-induced toxicity is recognized to be the production of reactive oxygen species resulting oxidative damage and health related adverse effects. Thus utilization of heavy metal-contaminated water is resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates all over the world. Thereby, feeling the need to raise the concerns about contribution of different heavy metals in various health related issues, this article has discussed the global contamination of drinking water with heavy metals to assess the health hazards associated with consumption of heavy metal-contaminated water. A relationship between exposure limits and ultimate responses produced as well as the major organs affected have been reviewed. Acute and chronic poisoning symptoms and mechanisms responsible for such toxicities have also been discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and sediment quality in the Cimadur river, Banten

    Rina Mulyaningsih; Siti Suprapti

    2015-01-01

    River sediment quality assessment can be done by the calculation of pollution index. The existence of gold mining activities in Cikotok suspected to have an impact on Cimadur river quality degradation. Calculations pollution index by heavy metal Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn contained in river sediment Cimadur Cikotok Banten have been performed. Sediment sampling has conducted at 9 locations along the Cimadur River. Quantification of heavy metals in the samples was done by using the neutron activation analysis technique. The result of assessment based on enrichment factor showed that there has been an increase in concentration of heavy metals Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn due to anthropogenic factors. Based on the value of index geo accumulation it was known that the sampling location has been polluted, predominantly by Hg and As. Heavy metals contained in the sediments provide ecological risk to the environment with following order: Cr < Zn < As < Hg. Based on the value of pollution load index (PLI), all locations were polluted by heavy metals Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn. The sources of heavy metals could be from natural rocks or gold mining activities. Evaluation based on potential ecological risk index, showed that heavy metal pollution will give impact of ecological risk to the surrounding environment from low level to high, so it is necessary to do environmental monitoring and management appropriate for reducing the pollution in that location. (author)

  13. Heavy metal pollution and forest health in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Shparyk, Y.S.; Parpan, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by high air pollution caused by emissions from numerous industries. We have been monitoring the state of forests in this region since 1989. The highest levels of tree defoliation (>30%) are found close to industrial emission sources and in the upper mountain forests of the Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions. This is caused by a combination of strong anthropogenic influences (pollution, illegal uses, recreation) as well as poor site and climatic conditions. In the Ivano-Frankivsk region, Cd and Mo accumulate in forest soils; Cr, Mo and Zn soil concentrations are higher than their limit levels; and Pb concentrations exceed toxic levels close to industrial areas (10% of the region territory). Local background levels of heavy metals are greatly exceeded in snow close to industrial regions. Analysis of correlation matrices shows that the chemical elements Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn occur at pollution levels in natural ecosystems in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Maximum concentrations of toxic elements occur in the oak forest zone; the most industrially developed area of the region. Toxic heavy metals in the Ukrainian Carpathians forests enter with precipitation and dustfall, then become fixed in soil and accumulate in leaves, needles of vascular plants and mosses. Concentrations of these metals decrease with altitude: highest in the oak forests, less in beech, and lowest in the spruce forest zones. However, some chemical elements have the highest concentrations in spruce forests; V in needles, As in snow, and Ba and Al in soils. - Local industrial emissions of heavy metal pollution and the condition of Ukrainian Carpathians forests are examined

  14. Indicators of Lake Temsah Potential by some heavy metals Heavy Metals in Sediment

    Abdel Sabour, M.F.; Aly, R.O.; Khalil, M.T.; Attwa, A.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental impact of industrial, agricultural and domestic waster on heavy metals sediment content in lake Temsah has been investigated. Seven sites were chosen, differ in nature of activity and quantity of wastes, namely from south to north-west; Arab contractors shipyard workshop(A), The junction between the western logon and the lake(B), El-Temsah workshop (C), El-Temsah shipyard (private workshop) (D), El-Karakat workshop for SCA (E), El-Forsan drain out fall to the lake (F) and SCA Press outlet (G). Eight of heavy metal concentrations of concern (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) were estimated in sediment samples collected from different chosen sites during the seasons; summer , autumn 1995 and winter , spring 1996. Results of this study reveal that pollution is directly related to the type of the activity in each site. Sediment samples results showed that the most suffering sites were found to be in the order of B> D> C> G> F, and the least polluted ones were E> A. And the highest polluted season was summer, whereas the least one was winter. It is obvious that the general mean values of Cu, Ni and Cd are exceeding the allowed concentrations documented for diverse trace components in coastal sediments. Strict regulations that must be followed in order to minimize this pollution specially, by heavy metals from marine workshop

