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Sample records for heavy metals cu

  1. Biosorption of heavy metal copper (Cu2+) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ririhena, S. A. J.; Astuti, A. D.; Fachrul, M. F.; Silalahi, M. D. S.; Hadisoebroto, R.; Rinanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to study the optimum effect of contact time and pH adsorption of copper (Cu2+) from electroplating industry waste by dried beer waste S.cerevisiae. This research conducted using batch culture with pH variation 2,3,4,5, and 6, contact time variation 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 minutes, 150 rpm at room temperature (± 28°C), initial Cu2+ concentration 33,746 mg/l, and biosorbent mass 200 mg & 500 mg. The adsorption of heavy metal ions Cu2+ occurs in all variations of pH and contact time at optimum pH. The optimum adsorption occurs at pH 4 with contact time 120 minutes for both 200 mg (41.60%) and 500 mg (61.04%) beer waste biosorbent. Cell morphology seen with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis shows the change of cell wall that gets damaged from Cu2+ adsorption. It also proved by the decreased concentration of initial high concentration carboxyl groups. The adsorption process of this research complies to Freundlich Isotherm with R2 value closest to 1 and followed first order kinetic.

  2. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  3. Phytoremediation of heavy metal copper (Cu2+) by sunflower (Helianthus annuus l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardika, G.; Rinanti, A.; Fachrul, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    A study in microcosmic condition has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of Helianthus annuus as a hyperaccumulator plant for heavy metal, Copper (Cu2+), that exposed in the soil. Artificial pollutants containing Copper (Cu2+) 0, 60, 120, 180 ppm are exposed to uncontaminated soil. The 12-weeks old H. annuus seedling were grown in Cu2+ contaminated soil, with variations of absorption time 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Analysis of Cu2+ concentration on soil and H. annuus (root, stem, leaf) was analised by Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometry (AAS). H. annuus are capable for Cu2+ removal, and the highest removal of Cu2+ is 85.56%, the highest metal accumulation/bioconcentration factor (BCF) is 0.99 occurred at roots with 9 weeks of exposure time and the highest translocation factor (TF) is 0.71. This highest removal is five times better than absorption by stems and leaves. The results concluded, the use of H. annuus for phytoextraction of heavy metals Cu2+ in contaminated soil can be an alternative to the absorption of heavy metal Cu2+ with low concentration metals which is generally very difficult to do in physical-chemical removal.

  4. Co-contamination of Cu and Cd in paddy fields: Using periphyton to entrap heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiali [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Cilai [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Wang, Fengwu [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); School of Civil Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, 808 Shuang Gang East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Wu, Yonghong, E-mail: yhwu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Periphyton was capable of simultaneously entrapping Cu and Cd from paddy fields. • Cu and Cd bioavailability decreased with time after exposure to periphyton. • Periodic adsorption–desorption was the main mechanism used to remove Cd and Cu. • Periphyton was able to adapt to steady accumulation of Cu and Cd. • The inclusion of periphyton will help entrap heavy metals in paddy fields. - Abstract: The ubiquitous native periphyton was used to entrap Cu and Cd from paddy fields. Results showed that Cu- and Cd-hydrate species such as CuOH{sup +}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+}, CdOH{sup +}, and Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2+} decreased with time in the presence of periphyton. When the initial concentrations of Cu and Cd were 10 mg/L, the heavy metal content in the periphyton fluctuated from 145.20 mg/kg to 342.42 mg/kg for Cu and from 101.75 mg/kg to 236.29 mg/kg for Cd after 2 h exposure. The concentration of Cd in periphytic cells varied from 42.93 mg/kg to 174 mg/kg after 2 h. The dominant periphyton microorganism species shifted from photoautotrophs to heterotrophs during the exposure of periphyton to Cu and Cd co-contamination. Although Cu and Cd could inhibit periphyton photosynthesis and carbon utilization, the periphyton was able to adapt to the test conditions. Cu and Cd accumulation in rice markedly decreased in the presence of periphyton while the number of rice seeds germinating was higher in the periphyton treatments. These results suggest that the inclusion of native periphyton in paddy fields provides a promising buffer to minimize the effects of Cu and Cd pollution on rice growth and food safety.

  5. Prosopis juliflora--a green solution to decontaminate heavy metal (Cu and Cd) contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P; Prince, W S P M; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V

    2005-09-01

    Soil and plant samples (root and shoot) of Prosopis juliflora were collected in the vicinity of metal based foundry units in Coimbatore and assessed for their heavy metal content (Cu and Cd) to ascertain the use of P. juliflora as a green solution to decontaminate soils contaminated with Cu and Cd. The results showed that Cu and Cd content was much higher in plant components compared to their extractable level in the soil. Furthermore, there exist a strong correlation between the distance of the sources of industrial units and accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Accumulation of Cd in roots is comparatively higher than that of shoots. However, in case of Cu no such clear trend is seen. Considering the accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to Cd and Cu, this plant can be explored further for the decontamination of metal polluted soils. On the other hand, in view of heavy metal accumulate the practice of providing foliage and pods as fodder for live stock should be avoided.

  6. Heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, and Fe) concentration on coralreef in panjang island coastal, Jepara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto SBS; Ali Arman L; Yulizon Menri

    2008-01-01

    Observation on the accumulation of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Fe heavy metals in coral tissue were carried out in Panjang island, Jepara by NAA method. The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of heavy metals on coral reef tissue in order to update environmental data to support site licensing and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The result indicated that the concentration of Zn is 1,78 - 42,34 ppm, Cu is undetected - 0,41 ppm, Cr is 0,03 - 0,35 ppm and Fe is 5,25 - 30,56 ppm. The data shows that the accumulation of heavy metals in the coral reef tissue is higher than environmental threshold value, especially for marine biota life referring to the Environmental Ministry Decree Number 51 year 2004. (author)

  7. Decreasing Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn heavy metal magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites and adsorption isotherm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M.; Zakeri Khatir, M.; Khodadadi Darban, A.; Meshkini, M.

    2018-04-01

    This present study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite on heavy metal removal from an effluent. For this purpose, magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite was prepared through the chemical method and characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, followed by studying the effect of produced nanocomposite on the removal of Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ heavy metal ions. The results showed that adsorption capacity of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites for the studied ions is in the order of Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+. Adsorption isotherms were drawn for Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ cations and found that cations adsorption on nanocomposite fit into Langmuir model.

  8. Characteristics of Heavy Metals Adsorption Cu, Pb and Cd Using Synthetics Zeolite Zsm-5

    OpenAIRE

    Priyadi,; Iskandar,; Suwardi,; Mukti, Rino Rakhmata

    2015-01-01

    It is generally known that zeolite has potential for heavy metal adsorption. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and characterize zeolite ZSM-5 and to figure out the adsorption capacity of zeolite ZSM-5 for heavy metals of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+. Characterization of zeolite ZSM-5 included some variables i.e. crystal structure (XRD), morphology (SEM), specific surface area and total pore volume (N2 physisorption). Adsorption capacity of zeolite ZSM-5 was analysed using a batch system...

  9. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening of various types of lignin products for biosorption of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, H [Nile Research Inst., National Water Research Center, El Qanater (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    This paper discussed the need to develop new technologies and approaches to meet strict environmental legislation and standards regarding the discharge of heavy metals to the environment by industry. A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using different lignin materials for heavy metal removal using the BioElecDetox process. This process uses an unique combination of existing water and wastewater equipment and technology. The heavy metal removal efficiencies of grape stalks, pine bark, larch bark, pine sawdust, broccoli stems, and paper pulp were tested for their biosorption capacity, sedimentation, desorption and recycling for single solutions of copper, nickel and zinc (Cu, Ni and Zn respectively). Results showed that the grape stalk was the best biosorbent among the biomasses examined for Cu, Ni and Zn ions from single solution. The biomass biosorption capacity was determined using the Langmuir equation. Pine bark also gave good results and was considered to be the second best biosorbent. The biosorption for single metal solution was high for all metals. Biomass recycling had no impact on the efficiency of biosorption. It was recommended that future experiments should be conducted for industrial effluent using different biomasses at laboratory scale for the BioElecDetox process. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  12. Sequestration of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals by Hydroxyapatite Doped with Fe, Cu and Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.B. Helean; R.C. Moore

    2005-01-01

    Apatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (F,OH,Cl) (P6 3 /m, Z=2), is the most abundant phosphate mineral on Earth. The end-member hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH (P2 1 /b), is the primary mineral component in bones and teeth and tends to scavenge and sequester heavy metals in the human body. Hydroxyapatite has also been shown to be effective at sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals in certain natural systems (Dybowska et al., 2004). Hydroxyapatite has been the focus of many laboratory studies and is utilized for environmental remediation of contaminated sites (Moore et al., 2002). The crystal structure of apatite tolerates a great deal of distortion caused by extensive chemical substitutions. Metal cations (e.g. REE, actinides, K, Na, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Cd, Fe) substitute for Ca, and oxyanions (e.g. AsO 4 3- , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , SiO 4 4- , CrO 4 2- ) replace PO 4 3- through a series of coupled substitutions that preserve electroneutrality. Owing to the ability of apatite to incorporate ''impurities'' (including actinides) gives rise to its proposed use as a waste form for radionuclides. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that hydroxyapatite has a strong affinity for U, Pu, Np, Sr and Tc reduced from pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) by SnCl 2 (Moore et al., 2002). Based on these earlier promising results, an investigation was initiated into the use of apatite-type materials doped with aliovalent cations including Fe, Cu and Sn as Tc-scavengers. Synthetic Fe and Cu-doped hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by precipitation of Ca, from Ca-acetate, and P, from ammonium phosphate. The Fe and Cu were introduced as chlorides into the Ca-acetate solution. Stannous chloride was used as a reducing agent and was apparently incorporated into the crystal structures of the hydroxyapatite samples in small, as yet undetermined quantities

  13. The Investigation of Heavy Metal Content (Cu, Cd, Pb in Sapu-Sapu Fish (Hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyana Eko Setyarini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study had been carried out to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Pb content in sapu-sapu fish (hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo river. The type of this research was observational research, with sapu-sapu fish inhabit Bengawan Solo River as the population. The samples were taken with purposive random sampling. Nine sapu-sapu fishes taken from 3 places, i.e.: Nguter Sukoharjo area, Premulung river outlet and Anyar river, 3 fishes from each palce, and then take examined the content of heavy metal. The result of study showed that the average content of Cu: 0.027 mg/100gr, Cd: 0.005 mg/100gr and Pb: 0.042 mg/100gr. Hence, sapu-sapu fish in Be3ngawan Solo had been contaminated with heavy metal (Cu, Cd, and Pb and should not be consumed.

  14. Heavy Metals (Cu, Pb and Cd) in Water and Angel Fish (Chelmon rostractus) from Batam Coastal, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismarti Ismarti; Ramses Ramses; Suheryanto Suheryanto; Fitrah Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Fish play an important role in human nutrition and therefore need to be carefully and routinely monitored to ensure that there are no high levels of heavy metals being transferred to human through their consumption. This study has been carried out to determine level of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Cd) in water and angel fish, Chelmon rostractus collected from coast of Batam. We report levels of Cu, Cd and Pb in water and angel fish from Coast Batam using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lev...

  15. Sequestration of radionuclides and heavy metals by hydroxyapatite doped with Fe, Cu and Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidel, Linnah L.; Moore, Robert Charles; Salas, Fred; Grouios, Fotini; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Helean, Katheryn B.

    2005-01-01

    Apatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (F,OH,Cl)(P6 3 /m, Z=2), is the most abundant phosphate mineral on Earth. The end-member hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH(P2 1 /b), is the primary mineral component in bones and teeth and tends to scavenge and sequester heavy metals in the human body. Hydroxyapatite has also been shown to be effective at sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals in certain natural systems (Dybowska et al., 2004). Hydroxyapatite has been the focus of many laboratory studies and is utilized for environmental remediation of contaminated sites (Moore et al., 2002). The crystal structure of apatite tolerates a great deal of distortion caused by extensive chemical substitutions. Metal cations (e.g. REE, actinides, K, Na, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Cd, Fe) substitute for Ca, and oxyanions (e.g. AsO 4 3- , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , SiO 4 4- , CrO 4 2- ) replace PO 4 3- through a series of coupled substitutions that preserve electroneutrality. Owing to the ability of apatite to incorporate 'impurities'(including actinides) gives rise to its proposed use as a waste form for radionuclides. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that hydroxyapatite has a strong affinity for U, Pu, Np, Sr and Tc reduced from pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) by SnCl 2 (Moore et al., 2002). Based on these earlier promising results, an investigation was initiated into the use of apatite-type materials doped with aliovalent cations including Fe, Cu and Sn as Tc-scavengers. Synthetic Fe and Cu-doped hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by precipitation of Ca, from Ca-acetate, and P, from ammonium phosphate. The Fe and Cu were introduced as chlorides into the Ca-acetate solution. Stannous chloride was used as a reducing agent and was apparently incorporated into the crystal structures of the hydroxyapatite samples in small, as yet undetermined quantities.

  16. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  17. Batch adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Fe, Cr and Cd) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Cr and Cd) removal from mixed metal ions solution using coconut husk as adsorbent. The effects of varying contact time, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose and pH on adsorption process of these metals were studied using synthetically ...

  18. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu +2 , Hg +2 , Pb +2 , and Zn +2 ). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  19. Photoluminescence and semiconducting behavior of Fe, Co, Ni and Cu implanted in heavy metal oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Marzouk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions (0.5 wt% of Fe2O3, CoO, NiO or CuO doped heavy metal oxide glasses having chemical composition of 60PbO·20Bi2O3·20 MxOy mol% (where MxOy = B2O3 or SiO2 or P2O5 were prepared by conventional melt annealing method. Combined optical and photoluminescence properties have been measured and employed to evaluate the prepared glassy samples. From the absorption edge data, the values of the optical band gap Eopt, Urbach energy (ΔE and refractive index were calculated to estimate semiconducting behavior. Photoluminescence and values of the optical energy gap were found to be dependent on the glass composition. The variations of the photoluminescence intensity, values of optical band gap, Urbach energy and refractive index gave an indication to use the prepared glasses for design of novel functional optical materials with higher optical performance.

  20. Adsorption of multi-heavy metals Zn and Cu onto surficial sediments: modeling and adsorption capacity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Meng; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Improved multiple regression adsorption models (IMRAMs) was developed to estimate the adsorption capacity of the components [Fe oxides (Fe), Mn oxides (Mn), organic materials (OMs), residuals] in surficial sediments for multi-heavy metal Zn and Cu. IMRAM is an improved version over MRAM, which introduces a computer program in the model developing process. As MRAM, Zn(Cu) IMRAM, and Cu(Zn) IMRAM again confirmed that there is significant interaction effects that control the adsorption of compounded Zn and Cu, which was neglected by additional adsorption model. The verification experiment shows that the relative deviation of the IMRAMs is less than 13%. It is revealed by the IMRAMs that Mn, which has the greatest adsorption capability for compounded Zn and Cu (54.889 and 161.180 mg/l, respectively), follows by interference adsorption capacity of Fe/Mn (-1.072 and -24.591 mg/l respectively). Zn and Cu influence each other through different mechanisms. When Zn is the adsorbate, compounded Cu mainly affects the adsorption capacities of Fe/Mn and Fe/Mn/OMs; while when Cu is the adsorbate, compounded Zn mainly exerts its effect on Mn, Fe/Mn, and Mn/OMs. It also shows that the compounded Zn or Cu weakened the interference adsorption of Fe/Mn, and meanwhile, strengthened the interference adsorption of Mn/OMs.

  1. Theoretical study of heavy metal Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II) adsorption on the kaolinite(0 0 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jian, E-mail: zhaojian0209@aliyun.com [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, PO Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Man-Chao [State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • We investigated the adsorption of Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II) on kaolinite(0 0 1) surface. • The adsorption capabilities of the kaolinite for HM atoms were Ni > Cu > Cd > Hg(II). • The adsorption energy increases with the coverage for Cd, Cu, and Hg(II) atoms. • The adsorption energy decreases with the coverage for Ni(II) atoms. - Abstract: Heavy metal pollution is currently of great concern because it has been recognized as a potential threat to air, water, and soil. Adsorption was one of the most popular methods for the removal of heavy metal. The adsorption of heavy metal Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II) atoms on the hydroxylated (0 0 1) surface of kaolinite was investigated using density-functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation and a supercell approach. The coverage dependence of the adsorption structures and energetics were systematically studied for a wide range of coverage Θ [from 0.11 to 1.0 monolayers (ML)] and adsorption sites. The most stable among all possible adsorption sites for Cd(II) atom was the two-fold bridge site followed by the one-fold top site, and the top site was the most favorite adsorption site for Cu and Ni(II) atoms, while the three-fold hollow site was the most stable adsorption site for Hg(II) atom followed by the two-fold bridge site. The adsorption energy increases with the coverage for Cd, Cu, and Hg(II) atoms, thus indicating the higher stability of surface adsorption and a tendency to the formation of adsorbate islands (clusters) with increasing the coverage. However, the adsorption energy of Ni(II) atoms decreases when increasing the coverage. The adsorption capabilities of the kaolinite clay for the heavy metal atoms were in the order of Ni > Cu > Cd > Hg(II). The other properties of the Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II)/kaolinite(0 0 1) system including the different charge distribution, the lattice relaxation, and the electronic density of states were also studied and discussed in detail.

  2. Theoretical study of heavy metal Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II) adsorption on the kaolinite(0 0 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jian; He, Man-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the adsorption of Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II) on kaolinite(0 0 1) surface. • The adsorption capabilities of the kaolinite for HM atoms were Ni > Cu > Cd > Hg(II). • The adsorption energy increases with the coverage for Cd, Cu, and Hg(II) atoms. • The adsorption energy decreases with the coverage for Ni(II) atoms. - Abstract: Heavy metal pollution is currently of great concern because it has been recognized as a potential threat to air, water, and soil. Adsorption was one of the most popular methods for the removal of heavy metal. The adsorption of heavy metal Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II) atoms on the hydroxylated (0 0 1) surface of kaolinite was investigated using density-functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation and a supercell approach. The coverage dependence of the adsorption structures and energetics were systematically studied for a wide range of coverage Θ [from 0.11 to 1.0 monolayers (ML)] and adsorption sites. The most stable among all possible adsorption sites for Cd(II) atom was the two-fold bridge site followed by the one-fold top site, and the top site was the most favorite adsorption site for Cu and Ni(II) atoms, while the three-fold hollow site was the most stable adsorption site for Hg(II) atom followed by the two-fold bridge site. The adsorption energy increases with the coverage for Cd, Cu, and Hg(II) atoms, thus indicating the higher stability of surface adsorption and a tendency to the formation of adsorbate islands (clusters) with increasing the coverage. However, the adsorption energy of Ni(II) atoms decreases when increasing the coverage. The adsorption capabilities of the kaolinite clay for the heavy metal atoms were in the order of Ni > Cu > Cd > Hg(II). The other properties of the Cd, Cu, Hg, and Ni(II)/kaolinite(0 0 1) system including the different charge distribution, the lattice relaxation, and the electronic density of states were also studied and discussed in detail

  3. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    acute toxicity and sublethal chronic action the devastating effects that the accumulation - including ... the laboratory and kept in holding glass (a) Copper as CuSO,.5H,0 ... from 2 psu to 21 psu) depending on time of The choice of heavy metals for this s year. ... serving as substrate and food source for Salinity of test media.

  4. Selective removals of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+)) from wastewater by gelation with alginate for effective metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Li, Xiao-yan

    2016-05-05

    A novel method that uses the aqueous sodium alginate solution for direct gelation with metal ions is developed for effective removal and recovery of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The experimental study was conducted on Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) as the model heavy metals. The results show that gels can be formed rapidly between the metals and alginate in less than 10 min and the gelation rates fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The optimum dosing ratio of alginate to the metal ions was found to be between 2:1 and 3:1 for removing Pb(2+) and around 4:1 for removing Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from wastewater, and the metal removal efficiency by gelation increased as the solution pH increased. Alginate exhibited a higher gelation affinity toward Pb(2+) than Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), which allowed a selective removal of Pb(2+) from the wastewater in the presence of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions. Chemical analysis of the gels suggests that the gelation mainly occurred between the metal ions and the -COO(-) and -OH groups on alginate. By simple calcination of the metal-laden gels at 700 °C for 1 h, the heavy metals can be well recovered as valuable resources. The metals obtained after the thermal treatment are in the form of PbO, CuO, and CdO nanopowders with crystal sizes of around 150, 50, and 100 nm, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of the levels of heavy metal (Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    consumption or animal feed. This because the ingestion level of these metals are far above ... shown that the extent of soil pollution by heavy metals some of which were soil micronutrients is very alarming ... terrestrial foods grown in contaminated soil contain high level of Cd. Lead has no known beneficial effect to man ( ...

  6. Distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Cr in groundwater from the area of a future radioactive waste repository Saligny – Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorache A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of some heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations in natural groundwater has been conducted, by considering samples collected from the area located in the neighbourhood of Saligny village (Cernavodă, Romania. Atomic absorption spectrometry methods with thermal and electrothermal atomization has been developed, tested and used for some heavy metals content determination. The results show various concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr in groundwater samples.

  7. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil.

  8. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Water pollution and fish physiology. CRC press. Florida, USA, p. 245. Kalay M, Canli M (2000). Elimination of essential (Cu, Zn) and nonessential (Cd, Pb) metals from tissue of a freshwater fish Tilapia zillii following and uptake protocol. Turk. J. Zool. 24: 429-436. Karadede H, Ünlü E (2000). Concentrations ...

  9. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50 were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained.

  10. The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canli, Mustafa; Atli, Gueluezar

    2003-01-01

    Significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. - Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) concentrations in the muscle, gill and liver of six fish species (Sparus auratus, Atherina hepsetus, Mugil cephalus, Trigla cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and Scomberesox saurus) from the northeast Mediterranean Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated by linear regression analysis. Metal concentrations (as μg/g d.w.) were highest in the liver, except for iron in the gill of Scomberesox saurus and lowest in the muscle of all the fish species. Highest concentrations of Cd (4.50), Cr (17.1) and Pb (41.2) were measured in liver tissues of T. cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and A. hepsetus, respectively. The liver of M. cephalus showed strikingly high Cu concentrations (202.8). The gill of Scomberesox saurus was the only tissue that showed highest (885.5) iron concentrations. Results of linear regression analysis showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Highly significant (P<0.001) negative relationships were found between fish length and Cr concentrations in the liver of A. hepsetus and M. cephalus, and Cr concentrations in the gill of T. cuculus. Cr and Pb concentrations in the liver and Cu concentrations in all the tissues of Scomberesox saurus also showed very significant (P<0.001) negative relationships. Negative relationships found here were discussed

  11. The Effect of Aggregate-Size Fractions on the Availability of Cu in Some Contaminated Soils with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Farshadirad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, because of the presence of industrial factories around the Isfahan province of Iran and high concentrations of heavy metals in the vicinity of them, and the gradual accumulation of heavy metals from various sources of pollution in urban areas over time, including gasoline combustion, and use of urban waste compost and sewage sludge as fertilizer, there has been widespread concerned regarding the human health problems with increasing heavy metals in soils around the Isfahan city. The variation of composition in the soil matrix may lead to variation of composition and behavior of soil heavy metals. Soil is a heterogeneous body of materials and soil components are obviously in interaction. Studies tacking this complexity often use aggregate measurements as surrogates of the complex soil matrix. So, it is important the understanding soil particle-size distribution of aggregates and its effects on heavy metal partitioning among the size fractions, the fate of metals and their toxicity potential in the soil environment. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the Cu release potential from different size fractions of different polluted soils by different extractants and their availability for corn plant. Materials and Methods: Five soil samples were collected from the surface soils (0–15 cm of Isfahan province, in central of Iran. The soil samples were air-dried and ground to pass a 2-mm sieve for laboratory analysis. Air dried samples fractionated into four different aggregate size fractions 2.0–4.0 (large macro-aggregate, 0.25–2 (small macro-aggregate, 0.05–0.25 (micro-aggregate, and

  12. Distribution of heavy metals (Cu and Fe in sea water of Gresik coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nindyapuspa Ayu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of industrial activities at Gresik Regency will increase the heavy metals concentration on the seawater at Gresik Regency. Therefore, the research of Fe and Cr distribution on the seawater at Gresik Regency has been conducted. Methods that were used is sampling by Nansen water sampler at three sampling points (housing in northern coastal Gresik Regency, Maspion V Industrial Estate, and Petrokimia Port. Samples were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The results showed that the highest Fe and Cr concentration are located at Maspion V Industrial Estate (0.452 mg/L and 0.081 mg/L respectively. Meanwhile, Fe and Cr concentrations at the housing in northern coastal are (0.408 mg/L and 0.081 mg/L respectively. The concentration of Fe and Cr at Petrokimia Port are 0.174 mg/L and 0.021 mg/L respectively.

  13. The efficiency of biosynthesis silica nanoparticles at removal of heavy metals Cr and Cu from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sayadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nanotechnology considered as one of the main management strategy in reducing negative effects of water pollution, which leads to treating of water inexpensive and more effective. This study aimed to investigate the removal of Cr and Cu from aqueous solutions using nano-silicate which is synthesized by rice husk. Materials and Methods: In the present study, functionalized nano-silica with rice husk was fabricated and characterized by FT-IR، TEM, SEM and XRD. The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial concentration and equilibrium of chromium and copper and contact time in removal of mentioned heavy metals were investigated. Finally, the adsorption isotherms were analyzed. Results: The silica nanoparticles had nearly spherical morphology with a uniform size of about 80 nm. However, the obtained functionalized silica nanoparticles were spherical (about 90 nm in diameter. Results showed that optimum adsorption of Cr and Cu contaminant obtained at 100 minutes, while the optimum amount of adsorbent for Cr and Cu were 125 and 100 mg respectively. The optimal concentration of Cr and Cu was 2 mg/l. The correlation coefficients of adsorption isotherms of Cr (R2Langmuir =0.9946 and Cu (R2Langmuir =0.999 showed the good agreement between the adsorption data and Langmuir model. Conclusion: The study showed that the silica nanoparticles can be produced using agricultural waste as a inexpensive and environmentally friendly method and can be used to removing of contaminants from the aquatic environment.

  14. Selectively improving the bio-oil quality by catalytic fast pyrolysis of heavy-metal-polluted biomass: take copper (Cu) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Ding, Hong-Sheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-07-17

    Heavy-metal-polluted biomass derived from phytoremediation or biosorption is widespread and difficult to be disposed of. In this work, simultaneous conversion of the waste woody biomass into bio-oil and recovery of Cu in a fast pyrolysis reactor were investigated. The results show that Cu can effectively catalyze the thermo-decomposition of biomass. Both the yield and high heating value (HHV) of the Cu-polluted fir sawdust biomass (Cu-FSD) derived bio-oil are significantly improved compared with those of the fir sawdust (FSD) derived bio-oil. The results of UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra of bio-oil indicate pyrolytic lignin is further decomposed into small-molecular aromatic compounds by the catalysis of Cu, which is in agreement with the GC-MS results that the fractions of C7-C10 compounds in the bio-oil significantly increase. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the migration and transformation of Cu in the fast pyrolysis process show that more than 91% of the total Cu in the Cu-FSD is enriched in the char in the form of zerovalent Cu with a face-centered cubic crystalline phase. This study gives insight into catalytic fast pyrolysis of heavy metals, and demonstrates the technical feasibility of an eco-friendly process for disposal of heavy-metal-polluted biomass.

  15. 18O isotopic characterisation of non-point source contributed heavy metals (Zn and Cu) contamination of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.; Manjaiah, K.M.; Tyagi, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many urbanised areas, fast depletion and severe degradation of the of groundwater resource with contaminants such as nitrate, fluoride, and heavy metals is a common phenomenon, resulting in zonal disparity in fresh water availability. Therefore, for protection of groundwater from pollution and depletion, it is a matter of concern for the planners and decision makers to clearly characterise the sources of contamination and to search for an alternative approach for groundwater development and management. In this context, a new approach is presented here, based on monitoring of 18 O stable isotopic and heavy metals composition of groundwater, to clearly characterise non-point source contributed heavy metals pollution of groundwater in northern parts of Delhi area. In the investigated area, the Cu content in the groundwater ranges from 3-41 μg/l and Zn content ranges from 5-182 μg/l, showing considerable variation from location to location as well as within the small parts of a location. Wide variation in the 18 O stable isotope content of groundwater (δ value of -5.7 per mille to -8.5 per mille) is due to significant variation in the δ 18 O-contents of rainfall with space and time, as well as intensity and distribution of rainfall. Enrichment in 18 O composition with increasing Cu and Zn levels in groundwater suggest that infiltration of rain water, irrigation water and surface run-off water from the surrounding farm lands, along with agrochemicals and other salts present in the soil, to be the main processes causing groundwater contamination. The concentration of Cu and Zn in groundwater vary spatially, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge, amounts of fertiliser applied and wastes disposed, adsorption/dispersion of species in the soils and lateral mixing of groundwater. Two opposite mechanisms adsorption and redistribution of infiltrating water along with Zn and Cu species in the soil zone are likely to affect the movement of the Zn and Cu species

  16. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 10.3 to 95 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 5.2 to 183 mg kg{sup -1} Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 312 to 39,000 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 609 to 12,000 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  17. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg -1 , 10.3 to 95 mg kg -1 Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg -1 and 5.2 to 183 mg kg -1 Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg -1 , 312 to 39,000 mg kg -1 Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg -1 and 609 to 12,000 mg kg -1 Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K d ) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  18. Heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Domy; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Bolan, N.S.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    - Sources of Metals in the Environment - Environmental Contamination - Retention and Dynamics of Metals in Soils - Adsorption - Complexation - Precipitation - Bioavailability–Natural Attenuation Interactions - Biological Response to Metals - Soil Remediation

  19. The Content of Heavy Metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb in The Soil Near The Arterial Roads in Wroclaw (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals in soils along the motorway bypass of Wroclaw (AOW and the Eastern Ring Road of Wroclaw (WOW, Poland, have been determined. The soil samples were collected from the levels of 0-25 cm within 2 m from the edge of the road. The mineralizates were prepared in HNO3, 60%, using the Microwave Digestion System. The content of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils were determined using FAAS method. The physicochemical parameters, the conductivity and pH of the soil solutions were measured to evaluate the salinity of the soils and their active and exchangeable acidity. The pollution indexes (WN showing the enrichment of soils in metals have been determined. Excess of metal concentrations in soils compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland has been observed. Permissible concentrations of heavy metals relative to the standard for soils, according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016, have not been exceeded.

  20. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  1. Characterization of a metal resistant Pseudomonas sp. isolated from uranium mine for its potential in heavy metal (Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+) sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sangeeta; Sar, Pinaki

    2009-05-01

    Heavy metal sequestration by a multimetal resistant Pseudomonas strain isolated from a uranium mine was characterized for its potential application in metal bioremediation. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed phylogenetic relatedness of this isolate to Pseudomonas fluorescens. Metal uptake by this bacterium was monophasic, fast saturating, concentration and pH dependent with maximum loading of 1048 nmol Ni(2+) followed by 845 nmol Co(2+), 828 nmol Cu(2+) and 700 nmol Cd(2+)mg(-1) dry wt. Preferential metal deposition in cell envelope was confirmed by TEM and cell fractionation. FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis revealed a major role of carboxyl and phosphoryl groups along with a possible ion exchange mechanism in cation binding. Binary system demonstrated selective metal binding affinity in the order of Cu(2+)>Ni(2+)>Co(2+)>Cd(2+). A comparison with similar metal uptake reports considering live bacteria strongly indicated the superiority of this strain in metal sequestration, which could be useful for developing efficient metal removal system.

  2. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...

  3. An investigation of the evolution of evolution of distribution and accumulation of heavy metals(Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb) in Anzali wetland's sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartaj, M.; Fatollahi, F.; Filizadeh, Y.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the precipitation of heavy metals in Anzali wetland and evaluate its refining performance this study was carried out on the wetland. Monthly samples of sediments from 15 stations including inlets, outlets and some internal locations in the wetland were collected and analyzed over a period of six months (July - December 2002). Sediment samples were analyzed for six metals of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. Wet digestion method was employed for extraction of metals in samples by and through a solution containing HN03 and HCL. Atomic Adsorption spectrophotometry was employed for measurement of the heavy metals. Statistical methods, including analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and Cluster analysis were used for analysis of the data. The results indicated that concentration of heavy metals present in sediments (collected from different stations and at different times) here significantly different. Among the metals studied, Zn was of the highest concentration Heavy metal concentrations in stations 1 1, 12 and 13 were lower than in other stations. Sediments in station 5 contained the highest concentrations of heavy metals among all sediments. It can be stated that concentration of heavy metals decreases with an increase in the distance from delta of rivers entering the wetland.2. This is due to the role and performance of wetland chemical contents in reduction of pollutants, the self-purification action of wetland as well as precipitation of heavy metals at the beginning of the entries into the wetland

  4. Health risk assessment of citrus contaminated with heavy metals in Hamedan city, potential risk of Al and Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin Rezaei Raja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits especially citrus species are an integral part of human diet. Contamination of foodstuffs by heavy and toxic metals via environmental pollution has become an inevitable challenge these days. Therefore, the effect of pollutants on food safety for human consumption is a global public concern. In this regards, this study was conducted for Al and Cu health risk assessment through the consumption of citrus species (orange, grapefruit, sweet lime and tangerine in Hamedan city in 2015. Methods: After collecting and preparing 4 samples from each citrus species with acid digestion method, the concentrations of Al and Cu were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES with three replications. In addition, SPSS was employed to compare the mean concentrations of metals with maximum permissible limits (MPL of the World Health Organization (WHO. Results: The results showed that the mean concentrations of Al in citrus samples were 3.25±0.35 mg/kg and higher than WHO maximum permissible limits. The mean concentrations of Cu in citrus samples with 0.16±0.05 mg/kg are lower than WHO maximum permissible limits. Also, the computed health risk assessment revealed that there was no potential risk for children and adult by consuming the studied citrus. Conclusion: Based on the results, consumption of citrus species has no adverse effect on the consumers’ health, but as a result of the increased utilization of agricultural inputs (metal based fertilizers and pesticides, sewage sludge and wastewater by farmers and orchardists, regular periodic monitoring of chemical pollutants content in foodstuffs are recommended for food safety.

  5. A two-step leaching method designed based on chemical fraction distribution of the heavy metals for selective leaching of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb from metallurgical sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Yu, Junxia; Xiong, Wanli; Xu, Yuanlai; Chi, Ru-An

    2018-01-01

    For selective leaching and highly effective recovery of heavy metals from a metallurgical sludge, a two-step leaching method was designed based on the distribution analysis of the chemical fractions of the loaded heavy metal. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as a leaching agent in the first step to leach the relatively labile heavy metals and then ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to leach the residual metals according to their different fractional distribution. Using the two-step leaching method, 82.89% of Cd, 55.73% of Zn, 10.85% of Cu, and 0.25% of Pb were leached in the first step by 0.7 M HCl at a contact time of 240 min, and the leaching efficiencies for Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were elevated up to 99.76, 91.41, 71.85, and 94.06%, by subsequent treatment with 0.2 M EDTA at 480 min, respectively. Furthermore, HCl leaching induced fractional redistribution, which might increase the mobility of the remaining metals and then facilitate the following metal removal by EDTA. The facilitation was further confirmed by the comparison to the one-step leaching method with single HCl or single EDTA, respectively. These results suggested that the designed two-step leaching method by HCl and EDTA could be used for selective leaching and effective recovery of heavy metals from the metallurgical sludge or heavy metal-contaminated solid media.

  6. heavy metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. bSchool of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, ... ing the levels of toxic metals in food.15,19 Compared to ET-AAS or .... mum pressure 350 psi and maximum temperature 210 °C. The.

  7. Effect of immobilized biosorbents on the heavy metals (Cu2+) biosorption with variations of temperature and initial concentration of waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwi, W. P.; Rinanti, A.; Silalahi, M. D. S.; Hadisoebroto, R.; Fachrul, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    The aims of research is to studying the efficiency of copper removal by combining immobilized microalgae with optimizations of temperature and initial Copper concentration. The research was conducted in batch culture with temperature variations of 25°C, 30°C, and 35°C, as well as initial Cu2+ concentrations (mg/l) of 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 using monoculture of S. cerevisiae, Chlorella sp., and mixed culture of them both as immobilized biosorbents. The optimum adsorption of 83.4% obtained in temperature of 30°C with an initial waste concentration of 17.62 mg/l, initial biomass concentration of 200 mg, pH of 4, and 120 minutes detention time by the immobilized mixed culture biosorbent. The cell morphology examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has proved that the biosorbent surface was damaged after being in contact with copper (waste), implying that heavy metals (molecules) attach to different functional cell surfaces and change the biosorbent surface. The adsorption process of this research follows Langmuir Isotherm with the R2 value close to 1. The immobilized mixed culture biosorbent is capable of optimally removing copper at temperature of 30°C and initial Cu2+ concentration of 17.62 mg/l.

  8. Depuration Study of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in Green Mussels Perna viridis through Continues-discontinues and Acid Extraction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Bakri, Ridla; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Handayani, Sri; Ade Kurnia Putri, Rizki; Tamala, Riska

    2018-01-01

    Green mussel or Perna viridis is filter feeder, which is very susceptible to heavy metals. It takes an effort to release heavy metal contents on the green shell, one of method that can be used to release heavy metal from green shell is depuration proccess. In this research, the depuration process was conducted by continues method of depuration, discontinues method by using various kind of water and acid extraction. The optimum time of continues depuration method is 1.5 hours, with circulation speed 250 L/h and result of Pb metal content decreased is equal to 30.048% and 29.748% for Cu. In the discontinues method, the optimum result was reached at 100oC by using PAM water as the media at 3 h immersion period with decrease of Pb metal content 35.001% and Cu metal content 39.015%. In the acid extraction method, the optimum condition was achieved by 11% acetic acid solvent with decreasing of Pb and Cu levels are 88.224% and 76.298%. For the determination of protein content, the decrease of protein content obtained by treatment with 11% acetic acid extract showed decrease of protein content 36.656% with Kjeldahl method.

  9. Relations between metals (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu) and glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes in spiders from a heavy metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, Grazyna; Babczynska, Agnieszka; Augustyniak, Maria; Migula, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relations between glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes and heavy metal burdens in the web-building spider Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and the wolf spider Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae) from five meadow sites along a heavy metal pollution gradient. We assayed the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPOX, GSTPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels in both sexes. Except for GSH vs Pb content, we found significant correlations between GPOX and GSTPx activity and metal concentrations in females of A. labyrinthica. The highest activity of these enzymes measured in the web-building spiders was found in the individuals from the most polluted sites. In P. lugubris males significant correlations were found between GST and Pb and Zn concentrations, and between GPOX and GSTPx and the concentration of Cu. GST activity was higher in males collected from less polluted areas. Thus, detoxifying strategies against pollutants seemed to be sex-dependent. Actively hunting spiders had higher metal concentrations, maintaining lower activity of detoxifying enzymes and a lower glutathione level. - Capsule: Glutathione-linked enzyme activity in spiders from polluted areas depends on hunting strategy and sex

  10. Relations between metals (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu) and glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes in spiders from a heavy metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, Grazyna [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Augustyniak, Maria [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Migula, Pawel [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: migula@us.edu.pl

    2004-12-01

    We studied the relations between glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes and heavy metal burdens in the web-building spider Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and the wolf spider Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae) from five meadow sites along a heavy metal pollution gradient. We assayed the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPOX, GSTPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels in both sexes. Except for GSH vs Pb content, we found significant correlations between GPOX and GSTPx activity and metal concentrations in females of A. labyrinthica. The highest activity of these enzymes measured in the web-building spiders was found in the individuals from the most polluted sites. In P. lugubris males significant correlations were found between GST and Pb and Zn concentrations, and between GPOX and GSTPx and the concentration of Cu. GST activity was higher in males collected from less polluted areas. Thus, detoxifying strategies against pollutants seemed to be sex-dependent. Actively hunting spiders had higher metal concentrations, maintaining lower activity of detoxifying enzymes and a lower glutathione level. - Capsule: Glutathione-linked enzyme activity in spiders from polluted areas depends on hunting strategy and sex.

  11. Removal of Heavy Metals Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+ from Aqueous Solutions by using Xanthium Pensylvanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber SALEHZADEH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous ill effects of heavy metals on the environment and public health is a matter of serious concern. Biosorption is emerging as a sustainable effective technology. Heavy metals in water resources are one of the most important environmental problems of countries. The intensification of industrial activity and environmental stress greatly contributes to the significant rise of heavy metal pollution in water resources making threats on terrestrial and aquatic life. The toxicity of metal pollution is slow and interminable, as these metal ions are non bio-degradable. The adsorption capacity of Xanthium Pensylvanicum towards metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+, was studied. The adsorption capacity was performed by batch experiments as a function of process parameters (such as sorption time and pH. Experimental results showed that the removal percentages increasing of metal ions at pH=4, initial concentration of metal ions 10 mg/L, and after 90 min of shaking was: Zn2+ < Cd2+ < Cu2+ < Pb2+ < Ni2+ < Fe3+ < Co2+.

  12. Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia using mosses as bioindicators, III: Copper (Cu, Iron (Fe and Mercury (Hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Cu, Fe and Hg in four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia is presented. The distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented on maps, while long-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Bryum argenteum and B. capillare and short-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme are discussed and given in a table. Areas of the highest contaminations are highlighted.

  13. Heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd content in wine produced from grape cultivar Mavrud, grown in an industrially polluted region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina Angelova

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 1991-1993 with cv. Mavrud, grown in the region with a major industrial pollutant the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW and a region with no industrial pollutants (as a control. The heavy metal content in soil, grapes and wine was determined. Most of the heavy metals in the grapes precipitate during fermentation into the sediments, which is the reason for their significantly lower content in the wine. Water washing of grape before processing leads to about 2 time decrease in the Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd contents of wine. The pre-washing of grapes does not lead to any quality deterioration in the wine produced. The amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd in the wine from cv. Mavrud, grown in the region of the NFMW-Plovdiv, are lower than the maximum admissible levels, while the Pb content exceeds them about two times.

  14. Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the mobility and redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kouping; Yang, Xing; Gielen, Gerty; Bolan, Nanthi; Ok, Yong Sik; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Xu, Song; Yuan, Guodong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokai; Liu, Dan; Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Xingyuan; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-15

    Biochar has emerged as an efficient tool to affect bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Although partially understood, a carefully designed incubation experiment was performed to examine the effect of biochar on mobility and redistribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sandy loam soil collected from the surroundings of a copper smelter. Bamboo and rice straw biochars with different mesh sizes (Heavy metal concentrations in pore water were determined after extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 . Phytoavailable metals were extracted using DTPA/TEA (pH 7.3). The European Union Bureau of Reference (EUBCR) sequential extraction procedure was adopted to determine metal partitioning and redistribution of heavy metals. Results showed that CaCl 2 -and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were significantly (p soils, especially at 5% application rate, than those in the unamended soil. Soil pH values were significantly correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations (p metal fractions, and the effect was more pronounced with increasing biochar application rate. The effect of biochar particle size on extractable metal concentrations was not consistent. The 5% rice straw biochar treatment reduced the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the order of Cd metals were mainly bound in the soil organic matter fraction. The results demonstrated that the rice straw biochar can effectively immobilize heavy metals, thereby reducing their mobility and bioavailability in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in mudfish and sediments from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... and analysed for Cd and Pb by electro-thermal AAS, and for Cu and Zn by flame AAS. ... measurements and the dolomitic hard water and high pH of the Mooi River water .... Copper and zinc were determined by flame analysis at 324.8 nm ... were placed separately in clean 20 ml glass vials and one ml de-.

  16. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  17. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND CRUDE PROTEIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNICORN

    to quantify heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and crude protein content of these species that are sold in ... in protein, omega 3 and low fat content. Furthermore ... high levels of cadmium can cause kidney and liver damage in man [6]. Motivation .... analysis. Determination of heavy metals in the edible tissues of the organisms.

  18. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention

  19. Evaluation of the heavy metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma River, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila P, P.; Tejeda, S.; Valdivia B, M.; Macedo M, G.; Zepeda G, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Lerma river is one of the most polluted water bodies in Mexico, it presents low biodiversity and lets grow up aquatic plants resistant to the pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration and bioaccumulation factors of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in aerial and submerged structures of water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma river. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and H. ranunculoides. Results show that the bioaccumulation factors of Fe and Zn were higher than those of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb; with the exception of Zn, bioaccumulation factors were higher in the submerged structures of the plant, which shows low mobility of analyzed metals. As a result of this study H. ranunculoides can be considered as good indicator of metal pollution in water bodies. (Author)

  20. Effective removal of heavy metal ions Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ from aqueous solution by polymer-modified magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Fei; Li, Meng-Meng; Ye, Hui; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    We prepared novel Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and copolymers of acrylic acid (AA) and crotonic acid (CA). The MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. We explored the ability of the MNPs for removing heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ ) from aqueous solution. We investigated the adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -APS-AA-co-CA at different pH in solution and metal ion uptake capacity as a function of contact time and metal ion concentration. Moreover, adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were studied to understand the mechanism of the synthesized MNPs adsorbing metal ions. In addition, we evaluated the effect of background electrolytes on the adsorption. Furthermore, we explored desorption and reuse of MNPs. Fe 3 O 4 -APS-AA-co-CA MNPs are excellent for removal of heavy metal ions such as Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the MNPs could efficiently remove the metal ions with high maximum adsorption capacity at pH 5.5 and could be used as a reusable adsorbent with convenient conditions.

  1. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1995-01-01

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences (α < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author)

  2. An analysis of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) in leachate and water samples taken from San Mateo landfill and Payatas dumpsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almario, Christine D.; Benedicto, Ma. Victoria S.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals specifically Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb in leachate and water samples taken from the open dumpsite of Payatas and San Mateo landfill. The leachate samples were collected from the maturation pond of San Mateo landfill and from Payatas open dumpsite. The water samples were obtained from Pintong Bocaue and Sapinit deep wells from San Mateo landfill while for Payatas dumpsite deep well waters from the immediate vicinities were used. The sample obtained was then subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for quantitative determination of the heavy metals. The results of the analysis of concentration of trace metals were expressed in mg/L or ppm. (Authors)

  3. An analysis of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) in leachate and water samples taken from San Mateo landfill and Payatas dumpsite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almario, Christine D; Benedicto, Ma Victoria S

    2003-02-17

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals specifically Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb in leachate and water samples taken from the open dumpsite of Payatas and San Mateo landfill. The leachate samples were collected from the maturation pond of San Mateo landfill and from Payatas open dumpsite. The water samples were obtained from Pintong Bocaue and Sapinit deep wells from San Mateo landfill while for Payatas dumpsite deep well waters from the immediate vicinities were used. The sample obtained was then subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for quantitative determination of the heavy metals. The results of the analysis of concentration of trace metals were expressed in mg/L or ppm. (Authors)

  4. Concentrations of selected heavy metals in bryophyte tissues at Cu-mine heap Podlipa in Ľubietová (Central Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širka, Pavel; Midula, Pavol

    2017-04-01

    Mine heaps and wastes created by mining industry belong to one of the most extreme man-made habitat types. In addition to their specific microclimatic conditions mine heaps are also characterized by increased contents of heavy metals and toxic substances in the soil substrate. These substances are transported into plant bodies and create difficult conditions for their growth. However, there are some plants that can cope with extremely high metal contents and are capable of growing on metalliferous habitats. These plants develop unique adaptation mechanisms and basically represent modified ecotypes with specific tolerances to certain heavy metals adapted through microevolutionary processes. The toxic effects of heavy metals on vascular plants are known for quite a long time, however, bryophytes are also known to accumulate certain heavy metals without any visible signs of damage. Because of this ability they have been successfully used in biomonitoring. Chemical analysis of contaminants in samples of bryophytes can reflect the state of environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to analyze the concentrations of 6 heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in tissues of 16 bryophyte samples at an abandoned Cu deposit Podlipa in Ľubietová and to compare them with concentrations of these elemens in soil samples and 9 vascular plant species (belonging to different growth forms) in a research performed by Andráš et al. (2014) in the studied area. Bryophytes were collected at 10 sampling sites randomly chosen in the dump-field area and consist of 14 different moss species. Only above-ground parts of bryophyte thalli (separated from rhizoids, gravel, soil, needles etc.) were used for analysis. Samples were dried at room temperature and subjected to microwave mineralization (MWS - 2 Berghof). The detailed procedure is defined in the Application Report MWS - 2 / Food, Pharma, Cosmetics (Berghof). In order to determine the concentrations of studied elements, atomic

  5. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheloske, Stefan E-mail: stefan.scheloske@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Maetz, Mischa; Schuessler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Shahriar, E-mail: smahdaviha@yahoo.com; Jalali, Mohsen, E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afkhami, Abbas, E-mail: afkhami@basu.ac.ir [College of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    This study investigated the removal of Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions with novel nanoparticle sorbents (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and CuO) using a range of experimental approaches, including, pH, competing ions, sorbent masses, contact time, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The images showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and CuO particles had mean diameters of about 50 nm (spheroid), 25 nm (rod shape), and 75 nm (spheroid), respectively. Tests were performed under batch conditions to determine the adsorption rate and uptake at equilibrium from single and multiple component solutions. The maximum uptake values (sum of four metals) in multiple component solutions were 360.6, 114.5, and 73.0 mg g{sup -1}, for ZnO, CuO, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively. Based on the average metal removal by the three nanoparticles, the following order was determined for single component solutions: Cd{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}, while the following order was determined in multiple component solutions: Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. Sorption equilibrium isotherms could be described using the Freundlich model in some cases, whereas other isotherms did not follow this model. Furthermore, a pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to correctly describe the experimental data for all nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray before and after metal sorption, and soil solution saturation indices showed that the main mechanism of sorption for Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was adsorption, whereas both Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} sorption were due to adsorption and precipitation. These nanoparticles have potential for use as efficient sorbents for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions and ZnO nanoparticles were identified as the most promising sorbent due to their high metal uptake.

  7. The influence of EDDS and EDTA on the uptake of heavy metals of Cd and Cu from soil with tobacco Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Bauer, Uwe; Ebel, Mathias; Schaeffer, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    Phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract contaminants from soils and groundwater, is a promising approach for cleaning up soils contaminated with heavy metals. In order to enhance phytoextraction the use of chelating agents has been proposed. This study aims to assess whether ethylene diamine disuccinate (EDDS), a biodegradable chelator, can be used for enhanced phytoextraction purposed, as an alternative to ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA). EDDS revealed a higher toxicity to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in comparison to EDTA, but no toxicity to microorganisms. The uptake of Cu was increased by the addition of EDTA and EDDS, while no increase was observed in the uptake of Cd. Both chelating agents showed a very low root to shoot translocation capability and the translocation factor was lower than the one of the control. Heavy metals where significantly more phytoavailable than in the control, even after harvesting, resulting in a high heavy metal leaching possibility, probably owing to a low biodegradation rate of EDDS. New seedlings which were transplanted into the EDDS treated pots 7d after the phytoextraction experiment, showed signs of necrosis and chlorosis, which resulted in a significantly lower biomass in comparison to the control. The seedlings on the EDTA treated pots showed no toxicity signs. Contrary to previous opinions the results of this study revealed the chelating agents EDTA and EDDS as unsuitable for enhanced phytoextraction using tobacco.

  8. HEAVY METALS IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARD SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.

  9. Radionuclides (40K, 232Th and 238U) and Heavy Metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb) Distribution Assessment at Renggam Landfill, Simpang Renggam, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, E.; FahrulRazi, MJ; Azhar, ATS; Hazreek, ZAM; Shakila, A.; Norshuhaila, MS; Omeje, M.

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of radioactivity levels and the distribution of heavy metals in soil samples at CEP Farm landfill, Renggam in Johor State was to determine the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and heavy metal concentrations of this landfill. The background radiation was monitored to estimate the exposure level. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were determined using HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy whereas the heavy metal concentration was measured using X-RF analysis. The mean exposure rate at the landfill site was 36.2±2.4 μR hr-1 and the annual effective dose rate at the landfill site was 3.19 ± 0.22 mSv yr-1. However, residential area has lower mean exposure dose rate of about 16.33±0.72 μR hr-1 and has an annual effective dose rate of 1.43±0.06 mSv yr-1 compared to landfill sites. The mean activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th at landfill site were 239.95±15.89 Bq kg-1, 20.90±2.49 Bq kg-1 and 40.61±4.59 Bq kg-1, respectively. For heavy metal compositions, Cr, Ni and Cu have mean concentration of 232±10 ppm, 23±2 ppm, and 46±19 ppm, respectively. Whereas, Zn has concentration of 64±9 ppm and concentration of 12±1 ppm and 71±2 ppm was estimated for As and Pb respectively. The higher activity concentration of 40K down the slope through leaching process whereas the higher activity level of 238U content at the landfill site may be attributed to the soil disruption to local equilibrium.