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS (REVIEW

    N. Kolesnyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the distribution of heavy metals among the components of freshwater ecosystems. Findings. The review of the works of many scientists showed that heavy metals are widespread in the biotic and abiotic components of freshwater ecosystems. The article highlights the distribution of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments, natural food base, fish organs and tissues. It has been shown that as a result of global pollution of the ecosystem, the majority of Ukrainian rivers belong to polluted and very polluted. Of special interest are the studies of the distribution of heavy metals in phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos because these components occupy a certain position in fish food chain. The presence of heavy metals in the natural food base showed that, on one hand, it could accumulate heavy metals in large amounts in such a way cleaning the water; and on the other hand, the heavy metals could migrate in the food web and contaminate fish. Ones of objects, which should be given attention when assessing toxicologic pollution, are aquatic plants, in particular phytoplankton. Studies showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in plants occurred first of all by their adsorption on the cellular wall. It explains the maximum adsorption of heavy metals by plants immediately after introduction of heavy metals into their culture. Fish as a rule occupy in the food web of water bodies one of the last places. They actively move in the aquatic environment and accumulating heavy metals at the same time they provide the most integrated and precise estimate of environmental pollution. By analyzing the distribution of heavy metals in fish organs and tissues, depending on their ability to accumulate them, it can be noted that the accumulation is the most intensive in such organs as gills, liver, and kidneys. Usually, their lowest content is observed in muscles that is important for human life because they are the main

  16. Determination of the Levels of some Heavy Metals in Urban Run

    The heavy metals in urban road sediments take their origin from sources such as vehicles, road wear, activities of roadside artisans (battery charging, vehicle repairs, iron-bending, vehicle painting and panel beating) and emissions and /or discharges fi'om industries. The metals come mainly from vehicular activities such as ...

  17. Spatial patterns of heavy metals in soil under different geological structures and land uses for assessing metal enrichments.

    Krami, Loghman Khoda; Amiri, Fazel; Sefiyanian, Alireza; Shariff, Abdul Rashid B Mohamed; Tabatabaie, Tayebeh; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2013-12-01

    One hundred and thirty composite soil samples were collected from Hamedan county, Iran to characterize the spatial distribution and trace the sources of heavy metals including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, and Fe. The multivariate gap statistical analysis was used; for interrelation of spatial patterns of pollution, the disjunctive kriging and geoenrichment factor (EF(G)) techniques were applied. Heavy metals and soil properties were grouped using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and gap statistic. Principal component analysis was used for identification of the source of metals in a set of data. Geostatistics was used for the geospatial data processing. Based on the comparison between the original data and background values of the ten metals, the disjunctive kriging and EF(G) techniques were used to quantify their geospatial patterns and assess the contamination levels of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution map combined with the statistical analysis showed that the main source of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, and V in group A land use (agriculture, rocky, and urban) was geogenic; the origin of As, Cd, and Cu was industrial and agricultural activities (anthropogenic sources). In group B land use (rangeland and orchards), the origin of metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and V) was mainly controlled by natural factors and As, Cd, Cu, and Pb had been added by organic factors. In group C land use (water), the origin of most heavy metals is natural without anthropogenic sources. The Cd and As pollution was relatively more serious in different land use. The EF(G) technique used confirmed the anthropogenic influence of heavy metal pollution. All metals showed concentrations substantially higher than their background values, suggesting anthropogenic pollution.

  18. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on different clays

    Kruse, K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present dissertation is to study the adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ) and their mixtures on clays. Different clays and bentonites (Ca 2+ -bentonite, activated Na + -bentonite, special heavy metal adsorber bentonite, two organophilic bentonites and a mixed layer clay) were used. The adsorbed metal ions were desorbed by appropriate solutions of HCl, EDTA and dioctadecyl dimethylammonium bromide. High concentrations of the heavy metal ions in the solutions can be reached. The desorption guarantees economical recycling. After desorption the clays were used (up to three times) for purification of contaminated water. The best experimental conditions, i.e. the highest adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions was found for the greatest ratio of adsorbent/adsorbate. The adsorption was very fast. Calcium, sodium bentonites and the heavy metal adsorber bentonite attained the highest adsorption and desorption for Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Pb 2+ ions. Cd 2+ ions were only absorbed by Silitonit, a special heavy metal absorber bentonite. The mixed layer clay (Opalit) ranges in adsorption and desorption properties below the unmodified Ca 2+ -bentonite (Montigel) or the activated Na + -bentonite. Only Tixosorb and Tixogel (organophilic bentonites) reach the lowest value of heavy metal adsorption. Only lead cations which are characterised by good polarizability were adsorbed at higher rates, therefore the organophilic bentonites are not appropriate for adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mixing of the metal ions generally decreases the adsorption of Pb 2+ and increases the adsorption of Cd 2+ . From mixtures if heavy metal ions adsorption and desorption of Cu 2+ ions reached a maximum for all clays. (author) figs., tabs., 56 refs