  10. The Existence of Heavy Metals such as Pb, Cd, Fe, and Cu in Hair Samples from Gas Station Worker at Yogyakarta Special District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyanto, C.; Zainul Kamal; Samin

    2002-01-01

    The monitoring of heavy metals existence such as Pb, Cd, Fe, and Cu in hair samples from gas station worker has been carried out with atomic absorption spectrometry method. The initial preparation of sample were done by immersing them in alcohol over night, after they were dried then they were digested using the teflon bomb digester at the temperature at 150 o C for 3 hours. The content of Pb, Cd, Fe, and Cu in were determined with calibration standard curve method. The content of Pb obtained at hair samples in the range of time at 20 years tend to increase. If it was correlated to the worker who has been working, there was no significant different from the worker who has been working for 20 years there was no significant different. While the content of Cu in sample at range time 20 years showed the significant different if it was correlated to the worker who has been working. The validity of method was tested with CRM Human Hair GBW 07601 from IAEA showed that the content of Fe and Cu were in the certified range of CRM. (author)

  11. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  12. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Levels of Cu, Mn, Pd and Zn in mushroom samples analysed were ... metal concentration in soil and fungal factors such as species ..... Levels of trace elements in the fruiting bodies ... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals.

  13. Forest Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu in the Area of the “French Mines” on the Medvednica Mountain, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Perković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper deals with the results of the investigation of the selected heavy metal contents in forest soil in the region of an abandoned mine. The analysis of the forest ecosystem soil on the Medvednica Mountain was conducted in the region of the so-called “French Mines” (FM. The elements selected for analyses were cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn because of their toxicological characteristics. Material and Methods: In the investigated area - five entrances of the FM - composite topsoil samples (0–5 cm were taken. Those samples were compared to the control samples which were taken outside the area affected by mines. The soil samples were analysed for the following parameters: pH, particle size distribution, organic C content and pseudo-total mass fractions of the selected heavy metals. The heavy metals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS. Results and Conclusion: The results reveal that the soil is locally polluted, i.e. the highest mass fraction values of these four heavy metals were found in the area of the FM. Average pseudo-total fraction of Cd in the analysed topsoil samples was in the range of 0.17–4.41 mg·kg−1 (median: 0.97 mg·kg−1. Cu was found in the range of 4.54–1260 mg·kg−1 (median: 45.7 mg·kg−1. In the case of Zn, mass fraction values were found in the range of 36.8–865 mg·kg−1 (median: 137 mg·kg−1. Finally, average values of the pseudo-total fraction of Pb were found in the range of 58.4–12000 mg·kg−1 (median: 238 mg·kg−1. The results reveal that mining activities leave consequences on soil for a long time.

  14. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Spectrophotometer (AAS) 2ID using their respective lamp and wavelengths. Calculation ... (Table 2). Concentration of heavy metals in the cassava. Lead and chromium were not significantly ..... Market basket survey for some heavy metals in ...

  15. Accumulation of Pb and Cu heavy metals in sea water, sediment, and leaf and root tissue of Enhalus sp. in the seagrass bed of Banten Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauziah, Faiza, E-mail: faiza.fauziah@gmail.com; Choesin, Devi N., E-mail: faiza.fauziah@gmail.com [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Banten Bay in Indonesia is a coastal area which has been highly affected by human activity. Previous studies have reported the presence of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) heavy metals in the seawater of this area. This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of Pb and Cu in seawater, sediment, leaf tissue, and root tissue of the seagrass species Enhalus sp. Sampling was conducted at two observation stations in Banten Bay: Station 1 (St.1) was located closer to the coastline and to industrial plants as source of pollution, while Station 2 (St.2) was located farther away offshore. At each station, three sampling points were established by random sampling. Field sampling was conducted at two different dates, i.e., on 29 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Samples were processed by wet ashing using concentrated HNO{sub 3} acid and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Accumulation of Pb was only detected in sediment samples in St.1, while Cu was detected in all samples. Average concentrations of Cu in May were as follows: sediment St.1 = 0.731 ppm, sediment St.2 = 0.383 ppm, seawater St.1 = 0.163 ppm, seawater St.2 = 0.174 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.102 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.132 ppm, root St.1= 0.139 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.075 ppm. Average measurements of Cu in June were: sediment St.1 = 0.260 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.335 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.301 ppm, root St.1= 0.047 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.060 ppm. In June, Cu was undetected in St.2 sediment and seawater at both stations. In May, Cu concentration in seawater exceeded the maximum allowable threshold for water as determined by the Ministry of the Environment. Spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cu accumulation were most probably affected by distance from source and physical conditions of the environment (e.g., water current and mixing)

  16. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, J.; Puppo, J.

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 μg·l -1 ), Pb (350-700 μg·l -1 ) and Cu (10-20 μg·l -1 ) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 μg·l -1 , 7 days) and copper (20 μg·l -1 , 5 days) were observed significant differences (P -1 . A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Comprehensive risk assessment and source identification of selected heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, As) in tidal saltmarsh sediments of Shuangtai Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fa; Li, Bing; Wang, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yuan; Cai, Heng-Jiang; Wei, Hai-Feng; Wu, Jia-Wen; Li, Jin

    2017-10-06

    Heavy metals do not degrade and can remain in the environment for a long time. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, and As, on environmental quality, pollutant enrichment, ecological hazard, and source identification of elements in sediments using data collected from samples taken from Shuangtai tidal wetland. The comprehensive pollution indices were used to assess environmental quality; fuzzy similarity analysis and geoaccumulation index were used to analyze pollution accumulation; correlation matrix, principal component analysis, and clustering analysis were used to analyze pollution source; environmental risk index and ecological risk index were used to assess ecological risk. The results showed that the environmental quality was either clean or almost clean. Pollutant enrichment analysis showed that the four sub-regions had similar pollution-causing metals to the background values of the soil element of the Liao River Plain, which were ranked according to their similarity. Source identification showed that all the elements were correlated. Ecological hazard analysis showed that the environmental risk index in the study area was less than zero, posing a low ecological risk. Ecological risk of the six elements was as follows: As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn.

  18. Reclamation of heavy metals from contaminated soil using organic acid liquid generated from food waste: removal of Cd, Cu, and Zn, and soil fertility improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shijin; Li, Yang; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Youcai

    2017-06-01

    Food waste fermentation generates complicated organic and acidic liquids with low pH. In this work, it was found that an organic acid liquid with pH 3.28 and volatile low-molecular-weight organic acid (VLMWOA) content of 5.2 g/L could be produced from food wastes after 9-day fermentation. When the liquid-to-solid ratio was 50:1, temperature was 40 °C, and contact time was 0.5-1 day, 92.9, 78.8, and 52.2% of the Cd, Cu, and Zn in the contaminated soil could be washed out using the fermented food waste liquid, respectively. The water-soluble, acid-soluble, and partly reducible heavy metal fractions can be removed after 0.5-day contact time, which was more effective than that using commercially available VLMWOAs (29-72% removal), as the former contained microorganisms and adequate amounts of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca) which favored the washing process of heavy metals. It is thus suggested that the organic acid fractions from food waste has a considerable potential for reclaiming contaminated soil while improving soil fertility.

  19. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Rivers around Dahongshan Fe&Cu Mine in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Qi, Wufu; Xu, Jun; Yang, Shuran

    2017-12-01

    Dahongshan Fe&Cu mine in Yunnan Province was endowed with the title of “National Green Mine Pilots” by Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources in April 2013. In order to verify the implementation effects of the green mine and better drive the construction of the green mine by other mine enterprises in Yunnan, the project team investigated overlying deposit in rivers around the Dahongshan mine in the wet season (August) of 2016, investigated mine enterprises, and applied the Potential Ecological Risk Index to evaluate potential ecological hazards of heavy metal pollution in overlying deposit. The results showed that all sampling points were less than 105, indicating the lower ecological hazard degree.

  20. Heavy metals in our foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    The special group ''chemistry of food and forensic chemistry'' of the Association of German Analytical Chemists in Munich in 1983 issued a statement on that subject. The publication points out how heavy metals (examples: lead, cadmium and mercury) make their way into the foodstuffs, how many heavy metals are contained in our foodstuffs, which heavy metals are indispensable minerals and which aren't, and which heavy metals are ingested with food. It concludes by discussing how heavy metal contamination of our food can be prevented.

  1. Phytoremediation efficiency of pondweed (Potamogeton crispus in removing heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, As and Cd from water of Anzali wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Norouznia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based remediation (i.e. phytoremediation is one of the most significant eco-sustainable techniques to cope with devastating consequences of pollutants. In the present study, the potential of a wetland macrophyt (i.e. Potamogeton crispus for the phytoremediation of heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Cr, Pb, As and Cd in the Anzali wetland was evaluated. The results showed that P. crispus tends to accumulate notable amounts of Cu, Cr, Pb, As and Cd according to their assayed concentrations as follows: 8.2 µg g-1 dw, 0.97 µg g-1 dw, 6.04 µg g-1 dw, 2.52 µg g-1 dw and 0.34 µg g-1 dw, respectively. Further accurate perception of the phytoremediation efficiency were conducted using both bioconcentration factor and translocation factor. The average of the highest bioconcentration factors was presented in a descending order as: 2.9×103, 1.9×103, 1.17×103, 0.68×103 and 0.46×103 for the Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and As, respectively. Based on the results, P. crispus presents high potential to absorb all the alluded metals except for As and partly Cd. Correspondingly, the mean values of translocation factor were reported in the range of 0.41 to 2.24. Eventually, relying on the observed findings, the results support the idea that P. crispus species would be employed as the prospective candidate for the phytoremediation processes in Anzali wetland.

  2. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  3. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M.; Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 μg/m 3 ), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 μg/m 3 ) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions, meteorological and

  4. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  6. Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in sediments from Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari; Budiyanto, F.; Hindarti, D.

    2018-02-01

    Banten Bay is categorized as a marine area that is busy with marine tourism activities, settlements and also industries. One potential impact of the condition is the occurrence of pollution from both industrial and domestic sources, erosion and sedimentation in the coastal environment. Samples were collected from 25 representative stations in April 2016. Chemical speciation of three heavy metals (Cu, Ni, and Zn) was studied using a modified sequential extraction procedure proposed by the European Standard, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) program, formerly the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The aims of this study are to determine geochemical speciation of 4 bounds of metal: acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual, and to assess their impacts in the sediments of Banten Bay, Indonesia. The result shows that the percentage of Copper (45.90-83.75%), Nickel (18.28-65.66%), and Zinc (30.45-79.51%) were mostly accumulated in residual fraction of the total concentrations. The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) reveals that about 0-7.07% of Copper and 1.11-24.35 % of Zinc at sites exist in exchangeable fraction and therefore, they are in low risk category. While 7.34-34.90 of Ni at sites exists in exchangeable fraction and therefore, it is in medium risk category to aquatic environment.

  7. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  8. Heavy Metal Pollution of Vegetable Crops Irrigated with Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Cr (< 0.006), Cd (< 0.002) and Co (< 0.005), soil Fe (164.38; 162.92), Mn (39.39; 20.09), Cu (7.21; ... extent of heavy metal contamination, steps must be taken to reduce human activities at the sites. ...... The degree of toxicity of heavy metals to.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from...

  10. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digestion, and the contents of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium ... concentrations of heavy metals in these CPA samples mean they are safe for human consumption. ... poisoning, including Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Sn, and Sb.

  11. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Sharizal Hasan; Mohd Lias Kamal; NorShahrizan Mohd Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  12. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  13. Leaching of heavy metals from timah langat amang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri bin Othman

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated leaching studies of amang from Timah Langat for heavy metals showed that the material was rather stable. From almost 24 types of heavy metals contained in the material, the metal that leached out most was Al, followed by Pb, U, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, Y and La but at smaller quantities. The studies also showed that amang was very porous. The high seepage rate resulted in the solubilities of the metals not reaching equilibrium. In that situation, the leaching of heavy metals from amang was dependent on the seepage rate of water, the height of the material, the volume of water that seeped through and the solubility of the metals

  14. Heavy Metal Pollution Around International Hatay Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Özkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the heavy metal pollution in the agricultural lands around Hatay airport and travel possible alteration in the amount of heavy metal on the land in accordance with the distance to the airport. For this purpose, the airport was chosen as the center and 27 soil samples were obtained around the airport at 2 km intervals in depth ranging from 0 to 30 cm. Lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chrome (Cr, cobalt (Co, aluminium (Al, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn elements in soil samples were analysed using MP-AES instrument by DTPA method. (3 repetition for each sample. As a result of the analysis, heavy metal concentrations were found as Pb 0-1.45 mg/kg, Cd 0-0.220 mg/kg, Ni 0-3.95 mg/kg, Cr 0-0.780 mg/kg, Co 0-0.270 mg/kg, Al 0-0.700 mg/kg, Fe 1.47- 16.2 mg/kg, Cu 0.400-5.35 mg/kg, Mn 0-19 mg/kg and Zn 0.050-3.14 mg/kg. When comparing the obtained data through this study with allowable concentrations of heavy metals in soil of Environment and Forest Directorates Guidance, it was determined that the heavy metal concentration of the soil does not pose any problems in terms of heavy metal pollution. Besides, iron concentration was decreased when the distance to the airport is increased.

  15. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandau, E.; Sandau, P.; Pulz, O.

    1996-01-01

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  16. Effect of heavy metal and EDTA application on heavy metal uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Cadmium, lead and ... removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn (Prasad and ... collected for the analysis of heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr ... One hundred millgram (100 mg) of leaf tissues ..... Variability for the fatty acid.

  17. Novel polymer-based nanocomposites for application in heavy metal pollution remediation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé-Jacobs, L

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available and kidney damage and also cancer ? Heavy metals can accumulate in food sources through heavy metal contamination of soil and plants ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Removal of heavy metals ? Small volume applications: ion exchange ? Larger volumes eg. acid mine... pollution, treatment shortfalls at municipalities and contaminated surface water discharges ? Accumulation of heavy metals and endocrine disrupters ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 Introduction: Heavy metals ? Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, As etc. ? Exposure can cause liver...

  18. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Miriama Kopernická; Luboš Harangozo; Radovan Stanovič; Pavol Trebichalský; Petra Kavalcová

    2014-01-01

    In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86...

  19. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  20. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  1. Study on the behavior of the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and 137Cs in an estuarine ecosystem using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: the case of Thermaikos gulf, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Florou, H.

    2006-01-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bioindicators and used in Mussel Watch programs, because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in relation to pollutant biological availability in the marine environment. The present study deals with the use of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a local bioindicator of heavy metal and 137 Cs contamination in an estuarine ecosystem (Thermaikos gulf, Greece in Eastern Mediterranean). M. galloprovincialis samples were collected monthly from two aquaculture farms during the period April to October 2000. Analyses for the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and 137 Cs showed that the concentrations measured were low and similar to those from other non-polluted Mediterranean areas. In terms of the two sampling stations, there were no statistically significant differences between them. On the contrary, the seasonal evolution of either heavy metals or 137 Cs levels presented high variation. The levels were found to increase during the cold period of the year, especially for Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr which are essential for life. Stable metals were positively inter-related and moreover, metals more involved in biochemical activities seem to present more correlations than others with less significant role in the metabolism of the organisms

  2. Effect of heavy metal on survival of certain groups of indigenous soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is known to adversely effect microbial activities at elevated concentration. However, response of indigenous soil bacterial population to added heavy metal and metal combinations is poorly understood. In the present study salts of heavy metals like Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were added ...

  3. 620 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS, pH AND EC IN EFFLUENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    evaluated metals were Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ag. The pH, EC, TDS, DO ... heavy metals, but the high heavy metal concentrations in the soil could seriously ... Key words: Heavy metals, AAS, contamination, floriculture and effluents.

  4. Evaluation of the heavy metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma River, Mexico; Evaluacion de los metales pesados Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn y Pb en sombrerillo de agua (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) del curso alto del Rio Lerma, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila P, P.; Tejeda, S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valdivia B, M.; Macedo M, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Zepeda G, C., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The Lerma river is one of the most polluted water bodies in Mexico, it presents low biodiversity and lets grow up aquatic plants resistant to the pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration and bioaccumulation factors of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in aerial and submerged structures of water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma river. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and H. ranunculoides. Results show that the bioaccumulation factors of Fe and Zn were higher than those of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb; with the exception of Zn, bioaccumulation factors were higher in the submerged structures of the plant, which shows low mobility of analyzed metals. As a result of this study H. ranunculoides can be considered as good indicator of metal pollution in water bodies. (Author)

  5. Toxicity of heavy metals in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oehme, F.W

    1978-01-01

    ... as the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity resulting from heavy metal chemicals. The more common toxic heavy metals, along with their biochemistry and associated clinical syndromes, are then described...

  6. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam; Evaluacion de metales pesados Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb y Hg en agua, sedimento y lirio acuatico (Eichhornia crassipes) de la Presa Jose Antonio Alzate, Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila P, P

    1996-12-31

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences ({alpha} < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author).

  7. Formation and stability of Pb-, Zn- and Cu-PO4 phases at low temperatures: Implications for heavy metal fixation in polar environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Duanne A.; Hafsteinsdóttir, Erla G.; Gore, Damian B.; Thorogood, Gordon; Stark, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Low temperatures and frequent soil freeze–thaw in polar environments present challenges for the immobilisation of metals. To address these challenges we investigated the chemical forms of Pb, Zn and Cu in an Antarctic landfill, examined in vitro reaction kinetics of these metals and orthophosphate at 2 and 22 °C for up to 185 days, and subjected the products to freeze–thaw. Reaction products at both temperatures were similar, but the rate of production varied, with Cu-PO 4 phases forming faster, and the Zn- and Pb-PO 4 phases slower at 2 °C. All metal-orthophosphate phases produced were stable during a 2.5 h freeze–thaw cycle to −30 °C. Metal immobilisation using orthophosphate can be successful in polar regions, but treatments will need to consider differing mineral stabilities and reaction rates at low temperatures. - Highlights: ► We identify Cu, Pb and Zn species in an Antarctic Landfill. ► We identify the products and rates of reactions between metals and PO 4 3− at 2 and 22 °C. ► We test the stability of metal-orthophosphate species during freeze–thaw. ► We conclude that orthophosphate may immobilize metals in freezing ground. - Pb, Cu and Zn react with PO 4 3− at low temperatures (2 °C) to form low solubility metal-PO 4 phases at rates that may enable the in-situ remediation of metal contaminated soils in polar areas.

  8. Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The batch removal of heavy metals lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) from industrial wastewater effluent under different experimental conditions using hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Experimental results indicated that at pH 6.5, pre-treatment analysis gave the following values: Pb 57.63 mg/l, Zn 18.9 mg/l and Cu ...

  9. Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability in dumpsites of Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in refuse waste soils of some dumpsites in Zaria metropolis. The heavy metals .... soil solution ratio) in acid digestion Teflon cup. It was dry ashed ..... of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils from or near Donana National Park. J. Environ. ... Administrative Divisions of the World. http://www.world-.

  10. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Pb > Cr > As > in the leaves; Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr = Mn > As in the seeds and Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > As> in the barks. ... vital organs and glands in the human body, affecting brain ..... Bioremediation of Heavy metal toxicity. With Special.

  11. Analysis Of Non-Volatile Toxic Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cu,Cr And Zn In ALLIUM SATIVUM (Garlic And Soil Samples ,Collected From Different Locations Of Punjab, Pakistan By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. The monitoring of toxic metals such as lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper and Zinc in garlic and the soil of garlic fields collected from ten different cities of Punjab is critical for preventing public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. The levels of toxic heavy metals in garlic and soil samples were investigated using Atomic absorption spectrometer. The metal content in garlic samples was found to be in increasing order as Cr> Pb> Cd> Cu> Zn. Infield metal content in the soil also followed the same trend. In garlic samples, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu ranged from 0.039mg/L to 0.757mg/L, N.D to 1.211mg/L, 0.03mg/L to 0.451mg/L, 0.02mg/Lto0.42mg/L and 0.451mg/L to 0.893mg/L respectively. In soil samples, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu were ranged from 0.459mg/L to 0.797mg/L, 0.205mg/L to1.062mg/L, 0.074mg/L to 2.598mg/L, 0.124mg/L to 0.276mg/L and 0.494mg/L to 0.921mg/L respectively. In our study, the Pb and Cd was found more in garlic from Gujranwala and Jaranwala, Cu and Zn were more in samples from Kasur while Cr was predominant in sample from Sheikhupura. Heavy metal content in soil and garlic samples was within the permissible limits proposed by World Health Organization (WHO.

  12. Heavy Metal Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  13. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...

  14. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  15. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  16. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on different clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present dissertation is to study the adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ) and their mixtures on clays. Different clays and bentonites (Ca 2+ -bentonite, activated Na + -bentonite, special heavy metal adsorber bentonite, two organophilic bentonites and a mixed layer clay) were used. The adsorbed metal ions were desorbed by appropriate solutions of HCl, EDTA and dioctadecyl dimethylammonium bromide. High concentrations of the heavy metal ions in the solutions can be reached. The desorption guarantees economical recycling. After desorption the clays were used (up to three times) for purification of contaminated water. The best experimental conditions, i.e. the highest adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions was found for the greatest ratio of adsorbent/adsorbate. The adsorption was very fast. Calcium, sodium bentonites and the heavy metal adsorber bentonite attained the highest adsorption and desorption for Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Pb 2+ ions. Cd 2+ ions were only absorbed by Silitonit, a special heavy metal absorber bentonite. The mixed layer clay (Opalit) ranges in adsorption and desorption properties below the unmodified Ca 2+ -bentonite (Montigel) or the activated Na + -bentonite. Only Tixosorb and Tixogel (organophilic bentonites) reach the lowest value of heavy metal adsorption. Only lead cations which are characterised by good polarizability were adsorbed at higher rates, therefore the organophilic bentonites are not appropriate for adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mixing of the metal ions generally decreases the adsorption of Pb 2+ and increases the adsorption of Cd 2+ . From mixtures if heavy metal ions adsorption and desorption of Cu 2+ ions reached a maximum for all clays. (author) figs., tabs., 56 refs

  17. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  18. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a tissue of earthworms exposed to sewage sludge amended soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekal, Bohumil; Marek, Petr; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, 2-3 (2002), s. 159-167 ISSN 1231-7098 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 385 Grant - others:Copernicus(XE) ERB IC-15-CT98-0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : earthworm tissue * heavy metals * biomonitoring Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Characterization of sewage sludge amended soils and related crop plants with respect to phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Marek, Petr; Sáňka, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, 2-3 (2001), s. 243-252 ISSN 1231-7098 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 385 Grant - others:Copernicus(BE) ERB IC-15-CT98-0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : determination of heavy metals * sewage sludge * soil analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  1. Performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Nora; Kumar, Vikas; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Giménez Papiol, Gemma

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals). Chemical speciation of heavy metals has been estimated with Eh-pH diagram and Visual MINTEQ software; heavy metal and free heavy metal ion concentrations were used as input data, together with microalgae growth inhibition, for Dr. Fit software. The final goal was to assess the suitability of the ecotoxicological test based on the growth inhibition of microalgae cultures, and the mathematic models based on these results, for regulatory and decision-making purposes. The toxicity of a given heavy metal is not only determined by its chemical speciation; other chemical and biological interaction play an important role in the final toxicity. Raphidocelis subcapitata 48h-h-EC50 for tested heavy metals (especially Cu and Zn) were in agreement with previous studies, when ion metal bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. Nevertheless, the calculated growth inhibition was not in agreement with the obtained inhibition when exposed to the artificial mixture of heavy metals or the natural sample. Interactions between heavy metal ions and the compounds of the culture media and/or the natural sample determine heavy metal bioavailability, and eventually their toxicity. More research is needed for facing the challenge posed by pollutant mixtures as they are present in natural environments, and make microalgae-based assays suitable for pollution management and regulatory purposes. Copyright

  2. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Tumen, Fikret, E-mail: ftumen@firat.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol{sup -1} for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}H{sup o} values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low {Delta}H{sup o} values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  3. Transformation of heavy metals in lignite during supercritical water gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guifang; Yang, Xinfei; Chen, Shouyan; Dong, Yong; Cui, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Xiqiang; Ma, Chunyuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transformations of heavy metals during lignite SCWG were investigated. • The risks of heavy metals in lignite and residues after SCWG were evaluated. • The effects of experimental conditions on corrosion during SCWG were studied. - Abstract: Transformation characteristics of heavy metals during lignite supercritical water gasification (SCWG) were studied. A sequential extraction procedure (modified Tessier method) was used to selectively extract different fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Heavy metals transformed into more stable fractions after SCWG. For Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn, SCWG reduced the bioavailability and the risks posed by heavy metals in lignite. Under the experimental conditions, the conversion rates for Pb and Cd were 16.0%–25.2% and 16.3%–23.4%, respectively, whereas those for Mn, Cu, and Zn were much lower. Solid products enriched with Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were obtained after SCWG; the contents of these metals varied slightly in the liquid products under different experimental conditions. Excess Cr and Ni that did not originate from lignite were found in the residues, owing to reactor corrosion during lignite SCWG. Higher temperatures alleviated corrosion, whereas higher pressures and equivalence ratios (ER) had the opposite effect. None of the heavy metals were detected in the gas phase under the experimental conditions used in the present study. The correlation between the distributions of heavy metals and the experimental conditions were also studied. The transformation pathways of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn during SCWG were deduced according to the experimental results.

  4. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.M.; Lin, K.C.; Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z.; Lin, C.Y.; Liu, W.F.; Fang, G.C.; Lu, C.; Chiang, C.F.; Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO 3 and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K d (l g -1 ) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K d (l g -1 ) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions

  5. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hmlo@cyut.edu.tw; Lin, K.C. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jiangguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.Y. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, W.F. [Department of Electronical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, G.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Lu, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, C.F. [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO{sub 3} and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions.

  6. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  7. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several sediment samples in Lake Burullus have been affected by the discharges of heavy metals through different drains. The study aimed to analyze the chemical speciation of these metals. In particular, the chemical forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in sediments collected in spring season were studied using a ...

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics and Levels of Some Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    indicated a significant degree of soil contamination for Pd, Cd, Co, Cu and Zn in the soils studied showing a higher ... disposed waste. These metals which are not biodegradable are accumulated in living organisms when released into the environment. Although trace ... heavy metals in Nigerian soils if such solid waste.

  9. Determination of Levels of Essential and Toxic Heavy Metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace essential metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) and toxic heavy metals (Cd and Pb) in lentil samples collected from Dejen (East Gojjam), Boset (East Shewa) and Molale (North Shewa), Ethiopia, were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A wet digestion procedure, using mixtures of ...

  10. Heavy metals burden in Kidney and heart tissues of Scarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd) in the heart and kidney tissues of parrot fish, collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet-digestion based atomic absorption method. The results showed that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney ...

  11. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tee, L.W.; Najiah, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) an...

  12. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  13. Changes in mycelia growth, sporulation, and virulence of Phytophthora capsici when challenged by heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr2+ and Hg2+) under acid pH stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peiqing; Wei, Mengyao; Zhang, Jinzhu; Wang, Rongbo; Li, Benjin; Chen, Qinghe; Weng, Qiyong

    2018-04-01

    Phytophthora capsici, an economically devastating oomycete pathogen, causes devastating disease epidemics on a wide range of vegetable plants and pose a grave threat to global vegetables production. Heavy metals and acid pH are newly co-occurring stresses to soil micro-organisms, but what can be expected for mycelia growth and virulence and how they injure the oomycetes (especially P. capsici) remains unknown. Here, the effects of different heavy metals (Cu 2+ , Cr 2+ , and Hg 2+ ) on mycelia growth and virulence were investigated at different pHs (4.0 vs. 7.0) and the plausible molecular and physiological mechanisms were analyzed. In the present study, we compared the effective inhibition of different heavy metals (Cu 2+ , Cr 2+ , and Hg 2+ ) and acid pH on a previously genome sequenced P. capsici virulent strain LT1534. Both stress factors independently affected its mycelia growth and sporulation. Next, we investigated whether ROS participated in the pH-inhibited mycelial growth, finding that the ROS scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly inhibited the acid pH-induced ROS in mycelia. Additionally, because MAPK specially transmits different stress responsive signals in environment into cells, we employed CAT and a p38-MAPK pathway inhibitor to investigate ROS and p38-MAPK roles in heavy metal-inhibited mycelia growth at different pHs (4.0 vs. 7.0), finding that they significantly inhibited growth. Furthermore, ROS and p38-MAPK influenced the heavy metal-induced TBARS content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and CAT activity at different pHs, and also reduced the expression of infection-related laccases (PcLAC2) and an effector-related protein (PcNLP14). We propose that acid pH stress accelerates how heavy metals inhibit mycelium growth, sporulation, and virulence change in P. capsici, and posit that ROS and p38-MAPK function to regulate the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this toxicity. Although these stresses induce molecular and

  14. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in tilapia fish relevant to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu and Cr) were determined in water, sediment and tissues of tilapia fish collected from Wadi Hanifah during summer 2010. The concentrations of the heavy metal in water were within the international permissible level. Cu had the highest accumulating level in fish whilst ...

  15. Migration of heavy metals in soils in a uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ruixia; Gao Bai; Hu Baoqun; Feng Jiguang

    2009-01-01

    Contents of several heavy metals (Zn,Ni,Cu,Cd,Pb) in soil samples collected from different depths of the soil sections in a uranium mining area were analyzed, and vertical migration dis-ciplines of heavy metals were obtained. The results show that the concents of heavy metals in vertical direction decrease as the soil increases in thickness and there is a trend of facies-cumulation for the heavy metals. The accumulation status of each heavy metal in soils differs, which is dependent on the content and migration velocity of the heavy metal itself, the local natural environment about the soil, etc. (authors)

  16. Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aimi abdul Wahab; Fairus Muhamad Darus; Norain Isa; Siti Mariam Sumari; Nur Fatihah Muhamad Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in settled surface dust were collected from nine residential buildings in different areas in Seberang Prai Tengah District, Pulau Pinang. The samples of settled surface dust were collected in 1 m 2 area by using a polyethylene brush and placed in the dust pan by sweeping the living room floor most accessible to the occupants. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results show that the range of heavy metals observed in residential buildings at Seberang Prai Tengah were in the range of 2.20-14.00 mg/ kg, 1.50-32.70 mg/ kg, 1.50-76.80 mg/ kg and 14.60-54.40 mg/ kg for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the investigated areas followed the order: Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. Statistical analysis indicates significant correlation between all the possible pairs of heavy metal. The results suggest a likely common source for the heavy metal contamination, which could be traced most probably to vehicular emissions, street dust and other related activities. (author)

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  18. Multivariate-Statistical Assessment of Heavy Metals for Agricultural Soils in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Pingguo; Yang, Miao; Mao, Renzhao; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated eight heavy metals content and soil pollution from agricultural soils in northern China. Multivariate and geostatistical analysis approaches were used to determine the anthropogenic and natural contribution of soil heavy metal concentrations. Single pollution index and integrated pollution index could be used to evaluate soil heavy metal risk. The results show that the first factor explains 27.3% of the eight soil heavy metals with strong positive loadings on Cu, Zn, and C...

  19. Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vymazal, J.

    1984-12-31

    The utilization of periphyton for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn) have been determined during four hours exposure. In addition the influence of humic substances on heavy metals uptake has been determined. Uptake of all metals increased during four hours exposure but not in the same way. Some metals were removed continuously (Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn), other metals were removed more rapidly during the first hour or first two hours of exposure and then only slight removal continued (Cu, Pb, Cd, Co). Uptake of Zn was rather unambiguous. Results of these experiments suggest that the course of uptake for individual metals could be similar for most periphyton algae. It was established that humic substances significantly reduce heavy metals uptake. The highest decrease of uptake was observed in Cu, Cr, Co and Cd. The results of model experiments are being tested in a pilot scale with respect to the demands of engineering practice. (J.R.)

  20. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  1. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of traces of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb, U) in mineral waters after separation on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, P.; Lieser, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Trace elements in mineral water are separated in small columns on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan, eluted by diluted hydrochloric acid, bound on 100 mg of Hyphan by shaking and determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The following heavy metals can be analysed quantitatively if present in water in concentrations >= 1 ppb: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb and U. Several commercial mineral waters, a sodium chloride spring and seawater were analyzed for trace elements. The results obtained by X-ray fluorescence and by atomic absorption agree within the limits of error. (orig.) [de

  2. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  3. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  4. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  5. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  6. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  7. Heavy metals' data in soils for agricultural activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Adagunodo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the heavy metals in soils for agricultural activities were analyzed statistically. Ten (10 soil samples were randomly taken across the agricultural zones in Odo-Oba, southwestern Nigeria. Ten (10 metals; namely: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, arsenic (As, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, antimony (Sb, cobalt (Co and vanadium (V were determined and compared with the guideline values. When the values were compared with the international standard, none of the heavy metals in the study area exceeded the threshold limit. However, the maximum range of the samples showed that Cr and V exceeded the permissible limit which could be associated with ecological risk. The data can reveal the distributions of heavy metals in the agricultural topsoil of Odo-Oba, and can be used to estimate the risks associated with the consumption of crops grown on such soils. Keywords: Agricultural soils, Heavy metals, Contamination, Environment, Soil screening, Geostatistics

  8. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  9. The effect of biomass concentration on polymer alginate in the immobilized biosorbent formation during the sorption processof heavy metal Cu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinanti, A.; Jonathan, D.; Silalahi, M. D. S.; Fachrul, M. F.; Hadisoebroto, R.

    2018-01-01

    A research in environmental biotechnology has been done to analysis adsorption of ion Cu2+ by biomass of microalgae (Chlorella sp, Ankistrodesmus braunii, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto alginate polymeras immobilized biosorbent on laboratory scale. The purpose of this study is to achieve the optimum biomass concentration which gives the best biosorption performance. Biosorption of Cu2+ was carried out in continuous fixed-bed column reactor system, volume of 1.5 L, equipped with peristaltic pump with a flow rate of 13 mL/min. Biosorption of Cu2+ was investigated using immobilized biosorbent with concentration of (g biomass/g polymer) 0.25; 0.5; 1, at pH4,initial concentration Cu2+15 mg/L and 26°C±1. The results of this study showed that the increasing of biomass concentration (0 to 0.5 g/g) would result in better biosorption performance but soon decreased its performance at biomass concentration of 1 g/g. Biosorption capacity and highest removal efficiency of 0.1025 mg Cu2+/g biosorbent and 66.36% occurred by immobilized biosorbent with 0.5 g/g concentration. The connection between the variation of biomass concentration in alginate to the biosorption performance by immobilized biosorbent shown by breakthrough curve, total adsorbed metal mass(qtotal ), efficiency of removal (%R) and biosorption capacity at breakthrough(qe ). Excessive biomass concentrations lead to reduced porosity of the beads thus slowing down the adsorption process.

  10. Indicators of Lake Temsah Potential by some heavy metals Heavy Metals in Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Sabour, M.F.; Aly, R.O.; Khalil, M.T.; Attwa, A.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental impact of industrial, agricultural and domestic waster on heavy metals sediment content in lake Temsah has been investigated. Seven sites were chosen, differ in nature of activity and quantity of wastes, namely from south to north-west; Arab contractors shipyard workshop(A), The junction between the western logon and the lake(B), El-Temsah workshop (C), El-Temsah shipyard (private workshop) (D), El-Karakat workshop for SCA (E), El-Forsan drain out fall to the lake (F) and SCA Press outlet (G). Eight of heavy metal concentrations of concern (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) were estimated in sediment samples collected from different chosen sites during the seasons; summer , autumn 1995 and winter , spring 1996. Results of this study reveal that pollution is directly related to the type of the activity in each site. Sediment samples results showed that the most suffering sites were found to be in the order of B> D> C> G> F, and the least polluted ones were E> A. And the highest polluted season was summer, whereas the least one was winter. It is obvious that the general mean values of Cu, Ni and Cd are exceeding the allowed concentrations documented for diverse trace components in coastal sediments. Strict regulations that must be followed in order to minimize this pollution specially, by heavy metals from marine workshop

  11. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  12. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  14. Heavy metals in sea turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, S.A. (Millersville State College, PA); Frazier, J.G.

    1982-07-01

    Bone and barnacle samples from sea turtles (Hepidochelys olivacea) in Ecuador were analyzed for manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead. Analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that zinc and iron levels in bone and barnacles were greater than copper, manganese and lead levels. The significance of the findings is difficult to interpret because so little is known about baseline levels and physiological effects of heavy metals in the animals. (JMT)

  15. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Korinovskaya; V. N. Gryshko

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen) G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart.) Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC)) in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderm...

  16. Sorption of Heavy Metals from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on sorption of heavy metal ions: Lead (Pb2+), Copper (Cu2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) from mine wastewater by activated carbons prepared from coconut husk was conducted. The activated carbons were prepared by carbonisation of the husk at 900 ºC pyrolysis temperature, followed by steam activation of the ...

  17. Heavy metals and inorganic constituents in medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cd, and inorganic ions like HCO3-, CO32-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NO3-, Fe2+ and F- were investigated in medicinally important plants: Taraxacam officinale, Cichorium intybus and Figonia critica, applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. In the ...

  18. Heavy metal pollution assessment in the sediments of lake Chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments were collected from Dumba and KwataYobe of Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector.The aim was to assess the pollution statusof the sediments of the lake. The concentration of heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Z (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were ...

  19. The kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of heavy metal ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Titanium-Pillared and Un-Pillared bentonite clays were studied in order to evaluate the thermodynamics and kinetics of heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. The results showed that the maximum sorption of Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb ions occurred within 30 minutes. A pseudo-second order kinetic model was used to ...

  20. Seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations in soil and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the seasonal variations in concentrations of the heavy metals - As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn - in soil and crops from a farm near the refuse dump site of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated during the two major seasons of Nigeria. This was done to assess the pollution ...

  1. Heavy metals concentrations in water bodies around aquamarine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from three streams in the mining area of Eggon Hill were analysed. The Physicochemical values obtained were compared with WHO permissible standards in drinking water. Except for Cu and Zn with levels within permissible limits, other heavy metals determined were found to have levels above the WHO ...

  2. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cobalt (Co), and Copper (Cu) concentrations were determined in bone, muscle and gill of two fish species (tilapia fish and cat-fish) collected from Tiga dam Kano, Nigeria during October, 2010. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals varied depending on the type of the tissue and fish species. Generally ...

  3. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical ... gated using standard analytical procedures. the level of the studied heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) was determined using the .... no known discharge and hence used as reference site. Sampling ...

  4. heavy metal pollution asse al pollution assessment in the sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sediments were collected from Dumba and to assess the pollution statusof the sedim. Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu. (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were analysed using concentration of heavy metals varies bet with standard average shale to assess pollution in Dumba and KwataYobe sedi assessed ...

  5. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...... that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (

  6. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  7. Heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.; Perveen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Metals contamination is a persistent problem at many contaminated sites. In the U.S., the most commonly occurring metals at Superfund sites are lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury. The presence of metals in surface and ground waters, and soils can pose a significant threat to human health and ecological systems. Surface water and groundwater many be contaminated with metals from wastewater discharges or by direct contact with metals contaminated soils, sludges, mining wastes and debris. Due to use of sewage water and industrial effluents for agriculture in NWFP, there is a great threat to the human and animal health. In a survey of sewage water from three channels, it was found that 10 out of 18 samples ha lead content above the safe limits, while two in cadmium and 8 in chromium. While in soils irrigated with these channels, all the 18 samples were high in Cu and Pb, and 6 in Mn. As regards plants growing on these soils, samples of garlic, 4 of wheat and 3 of berseem were high in Pb. Cd content was high in 5 garlic samples, 5 wheat and 3 berseem. Effluents from two industries were high in Pb and four in Ni. In another study, all the nine water samples were high in Cu, 3 in Cd, and 6 in Pb. A survey of 20 Industries in Industrial Estate Hattar showed that all the effluent samples collected from these Industries were above the safe limits in Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. From these studies, it seems that use of sewage water and industrial effluents for longer period can create heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP. (author)

  8. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  9. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases...

  10. Biosorption of heavy metals from wastewater by biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orhan, Y.; Bueyuekguengoer, H. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Hrenovic, J. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-08-15

    In a study where the removal of heavy metals from wastewater is the primary aim, the biosorption of heavy metals onto biosolids prepared as Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized onto granular activated carbon was investigated in batch and column systems. In the batch system, adsorption equilibriums of heavy metals were reached between 20 and 50 min, and the optimal dosage of biosolids was 0.3 g/L. The biosorption efficiencies were 84, 80, 79, 59 and 42 % for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions, respectively. The rate constants of biosorption and pore diffusion of heavy metals were 0.013-0.089 min{sup -1} and 0.026-0.690 min{sup -0.5}. In the column systems, the biosorption efficiencies for all heavy metals increased up to 81-100 %. The affinity of biosorption for various metal ions towards biosolids was decreased in the order: Cr = Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  12. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  13. Oil Spill Related Heavy Metal: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Hafizan Juahir; Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Mohammad Azizi Amran; Che Noraini Che Hasnam; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Syahril Hirman Azmee; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill occurs every day worldwide and oil contamination is a significant contributor for the higher levels of heavy metals in the environment. This study is purposely to summarize the heavy metals which significant to major oil spill incidents around the world and effects of toxic metals to human health. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning heavy metals contamination and oil spills. Overall, the heavy metals most frequently been detected in oil spill related study where Pb>Ni>V>Zn>Cd and caused many effects to human health especially cancer. In conclusion, the comparison of heavy metal level between the post - spill and baseline levels must be done, and implementation of continuous monitoring of heavy metal. In addition, the result based on the strategies must be transparent to public in order to maintaining human health. (author)

  14. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  15. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  16. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  17. Competitive sorption of heavy metals by water hyacinth roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Hui-Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global issue severely constraining aquaculture practices, not only deteriorating the aquatic environment but also threatening the aquaculture production. One promising solution is adopting aquaponics systems where a synergy can be established between aquaculture and aquatic plants for metal sorption, but the interactions of multiple metals in such aquatic plants are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the absorption behaviors of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water by water hyacinth roots in both single- and binary-metal systems. Cu(II) and Cd(II) were individually removed by water hyacinth roots at high efficiency, accompanied with release of protons and cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . However, in a binary-metal arrangement, the Cd(II) sorption was significantly inhibited by Cu(II), and the higher sorption affinity of Cu(II) accounted for its competitive sorption advantage. Ionic exchange was identified as a predominant mechanism of the metal sorption by water hyacinth roots, and the amine and oxygen-containing groups are the main binding sites accounting for metal sorption via chelation or coordination. This study highlights the interactive impacts of different metals during their sorption by water hyacinth roots and elucidates the underlying mechanism of metal competitive sorption, which may provide useful implications for optimization of phytoremediation system and development of more sustainable aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  19. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Behavior of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of poultry litter

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Deirdre; Low, Fiona; Henihan, Anne Marie; Garcia, Alberto; Kwapinski, Witold; Zhang, Lian; Leahy, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed In this study, we have examined the behavior of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of poultry litter. Heavy metals examined include As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. Solid and gaseous streams were analyzed and compared with relevant guidelines to determine the potential environmental impact of combustion and subsequent land spreading or landfill of the resulting ash. The majority of heavy metals were associated with the solid ash fraction, with low ...

  1. Removal of Heavy Metals from Drinking Water by Magnetic Carbon Nanostructures Prepared from Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Muneeb Ur Rahman Khattak, Muhammad; Zahoor, Muhammad; Muhammad, Bakhtiar; Khan, Farhat Ali; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEI-Salam, Naser M.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals contamination of drinking water has significant adverse effects on human health due to their toxic nature. In this study a new adsorbent, magnetic graphitic nanostructures were prepared from watermelon waste. The adsorbent was characterized by different instrumental techniques (surface area analyzer, FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM, and TG/DTA) and was used for the removal of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) from water. The adsorption parameters were determined for heavy metals adsorpti...

  2. Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Hua; Duan, Jing-Chun; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-Bin; Yu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7 ± 378.5 ng/m(3)), As (76.6 ± 49.1 ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6 ± 45.2 ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220 ng/m(3), 20.5 times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most

  3. Heavy metal adsorption by modified oak sawdust: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argun, Mehmet Emin; Dursun, Sukru; Ozdemir, Celalettin; Karatas, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by oak (Quercus coccifera) sawdust modified by means of HCl treatment. Our study tested the removal of three heavy metals: Cu, Ni, and Cr. The optimum shaking speed, adsorbent mass, contact time, and pH were determined, and adsorption isotherms were obtained using concentrations of the metal ions ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg L -1 . The adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics, as well as Langmuir and D-R adsorption isotherms. The paper discusses the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption (the Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy). Our results demonstrate that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic under natural conditions. The maximum removal efficiencies were 93% for Cu(II) at pH 4, 82% for Ni(II) at pH 8, and 84% for Cr(VI) at pH 3

  4. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period; Evaluacion de la calidad del aire respecto de particulas suspendidas totales y metales pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, durante un periodo anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Campus Mexicali, Calle de la Normal s/n, y Blvd. Benito Juarez, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J., E-mail: martincruzcampas@hotmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Rosales y Luis Ensina s/n, Edificio 5B, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions

  5. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  6. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  7. Assessment of some heavy metals in the surrounding soils of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OYELEKE PETER

    soils of an automobile battery factory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Peter Olaoye Oyeleke ... The levels of heavy metals (Pd, Zn, Cr, Cd, Fe and Cu in mg/kg) in soils were assessed with respect to distance in ... potential health risk. ..... Management, Nigeria (2004). ... heavy metals in sediments in the vicinity of Ashaka Cement Factory,.

  8. Evaluation of some heavy metals loading in dust fall of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally for the three sites used, the heavy metal concentrations decreased in the following order: Mn>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cu>Cd. This implies that dust-fall in the parks are heavily loaded with some heavy metals that are of concentrations above Romania standard threshold limit for Cd and Pb while concentration values obtained ...

  9. Ecological risk and pollution history of heavy metals in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Tam, Nora F Y; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Zhou, Xizhen; Fu, Jie; Yao, Bo; Huang, Xuexia; Xia, Lihua

    2014-06-01

    Owing to the Industrial Revolution in the late 1970s, heavy metal pollution has been regarded as a serious threat to mangrove ecosystems in the region of the Pearl River Estuary, potentially affecting human health. The present study attempted to characterize the ecological risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nansha mangrove, South China, by estimating their concentrations in the surface sediment. In addition, the pollution history of heavy metals was examined by determining the concentrations of heavy metals along the depth gradient. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove, namely Sonneratia apetala and Cyperus malaccensis, was also studied. Results found that the surface sediment was severely contaminated with heavy metals, probably due to the discharge of industrial sewage into the Pearl River Estuary. Spatial variation of heavy metals was generally unobvious. The ecological risk of heavy metals was very high, largely due to Cd contamination. All heavy metals, except Mn, decreased with depth, indicating that heavy metal pollution has been deteriorating since 1979. Worse still, the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove had limited capability to remove the heavy metals from sediment. Therefore, we propose that immediate actions, such as regulation of discharge standards of industrial sewage, should be taken by the authorities concerned to mitigate the ecological risk posed by heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.C.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Ma, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in

  11. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  12. Heavy metal stabilization in contaminated road-derived sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Depree, Craig V

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the stabilization of heavy metals in road-derived sediments (RDS), to enable environmentally responsible reuse applications and circumvent the need for costly landfill disposal. To reduce the mobility of heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Pb and Zn) the effectiveness of amendments using phosphate, compost and fly ash addition were investigated using batch leaching experiments. In general, phosphate amendments of RDS were found to be ineffective at stabilizing heavy metals, despite being used successfully in soils. Phosphate amendment resulted in enhanced concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which increased the solubilisation of heavy metals via complexation. Amendment with humified organic matter (compost) successfully stabilized Cu and Pb in high DOC leaching RDS with an optimum loading of 15-20% (w/w). Compost, however, was ineffective at stabilizing Zn. Increasing the pH by amending RDS/compost blends with 2.5-15% (w/w) coal fly ash resulted in the stabilization of Zn, Cu and Pb. However, above a pH of approximately 7.5 and 8 enhanced leaching of organic matter resulted in an increase in leached Cu and Pb, respectively. Accordingly, the optimum level of fly ash amendment for the RDS/compost blends was estimated to be ca. 10%. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) of the data revealed that DOC accounted for 56% and 65% of the Cu and Pb leaching, respectively, whereas pH only accounted for ca. 18% of Cu and Pb leaching. RDS sample characteristics (i.e. metal concentrations, size fractionation and organic matter content) were more important at reconciling the leaching concentrations of copper Cu (27%) than Pb (16%). The most important parameter explaining Zn leaching was pH. Overall, the choice of a suitable stabilization agent/s depends on the composition of RDS with respect to the amount of organic matter present, and the sorption chemistry of the heavy metal of interest. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  14. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  15. A novel method for the sequential removal and separation of multiple heavy metals from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Li, Liang; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Xu, Jianfang; Yan, Naiqiang

    2018-01-15

    A novel method was developed and applied for the treatment of simulated wastewater containing multiple heavy metals. A sorbent of ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) was synthesized and showed extraordinary performance for the removal of Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The removal efficiencies of Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ were 99.9%, 99.9%, 90.8% and 66.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, it was determined that solubility product (K sp ) of heavy metal sulfides was closely related to adsorption selectivity of various heavy metals on the sorbent. The removal efficiency of Hg 2+ was higher than that of Cd 2+ , while the K sp of HgS was lower than that of CdS. It indicated that preferential adsorption of heavy metals occurred when the K sp of the heavy metal sulfide was lower. In addition, the differences in the K sp of heavy metal sulfides allowed for the exchange of heavy metals, indicating the potential application for the sequential removal and separation of heavy metals from wastewater. According to the cumulative adsorption experimental results, multiple heavy metals were sequentially adsorbed and separated from the simulated wastewater in the order of the K sp of their sulfides. This method holds the promise of sequentially removing and separating multiple heavy metals from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  17. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation. 

  18. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, I.M.; Escudey, M.; Utria, E.; Garcia, D.; Cartaya, O.; Morua, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation sewage sludges from Quibu plant, located in City of the Havana, with the objective of evaluating the capacity of accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol when in the wheat plants are cultivated (Triticum aestivum L.) , as well as the potential damages in this plants. Rates of 0, 60, 180 and 300 sludges tons/ soil hectare was applied and the plants were growth in recipient of 5 L of capacity. The levels of heavy metals were evaluated before the and after the crop. The extraction one carries out with the mixture HCl:HNO3 and they were determined by spectroscopy inductively coupled to plasma. Presence of Zn, Cu and Pb were detected in sludges and a tendency decrease is observed to heavy metals retention is observed in soil with the increase of the disposition rate together to a differential behavior of the different chemical species

  20. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  1. Observation on Heavy Metals in Sediment of Jakarta Bay Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rozak

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation on heavy metals in Jakarta Bay, from June and September 2003. Heavy metals Pb in sediment at the West have been conductet of Jakarta Bay Waters varied between Pb = 8,49-31,22 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,47 ppm, Cu = 13,81-193,75 ppm, Zn = 82,18-533,59 ppm and Ni = 0,99-35,38 ppm,while those at the Center of Jakarta Bay, varied between Pb = 2,21-69,22 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,28 ppm, Cu = 3,36-50,65 ppm, Zn = 71,13-230,54 ppm and Ni = 0,42-15,58 ppm and at the East of Jakarta Bay, Pb content varied between 0,25-77,42 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,42 ppm, Cu = 0,79-44,94 ppm, Zn = 93,21-289,00 ppm and Ni = 0,42-128,47 ppm. Hevy metals content in sediment the West of Jakarta Bay was high of equivalent the Center and East of Jakarta Bay. At than those composition sediment at the west was black, that indicated high heavy metals content.