  19. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  20. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. Results. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Conclusions. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  1. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    Iyer, Anita; Mody, Kalpana; Jha, Bhavanath

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here

  2. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    Iyer, Anita [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Mody, Kalpana [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)]. E-mail: khmody@csmcri.org; Jha, Bhavanath [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here.

  3. Predictive Modelling of Heavy Metals in Urban Lakes

    Lindström, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals are well-known environmental pollutants. In this thesis predictive models for heavy metals in urban lakes are discussed and new models presented. The base of predictive modelling is empirical data from field investigations of many ecosystems covering a wide range of ecosystem characteristics. Predictive models focus on the variabilities among lakes and processes controlling the major metal fluxes. Sediment and water data for this study were collected from ten small lakes in the ...

  4. Effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activities in railway cut slope soils.

    Meng, Xiaoyi; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Ruirui; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2018-03-07

    Railway transportation is an important transportation mode. However, railway transportation causes heavy metal pollution in surrounding soils. Heavy metal pollution has a serious negative impact on the natural environment, including a decrease of enzyme activities in soil and degradation of sensitive ecosystems. Some studies investigated the heavy metal pollution at railway stations or certain transportation hubs. However, the pollution accumulated in artificial cut slope soil all along the rails is still questioned. The interest on non-point source pollution from railways is increasing in an effort to protect the soil quality along the line. In this study, we studied spatial distributions of heavy metals and five enzyme activities, i.e., urease (UA), saccharase (SAC), protease (PRO), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (POA) in the soil, and the correlation among them beside three different railways in Sichuan Province, China, as well. Soil samples were respectively collected from 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 m away from the rails (depth of 0-8 cm). Results showed that Mn, Cd, Cu, and Zn were influenced by railway transportation in different degrees while Pb was not. Heavy metal pollution was due to the abrasion of the gravel bed as well as the tracks and freight transportation which caused more heavy metal pollution than passenger transportation. Enzymatic activities were significantly negatively correlated with heavy metals in soils, especially Zn and Cu. Finally, it is proposed that combined use of PRO and POA activities could be an indicator of the heavy metal pollution in cut slope soils. The protective measures aimed at heavy metal pollution caused by railway transportation in cut slope soils are urgent.

  5. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  6. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  8. The Extent and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Shahrood and Damghan, Iran.

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2015-12-01

    The levels of 12 heavy metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) were considered in 229 soil samples in Semnan Province, Iran. To discriminate between natural and anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals, factor analysis was used. Seven factors accounting for 90.5 % of the total variance were extracted. The mining and agricultural activities along with geogenic sources have been attributed as the main causes of the levels of heavy metals in the study area. The partial least squares regression was utilized to predict the level of soil pollution index (SPI) considering the concentrations of 12 heavy metals. The eigenvectors from the first three PLS represented more than 98 % of the overall variance. The correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted SPI was 0.99 indicating the high efficiency of this method. The resultant coefficient of determination for three PLS components was 0.984 confirming the predictive ability of this method.

  9. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  10. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  11. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: their relations to environmental factors.

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-04-15

    This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation.

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  14. A Drinking Water Sensor for Lead and Other Heavy Metals.

    Lin, Wen-Chi; Li, Zhongrui; Burns, Mark A

    2017-09-05

    Leakage of lead and other heavy metals into drinking water is a significant health risk and one that is not easily detected. We have developed simple sensors containing only platinum electrodes for the detection of heavy metal contamination in drinking water. The two-electrode sensor can identify the existence of a variety of heavy metals in drinking water, and the four-electrode sensor can distinguish lead from other heavy metals in solution. No false-positive response is generated when the sensors are placed in simulated and actual tap water contaminated by heavy metals. Lead detection on the four-electrode sensor is not affected by the presence of common ions in tap water. Experimental results suggest the sensors can be embedded in water service lines for long-time use until lead or other heavy metals are detected. With its low cost (∼$0.10/sensor) and the possibility of long-term operation, the sensors are ideal for heavy metal detection of drinking water.