  2. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for

  3. Microbial treatment of heavy metal leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Aliaga, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Ore-mining metallurgy and other industrial activities represent the source of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Physico-chemical processes are employed for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters. However, limitations due to the cost-effectiveness and use of contaminating reagents make these processes not environmentally friendly. (Author)

  4. Metal transformation as a strategy for bacterial detoxification of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Al Abboud, Mohamed A; Khatib, Sayeed I

    2018-01-01

    Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay. A marked reduction of the treated metals toxicity was recorded in comparison to the untreated metals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the formation of metal particles in the treated metal solutions. In addition to heavy metals at variable ratios, these particles consisted of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen elements. The inhibition of metal toxicity was attributed to the existence of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide in the VMPs of E. coli Z3 culture that might responsible for the transformation of soluble metal ions into metal complexes. This study clarified the capability of E. coli Z3 for indirect detoxification of heavy metals via the immobilization of metal ions into biologically unavailable species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Adsorption of heavy metals by road deposited solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    The research study discussed in the paper investigated the adsorption/desorption behaviour of heavy metals commonly deposited on urban road surfaces, namely, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb, for different particle size ranges of solids. The study outcomes, based on field studies and batch experiments, confirmed that road deposited solids particles contain a significantly high amount of vacant charge sites with the potential to adsorb additional heavy metals. Kinetic studies and adsorption experiments indicated that Cr is the most preferred metal element to associate with solids due to the relatively high electronegativity and high charge density of trivalent cation (Cr(3+)). However, the relatively low availability of Cr in the urban road environment could influence this behaviour. Comparing total adsorbed metals present in solids particles, it was found that Zn has the highest capacity for adsorption to solids. Desorption experiments confirmed that a low concentration of Cu, Cr and Pb in solids was present in water-soluble and exchangeable form, whilst a significant fraction of adsorbed Zn has a high likelihood of being released back into solution. Among heavy metals, Zn is considered to be the most commonly available metal among road surface pollutants.

  6. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  7. The ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the Kuihe River basin (Xuzhou section) and the characteristics of plant enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zheng, Lei

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate Kuihe River basin of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) pollution, the determination of the Kuihe River water body, the bottom of the river silt, riparian soil plants and heavy metal content of 9 kinds of riparian plants, investigate the pollution situation, so as to screen out the plants that has potential of enrichment and rehabilitation of heavy metal pollution. The results showed that Cd and Mn in the water body exceed bid; The pollution of Zn and Cu in the bottom mud is serious, potential ecological risk of heavy metals is Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cd>As>Cr>Mn Riparian soil affected by sewage and overflow of sediment has significant positive correlation with soil heavy metals, among them, the Zn and Cu are heavy pollution; The selective absorption of heavy metals by 9 kinds of dominant plant leads to its bio concentration factor (BCF) of Cr and Pb on the low side, are all less than 1, from the translocation factor (TF), Setcreasea purpurea and Poa annua showed obvious roots type hoarding. Poa annua and Lycium chinense have a resistance on the absorption of heavy metals, Lythrum salicaria, Photinia serrulata and Broussonetia papyrifera have a unique advantage on enrichment of heavy metals, Broussonetia papyri era on a variety of strong ability of enrichment and transfer of heavy metals suggests that the woody plants in the vast application prospect in the field of rehabilitation technology of heavy metals.

  8. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  9. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  10. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, L W; Najiah, M

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg(2+), Cr(6+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+)). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100%) between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu(2+). Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  11. Analysis of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2006-07-07

    Road-deposited sediments were analysed for heavy metal concentrations at three different landuses (residential, industrial, commercial) in Queensland State, Australia. The sediments were collected using a domestic vacuum cleaner which was proven to be highly efficient in collecting sub-micron particles. Five particle sizes were analysed separately for eight heavy metal elements (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Al and Mn). At all sites, the maximum concentration of the heavy metals occurred in the 0.45-75 microm particle size range, which conventional street cleaning services do not remove efficiently. Multicriteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, were employed in the data analysis. PROMETHEE, a non-parametric ranking analysis procedure, was used to rank the metal contents of the sediments sampled at each site. The most polluted site and particle size range were the industrial site and the 0.45-75 microm range, respectively. Although the industrial site displayed the highest metal concentrations, the highest heavy metal loading coincided with the highest sediment load, which occurred at the commercial site. GAIA, a special form of principal component analysis, was applied to determine correlations between the heavy metals and particle size ranges and also to assess possible correlation with total organic carbon (TOC). The GAIA-planes revealed that irrespective of the site, most of the heavy metals are adsorbed to sediments below 150 microm. A weak correlation was found between Zn, Mn and TOC at the commercial site. This could lead to higher bioavailability of these metals through complexation reactions with the organic species in the sediments.

  12. Determination of heavy metals in soil and different parts of Diplazium esculentum (medicinal fern)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, Hind S.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Diplazium esculentum is a widely used medicinal fern in Malaysia and other regions worldwide. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity. Hence, substantial information should be obtained from plants that grow on soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of soil and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in different parts of D. esculentum and soil, which were collected from the fern garden of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that heavy metals were highly accumulated in D. esculentum roots.

  13. Effective ways of decrease in the maintenance of heavy metals in soils and vegetative production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, N.A.; Komarov, V.I.; Grishina, A.V.; Akanova, N.I.

    2008-01-01

    Receptions detoxication of heavy metals and reception vegetative production adequating to sanitary-and-hygienic norms are developed and scientifically proved. Correlation dependence between pH, concentration of heavy metals in vegetative production and level of productivity of agricultural crops is established. The most essential factor reducing till 8-10 of time receipt in plants Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb, level of reaction of environment in soil is. Dynamics of migration of heavy metals from the soil polluted water-soluble form of heavy metals is investigated

  14. Determination of Heavy Metals in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Collected from Different Cultivation Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dan; Fu, Yurong; Lai, Weiyong; Zhang, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    20 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were collected from Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan province in China. The contents of heavy metals of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were determined and compared. The results indicated that geographical source might be a major factor to influence the contents of heavy metals of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Compared to the criteria of heavy metals, the contents of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd in almost...

  15. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina; Soleimani, Farshid; Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji

    2016-01-01

    In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including NO3− , NO2−, PO4−3 and SO4−2 in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain (“Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran” (Dobaradaran et al., 2013) [1...

  16. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metals adsorption on blast furnace sludges; Adsorcion de metales pesados sobre lodos de horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Delgado, A.; Perez, C.; Lopez, F.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    Most of industrial liquid effluents have high contents of heavy metals. The recovery of these metals is environmental and economically interesting. In this work we study the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents. The adsorption of Pb``2+, Zn``2+, Cd``2+, Cu``2+ and Cr``3+ on the sludge was investigated by determination of adsorption isotherms. The effect of time, equilibrium temperature and concentration of metal solution on sludge adsorption efficiency was evaluated. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langumuir and the thermodynamic values {Delta}G, {Delta}H and {Delta}S corresponding to each adsorption process were calculated. Blast furnace sludge was found to be an effective sorbent for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr-ions within the range of ion concentrations employed. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Heavy Metal Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/heavymetalbloodtest.html Heavy Metal Blood Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Heavy Metal Blood Test? A heavy metal blood test ...

  19. Characterization of landfill leachates and studies on heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceçen, F; Gürsoy, G

    2000-10-01

    This study covers a thorough characterisation of landfill leachates emerging from a sanitary landfill area. The landfill leachates were obtained in the acidic stage of landfill stabilisation. Their organic content was high as reflected by the high BOD5 (5 day biological oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) values. They were also highly polluted in terms of the parameters TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen), NH4-N, alkalinity, hardness and heavy metals. Nickel was present in these wastewaters at a significant concentration. With regard to the high heavy metal content of these wastewaters, several physicochemical removal alternatives for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn and Fe were tested using coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, base addition and aeration. Additionally, COD removal and ammonia stripping were examined. Co-precipitation with either alum or iron salts did not usually lead to significantly higher heavy metal removal than lime alone. The major methods leading to an effective heavy metal removal were aeration and lime addition. Nickel and cadmium seemed to be strongly complexed and were not removed by any method. Also lead removal proved to be difficult. The results are also discussed in terms of compliance with standards.

  20. Heavy metal evaporation kinetics in thermal waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Ch; Stucki, S; Schuler, A J [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    To investigate the evaporation kinetics of heavy metals, experiments were performed by conventional thermogravimetry and a new method using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The new method allows online measurements in time intervals that are typically below one minute. The evaporation of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from synthetic mixtures and filter ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was of major interest. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Pollution assessment and heavy metal determination by AAS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the hardness was 848 to 485 mg/l as CaCO3. Besides, at 20°C, the BOD values were evaluated from 57 to 88 ppm. The COD values retained were from 150 to 108 ppm. In contrast, heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Mn) were analyzed and compared with standards of drinking water. The results indicate that ...

  2. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  3. HEAVY METAL AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE BACTERIA IN MARINE SEDIMENT OF PAHANG COASTAL WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaima Azira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria in the marine sediment may indicate heavy metal pollution and antibiotic abuse present in the environment. In this study, a total of 89 bacteria isolated from sediment collected in Teluk Chempedak and Pantai Batu Hitam of Pahang coastal water underwent heavy metal resistance test against Chromium, Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Cobalt. Previously, these isolates were found to exhibit antibiotic resistance capabilities to at least 5 antibiotics tested. Heavy metal resistance pattern for isolates from Teluk Chempedak was in the form of Cr > Ni >Co >Cd = Cu while for isolates from Pantai Batu Hitam showed a pattern of Cr = Ni >Co >Cu >Cd. Further investigation on the identity of selected isolates that exhibited both antibiotic and heavy metals resistance capabilities using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed isolates with closest similarities to Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Brevundimonas vesicularis..

  4. Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Dennis; Duarte, Bernardo; Paiva, Filipa; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João

    2016-09-01

    The permanent presence of microplastics in the marine environment is considered a global threat to several marine animals. Heavy metals and microplastics are typically included in two different classes of pollutants but the interaction between these two stressors is poorly understood. During 14 days of experimental manipulation, we examined the adsorption of two heavy metals, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), leached from an antifouling paint to virgin polystyrene (PS) beads and aged polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fragments in seawater. We demonstrated that heavy metals were released from the antifouling paint to the water and both microplastic types adsorbed the two heavy metals. This adsorption kinetics was described using partition coefficients and mathematical models. Partition coefficients between pellets and water ranged between 650 and 850 for Cu on PS and PVC, respectively. The adsorption of Cu was significantly greater in PVC fragments than in PS, probably due to higher surface area and polarity of PVC. Concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly on PVC and PS over the course of the experiment with the exception of Zn on PS. As a result, we show a significant interaction between these types of microplastics and heavy metals, which can have implications for marine life and the environment. These results strongly support recent findings where plastics can play a key role as vectors for heavy metal ions in the marine system. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of monitoring marine litter and heavy metals, mainly associated with antifouling paints, particularly in the framework of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  5. Heavy metals in the landscape components of the Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ch. Sangadzhieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soil of nord-west part of Precaspian low-land and their subsequent distribution over the trophic chain: plant fodder - sheep are investiqаtеd. It was revealed that the highest biogenic accumulation is characteristic of Zn and Cu at all the levels of trophic chain. An increase in the transition coefficients for the most toxic elements Pb, Cd is observed, which is an evidence of their accumulation in the higher levels of trophic chain.

  6. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  7. Heavy metals distribution in the Dead Sea black mud, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momani, K.; El-Hasan, T.; Auaydeh, S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb) were investigated in the Dead Sea black mud and river sediments in the northern basin of the Dead Sea region, Jordan. The pH of the mud was slightly above 8 while it was around 6 for the seawater. All analyzed heavy metal content in the black mud, except Pb, was less than their contents in other types of mud. Tlis might be due to the effect of the mildly acideic pH of seawater, which would enhance the metal solubility or incorporation within salt mineral structure, rather than precipitation. The sequential extraction results showed that Ni and Co transferred into the carbonate fraction, Mn is found mostly as manganese-iron oxide, and the residual phase contained Cr, Cu, Fe,and Pb. This study illustrated that the black mud had low heavy metal contents, thus indicating low toxicity. additionally, it shows insignificance effect of the mixing of freshwater with seawater on the heavy metal contents in the black mud. (authors).

  8. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  9. Heavy metal content of soil in urban parks of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanoski Maja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on soil pollution in four urban parks of Belgrade. The sampling locations within each park were chosen based on proximity to streets characterized by heavy traffic, and soil samples were taken at different depths down to 50 cm. Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were measured using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF spectrometer. The following average abundance order of heavy metals was found: Fe >> Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu in topsoil samples. The highest enrichment in topsoil was observed for Zn. Copper and Zn, metals mainly related to traffic emissions, exhibited the highest concentrations at the sampling location close to a bus and trolleybus terminus. The highest Ni and Cr concentrations were observed in a park located in a city suburb, where a large number of individual heating units is present. The largest decrease in concentrations with soil dept was observed for Zn and Cu, followed by Ni and Cr, in the parks with the highest concentrations of these elements in topsoil. Generally high topsoil Cr and Ni concentrations were observed in comparison with average values reported in literature for other world cities. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007

  10. Soil and groundwater contamination with heavy metals at two scrap iron and metal recycling facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Holm, P. E.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Field studies were performed at two actual scrap iron and metal recycling facilities in order to evaluate the extent of heavy metal migration into subsoil and groundwater caused by more than 25 years of handling scrap directly on the ground without any measures to prevent leaching. Surface soil...... samples, called `scrap dirt', representing the different activities on the two recycling facilities, all showed very high concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) , chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) and somewhat elevated concentrations of many other metals....... In particular high concentrations were found for Pb at the car-battery salvage locations (13 to 26 g Pb kg±1) and Cu at the cable burning location (22 g Cu kg±1) at one site. The migration of metals below the surface in general (except at the car-battery salvage locations) was very limited even after...

  11. Investigation of heavy metals release from sediment with bioturbation/bioirrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Men, Bin; Yang, Xiaofang; Li, Yaxuan; Xu, Hui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Bioturbation/bioirrigation can affect the remobilization of metals from sediments. In this study, experiments were performed to examine the effect of bioturbation/bioirrigation by different organisms on cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) releasing from the spiked sediment. The diffusive gradient in thin films technique (DGT) revealed that at the end of exposure time, the labile heavy metals concentrations in the pore water for all metal and organisms combinations except Cu and chironomid larvae were much lower than that in the control group. However, the concentrations of heavy metals detected by the DGT were virtually indistinguishable among the treatments with tubificid, chironomid larvae and loach. The correlation analysis of heavy metals with iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) suggested that Cd, Zn and Pb were most likely bound as Fe-Mn oxidation form in the pore water, but Cu was in other forms. After 28 d of exposure, bioturbation/bioirrigation produced a significant release of particulate heavy metals into the overlying water, especially in the treatment with loach. The bioturbation/bioirrigation impact on the Pb remobilization was less than the other three heavy metals. The effects of bioturbaiton/bioirrigation on the heavy metals remobilization in the sediment were complex that with studying the heavy metals remobilization in the sediment and water interface, the biological indicators should be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomolecules for Removal of Heavy Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Patents reveal that heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to identify the role of biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, natural compounds containing aromatic acid etc. for heavy metal removal by bio sorption. It has been observed that efficiency of biomolecules can be increased by functionalization e.g. cellulose functionalization with EDTA, chitosan with sulphur groups, alginate with carboxyl/ hydroxyl group etc. It was found that the porous structure of aerogel beads improves both sorption and kinetic properties of the material. Out of polypeptides metallothionein has been widely used for removal of heavy metal up to 88% from seawater after a single centrifugation. These cost effective functionalized biomolecules are significantly used for remediation of heavy metals by immobilizing these biomolecules onto materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  14. The use of dialdehyde starch derivatives in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Para, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Products of the reaction between dialdehyde starch and Y-NH2 compounds (e.g. semicarbazide or hydrazine) are effective ligands for metal ions. The usefulness of these derivatives was tested in the experiment, both in terms of the immobilization of heavy metal ions in soil and the potential application in phytoextraction processes. The experimental model comprised maize and the ions of such metals as: Zn(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II). The amount of maize yield, as well as heavy metal content and uptake by the aboveground parts and roots of maize, were studied during a three-year pot experiment. The results of the study indicate the significant impact of heavy metals on reduced yield and increased heavy metal content in maize. Soil-applied dialdehyde starch derivatives resulted in lower yields, particularly disemicarbazone (DASS), but in heavy metal-contaminated soils they largely limited the negative impact of these metals both on yielding and heavy metal content in plants, particularly dihydrazone (DASH). It was demonstrated that the application of dihydrazone (DASH) to a soil polluted with heavy metals boosted the uptake of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd from the soil, hence there is a possibility to use this compound in the phytoextraction of these metals from the soil. Decreased Ni uptake was also determined, hence the possibility of using this compound in the immobilization of this metal. The study showed that dialdehyde starch disemicarbazone was ineffective in the discussed processes.

  15. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  16. Heavy Metal Concentrations in an Important Mangrove Species, Sonneratia caseolaris, in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazlin Nazli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests in Peninsular Malaysia are increasingly threatened by heavy metal pollution. Due to their unique location, mangroves receive heavy metal pollution from upstream areas and the sea. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals. In this study, the concentrations of cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in an important mangrove species, Sonneratia caseolaris, were measured. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the sediments were below the general critical soil concentrations. However, the total concentrations of Cu and Pb in both the roots and leaves of Sonneratia caseolaris exceeded the general normal upper range in plants. This study has therefore shown the potential of Sonneratia caseolaris as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in Malaysian mangrove ecosystem.

  17. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Shuangtaizi estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Song, Chengwen; Yin, Yanyan; Sun, Menghan; Tao, Ping; Shao, Mihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five heavy metals are analyzed in the sediments from Shuangtaizi estuary. • Particle size of the sediment effects the concentration of heavy metals. • Pb, Cu, Zn and Hg pose low ecological risks in the Shuangtaizi estuary. • Heavy metal pollution in Shuangtaizi estuary is mainly dominated by Cd. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg, the surface sediments were collected from 18 sites in the Shuangtaizi estuary. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry after digestion. The particle sizes of the sediments were analyzed using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer. The results show that the heavy metal contents in the sediments are observed in the following order: Zn (18.25–126.75 mg/kg) > Pb (4.38–9.65 mg/kg) > Cu (1.80–17.68 mg/kg) > Cd (0.241–0.764 mg/kg) > Hg (0.007–0.021 mg/kg). In comparison with the concentrations of heavy metals in other regions, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn in the Shuangtaizi estuary are generally low, and the Cd concentrations are close to those reported in other regions. Both the potential ecological risk index and the geoaccumulation index reveal that the heavy metal pollution in Shuangtaizi estuary is mainly dominated by Cd

  18. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Concentración de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y sedimentos de una playa artificial, en la bahía San Jorge 23°S, norte de Chile Heavy metals concentration (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, in biota and sediments of an artificial beach, in San Jorge bay 23°S, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el contenido de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y el sedimento de una playa artificial (Paraíso y una playa natural (El Lenguado, ubicadas en la bahía San Jorge, norte de Chile. Los resultados fueron utilizados para comparar ambos sistemas, el grado de cumplimiento de la normativa ambiental nacional e internacional, y el efecto de la construcción de la playa artificial sobre el nivel de contaminación por metales existentes históricamente en esa zona. En cada playa se ubicaron estaciones equidistantes que abarcaron desde el intermareal hasta el submareal de las cuales fueron extraídos los organismos. Se tomaron muestras de sedimento en cada playa y se determinaron las pendientes con el método de Emery. El análisis granulométrico evidenció el predominio de arena media en playa El Lenguado, y arena media y fina en playa Paraíso. El contenido de materia orgánica fue mayor en El Lenguado. En playa Paraíso se determinaron cinco phylum/superclase agrupados en 19 taxa, mientras que en El Lenguado se encontraron cuatro phylum/superclase agrupados en cc taxa. El contenido de metales en sedimentos y en la mayoría de organismos presentó valores mayores en playa Paraíso. Estos resultados, junto a las normas de calidad chilenas y norteamericanas, sugieren un evidente deterioro en la calidad ambiental de playa Paraíso lo que se demostró por un incremento en las concentraciones de estos metales desde su construcción, los que sobrepasan los límites establecidos por ambas normas.It was evaluated the heavy metal content (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb in biota and sediment of an artificial beach (Paraíso and a natural beach (El Lenguado, both located in San Jorge bay, northern Chile. The results were used to compare both systems, the degree of fulfillment of national and international environmental regulations, and the effect of the construction of the artificial beach on the level of metal contamination historically existing in

  20. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT]. PMID:20049231

  1. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from MSWI fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, A.J.; Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    In this work a method called electrodialytic remediation, which is a combination of electrokinetic remediation and electrodialysis, is used for the extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ashes. It is shown that the use of electric current enhances the metal desorption significantly compared to traditional, chemical extraction. The metals of concern are Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr. Addition of ammonium citrate to the ash before and during remediation enhances the desorption and removal rate of all the examined heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) compared to experiments only added distilled water. By introducing continuous stirring of the ash slurry during electrodialytic remediation, it is shown that the remediation rate is improved significantly compared to 'traditional' electrodialytic remediation experiments. The development of the acidic front is avoided due to better pH-control, and a better contact between the ash particles and the liquid is achieved. Up to 62% of the initial Cd, 8.3% Pb, 73% Zn, 59% Cu, and 20% Cr has been removed from two different fly ashes in electrodialytic remediation experiments. (orig.)

  2. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals in soil underlying an infiltration facility installed in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A; Furumai, H; Nakajima, F

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals at elevated concentration and potential of considerable amount of the accumulated heavy metals to reach the soil system was observed from earlier studies in soakaways sediments within an infiltration facility in Tokyo, Japan. In order to understand the competitive adsorption behaviour of heavy metals Zn, Ni and Cu in soil, competitive batch adsorption experiments were carried out using single metal and binary metal combinations on soil samples representative of underlying soil and surface soil at the site. Speciation analysis of the adsorbed metals was carried out through BCR sequential extraction method. Among the metals, Cu was not affected by competition while Zn and Ni were affected by competition of coexisting metals. The parameters of fitted 'Freundlich' and 'Langmuir' isotherms indicated more intense competition in underlying soil compared to surface soil for adsorption of Zn and Ni. The speciation of adsorbed metals revealed less selectivity of Zn and Ni to soil organic matter, while dominance of organic bound fraction was observed for Cu, especially in organic rich surface soil. Compared to underlying soil, the surface soil is expected to provide greater adsorption to heavy metals as well as provide greater stability to adsorbed metals, especially for Cu.

  3. Estimation of some heavy metals in polluted well water and mercury accumulation in broiler organs

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Hussein Khamis; Abu-Zinadah, Osama Abdullah; EL-Rabey, Haddad Abdulsameih; Meerasahib, Mohammed Fareez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of heavy metals in well water and bioaccumulation of the most abundant metals in chicken tissues in some areas in the province of Mecca Almokaramah, Saudi Arabia. Among the heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Mn, Cu Hg, Pb and Ni) studied, mercury (Hg) revealed highest in concentration in well waters. The concentration of mercury in the ground water, beside in liver, kidney, muscle and blood samples of ten chickens fro...

  4. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  5. A Study on Characteristics of Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Subway Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Huem; Yoo, Dong-Chul; Kwon, Young-Min; Han, Woong-Soo; Kim, Gi-Sun; Park, Mi-Jung; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the atmospheric heavy metal concentrations in the particulate matter inside the subway stations of Seoul. In particular, we examined the correlation between the heavy metals and studied the effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation. In six selected subway stations in Seoul, particulate matter was captured at the platforms and 11 types of heavy metals were analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of iron was the highest out of the heavy metals in particulate matter, followed by copper, potassium, calcium, zinc, nickel, sodium, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium in that order. The correlation analysis showed that the correlations between the heavy metals was highest in the following order: (Cu vs Zn) , (Ca vs Na) , (Ca vs Mn) , (Ni vs Cr) , (Na vs Mn) , (Cr vs Cd) , (Zn vs Cd) , (Cu vs Cd) , (Ni vs Cd) , (Cu vs Ni) , (K vs Zn) , (Cu vs K) , (Cu vs Cr) , (K vs Cd) , (Zn vs Cr) , (K vs Ni) , (Zn vs Ni) , (K vs Cr) , and (Fe vs Cu) . The correlation coefficient between zinc and copper was 0.937, indicating the highest correlation. Copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and cadmium, which are generated from artificial sources in general, showed correlations with many of the other metals and the correlation coefficients were also relatively high. The effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation was also investigated in this study. Cultured cell was exposed to 10 mg/l or 100 mg/l of iron, copper, calcium, zinc, nickel, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium for 24 hours. The cell proliferation in all the heavy metal-treated groups was not inhibited at 10 mg/l of the heavy metal concentration. The only exception to this was with the cadmium-treated group which showed a strong cell proliferation inhibition. This study provides the fundamental data for the understanding of simultaneous heavy metal exposure tendency at the time of particulate matter exposure in subway stations and the identification of heavy metal

  6. Heavy metal distribution and bioaccumulation in Chihuahuan Desert Rough Harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Toro, I.; Floyd, K.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.; Borrok, D.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination can negatively impact arid ecosystems; however a thorough examination of bioaccumulation patterns has not been completed. We analyzed the distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils, seeds and ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) populations of the Chihuahuan Desert near El Paso, TX, USA. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb in soils, seeds and ants declined as a function of distance from a now inactive Cu and Pb smelter and all five metals bioaccumulated in the granivorous ants. The average bioaccumulation factors for the metals from seeds to ants ranged from 1.04x (As) to 8.12x (Cd). The findings show bioaccumulation trends in linked trophic levels in an arid ecosystem and further investigation should focus on the impacts of heavy metal contamination at the community level. - Heavy metals bioaccumulate in desert ants.

  7. The role of dissolved organic matter in adsorbing heavy metals in clay-rich soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Refaey, Y.; Jansen, B.; El-Shater, A.H.; El-Haddad, A.A.; Kalbitz, K.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of tested heavy metals on Egyptian soils was large in all situations tested and follows the order: Cu >> Ni ≈ Zn. Copper was influenced by the timing of dissolved organic matter addition more than Ni and Zn. Specific binding mechanisms (inner-sphere complexes) dominated the affinity of Cu

  8. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming

    2008-01-01

    We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area of Zhe...

  9. Heavy metals phytoremediation potential of Hevea brasiliensis in Bentong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talip; Yusoff, Siti Fairus Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Biomonitoring uses living organisms to assess environmental quality and being preferred over conventional methods that use fully or semi-automatic gauges for its lower cost and practicality. Recently, higher plants are widely used for biomonitoring purposes by means of their species identification simplicity, larger availability of biological substantial, and easy to sample. In this study, samples of Hevea brasiliensis (i.e leaves, barks, and latex as well as surrounding soils) from outskirts of Pelangai, Bentong were tested for heavy metals by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Enrichment factor of soils indicated that some metals (B, Ca, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Na) were anthropogenic which most likely originated from traffic emissions. In addition, leaves trapped the most heavy metals compared to barks and latex. The accumulation of pollutants in those samples has identified biomonitoring abilities of Hevea brasiliensis.

  10. Trends and sources for heavy metals in urban atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Kaare

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of a number of heavy metals in the air in three Danish cities have been measured by means of PIXE for more than two decades. The well-known capability of PIXE for fast and efficient analysis of aerosol samples has been employed for analysis of daily samples from several sites during the whole period. The main sources are traffic, domestic heating and long-range transport. Source apportionment and trends for single metals are assessed by means of simple statistical methods. The most striking change has occurred for the Pb concentration, which is reduced by almost a factor of 100 following the reduction of the Pb content in petrol. The main source of Cu, Cr and Zn is the traffic. The concentrations of these elements have been slightly increasing. The concentrations for most of the other heavy metals, which originate mainly from sources outside the cities, have been decreasing

  11. Trends and sources for heavy metals in urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kåre

    2002-04-01

    The concentrations of a number of heavy metals in the air in three Danish cities have been measured by means of PIXE for more than two decades. The well-known capability of PIXE for fast and efficient analysis of aerosol samples has been employed for analysis of daily samples from several sites during the whole period. The main sources are traffic, domestic heating and long-range transport. Source apportionment and trends for single metals are assessed by means of simple statistical methods. The most striking change has occurred for the Pb concentration, which is reduced by almost a factor of 100 following the reduction of the Pb content in petrol. The main source of Cu, Cr and Zn is the traffic. The concentrations of these elements have been slightly increasing. The concentrations for most of the other heavy metals, which originate mainly from sources outside the cities, have been decreasing.

  12. Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bentonite Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Su, Guojun; Zhang, Xueping; Huang, Wen

    2016-08-01

    A series of bentonite nanocomposites have been synthesized by modifying bentonite with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and the common complexing agents, complexone (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, EDTA) or mercaptocomplexant (2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, MBT). These adsorbents are used to remove heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+),Co(2+)). The Bent-CTMAB-MBT adsorbed metal ions are higher than Bent-CTMAB-EDTA under the same ion concentration in AAS. Compared with the single ion system, the adsorption of the mixed ion system of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+) had decreased differently. In the mixed system, the adsorption of Mn(2+) is significantly lower, but the adsorption of Cu(2+) was highest. The adsorption sequence of these four metal ions was Cu(2+) > Zn(2+) > Co(2+) > Mn(2+), and the selective adsorption was closely related to the hydration energy of heavy metal ions. We could remove more metal ions in different stages with the adsorption sequence.

  13. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for cleaning up contaminated sites, which is ... A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been ...

  14. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 1597-6343. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics ... analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer – coupled with a hydride ... presence of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead. (Pb) in ...

  16. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  17. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  18. Analysis Of Non-Volatile Toxic Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cu,Cr And Zn) In ALLIUM SATIVUM (Garlic) And Soil Samples ,Collected From Different Locations Of Punjab, Pakistan By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ata S.; Tayyab S.; Rasool A.

    2013-01-01

    Garlic is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. The monitoring of toxic metals such as lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper and Zinc in garlic and the soil of garlic fields collected from ten different cities of Punjab is critical for preventing public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. The levels of toxic heavy metals in garlic and soil samples were investigated using Atomic absorption spectrometer. The metal content in garlic samples was found to be in increasing order as Cr> ...

  19. Heavy metals anthropogenic pollutants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    Several heavy metals from anthropogenic sources are emitted in the atmosphere damaging the air quality and the human health, besides they accumulate on the soil and lately are transmitted into the human food chain. Therefore at international level there is a concern to reduce them. Austrian heavy metals emissions (cadmium, mercury and lead) during 1990-2002 are given including an analysis of causes and sources. Lead is the main pollutant and the main sector responsible is the industry. 5 figs. (nevyjel)

  20. Determination of heavy metal pollutants such as Hg, Zn, Se, Cd, and Cu in aquatic environment of Thana Creek by radiochemical thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    khan, S.Z.; Shah, P.K.; Ramani Rao, V.; Turel, Z.r.; Haldar, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the radiochemical separation of Cu, As, Se, Hg, and Zn from thermal neutron irradiated environmental samples. The concentration of the elements in the environmental samples has been ascertained by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The accuracy, precision and sensitivity of the method has been determined. The results of the analysis indicates the location of maximum pollution of the aquatic environment and the extent of pollution in the 5 locations of Thana Creek. 1 reference, 3 tables

  1. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue; Ge, Qingchun; Liu, Xiangyang; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Competitive adsorption of heavy metal by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qing; Li, Ming-Ming; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo

    2014-07-01

    Competitive adsorption of heavy metals by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was investigated. Chemical analysis showed that different EPS compositions had different capacities for the adsorption of heavy metals which was investigated using Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Batch adsorption tests indicated that EPS had a higher combined ability with Zn(2+) than Cu(2+). This was confirmed and explained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy analysis. FTIR analysis showed that both polysaccharides and protein combined with Zn(2+) while only protein combined with Cu(2+). EEM spectra further revealed that tryptophan-like substances were the main compositions reacted with the heavy metals. Moreover, Zn(2+) had a higher fluorescence quenching ability than Cu(2+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mobile heavy metal fractions in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.; Kamel, A.A.; Ecker, S.; Benetka, E.; Rebler, R.; Lummerstorfer, E.; Kandeler, E.

    1994-01-01

    A long term outdoor experiment was conducted in plastic containers (50 litres) with three soils, contaminated by increasing concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and vanadium. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of heavy metal contamination on soil microbial processes as well as the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Spring barley, followed by winter endive were grown as experimental crops in a first vegetation period, while spring wheat was grown during the second year. The soil microbial activities, indicated by arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase, and substrate-induced respiration, decreased with increasing heavy metal contamination. Significant correlations were observed between the inhibition of soil microorganisms and the easily mobilizable heavy metal fractions of soils, extracted by a solution of 1 M ammoniumacetate at pH = 7. The heavy metal accumulation in vegetative and generative parts of the crop plants also showed a good agreement with mobilizable soil fractions. The results of the experiment indicate, that the extraction with ammoniumacetate can be used as a reference method for determination of tolerable heavy metal concentrations in soils. (authors)

  5. Toxic heavy metal contamination assessment and speciation in sugarcane soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Chaobing; Yin, Juan; Tang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    The increasing heavy metal pollution in the sugarcane soils along the Great Huanjiang River was caused by leakage and spills of Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) tailing dams during a flood event. Copper (Cu), Zn, Pb, Cadmium (Cd), and Arsenic (As) concentrations of soil samples collected from 16 different sites along the Great Huanjiang River coast typical pollution area were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and As in the sugarcane soils were 151.57 mg/kg, 0.33 mg/kg, 155.52 mg/kg, 14.19 mg/kg, and 18.74 mg/kg, respectively. Results from the analysis of heavy metal speciation distribution showed that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd existed in weak acid, reducible, and oxidizable fractions, and the sum of these fractions accounted for significant proportions in sugarcane soils. However, the residual fraction of As with high proportion of reducible fraction indicated that this trace element still poses some environmental risk in the sugarcane soils because of its high content. Assessments of pollution levels revealed that the highest environmental risk was arouse by Pb. In addition, moderate to strong Cd and Zn pollution were found, while As has zero to medium level of pollution and Cu has zero level.

  6. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  7. Study on adsorption and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jia, Youngfeng

    2010-08-01

    Field experiments at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology were conducted to study the adsorption, accumulation, and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch grown in artificially contaminated soil. The soil was spiked with a combination of Cd, Cu, and Zn at concentrations of 1.5, 100, and 200 mg.kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the biomass of poplar (Populus canadensis Moench) was lower by 26.0% in the soil spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, and Zn, compared with the control. Concentrations of Cd in poplar leaf and Cu in poplar roots in the treated soil were 4.11 and 14.55 mg kg(-1), respectively, which are much greater than in corresponding controls. The migration of heavy metals in woody plant body was in the order Cd > Zn > Cu. Poplar had higher metal concentrations in aboveground tissues and a higher biomass compared with larch of the same age and therefore is potentially more suitable for remediation. In the heavy metal-polluted soil of this study, phytoremediation by poplar may take 56 and 245 years for Cd and Cu, respectively, for meeting the soil standards of heavy metals, and the corresponding phytoremediation times by larch would take 211 and 438 years. The research findings could be used as a basis to develop ecological engineering technologies for environmental control and remediation of pollution caused by heavy metals in soils.

  8. Heavy Metal Content in Terraced Rice Fields at Sruwen Tengaran Semarang - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindarwati, Yulis; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih; Sudarno

    2018-02-01

    The presence of heavy metal on agricultural soils can be caused not only natural factors but also due to human intervention. Differences in management and lack of understanding of farmers in the production input of fertilizers and pesticides ensued in land ravaged. Periodic testing of paddy fields is necessary to minimize the contaminants from being absorbed by plants that will have an impact on health decline. The purpose of the assessment was to identify the heavy metal content in the terraced rice field in Sruwen Village, Tengaran District, Semarang Regency. Survey was conducted in February 2017. Sampling on terraced rice fields of different heights consisted of upper, middle, and upper down. Taken as many as eight single points and composed at a depth of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. The identification results showed that heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu were present at all altitudes. Heavy Metals Pb and Cd at a depth of 0-20 cm were higher from 20-40 cm in the upper and lower rice fields but lower in the middle rice field. Cu heavy metal at a depth of 0-20 cm was higher than 20-40 cm in all altitude land. The heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu was still below the heavy metal standard set by the European Union and India.

  9. Size distribution, characteristics and sources of heavy metals in haze episode in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe

    2014-01-01

    Size segragated samples were collected during high polluted winter haze days in 2006 in Beijing, China. Twenty nine elements and 9 water soluble ions were determined. Heavy metals of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, V and Cd were deeply studied considering their toxic effect on human being. Among these heavy metals, the levels of Mn, As and Cd exceeded the reference values of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-2012) and guidelines of World Health Organization. By estimation, high percentage of atmospheric heavy metals in PM2.5 indicates it is an effective way to control atmospheric heavy metals by PM2.5 controlling. Pb, Cd, and Zn show mostly in accumulation mode, V, Mn and Cu exist mostly in both coarse and accumulation modes, and Ni and Cr exist in all of the three modes. Considering the health effect, the breakthrough rates of atmospheric heavy metals into pulmonary alveoli are: Pb (62.1%) > As (58.1%) > Cd (57.9%) > Zn (57.7%) > Cu (55.8%) > Ni (53.5%) > Cr (52.2%) > Mn (49.2%) > V (43.5%). Positive matrix factorization method was applied for source apportionment of studied heavy metals combined with some marker elements and ions such as K, As, SO4(2-) etc., and four factors (dust, vehicle, aged and transportation, unknown) are identified and the size distribution contribution of them to atmospheric heavy metals are discussed.

  10. Risk assessment of excessive CO{sub 2} emission on diatom heavy metal consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing, E-mail: shunxing_li@aliyun.com; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r = 0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r = 0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidification < acidification + desalination < desalination for Zn, acidification < desalination < acidification + desalination for Cu and Cd, i.e., heavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO{sub 2} emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans. - Highlights: • Excessive CO{sub 2} in seawater may causes ocean acidification and desalination. • The relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated by desalination. • Significant effects of salinity on intracellular concentration of Cu and Cd • Cu and Cd in marine phytoplankton could be regulated by metal excretion. • Heavy metal consumption was affect by excessive CO{sub 2}.

  11. Risk assessment of excessive CO_2 emission on diatom heavy metal consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-01-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO_2 in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r = 0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r = 0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidification < acidification + desalination < desalination for Zn, acidification < desalination < acidification + desalination for Cu and Cd, i.e., heavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO_2 emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans. - Highlights: • Excessive CO_2 in seawater may causes ocean acidification and desalination. • The relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated by desalination. • Significant effects of salinity on intracellular concentration of Cu and Cd • Cu and Cd in marine phytoplankton could be regulated by metal excretion. • Heavy metal consumption was affect by excessive CO_2.

  12. Effects of different cleaning treatments on heavy metal removal of Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahui, Liu; Na, Xu; Li, Wang; Xiuming, Cui; Lanping, Guo; Zhihui, Zhang; Jiajin, Wang; Ye, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of Panax notoginseng products has become a focus of concern in recent years. Contamination with heavy metals is one of the important factors as to P. notoginseng safety. Cleaning treatments can remove dust, soil, impurities or even heavy metals and pesticide residues on agricultural products. But effects of cleaning treatments on the heavy metal content of P. notoginseng roots have still not been studied. In order to elucidate this issue, the effects of five different cleaning treatments (CK, no treatment; T1, warm water (50°C) washing; T2, tap water (10°C) washing; T3, drying followed by polishing; and T4, drying followed by tap water (10°C) washing) on P. notoginseng roots' heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contents were studied. The results showed that heavy metal (all five) content in the three parts all followed the order of hair root > rhizome > root tuber under the same treatment. Heavy metal removals were in the order of Hg > As > Pb > Cu > Cd. Removal efficiencies of the four treatments were in the order of T2 > T1 > T3 > T4. Treatments (T1-T4) could decrease the contents of heavy metal in P. notoginseng root significantly. Compared with the requirements of WM/T2-2004, P. notoginseng roots' heavy metal contents of Cu, Pb, As and Hg were safe under treatments T1 and T2. In conclusion, the cleaning process after production was necessary and could reduce the content of heavy metals significantly. Fresh P. notoginseng root washed with warm water (T2) was the most efficient treatment to remove heavy metal and should be applied in production.

  13. Evaluation of heavy metal contamination using environmetrics and indexing approach for River Yamuna, Delhi stretch, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Bhardwaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the current status of heavy metal pollution in River Yamuna, Delhi stretch. The concentrations of Nickel, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, and Zinc in water samples have been studied during December 2013–August 2015. The overall mean concentration of heavy metals was observed in the following order Fe > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr > Pb > Cd. Correlation analysis formed two distinct groups of heavy metals highlighting similar sources. This was further corroborated by results from principal components analysis that showed similar grouping of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd into PC1 having one common source for these heavy metals and PC2 (Cu, Cr having another common source. Further, our study pointed out two sites i.e. Najafgarh drain and Shahdara drain outlet in river Yamuna as the two potential sources responsible for the heavy metal contamination. Based on heavy metal pollution index value (1491.15, we concluded that our study area as a whole is critically polluted with heavy metals under study due to pollutant load from various anthropogenic activities.

  14. Gender identity and the electric guitar in heavy metal music

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Philip

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I will attempt to outline the gendered characteristics of heavy metal and the electric guitar and address the question: has society’s impression of heavy metal as a primarily masculine pursuit been so imbedded in Western culture that we will never see a female heavy metal band achieve the same level of success as a male heavy metal band?

  15. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Zakir, Shahida; Ihsanullah; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Akbar Ali; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in drinking water sources (surface and groundwater) collected from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The potential health risks of heavy metals to the local population and their possible source apportionment were also studied. Heavy metal concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometer and compared with permissible limits set by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were higher than their respective permissible limits, while Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations were observed within their respective limits. Health risk indicators such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated for adults and children separately. CDIs and HRIs of heavy metals were found in the order of Cr > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb and Cd > Ni > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn, respectively. HRIs of selected heavy metals in the drinking water were less than 1, indicating no health risk to the local people. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses showed that geologic and anthropogenic activities were the possible sources of water contamination with heavy metals in the study area.

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil-crop systems: a review for wheat and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Fei; Liao, Renkuan; Hu, Yaqi

    2017-06-01

    The health risks arising from heavy metal pollution (HMP) in agricultural soils have attracted global attention, and research on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil-plant systems is the basis for human health risk assessments. This review studied the accumulation of seven typical heavy metals-Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn-in soil-corn and soil-wheat systems. The findings indicated that, in general, wheat was more likely to accumulate heavy metals than corn. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the seven heavy metals in wheat and corn grains decreased exponentially with their average concentrations in soil. The seven heavy metals were ranked as follows, in ascending order of accumulation in corn grains: Pb < Cr < Zn < As < Cu < Cd Cu < As < Hg Cu, and Zn in corn grains were 0.054, 6.65 × 10 -4 , 7.94 × 10 -4 , 0.0044, 0.028, 0.13, and 0.19, respectively. The corresponding BCFs values for wheat grains were 0.25, 0.0045, 5.42 × 10 -4 , 0.009, 4.03 × 10 -4 , 0.11, and 0.054, respectively.

  17. Stress induced by heavy metals on breeding of magpie (Pica pica) from central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrintab, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to address the impacts of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) contamination on laying behavior, egg quality and breeding performance of Pica pica in north of Isfahan Province, Iran. During the breeding season of 2013, magpie's egg content and eggshell as well as nestling excrements and feathers were collected and total concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-OES. Except for Zn in nestling feathers, the significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed in nestling excrements than other samples. Also, comparison of heavy metals concentrations in egg content and eggshell showed that egg content had significantly higher concentrations of Zn and Pb, instead eggshell had significantly higher amount of Cu and Cd. Except for Cu, all heavy metals concentrations in eggshell had a negative relationship with morphological characters; and also concentration of Cu in egg content showed a significantly negative correlation with egg weight and volume. The most of heavy metals in nestling feathers and excrements had strongly positive correlations with each other. Also all heavy metals levels in eggshell and egg content had significantly positive correlations (except for Cu). Unhatched eggs had significantly lower weight but also greater levels of Zn, Cd, and Pb, than randomly collected eggs. No significant differences were observed for morphometric measurements of eggs between different sites, however, a decreased gradient was observed in egg volume toward the brick kiln site. Samples collected in brick kiln site accumulated higher concentrations of heavy metals than other sites. Although numbers of clutch size in brick kiln site were significantly higher than other sites, however, other breeding variable were lower than other sites. It can be suggested that ecosystem contamination may be caused to decrease the reproduction rate of Pica pica in brick kiln, probably by laying more poor quality eggs per clutch and nestling

  18. Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils in Nigeria: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Musa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents the health risks of heavy metals such as: lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni and arsenic (As etc contamination in soils. The review reveals the major sources of these metals which are urban and industrial effluents, deterioration of sewage pipe, treatment water works, sewage sludge, fertilizers and pesticides. It also reveals the adopted standard for drinking water (maximum tolerable limit by FAO, JECFA and WHO which are as follows: 0.05mg/L, 0.05mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 0.001mg/L, 0.02mg/L, 15mg/L, 0.3mg/L, 0.5mg/L, 0.01mg/L, 0.05mg/L and 0.05mg/L for Pb, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Se, As and Cd respectively. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of increasing concern because of food safety issues, potential health risks such as neurological disorder, cancer, kidney damage, fragile bone etc and their detrimental effects on soil ecosystem. However, the regular monitoring of levels of these metals from dump sites, effluents and sewages in soil and drinking water is essential to prevent excessive buildup of these metals thereby increasing toxicity and elevating the public health risk.

  19. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F. [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Adani, F., E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.i [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  20. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  1. Willow trees from heavy metals phytoextraction as energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Habart, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Phytoextraction ability of some fast growing plant species leads to the idea of connecting biomass production with soil remediation of contaminated industrial zones and regions. This biomass will contain significant amount of heavy metals and its energetic utilization has to be considered carefully to minimize negative environmental impacts. This study was focused on potential disposal methods of willow trees contaminated by heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) with the emphasis on energetic utilization of biomass. Composting seems to be suitable pre-treatment method resulting in decrease of heavy metals leachability and biomass weight reduction. The possibility of willow trees application for energetic purposes was investigated and consequently incineration tests of willow trees samples in fluidized bed reactor were realized. Distribution of selected heavy metals in different ash fractions and treatment methods of produced ashes were studied as well. -- Highlights: ► Composting is an appropriate pre-treatment method for phytoextraction crops. ► Fluidized bed combustion is suitable disposal method of phytoextraction crops. ► Ashes from phytoextraction crops combustion cannot be used as fertilizers.

  2. Heavy metal migration through clay below a domestic waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanful, E K

    1986-01-01

    Migration of contaminants from a domestic waste landfill overlying a 30 m thick natural clay deposit is presented. Profiles for Na/sup +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, DOC and other soluble species indicate that, at 16 years, contaminants have migrated up to 130 cm from the waste. Profiles for conservative species suggest that Cl-, /sup 3/H, /sup 18/O and /sup 2/H fronts are ahead of those species such as Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and DOC. In comparison, the heavy metals, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb, have migrated only 10-20 cm. Batch equilibrium studies involving Fe/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/ result in classical adsorption-pH curves which show increasing adsorption at higher pH levels and vice versa. The presence of soil carbonates is shown to significantly increase the mass of Pb and Cu removed from domestic landfill leachate.

  3. Heavy metals: teeth as environmental biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Lumbau, Aurea Maria Immacolata; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca; Carboni, Donatella; Ginesu, Sergio; Falchi, Simonetta; Schinocca, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals in tooth matrix and to determine the factors that affect their presence. During tooth development and mineralization several metals can be absorbed in the tooth matrix, thus allowing us to use them as biological markers.

  4. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza; Siam, Rania; Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2014-01-01

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II

  5. Characteristics of Heavy Metals Contamination in Lotus Root in the Dongting Lake Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Man

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in soils in the Dongting Lake areas has evoked widespread concerns about the excessive heavy metals in aquatic product. Based on the national standards of food contaminant limits and the method of comprehensive pollution index, heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn in lotus root were clarified through field investigation in the Dongting Lake area. Results showed that lotus root in the Dongting Lake area was contaminated seriously by heavy metals. Cd and Pb were two main pollutants and the single pollution indices were 5.70 and 8.35 respectively. According to the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals, lotus root in Yueyanglou District and Yuanjiang City were classified into medium pollution and Junshan District, Huarong County, Nan County, and Datong District were classified into heavy pollution. Principal component analysis showed that planting areas of lotus root were clumped and medium and heavy pollution areas were separated significantly. Habitat contamination by heavy metals and decreasing area of lotus ponds were two main factors for excessive heavy metals in lotus root. Thus, some measurements, such as habit restoration, were proposed for local government to decrease heavy metals in planting areas and to promote the healthy development of lotus root industry in the Dongting Lake area.

  6. Multivariate statistical study of heavy metal enrichment in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.X.; Li, X.D.; Shen, Z.G.; Wang, D.C.; Wai, O.W.H.; Li, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis identified the heavy metal accumulation layers of sediment profiles and showed the various sources of metals in the estuary. - The concentrations and chemical partitioning of heavy metals in the sediment cores of the Pearl River Estuary were studied. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients and principal component analysis results, Al was selected as the concentration normalizer for Pb, while Fe was used as the normalizing element for Co, Cu, Ni and Zn. In each profile, sections with metal concentrations exceeding the upper 95% prediction interval of the linear regression model were regarded as metal enrichment layers. The heavy metal accumulation mainly occurred at sites in the western shallow water areas and east channel, which reflected the hydraulic conditions and influence from riparian anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals in the enrichment sections were evaluated by a sequential extraction method for possible chemical forms in sediments. Since the residual, Fe/Mn oxides and organic/sulfide fractions were dominant geochemical phases in the enriched sections, the bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments was generally low. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the metal-enriched sediment sections also revealed the influence of anthropogenic sources. The spatial distribution of cumulative heavy metals in the sediments suggested that the Zn and Cu mainly originated from point sources, while the Pb probably came from non-point sources in the estuary

  7. Magnetic evidence for heavy metal pollution of topsoil in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Jiao; Ren, Feifan; Chen, Yuying; Ye, Fangzhou; Zhang, Weiguo

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the results obtained from magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr) concentration measurements of soil profiles collected from arable land and urban parks in Baoshan District, an industrial district of Shanghai, China. The study focuses on the investigation of vertical variations in magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations and on correlations between magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations in soil profiles. The results demonstrate that magnetic enhancement in the surface layer of the soil profile is associated with increased heavy metal pollution. The enrichment factors (EF) and the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI-EF) are calculated for estimating the level of heavy metal pollution of soil profiles in the study. The significant positive correlations between heavy metal contents, enrichment factors (EF), Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-CF), modified Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-EF), and magnetic susceptibility (c) indicate that much of the heavy metal contamination in the study area is linked to combustion derived particulate emissions. The results confirm that the combined magnetic measurement and heavy metal concentration analysis could provide useful information for soil monitoring in urban environments. However, the use of magnetic technique to locate the heavy metal pollution boundary in the soil profile of this studied area should be confirmed by further geochemical analysis.

  8. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on development and efficacy of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in tropical and subtropical plants. Einfluss von Al und den Schwermetallen Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb und Cd auf die Effizienz der VA-Mykorrhiza bei tropischen und subtropischen Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabig, B.

    1982-07-08

    In greenhouse experiments the influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on the efficacy of VA-mycorrhizal fungi was tested with special regard to several soil pH levels and soil water regimes in different combinations. The most important results were: The inoculation led to a significantly better growth of all test plants in the presence of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd up to a specific amount of the soil-applied element; beyond this specific limit the efficacy of the mycorrhiza was more or less inhibited depending on the element. In correlation with the growth, the nearly always better P uptake of the inoculated plants was impaired only by the highest toxic amounts of the elements. In comparison with the uninoculated plants, all the inoculated plants showed higher P and Pb concentrations. The mycorrhizal plants generally had significantly higher concentrations of the elements Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd in the roots than the uninoculated plants. Generally even toxic levels of Fe in the soil did not lead to higher Fe concentrations in the plants. Even the highest amounts of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu did not cause microscopically visible injuries to the development of the mycorrhiza and did not impede the infection. Only the toxic levels of Pb led to a decrease of the infection rate of about 50%. Pb and Cd were the reason for morphological changes of the different developmental phases of the fungus. High amounts of Pb induced an increased formation of vesicles. The highest amounts of Cd were accompanied by the crowded occurrence of arbuscules.