  15. Implication of heavy metals distribution for a municipal solid waste management system - a case study in Shanghai

    Zhang Hua; He Pinjing; Shao Liming

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern. The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in MSW and their implications for the integrated MSW management system in mega-cities have been investigated by means of material flow analysis based on a case study of Shanghai in China. A good statistical basis was provided through a one-year monitoring program on the mass and metals composition of the waste from three MSW treatment facilities. The results showed that the main heavy metals in the MSW were Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb (on average > 100 mg kg -1 ), followed by Ni, Cd, and Hg. The MSW contained higher levels of Cu and Ni in metals, Cr and Pb in plastics, and Pb and Zn in the inorganic fractions. Regardless of the sources, the statistically similar heavy metal contents in the organic fractions indicated that effective blending and diffusion of heavy metals had taken place throughout the MSW collection, transfer, transportation, and storage, leading to cross-contamination of the waste fractions. PU (composed of putrescible waste and miscellaneous indistinguishable particles) contributed the majority of the heavy metals to the MSW, followed by plastics, as a result of the predominance in the overall composition of PU and plastics rather than from differences in their heavy metal contents. Therefore, manual or mechanical separation of some significantly heavy metal-rich fractions alone is not sufficient to reduce the heavy metal contents in the MSW. Source separation of organic waste and the diversion of tailored inorganic waste such as hazardous components, construction and demolition waste, etc., are proposed to control the heavy metal contamination in MSW. For the mixed MSW management system, physicochemical fractionation to exclude particles containing high levels of heavy metals can be conducted

  16. Implication of heavy metals distribution for a municipal solid waste management system - a case study in Shanghai

    Zhang Hua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: solidwaste@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2008-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination in municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern. The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in MSW and their implications for the integrated MSW management system in mega-cities have been investigated by means of material flow analysis based on a case study of Shanghai in China. A good statistical basis was provided through a one-year monitoring program on the mass and metals composition of the waste from three MSW treatment facilities. The results showed that the main heavy metals in the MSW were Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb (on average > 100 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by Ni, Cd, and Hg. The MSW contained higher levels of Cu and Ni in metals, Cr and Pb in plastics, and Pb and Zn in the inorganic fractions. Regardless of the sources, the statistically similar heavy metal contents in the organic fractions indicated that effective blending and diffusion of heavy metals had taken place throughout the MSW collection, transfer, transportation, and storage, leading to cross-contamination of the waste fractions. PU (composed of putrescible waste and miscellaneous indistinguishable particles) contributed the majority of the heavy metals to the MSW, followed by plastics, as a result of the predominance in the overall composition of PU and plastics rather than from differences in their heavy metal contents. Therefore, manual or mechanical separation of some significantly heavy metal-rich fractions alone is not sufficient to reduce the heavy metal contents in the MSW. Source separation of organic waste and the diversion of tailored inorganic waste such as hazardous components, construction and demolition waste, etc., are proposed to control the heavy metal contamination in MSW. For the mixed MSW management system, physicochemical fractionation to exclude particles containing high levels of heavy metals can be conducted.

  17. Biosorption of heavy metals and uranium from dilute solutions

    Schneider, I.A.H.; Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes approaches being a scourge in many parts of the world, choking waterways and hindering transport upon them. At the same time it is known to readily abstract heavy metal ions from water and, thus, aids in the removal of heavy metals found in such waters. This paper considers the possibility of using specific parts of the plant as an inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated chemical and mining industry waste waters. In particular the root of the plant was found to be an excellent accumulator of heavy metal ions including uranium from solution. It is also suggested that dried roots of the plant might be placed in simple bags and used in a very low cost metal ion removal system

  18. Improving crop tolerance to heavy metal stress by polyamine application.

    Soudek, Petr; Ursu, Marina; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2016-12-15

    Many areas have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals from industry and are not suitable for food production. The consumption of contaminated foods represents a health risk in humans, although some heavy metals are essential at low concentrations. Increasing the concentrations of essential elements in foods is one goal to improve nutrition. The aim of this study was to increase the accumulation of heavy metals in plant foods by the external application of putrescine. The levels of cadmium, zinc and iron were measured in different vegetables grown in hydroponic medium supplemented with heavy metals and compared with those grown in a reference medium. The estimated daily intake, based on the average daily consumption for various vegetable types, and the influence of polyamines on metal uptake were calculated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metals' data in soils for agricultural activities

    T.A. Adagunodo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the heavy metals in soils for agricultural activities were analyzed statistically. Ten (10 soil samples were randomly taken across the agricultural zones in Odo-Oba, southwestern Nigeria. Ten (10 metals; namely: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, arsenic (As, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, antimony (Sb, cobalt (Co and vanadium (V were determined and compared with the guideline values. When the values were compared with the international standard, none of the heavy metals in the study area exceeded the threshold limit. However, the maximum range of the samples showed that Cr and V exceeded the permissible limit which could be associated with ecological risk. The data can reveal the distributions of heavy metals in the agricultural topsoil of Odo-Oba, and can be used to estimate the risks associated with the consumption of crops grown on such soils. Keywords: Agricultural soils, Heavy metals, Contamination, Environment, Soil screening, Geostatistics

  20. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  1. Mitigation of heavy metals in different vegetables through biological washing techniques

    Muhammad Umair Sattar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability of nutritious and healthy food is the foremost challenging issue in all over the word. Vegetables are essential part in human diet and considered as natural reserves of nutrients gifted by Almighty Allah to human beings. Heavy metals are among the most toxic food pollutants and their intake through diet leads to several disorders. The sources of heavy metal contamination include waste water irrigation, industrial emissions, transportation and application of metal-based pesticides. In Pakistan this situation is more alarming as vegetables grown in peri-urban areas have shown high incidence of heavy metals accumulation. In this study effort was made to mitigate different heavy metals (Ar, Cd, Cr and Pb in cauliflower, spinach, okra and brinjal collected from peri-urban areas through washing with different biological solutions. Heavy metals contents were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS. Vegetable showed high load of heavy metals in unwashed form that reduced significantly by washing with different biological solutions. Among the different biological solutions, washing of vegetables with 8% ginger solution was found to be more effective.

  2. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Unknown

    concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake ... employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. ... nitrate, mercuric chloride, cadmium nitrate and potassium dichromate salts. ... polymer resin was determined by reacting 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm of metal.

  3. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  4. Long plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grant Logan, Larry B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage (∼8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO 3 source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5x10 10 cm -3 density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios ∼120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high-energy-density physics applications.

  5. Heavy liquid metal cooled FBR. Results 2001

    Enuma, Yasuhiro; Soman, Yoshindo; Konomura, Mamoru; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2003-08-01

    In the feasibility studies of commercialization of an FBR fuel cycle system, the targets are economical competitiveness to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation, besides ensuring safety. Both medium size pool-type lead-bismuth cooled reactor with primary pumps system and without primary pumps system are studied to pursue their improvement in heavy metal coolant considering design requirements form plant structures. The design of plant systems are reformed, and the conceptual design is made and the commodities are analyzed. (1) Conceptual design of lead-bismuth cooled reactor with pumping system: Electrical output 750 MWe and 4-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (2) Structural analysis of main components. (3) Conceptual design of natural circulation type lead-bismuth cooled reactor: Electrical output 550 MWe and 6-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (4) Study of R and D program. (author)

  6. MOSSES AND LICHENS – BIOINDICATORS OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    BEGU A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparative investigation of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr in mosses and lichens recorded in ten deciduous forests in the Republic of Moldova included in a transnational grid (16x16 km of forest monitoring throughout Europe. The content of heavy metals doesn’t differ significant by depending on the location of studied forest ecosystems. The trends of larger accumulation are observed near the local stationary and mobile sources of pollution. Mosses were confirmed as good indicators of air pollution with heavy metals to forest ecosystems located near sources of pollution and lichens show good bio-indicators particularities for background pollution. The good correlation between the concentrations of moss and lichen were Cr, Cu and Ni, and the low correlation between Pb and Zn, which are considered to be metals which are amenable to long-distance dispersal.

  7. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments

    Suresh, G., E-mail: gsureshphy_1983@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics Thiruvalluvar College of Engg and Tech, Ponnur hills, Vandavasi, Tamilnadu 604 505 (India); Ramasamy, V. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu (India); Meenakshisundaram, V. [Health and Safety Division, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Venkatachalapathy, R. [CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu (India); Ponnusamy, V. [Department of Physics, MIT Campus, Anna University Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-10-15

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited. - Highlights: >Sediments radioactivity, mineralogical and heavy metal characterization have been analyzed. > Absorbed dose rate, PLI and kaolinite increase towards the river mouth. > Influence of minerals and heavy metals on level of radioactivity is assessed.