  10. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Mitsuo

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect was measured for several kinds of heavy metal ions, Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ by passing them through activated charcoal beds and changing the pH values of solutions. The test procedure is to keep the pH value of solution more than 10 at first, filter heavy metal hydroxide deposit, measure the remaining ion concentration in filtrate, and also test the influence of the addition of alkali to each kind of ions. The individual test procedure for each kind of ions is explained. As for the Cd ions, after the detailed experimental procedure is explained, the adsorption characteristic line is shown as the relation between the adsorption quantity and the equilibrium concentration of Cd 2+ . The similar test procedure and the adsorption characteristic lines are shown and evaluated about Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ . These lines are all linear, but have different adsorption quantity and inclination in relation to heavy metal ion concentration. Concerning the influence of pH to adsorption, the characteristics of pH increase are presented, when alkali is added by various quantities to Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The pH of Pb 2+ increased to about 10 by adding 0.4 cc alkali and saturates, but the pH of the other ions did not saturate by adding less than 1.5 cc alkali. When the water containing heavy metals are treated, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are removed almost satisfactorily by passing them through active charcoal filters and keeping pH at 10. The experimental concentrations are 0.05 ppm at pH 10 in Cd, 0.86 ppm at 10.3 in Pb, 0 ppm at pH 9.6 in Cu, 0.06 ppm at pH 8.8 and 12.4 ppm at pH 9.8 in Zn. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  12. Heavy metals in the Ljubljanica catchment area (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Trček

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In main springs and swallowholes of the Ljubljanica River Basin the monitoring of heavy metals was established at the beginning of 2005 with the intention to study the solute transport in the water body and to analyse the risk of contamination with heavy metals. The results of the first monitoring phase are presented–elements that indicate the load of environment due to industry, traffic,agriculture and urbanisation:Al,As,Cd,Cl,Cr,Cu,Mn in Pb. The results point out that the vulnerability of karst aquifers depends on aquifer hydrodynamic conditions, infiltration conditions and development of a karst drainage system. Furthermore, they indicated the local and regional geochemical and hydrogeological characteristics and enable to evidence the main processes and effects that impact on environmental changes.

  13. Factors affecting heavy metal uptake in plant selection for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, A.; Mathe-Gaspar, G. [Research Inst. for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    The heavy metal uptake of ten plant species was studied under different soil and climatic conditions. Effects of soil pH, temperature, plant species and phenophase on the heavy metal content of stems and leaves were determined in pot experiments. Plants and soil samples were collected from a lead/zinc mine ore (Gyoengyoesoroszi, Hungary) and characterised by high contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cu. The possibility of an adapted phytoremediation technology was indicated by different bioconcentration factors (BCF). The BCF depended markedly (10- to 100-fold) on plant species and environmental conditions. Based on our results a ''season-adapted'' phytoextraction technology with different plant species (utilising their different temperature requirements and/or harvest time) is suggested. (orig.)

  14. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  15. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  16. Estimation of heavy metals in dust fall samples from three different industrial areas of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, D.R.; Khan, F.A.; Shareef, A.; Bano, A.B.; Munshi, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    The study of accumulation of heavy metals, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd, in the dust fall samples, collected from three selected industrial areas of Karachi, showed the level of heavy metals to decrease gradually from sites of high activity to those of low activity such as from roundabouts to main roads to side roads. Concentration of heavy metal showed a variation of the order Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu>Cd. Iron had the highest concentration in all the sampling areas in the range of 1.947 +- 0.00 to 30.039 +- 0.01 mg/g. Lower values were observed for Cd with respective ranges of 0.001 +- 0.00 to 0.009 +- 0.01 mg/g. The results suggested that heavy metal pollution in the dust fall samples of industrial areas may be due to automobile and industrial exhaust from different industrial units. (author)

  17. Heavy-metal balances of agro-ecosystems in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, S.W.; Lexmond, Th.M.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy-metal flows (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) of arable, dairy and mixed farming systems in the Netherlands were studied, and farm-gate and field-scale balances calculated. On the field-scale, static and dynamic balances were distinguished. By determining the characteristic metal flows, it became possible

  18. Complexation with dissolved organic matter and solubility control of heavy metals in sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the environment influences the solubility and mobility of these metals. In this paper, we measured the complexation of Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb with DOM in the soil solution at pH 3.7-6.1 using a Donnan membrane technique. The

  19. Efficiency of SPIONs functionalized with polyethylene glycol bis(amine) for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanna, Yongyuth, E-mail: yongyuth.wanna@gmail.com [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Nara Machinery Co., Ltd., 2-5-7, Jonan-Jima, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0002 (Japan); Chindaduang, Anon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), 111 Thailand Science Park, Pahol Yothin Rd, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Phromyothin, Darinee [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Porntheerapat, Supanit [NECTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Nukeaw, Jiti [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Hofmann, Heirich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles based on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanopaticles (SPIONs) with selective surface modification has been developed for heavy metal removal by applying external magnetic fields. The nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsion polymerization technique in an aqueous suspension of SPIONs. The hydrolysis of carboxyl functional group was then applied for grafting polyethylene glycol bis(amine)(PEG-bis(amine)) onto the PMMA-coated SPIONs. The morphology, the chemical structure and the magnetic properties of the grafted nanoparticles were investigated. The efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal were conducted on Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) in aqueous solutions.The metal concentration in the solutions after separation by the hybrid nanoparticles was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results show the heavy metal uptake ratios of 0.08, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.01 mM per gramme of the grafted SPIONs for Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II), and Co(II), respectively. A competitive removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Hg(II) ions in mixed metal salt solutions has also been studied.The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparitcles was found to depend on the cation radius, in accordance with capture of metal ions by the amine group. - Highlights: • We synthesis hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for heavy metal removal. • The efficiency of hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal is proposed. • We investigated the characteristic of hybrid nanoparticle. • The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticle was founded that depend on the heavy metal cation radius.

  20. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  1. [Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A

    1994-01-01

    Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies.

  2. Heavy metal contamination and risk assessment in water, paddy soil, and rice around an electroplating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Tran, Henry; Wang, Dun-Qiu; Zhu, Yi-Nian

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of long-term electroplating industrial activities on heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and potential health risks for local residents. Water, soil, and rice samples were collected from sites upstream (control) and downstream of the electroplating wastewater outlet. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fractionation and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to evaluate the environmental risks of heavy metals in soils. The health risk index (HRI) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to assess potential health risks to local populations through rice consumption. Hazardous levels of Cu, Cr, and Ni were observed in water and paddy soils at sites near the plant. According to the RAC analysis, the soils showed a high risk for Ni and a medium risk for Cu and Cr at certain sites. The rice samples were primarily contaminated with Ni, followed by Cr and Cu. HRI values >1 were not found for any heavy metal. However, HI values for adults and children were 2.075 and 1.808, respectively. Water, paddy soil, and rice from the studied area have been contaminated by Cu, Cr, and Ni. The contamination of these elements is related to the electroplating wastewater. Although no single metal poses health risks for local residents through rice consumption, the combination of several metals may threaten the health of local residents. Cu and Ni are the key components contributing to the potential health risks.

  3. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phyto remediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhailly Jamari; Zaidi Embong; Zaidi Embong; Ismail Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phyto remediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phyto remediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6 V/ cm -1 electric field for 4 hours/ day, the soil and plant samples were analyzed using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope/ Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/ EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phyto remediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-hydrotreatment soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phyto remediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake. (author)

  4. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamari, Suhailly; Embong, Zaidi; Bakar, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phytoremediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phytoremediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6V/cm −1 electric field for 4 hours/day, the soil and plant samples were analyzed using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phytoremediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-phytoremediation soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phytoremediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake

  5. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamari, Suhailly [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Research Center for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office of Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management - ORRIC, Universiti Tun Hussein (Malaysia); Bakar, Ismail [Research Center for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office of Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management (ORRIC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia -UTHM, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phytoremediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phytoremediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6V/cm{sup −1} electric field for 4 hours/day, the soil and plant samples were analyzed using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phytoremediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-phytoremediation soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phytoremediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake.

  6. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  7. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  8. The influence of bioavailable heavy metals and microbial parameters of soil on the metal accumulation in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi; Dai, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A field-based study was undertaken to analyze the effects of soil bioavailable heavy metals determined by a sequential extraction procedure, and soil microbial parameters on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The results showed that Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in rice grain decreases by 65.9%, 78.9%, 32.6%, 80.5%, 61.0% and 15.7%, respectively in the sites 3 (far-away), compared with those in sites 1 (close-to). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil catalase activity, the MBC/MBN ratio, along with bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni could explain 68.9% of the total eigenvalue, indicating that these parameters have a great impact on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The soil bioavailable heavy metals have a dominant impact on their accumulation in rice grain, with a variance contribution of 60.1%, while the MBC/MBN has a regulatory effect, with a variance contribution of 4.1%. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the MBC/MBN, urease and catalase activities are the key microbial parameters that affect the heavy metal accumulation in rice by influencing the soil bioavailable heavy metals or the translocation of heavy metals in rice. RDA showed an interactive effect between Cu, Pb and Zn in rice grain and the soil bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni. The heavy metals in rice grain, with the exception of Pb, could be predicted by their respective soil bioavailable heavy metals. The results suggested that Pb accumulation in rice grain was mainly influenced by the multi-metal interactive effects, and less affected by soil bioavailable Pb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE MUD SEDIMENT IN EKATERINBURG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Seleznev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Now the most part of the world’s population lives in cities, thus, it is relevant the search for universal, low-cost and express methods for environmental geochemical investigations of an urban environment. The objective of the study is the assessment of content and properties of surface mud sediment at the urban territory (on the example of Ekaterinburg, Russia. Methods of the study. The 30 samples of surface mud sediment, soils and ground were collected in the residential area of the city. Particle size composition, measurements of heavy metals content, correlation analysis was conducted for the samples. Results. Surface mud sediment at the residential territories can be classified as surface facie of the recent anthropogenic sediment. Samples of the environmental compartments were collected at the territories of six blocks of houses of various years of construction, located in various parts of the city and at the various geological units. Five samples were collected in each block: 3 samples within the block and 2 samples – outside. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn was measured in particle size fractions of the samples. Particle size composition of the surface mud sediment in Ekaterinburg is similar to the particle size composition of the grounds formed on the sediments of Holocene age in Urals region. The positive statistically significant correlation was found between the couples of metals: Zn and Pb, Zn and Cu, Co and Ni. The distribution of concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu over particle size fractions of surface mud sediment is heterogeneous. Pollution of the ground and soil in urban areas is due to the transition of heavy metals with particles of dust and fine sand. Typical geochemical association of metals for particle size fraction of surface mud sediment 0.002–0.01 mm – Mn-Zn-Ni-Cu-Pb-Co, that is similar to the association for sediments of surface puddles in local zones of relief, soils and bottom

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ian A; Gabiana, Christella C; Dumo, Joan Ruby E; Salmo, Severino G; Guzman, Maria Aileen Leah G; Valera, Nestor S; Espiritu, Emilyn Q

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]. Soil (0-15 cm) and senescent plant leaves were collected and were analyzed for soil properties and heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in urban soils were higher in areas where anthropogenic activities or disturbance (PL, RA, and CA) were dominant as compared to the less disturbed areas (LM and PA). Organic matter and available phosphorous were strongly correlated with heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that heavy metal concentrations were primarily controlled by these soil properties. The average foliar heavy metal concentrations varied, ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/kg for Cd, 0-10 mg/kg for Cr, 2-22 mg/kg for Cu, 0-5 mg/kg for Pb, and 11-250 mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of Cd and Cr exceeded the critical threshold concentrations in some plants. Leaves of plants growing in PL (i.e., landfill) showed the highest levels of heavy metal contamination. Our results revealed that anthropogenic activities and disturbance caused by the rapid urbanization of the city are major contributors to the heavy metal accumulation and persistence in the soils in these areas.

  11. [Mapping Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soil Based on Different Environmental Effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-xing; Wu, Shao-hua; Zhou, Sheng-lu; Wang, Chun-hui; Chen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    China's rapid development of industrialization and urbanization causes the growing problem of heavy metal pollution of soil, threatening environment and human health. Therefore, prevention and management of heavy metal pollution become particularly important. Critical loads of heavy metals are an important management tool that can be utilized to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution. Our study was based on three cases: status balance, water environmental effects and health risks. We used the steady-state mass balance equation to calculate the critical loads of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn at different effect levels and analyze the values and spatial variation of critical loads. In addition, we used the annual input fluxes of heavy metals of the agro-ecosystem in the Yangtze River delta and China to estimate the proportion of area with exceedance of critical loads. The results demonstrated that the critical load value of Cd was the minimum, and the values of Cu and Zn were lager. There were spatial differences among the critical loads of four elements in the study area, lower critical loads areas mainly occurred in woodland and high value areas distributed in the east and southwest of the study area, while median values and the medium high areas mainly occurred in farmland. Comparing the input fluxes of heavy metals, we found that Pb and Zn in more than 90% of the area exceeded the critical loads under different environmental effects in the study area. The critical load exceedance of Cd mainly occurred under the status balance and the water environmental effect, while Cu under the status balance and water environmental effect with a higher proportion of exceeded areas. Critical loads of heavy metals at different effect levels in this study could serve as a reference from effective control of the emissions of heavy metals and to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution.

  12. Heavy metal contamination in the muscle of Aegean chub (Squalius fellowesii) and potential risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaşi, Hüseyin; Yozukmaz, Aykut; Yabanli, Murat

    2018-03-01

    Especially after the industrial revolution, the amount of contaminants released in aquatic ecosystems has considerably increased. For this reason, the necessity to carry on research on the existence of contaminants, specifically heavy metals, has emerged. In this study, heavy metal concentrations in muscle tissues of Aegean chub, which was an endemic species of south western part of Turkey, gathered from Tersakan River were examined. Heavy metal concentrations of the samples were analyzed with ICP-MS. Estimated daily intakes (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) of elements were calculated. The heavy metals detected in muscle tissues were Zn > Cu > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd, consecutively. According to the results of the applied health risk assessment (EDI, THQ and CR) for heavy metal exposure from fish consumption in children and adults, it was determined that there was no any significant threat to human health.

  13. Ecology of heavy metals - a regional and historical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, A; Tyler, G

    1969-01-01

    Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme, collected during 1968-1969 in northeastern Goetaland, the low-land areas and the ridge areas of Skane (southern Sweden) have been analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr. The concentration of these metals were significantly lower in the north-eastern area than in the areas of Skane, particularly in Pb, Ni, and Cr. Between the two areas in Skane differences were only established for Pb and Cu, with the largest concentrations in the humid ridge areas. The differences in the concentrations of these heavy metals between northeastern Goetaland and Skane will be explained by the geographical position with respect to the large industrial regions of Europe. Samples of the same species, collected in Skane 1870-1943 have also been analyzed. Significant increases during the decades around 1900 were demonstrated for Cu and Zn. In the concentrations of Ni a rapid rise has occurred since about 1920, when this metal was introduced in the world production. The content of Ni in the samples from 1969 is more than twice as large as in the samples collected before 1926. The historical trends in the concentrations of Pb have earlier been demonstrated (Ruehling and Tyler 1968). There is little doubt that the rise in the concentrations of these metals is an effect of a larger air-borne supply, originating from human activity. 8 references.

  14. Radioactivity and heavy metal monitoring in Guacanayabo Gulf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, A.; Diaz Rizo, O.; D'Alessandro, K.; Lopez, N.; Arado, J. O.; Ruiz, G.; Arencibia, G.

    2013-01-01

    Specific activities were measured along a sediment profile collected nearby to the Yara River mouth at the Guacanayabo Gulf. X-Ray fluorescence was also used to measure K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Zn in this profile and in surface samples along the coastline near of estuary Yara. The measurement of the specific activities evidenced strong mixture process, Heavy metal concentrations have similar values along the profile, excepting Pb that has the greatest values at the surface. All the samples have different pollution levels mainly of Zn, Pb, Cu and Co elements. With the calculated index (Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Enrichment Factor (EF) index) this coastal environment can be classified as unpolluted to moderately pollute. According to the NOOA indicators, bay levels of before mentioned metals, mainly Cu and Co, were considered as potentially toxic, therefore, further investigations are strongly recommended. An increase in the level of pollutants was evidenced in relation to previous study performed in 2008. The obtained results have shown the influence of the sewer city system, which collects spills of several activities, agricultural use of metal-containing fertilizers and pesticides, and the emission of untreated sewage and also metal contaminated effluents from medical use and industrial units. (Author)

  15. Heavy metal tolerance in the psychrotolerant Cryptococcus sp. isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Raghukumar, C.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.

    of the heavy metal salts i.e., ZnSO sub(4) , CuSO sub(4), Pb(CH sub(3) COO) sub(2) and CdCl sub(2). It demonstrated considerable growth in the presence of 100 mg/l concentrations of the above-mentioned four heavy metal salts both at 30 degrees C and 15 degrees...

  16. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  17. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, E.; Akunyili, Dora N.; Ekpo, B.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2006-01-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO 3 .The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies

  18. Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    Inputs of heavy metals to soils have increased recently and there is much concern that they may be toxic at various stages along the food chain and ultimately to man. Cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead move from geochemical sources to plants and then to animals and man; they then are returned in various forms to soil to complete the cycle. The ways in which heavy metals may be added to soils are reviewed. They include: aerial inputs by air pollution, fertilizers, pesticides, farm slurries and sewage sludge. Possibly the source of contamination which is to have the most impact on soils used for the production of crops is sewage sludge. The fate of heavy metal added to soils is discussed in relation to form, mobility, uptake by plants, effect of soil conditions on availability to plants, and toxicity to animals. 56 references.

  19. Study of heavy metals in urban runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabizadeh, R.; Mahvi, A.; Mardani, G.; Yunesian, M.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted through Tehran city and a field study was conducted to prepare main and accessory drainage channels map. Three main drainage channels were identified for this research and some sampling stations were chosen. Three stations selected in south of Tehran. The reason for selecting these stations is that all urban surface run off completely pass through these points and samples taken from these points are representative of all kinds of pollutants that transit from city surface. Another three stations were selected in center and further three stations were selected at north of Tehran. Surface runoff flow in three main channels, from north of south of Tehran, converge at south of Rey city and finally end up to Ghom Salt lake. The stations were chosen at three trajectories Sorkhe Hesar, Emad Avard, Kan. At each month two samples were from nine different stations. After collection of samples with respect to standard methods, they were dissolved in nitric acid and then analyzed by atomic absorption device. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants increased from north to south. For instance, Zinc had most concentration with monthly average of 0.98 mg/l and Nickel had the lowest amount with 0.02 mg/l in southern stations. Average concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were: 0.638, 0.97, 0.04 and 0.035 mg/l respectively. Total average concentrations of heavy metals at three main channels were of 0.177, 0.176 and 0.145 mg/l. Emad Avard was the most polluted channel

  20. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments. Copyright © 2017

  1. Causal inference between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors in a large-scale region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Huanyun; Liu, Jianfeng; Tian, Yu; Chang, Chunying; Lei, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights. In this study, a general approach framework, Intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent (IDA) combined with the backdoor criterion (BC), was introduced to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and the potential environmental factors across large-scale regions. We take the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China as a case study. The causal structures and effects were identified based on the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, As, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in soil (0–20 cm depth) and vegetable (lettuce) and 40 environmental factors (soil properties, extractable heavy metals and weathering indices) in 94 samples across the PRD. Results show that the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and As) was causally influenced by soil properties and soil weathering factors, whereas no causal factor impacted the bioavailability of Cu, Hg and Pb. No latent factor was found between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors. The causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors at field experiments is consistent with that on a large scale. The IDA combined with the BC provides a powerful tool to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions. Causal inference in a large system with the dynamic changes has great implications for system-based risk management. - Causation between the

  2. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    M. Taufik Kaisupy; Abdul Rozak; Endang Rochyatun

    2006-01-01

    Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Mu...

  3. IOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE AND TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS FOR BIOTA OF FRESHWATER BODIES (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Hrytsyniak; N. Kolesnyk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the sources of scientific information on biological functions of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd) and their negative effect on biota of fresh water bodies. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that the majority of the studied heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cum and Co) played an important role in vital functions of freshwater organisms. The significance of other studied heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) is probable or unknown. Besides bi...

  4. Determination of the Content of Heavy Metals in Pyrite Contaminated Soil and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Marić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of a pyrite contaminated soil texture, content of heavy metals in the soil and soil pH, was the aim in the investigation. Acidification of damaged soil was corrected by calcium carbonate. Mineral nutrients and organic matter (NPK, dung, earthworm cast, straw and coal dust were added to damaged soil. Afterwards, the soil was used for oat production. Determination of total heavy metal contents (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe in soil was performed by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. Plant material (stems, seeds was analysed, too. Total concentration of the heavy metals in the plant material were greater than in crop obtained in unaffected soil.

  5. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    1999-04-23

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple

  6. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple-stage batch extraction

  7. Elimination of heavy metals from leachates by membrane electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Siedlungs- und Industriewasserwirtschaft, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Seidel, H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rahner, D. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Eektrochemie, Mommsenstrasse 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Morgenstern, P. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Analytik, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Loeser, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Lebensmittel- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Bergstrasse 120, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    The elimination of heavy metals from bioleaching process waters (leachates) by electrolysis was studied in the anode and cathode region of a membrane electrolysis cell at current densities of 5-20 mA/cm{sup 2} using various electrode materials. The leaching waters containing a wide range of dissolved heavy metals, were high in sulfate, and had pH values of approx. 3. In preliminary tests using a rotating disc electrode the current density-potential curve (CPK) was recorded at a rotation velocity of 0, 1000 and 2000 rpm and a scan rate of 10 mV/s in order to collect information on the influence of transport processes on the electrochemical processes taking place at the electrodes. The electrochemical deposition-dissolution processes at the cathode are strongly dependent on the hydrodynamics. Detailed examination of the anodic oxidation of dissolved Mn(II) indicated that the manganese dioxide which formed adhered well to the electrode surface but in the cathodic return run it was again reduced. Electrode pairs of high-grade steel, lead and coal as well as material combinations were used to investigate heavy metal elimination in a membrane electrolysis cell. Using high-grade steel, lead and carbon electrode pairs, the reduction and deposition of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and some Cd in metallic or hydroxide form were observed in an order of 10-40 % in the cathode chamber. The dominant process in the anode chamber was the precipitation of manganese dioxide owing to the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II). Large amounts of heavy metals were co-precipitated by adsorption onto the insoluble MnO{sub 2}. High-grade steel and to some extent lead anodes were dissolved and hence were proven unsuitable as an anode material. These findings were largely confirmed by experiments using combination electrodes of coal and platinized titanium as an anode material and steel as a cathode material.The results indicate that electrochemical metal separation in the membrane electrolysis cell can represent a

  8. Releasing characteristics and fate of heavy metals from phytoremediation crop residues during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkeun; Park, Ki Young; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Jae Young

    2018-01-01

    In this study, lab-scale batch tests were conducted to investigate releasing characteristics of heavy metals according to degradation of heavy metal containing biomass. The fate of heavy metals after released from biomass was also determined through adsorption tests and Visual MINTEQ simulation. According to the anaerobic batch test results as well as volatile solids and carbon balance analyses, maximum of 60% by wt. of biomass was degraded. During the anaerobic biodegradation, among Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, only Cu and Zn were observed in soluble form (approximately 40% by wt. of input mass). The discrepancy between degradation ratio of biomass and ratio of released heavy metals mass from biomass was observed. It seems that this discordance was caused by the fate (i.e., precipitated with sulfur/hydroxide or adsorbed onto sorbents) of each heavy metal types in solution after being released from biomass. Thus, releasing characteristics and fate of heavy metal should be considered carefully to predict stability of anaerobic digestion process for heavy metal-containing biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities.

  10. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health

  11. Pathogens and Heavy Metals Concentration in Green Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metal and bacterial pathogen in randomly collected samples of green leafy from various stations of Bengaluru city was detected. Heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium, nickel and lead were analyzed by tri-acid digestion method. The presence of heavy metals in general was in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Fe>Cr>Pb. Trace metal concentration in all green leafy vegetables of stations 1-5 were within permissible limit and it has been exceeded in station 6-10. This indicated high levels of soil contamination pose potential danger for the vegetables grown in the vicinity of Arakere lake, Bannerghatta road, Gottigere lake, Naganaikanakere, Bommasandra lake, Hulimavu lake, Kelaginakere and Amblipura lake. The total bacteria and coliforms were enumerated on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar and VRBA (Violet Red Bile Agar media respectively. The total bacterial count in randomly collected samples of coriander ranged from 296 cfu/g to 8 cfu/g, in palak from 16 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g, whereas in case of cabbage was 104 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g which is an indication of improper pre-harvest and post harvest handling.

  12. Heavy Metal Pollution Evolution in Sediments from Urdaibai Bay (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, J.; Soto, J.A.; Corral, D.; Gelen, A.; Diaz, O.; Navas, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text: The Urdaibai bay is a biosphere reservoir located in the north of Spain. The mayor components of bay sediments come from marls and clays eroded which are deposited together with metallic pollutants present in water, air and rain. For this reason it is possible to study the temporal evolution of the bay pollution by measuring the heavy metal concentrations in the sediments and considering the correspondence with its age. To this aim, sediments cores were taken in two different points of the Urdaibai bay. The cores were cut into 1 cm thick horizontal sections. Sediment dating was performed using a low background gamma spectrometry with GeHP to determine Cs-137, Ra-226 and Pb-210 activities and applying the CIC and CRS models. The heavy metal concentrations in sediments were determined by ICP-MS. The obtained results in one of the studied positions show an increment of the Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr concentrations in the first 10 cm of the sediment core. This fact can be related to an increase of the bay pollution in the last 100 years. In the second studied core the heavy metal concentrations are constant in depth or lower in the superficial layers. This could be due to an increment the deposition rate of eroded material

  13. Occurrence of tributyltin compounds and characteristics of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Oomori, T.; Noah, N. M.; Tsuha, K.