  8. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments

    Suresh, G.; Ramasamy, V.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Ponnusamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited. - Highlights: →Sediments radioactivity, mineralogical and heavy metal characterization have been analyzed. → Absorbed dose rate, PLI and kaolinite increase towards the river mouth. → Influence of minerals and heavy metals on level of radioactivity is assessed.

  9. Heavy-metal-induced reactive oxygen species: phytotoxicity and physicochemical changes in plants.

    Shahid, Muhammad; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dumat, Camille; Nadeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the industrial revolution, anthropogenic activities have enhanced there distribution of many toxic heavy metals from the earth's crust to different environmental compartments. Environmental pollution by toxic heavy metals is increasing worldwide, and poses a rising threat to both the environment and to human health.Plants are exposed to heavy metals from various sources: mining and refining of ores, fertilizer and pesticide applications, battery chemicals, disposal of solid wastes(including sewage sludge), irrigation with wastewater, vehicular exhaust emissions and adjacent industrial activity.Heavy metals induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants, either directly or indirectly, and cause various damaging effects. The most frequently documented and earliest consequence of heavy metal toxicity in plants cells is the overproduction of ROS. Unlike redox-active metals such as iron and copper, heavy metals (e.g, Pb, Cd, Ni, AI, Mn and Zn) cannot generate ROS directly by participating in biological redox reactions such as Haber Weiss/Fenton reactions. However, these metals induce ROS generation via different indirect mechanisms, such as stimulating the activity of NADPH oxidases, displacing essential cations from specific binding sites of enzymes and inhibiting enzymatic activities from their affinity for -SH groups on the enzyme.Under normal conditions, ROS play several essential roles in regulating the expression of different genes. Reactive oxygen species control numerous processes like the cell cycle, plant growth, abiotic stress responses, systemic signalling, programmed cell death, pathogen defence and development. Enhanced generation of these species from heavy metal toxicity deteriorates the intrinsic antioxidant defense system of cells, and causes oxidative stress. Cells with oxidative stress display various chemical,biological and physiological toxic symptoms as a result of the interaction between ROS and

  10. Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture.

    Seiler, Claudia; Berendonk, Thomas U

    2012-01-01

    The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance, and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to critical concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Nevertheless, the respective environmental background has to be taken into account.

  11. Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture

    Claudia eSeiler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to selective concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Cu and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Furthermore, results of the general selection mechanisms need to be carefully evaluated and the respective environmental background has to be taken into account.

  12. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and

  13. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    Anna Grobelak

    Full Text Available Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1. A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the

  14. Ferroelectric plasma source for heavy ion beam space charge neutralization

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grisham, Larry; Grant Logan, B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size and compress their axial pulse length. The plasma source should be able to operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied electric or magnetic fields. To produce 1 m-long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients are being developed. The sources utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic material, and high voltage (∼7 kV) will be applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A prototype ferroelectric source, 20 cm in length, has produced plasma densities of 5x10 11 cm -3 . It was integrated into the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K + ion beam. A 1 m-long source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested. Simply connecting the five sources in parallel to a single pulse forming network power supply yielded non-uniform performance due to the time-dependent nature of the load that each of the five plasma sources experiences. Other circuit combinations have been considered, including powering each source by its own supply. The 1-m-long source has now been successfully characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma over the 1 m length of the source in the mid-10 10 cm -3 density range. This source will be integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments

  15. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals with an emphasis on immobilization technology.

    Derakhshan Nejad, Zahra; Jung, Myung Chae; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-06-01

    The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s. Besides, the immobilization technique in contaminated soils is evaluated through the manipulation of the bioavailability of heavy metals using a range of soil amendment conditions. This technique is expected to efficiently alleviate the risk of groundwater contamination, plant uptake, and exposure to other living organisms. The efficacy of several amendments (e.g., red mud, biochar, phosphate rock) has been examined to emphasize the need for the simultaneous measurement of leaching and the phytoavailability of heavy metals. In addition, some amendments that are used in this technique are inexpensive and readily available in large quantities because they have been derived from bio-prod