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from Tanzanian major commercial ports and studied for the distribution and behavior of tributyltin compounds and heavy metals. The content of tributyltin in sediments ranged from ND-3670 ng (Sn) g 1 dry wt (1 780 ± 1720) (Mean ± SD) at Zanzibar and from ND-16700 ng (Sn)g 1 dry wt (4080 ± 7540) at Dar Es Salaam ports, respectively. Maximum tributyltin levels were detected inside the both ports. Metabolic degradation of butyltin compounds showed that MBT + DBT > TBT %, this may be attributed by the warm ambient water and intense sunlight in the tropical regions. A sequential extraction procedure was undertaken to provide detailed chemical characteristics of heavy metals in the sediments. The procedure revealed that about 50 % of Fe in the both ports is in immobile fraction (residual fraction) while other metals; Cd, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Pb. and Mn were mostly found in exchangeable or carbonate fractions and thus can be easily remobilized and enter the aquatic food chain. This paper provides basic information of tributyltin compounds contamination and chemical characteristics of heavy metals in the marine ecosystem in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of Organotin compounds in marine environments in East Africa and suggests the importance of further detailed Organotin compounds studies in other sub-Saharan Africa regions

  14. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  15. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  16. Assessment of physicochemical qualities, heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogbe

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... dominance of metals in the water followed the sequence: Al > Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd > Pb > Hg > As. ... ted and treated waters poses a considerable health risk ..... quently used to assess the general hygienic quality of water ...

  17. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals.

  18. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian [The State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Reible, Danny, E-mail: danny.reible@ttu.edu [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1023 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • An integrated model of hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. • Simulated heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay. • Evaluated accidental discharge of {sup 137}Cs from the QFNPP was assumed. • The sediment effects on the mobility of heavy metals were analyzed. - Abstract: The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection–diffusion, adsorption–desorption, sedimentation–resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of {sup 137}Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that {sup 137}Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most {sup 137}Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies.

  19. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian; Reible, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated model of hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. • Simulated heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay. • Evaluated accidental discharge of "1"3"7Cs from the QFNPP was assumed. • The sediment effects on the mobility of heavy metals were analyzed. - Abstract: The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, "9"0Sr and "1"3"7Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection–diffusion, adsorption–desorption, sedimentation–resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of "1"3"7Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that "1"3"7Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most "1"3"7Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies.

  20. Chemodynamics of heavy metals in long-term contaminated soils: metal speciation in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The concentration and speciation of heavy metals in soil solution isolated from long-term contaminated soils were investigated. The soil solution was extracted at 70% maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) after equilibration for 24 h. The free metal concentrations (Cd2+, CU2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+) in soil solution were determined using the Donnan membrane technique (DMT). Initially the DMT was validated using artificial solutions where the percentage of free metal ions were significantly correlated with the percentages predicted using MINTEQA2. However, there was a significant difference between the absolute free ion concentrations predicted by MINTEQA2 and the values determined by the DMT. This was due to the significant metal adsorption onto the cation exchange membrane used in the DMT with 20%, 28%, 44%, and 8% mass loss of the initial total concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in solution, respectively. This could result in a significant error in the determination of free metal ions when using DMT if no allowance for membrane cation adsorption was made. Relative to the total soluble metal concentrations the amounts of free Cd2+ (3%-52%) and Zn2+ (11%-72%) in soil solutions were generally higher than those of Cu2+ (0.2%-30%) and Pb2+ (0.6%-10%). Among the key soil solution properties, dissolved heavy metal concentrations were the most significant factor governing free metal ion concentrations. Soil solution pH showed only a weak relationship with free metal ion partitioning coefficients (K(p)) and dissolved organic carbon did not show any significant influence on K(p).

  1. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil in Urban Area and the Related Impacting Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Zhang, Haizhen

    2018-05-24

    Heavy metal contamination in roadside soil due to traffic emission has been recognized for a long time. However, seldom has been reported regarding identification of critical factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in urban roadside soils due to the frequent disturbances such as the repair of damaged roads and green belt maintanance. Heavy metals in the roadside soils of 45 roads in Xihu district, Hangzhou city were investigated. Results suggested the accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn in roadside soil was affected by human activity. However, only two sites had Pb and Zn excessing the standards for residential areas, respectively, according to Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for soils. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly and positively correlated to soil pH and organic matter. An insignificant correlation between the age of the roads or vegetation cover types and the concentration of heavy metals was found although they were reported closely relating to the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils of highways. The highest Pb, Cd, and Cr taking place in sites with heavy traffic and significant differences in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn among the different categories of roads suggested the contribution of traffic intensity. However, it was difficult to establish a quantitative relationship between traffic intensity and the concentrations of heavy metals in the roadside soil. It could be concluded that impaction of traffic emission on the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils in urban area was slight and soil properties such as pH and organic matters were critical factors influencing the retention of heavy metals in soils.

  2. Change of heavy metal speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and ecological risk during potassium ferrate treatment of waste-activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Yu

    2018-05-01

    The effects of potassium ferrate treatment on the heavy metal concentrations, speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and environmental risk in waste-activated sludge (WAS) at various dosages of potassium ferrate and different treatment times were investigated. Results showed that the total concentrations of all metals (except Cd) were decreased slightly after treatment and the order of metal concentrations in WAS and treated waste-activated sludge (TWAS) was Mg > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. Most heavy metals in WAS remained in TWAS after potassium ferrate treatment with metal residual rates over 67.8% in TWAS. The distribution of metal speciation in WAS was affected by potassium ferrate treatment. The bioavailability and the mobility of heavy metals (except Mg) in TWAS were mitigated, compared to those in WAS. Meanwhile, the environmental risk of heavy metals (except Pb and Cu) was alleviated after potassium ferrate treatment.

  3. Bio-geochemical studies of indus delta mangrove ecosystem through heavy metal assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.; Saifullah, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study monitoring of heavy metal pollution was done in the mangrove habitats of Indus Delta. Different levels of four heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) in abiotic component (sediments and water) and biotic components (mangrove plants parts like, (Pneumatophores, bark, leaves, flowers, and fruits) were determined. The highest average concentration of heavy metals (111 ppm Zn, 60.0 ppm Pb, 52.2 ppm Cu, 1.43 ppm Cd) were measured in sediments and the lowest in the water (0.13 ppm Zn, 0.0014 ppm Cu, 0.0007 ppm Pb , 0.00061 ppm Cd). Among the four heavy metals, Zn was the most abundant metal in all components of the ecosystem, followed by Cu, Pb, and Cd (Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd), and hence A. marina can be proposed as a hyper-accumulator for Zn, which opens doors for further research. The pollution load index (PLI) had values higher than 1 and varied between 2.02-1.70 at Indus Delta, whereas at MianiHor the PLI was 0.65, which indicated that Indus Delta mangrove Ecosystem was under threat of pollution under the present scenario. (author)

  4. Agroecological Responses of Heavy Metal Pollution with Special Emphasis on Soil Health and Plant Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With modern day urbanization and industrialization, heavy metal (HM contamination has become a prime concern for today's society. The impacts of metal contamination on agriculture range from the agricultural soil to the produce in our food basket. The heavy metals (HMs and metalloids, including Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Hg, Pb, among others, can result in significant toxic impacts. The intensification of agricultural land use and changes in farming practices along with technological advancement have led to heavy metal pollution in soil. Metals/metalloids concentrations in the soil are increasing at alarming rate and affect plant growth, food safety, and soil microflora. The biological and geological reorganization of heavy metal depends chiefly on green plants and their metabolism. Metal toxicity has direct effects to flora that forms an integral component of ecosystems. Altered biochemical, physiological, and metabolic processes are found in plants growing in regions of high metal pollution. However, metals like Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, and Cr are required in trace amounts by plants for their metabolic activities. The present review aims to catalog major published works related to heavy metal contamination in modern day agriculture, and draw a possible road map toward future research in this domain.

  5. Spatial patterns of heavy metal accumulation in sediments and macrophytes of Bellandur wetland, Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T V; Sudarshan, P B; Mahesh, M K; Vinay, S

    2018-01-15

    Heavy metals are one among the toxic chemicals and accumulation in sediments and plants has been posing serious health impacts. Wetlands aid as kidneys of the landscape and help in remediation through uptake of nutrients, heavy metals and other contaminants. The analyses of macrophytes and sediment samples help in evaluating pollution status in aquatic environment. In this study concentration of six heavy metals (Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) were assessed in sediment and dominant macrophyte samples collected from Bellandur Lake, largest Lake of Bangalore, India. Sediment samples reveal of heavy metals in the inlet regions and shore samples. The accumulation of metals in sediments were in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. All metals exceeded the critical limits of metals in the sediment. Concentration of different metals in the macrophyte samples ranked as: Cr > Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd. Chromium and Copper were found to be more than critical range. Typha angustata had the higher accumulation of all metals except chromium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inversion voltammeter definition of heavy metals in tooth pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatov, D.I.; Buldakova, L.Yu.; Pichugina, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of some heavy metals at their combined presence is studied by voltammetric method with use of graphite content sensor. The method of determination of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tooth pastes, based on transfer of hallmark in a solution and voltammeter diagram registration is developed. Duration of the analysis (3 collateral hallmarks) makes no more than 1.5 h. An error - 10-15 % at the contents of determined elements of the (1-5) x 10 -4 % [ru

  7. Streptomyces communities in soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

    2009-02-01

    The contents of differently mobile heavy metal compounds and their influence on the formation of microbial cenoses (particularly, streptomyces communities) in technogenically disturbed soils are considered. Elevated concentrations of mobile Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Fe compounds are shown to determine structural-functional changes in microbial cenoses that are displayed in a decreasing number of microorganisms and a narrower spectrum of the streptomyces species. Some specific features of the formation of streptomyces communities in technogenic soils were revealed on the basis of the analysis of their species structure with the use of the Margalef, Berger-Parker, and Sorensen indices of biodiversity.

  8. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  9. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  10. High-resolution insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on natural sediment by site energy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Jin, Qiang; Tandon, Puja; Li, Aimin; Shan, Aidang; Du, Jiajie

    2018-04-01

    Investigating competitive adsorption on river/lake sediments is valuable for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals. Most studies have studied the adsorption isotherms of competitive heavy metals, which mainly comparing the adsorption information on the same concentration. However, intrinsically, the concentration of each heavy metal on competitive adsorption sites is different, while the adsorption energy is identical. Thus, this paper introduced the site energy distribution theory to increase insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Zn). The site energy distributions of each metal with and without other coexisting heavy metals were obtained. It illustrated that site energy distributions provide much more information than adsorption isotherms through screening of the full energy range. The results showed the superior heavy metal in each site energy area and the influence of competitive metals on the site energy distribution of target heavy metal. Site energy distributions can further help in determining the competitive sites and ratios of coexisting metals. In particular, in the high-energy area, which has great environmental significance, the ratios of heavy metals in the competitive adsorption sites obtained for various competitive systems were as follows: slightly more than 3:1 (Cu-Cd), slightly less than 3:1 (Cu-Zn), slightly more than 1:1 (Cd-Zn), and nearly 7:2:2 (Cu-Cd-Zn). The results from this study are helpful to deeply understand competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn) on sediment. Therefore, this study was effective in presenting a general pattern for future reference in competitive adsorption studies on sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  13. Pyrolized biochar for heavy metal adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of copper and lead metal ions from water using pyrolized plant materials. Method can be used to develop a low cost point-of-use device for cleaning contaminated water. This dataset is associated with the following publication:DeMessie, B., E. Sahle-Demessie , and G. Sorial. Cleaning Water Contaminated With Heavy Metal Ions Using Pyrolyzed Banana Peel Adsorbents. Separation Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker Incorporated, New York, NY, USA, 50(16): 2448-2457, (2015).

  14. Heavy metals detoxification in soil performed by sulfate - reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pado, R.; Pawlowska-Cwiek, L.; Szwagrzyk, J.

    1994-01-01

    The process of sulfate reduction carried out by mixed bacteria cultures in the presence of heavy cations (Fe 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ ) was investigated. The range of harmful metals concentrations responded to the acceptable levels in soil and their multiplications (10-100 times) in contaminated soil. The results show the possibility of detoxicating these metals, especially lead. In the highest lead concentrations (3950 and 7500 ppm), only after one month of activities conducted by bacteria dissimilating hydrogen sulfide, between about 73 and 81 per cent of lead was converted into practically insoluble PbS. It was found that detoxication process with the presence of bacteria from this group prolonged with the increase of metal concentration (Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ in particular. (author). 30 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Routine soil testing to monitor heavy metals and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Cleide Aparecida de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microelements are an important issue in agriculture, due to their need as micronutrients for plants and also to the possibility of the build-up of toxic levels for plants and animals. Five micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn are routinely determined in soil analysis for advisory purposes. Other four elements (Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni are considered environmentally important heavy metals in farmland soils. Thus high contents of these metals in cropland might go eventually unnoticed. In this paper we present an approach that can be used to monitor the contents of the nine elements in farmland soils using advisory soil testing. A total of 13,416 soil samples from 21 Brazilian states, 58% of them from the state of São Paulo, sent by farmers were analyzed. Boron was determined by hot water extraction and the other metals were determined by DTPA (pH 7.3 extraction. The ranges of content, given in mg dm-3 soil, were the following: B, 0.01-10.6; Cu, 0.1-56.2; Fe, 0.5-476; Mn, 1-325; Zn, 1-453; Cd, 0.00-3.43, Cr, 0.00-42.9; Ni, 0.00-65.1; Pb, 0.00-63.9. The respective average values for São Paulo were: B-0.32; Cu-2.5; Fe-36; Mn-16; Zn-4.8; Cd-0.02; Cr-0.03; Ni-0.18; Pb-0.85. For other states the results are in the same ranges. The higher values are indicative of anthropogenic inputs, either due to excess application of fertilizers or to industrial or mining activities. The conclusion is that massive chemical analysis of farmland soil samples could serve as a database for indicating potential micronutrient deficiency and excesses or heavy metal buil-up in croplands, allowing preventive actions to be taken.

  16. Influence of land fires on increase of heavy metal concentrations in river wasters of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatavičius, Gytautas; Sakalauskienė, Gaudenta; Oškinis, Vytautas

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of long-term environmental monitoring data show that in August and September 2002 heavy metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations increased in Lithuanian rivers. Resent investigation has indicated that increase of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) by 60–81 % in all the rivers that are subject to the State River Monitoring and could be correlative with land fires. Fires of forests and peat bogs have outspread all over Lithuania in the summer and the first half of autumn of 2002. This paper at...

  17. Multivariate methods for evaluating the efficiency of electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    , dry/wet sediment, cell set-up as well as sediment properties. Evaluation of the model showed that remediation time and current density had the highest comparative influence on the clean-up levels. Individual models for each heavy metal showed variance in the variable importance, indicating...... that the targeted heavy,metals were bound to different sediment fractions. Based on the results, a PLS model was used to design five new EDR experiments of a sixth sediment to achieve specified clean-up levels of Cu and Pb. The removal efficiencies were up to 82% for Cu and 87% for Pb and the targeted clean...

  18. [Effect of inorganic amendments on the stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Meng-hua; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Huang-cheng; Wang, Lin-ling; Chen, Jing

    2013-09-01

    Effects of single and mixed inorganic amendments on the stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils were investigated. Significant synergistic effects on the stabilization of Zn and Cu were observed with the mixed inorganic amendments of KH2PO4 and Ca(OH)2 in the laboratory test. In the field test, the stabilization ratios of Zn, Cu and Cd were 41.8%, 28.2% and 48.4%, respectively, with the dosage of 0.5 kg x m(-2). The growth of peanut was inhibited by the addition of the inorganic amendments. Meanwhile, the uptake of heavy metals was reduced in peanut.

  19. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elbe Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, K.

    1980-01-01

    (1) In the River Elbe estuary there is a turbidity zone which is closely bound to the region of brackish waters. Its suspended matter content changes strongly with the tidal rhythm. Suspended matter and river bed sediments influence each other by exchanging their particles. Owing to that mechanism, the heavy metal ions bound or taken up by the suspended matter (sorption) enter the sediments. To obtain an estimation of the estuary's ability to cope with ( self purify ) a strong burden of industrial wastes, it is neccessary to take into consideration the absorbing capacity of both the mean suspension load and the sediments. (2) The concentration of nearly all heavy metal ions investigated in the suspension load decreases remarkably at the very beginning of the turbid zone already, in the Hamburg region. It indicates that the binding process are going on very rapidly and that the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe estuary still requires only the first few miles of this self purification system. The results gained indicate that the suspended matter in Hamburg waters could bind or take up more heavy metal ions than are discharged into this area. (3) The concentration of most ions bound to the suspension material correlates very well with the grain size distribution of the (anorganic) particles. The concentration values decrease along the estuary and lead to a continuous transition to the values of the open sea. Cu, Ni and Cd appear to be captured preferably by organic suspended matter. This behaviour, however, is solely restricted to the turbid zone. In the open sea, after oxidation of the binding organic material, Cu and Ni correspond to the anorganic grain size distribution. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Heavy Metal Pollution, Fractionation, and Potential Ecological Risks in Sediments from Lake Chaohu (Eastern China) and the Surrounding Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liao, Qianjiahua; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qiushi; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) pollution, fractionation, and ecological risks in the sediments of Lake Chaohu (Eastern China), its eleven inflowing rivers and its only outflowing river were studied. An improved BCR (proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate heavy metals within sediments, a geoaccumulation index was used to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution, and a risk assessment code was applied to evaluate potential ecological risks. Heavy metals in the Shuangqiao and Nanfei Rivers were generally higher than the other studied sites. Of the three Lake Chaohu sites, the highest concentrations were identified in western Chaohu. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risks in the lake’s only outflowing river were similar to those in the eastern region of the lake, to which the river is connected. Heavy metal concentrations occurred in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni ≈ Cr. Cr, Ni, and Cu made up the largest proportion of the residual fraction, while Cd was the most prominent metal in the exchangeable and carbonate-included fraction. Cd posed the greatest potential ecological risk; the heavy metals generally posed risks in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. PMID:26561822

  1. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  2. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of municipal dumpsite compost in Kano metropolis and concentration of heavy metals were investigated. Analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry (Buck Scientific VPG 210). The results shows that the compost pH (6.63-8.19), electric conductivity of compost (638-933μs/cm), ...

  3. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  4. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Callinectes amnicola and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organisms is as a result of pollutants discharge generated by anthropogenic and natural activities which has become a tremendous concern in developing nations. The levels of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, zinc and nickel in the tissue of Callinectes amnicola and ...

  5. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the presence of heavy metal contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus. Adult C. nigrodigitatus and L. niloticus were obtained from fishermen in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria. Water samples were also collected during the wet and dry seasons of the year in the same locality.

  6. Heavy metal levels, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... out to assess the microbial, physicochemical and heavy metal characteristics of soil samples from five different waste collection sites within the University of Benin, Benin City and evaluated using standard analytical and classical microbiological methods.

  7. On chemical activity of heavy metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of solid oxides of heavy nonferrous metals with sulfur and carbon is investigated. The results are discussed. Direct dependence of chemical activity of oxides on disordering of their crystal lattice at heating is established. Beginning of interaction in the systems studied is accompanied by change of oxide conductivity type

  8. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamier, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available on various substrates introduced the possibility for portable and on-site instant verification of heavy metal pollutants. In this work, the favorable properties of the mercury-sensitive fluorescent molecule, Rhodamine 6G hydrozone derivative (RS), were...

  9. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  10. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    emissions from automobile exhaust, waste incineration, land disposal of wastes, use of .... of total organic carbon increased from 2.0 ± 1.5 % in the top soil to 3.42 ± 0.83 ..... Thus, accumulation of heavy metals in the soil has potential to restrict.

  11. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals in loose deposits in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanli; Han, Weiqiang; Han, Bingjun; Shu, Min; Shi, Baoyou

    2018-06-09

    Heavy metal accumulation and potential releases from loose deposits in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have critical impacts on drinking water safety, but the associated risks have not been sufficiently evaluated. In this work, the potential biological toxicity of heavy metals in loose deposits was calculated based on consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, and the effects of some of the main water quality parameters, such as the pH and bicarbonate and phosphate content, on the release behaviors of pre-accumulated heavy metals were investigated. The results showed that heavy metals (Cu, As, Cr, Pb, and Cd) significantly accumulated in all the samples, but the contents of the heavy metals were multiple magnitudes lower than the Fe and Mn contents. The potential biotoxicity of As and Cu was relatively high, but the biotoxicity of Cd was negligible. The water quality can significantly influence the release of heavy metals from loose deposits. As the pH increased from 7.0 to 9.0, the release of As and Cr obviously increased. The release of As, Cu, Pb, and Cr also accelerated with the addition of phosphate (from 1 to 5 mg/L). In contrast to the trends for the pH and phosphate, variations in the bicarbonate content did not have a significant influence on the release of As and Cr. The release ratios of heavy metals in the samples were very low, and there was not a correlation between the release rate of the heavy metals in the loose deposits and their potential biotoxicity.

  13. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-21

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called "Anthropocene". According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of "contaminated soil". Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  14. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Keshtkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including NO3− , NO2−, PO4−3 and SO4−2 in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain (“Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran” (Dobaradaran et al., 2013 [1]; “Comparative investigation of heavy metal, trace, and macro element contents in commercially valuable fish species harvested off from the Persian Gulf” (Abadi et al., 2015 [2] as well as some other environmental pollutions, “Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity” (Arfaeinia et al., 2016 [3]. The concentration levels of heavy metals and anions in herbal distillates samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia and a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK respectively. Keywords: Daily intake, Herbal distillates, Heavy metals, Selected anions

  15. MOSSES AND LICHENS – BIOINDICATORS OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEGU A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparative investigation of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr in mosses and lichens recorded in ten deciduous forests in the Republic of Moldova included in a transnational grid (16x16 km of forest monitoring throughout Europe. The content of heavy metals doesn’t differ significant by depending on the location of studied forest ecosystems. The trends of larger accumulation are observed near the local stationary and mobile sources of pollution. Mosses were confirmed as good indicators of air pollution with heavy metals to forest ecosystems located near sources of pollution and lichens show good bio-indicators particularities for background pollution. The good correlation between the concentrations of moss and lichen were Cr, Cu and Ni, and the low correlation between Pb and Zn, which are considered to be metals which are amenable to long-distance dispersal.

  16. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  17. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals.

  18. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of vitamin E on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd and Cu)-induced oxidative stress and renal and testicular injuries were evaluated in male mice. Exposure of mice to these heavy metals in d...

  19. Time-response characteristic and potential biomarker identification of heavy metal induced toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Wang, Ai-Ping; Li, Wan-Fang; Shi, Rui; Jin, Hong-Tao; Wei, Jin-Feng

    2018-01-01

    The present work aims to explore the time-response (from 24 h to 96 h) characteristic and identify early potential sensitive biomarkers of copper (Cu) (as copper chloride dihydrate), cadmium (Cd) (as cadmium acetate), lead (Pb) (as lead nitrate) and chromium (Cr) (as potassium dichromate) exposure in adult zebrafish, focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS), SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and gene expression related to oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Furthermore, the survival rate decreased apparently by a concentration-dependent manner after Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb exposure, and we selected non-lethal concentrations 0.05 mg/L for Cu, 15 mg/L for Cr, 3 mg/L for Cd and 93.75μg/L for Pb to test the effect on the following biological indicators. Under non-lethal concentration, the four heavy metals have no apparent histological change in adult zebrafish gills. Similar trends in ROS production, MDA level and SOD activity were up-regulated by the four heavy metals, while MDA level responded more sensitive to Pb by time-dependent manner than the other three heavy metals. In addition, mRNA levels related to antioxidant system (SOD1, SOD2 and Nrf2) were up-regulated by non-lethal concentration Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb exposure. MDA level and SOD1 gene have a more delayed response to heavy metals. Genes related to immunotoxicity were increased significantly after heavy metals exposure at non-lethal concentrations. TNF-α and IL-1β gene have similar sensibility to the four heavy metals, while IL-8 gene was more responsive to Cr, Cd and Pb exposure at 48 h groups and IFN-γ gene showed more sensitivity to Cu at 48 h groups than the other heavy metals. In conclusion, the present works have suggested that the IFN-γ gene may applied as early sensitive biomarker to identify Cu-induced toxicity, while MDA content and IL-8 gene may use as early sensitive biomarkers for evaluating the risk of Pb exposure. Moreover, IL-8 and IFN-γ gene were more responsive to heavy

  20. Status of heavy metal in sediment of Saguling Lake, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhani, E.; Roosmini, D.; Notodarmojo, S.

    2017-03-01

    The quality of water in the Saguling lake has been monitored since 1990 by the state agency for environmental control. However, no data on heavy metal in sediment had been reported. Metal pollutans have receives considerable attention due to their persistence, biogeochemical recycling, and environmental risk. The objective of this study was to assess the level contamination of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) in the surface sediment of the Saguling Lake West Java. Surface sediment samples were collected from 10 location of the Saguling Lake on July and November 2015. The concentration of heavy metals in the surface sediment on July and November 2015 decreased in the order of Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd and Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd respectively. Mean metals concentrations (mg/kg) in July 2015 were in the range of: Cd: 10.69-16.65, Cr: 76.67-138.38, Cu:106.02-229.54, Pb: 23.93-80.17. Mean metals concentrations (mg/kg) in November 2015 were in the range of Cd: 18.64-23.25, Cr: 152.16-197.98, Cu: 63.32-152.53, Pb: 20.31-32.74. Geochemical approaches such as contamination factor, and pollution load index were exploited for the assessment of the contamination and enrichment level of heavy metals in the lake sediment. Contamination factor and pollution load index values indicated that surface sediments around Saguling Lake were polluted with heavy metals. The finding of this study would help in formulating guidelines to control the pollution and suggested for Saguling lake revitalization.

  1. Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuesheng; Fang, Fengman; Wang, Fei; Xu, Minglu

    2015-09-01

    Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As concentrations of indoor dust in Anhui rural were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The degrees of metal pollution in indoor dust ranked as follows: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > V > Ni > Co > As, on average. The arithmetic means of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As were 427.17, 348.73, 107.05, 113.68, 52.64, 38.93, 10.29, and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively. These were higher than background values of Anhui soil for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, especially for Pb with the mean value of 13.21 times the background value. Heavy metal concentrations of indoor dust were different from different rural areas. House type (bungalows or storied house), sweeping frequency, and external environment around the house (such as the road grade) affected heavy metal concentrations in indoor dust. The results of factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Co concentrations were mainly due to interior paint, metal objects, and building materials. Pb and As concentrations were due to vehicle emissions. V concentration was mainly of natural source. Average daily doses for the exposure pathway of the studied heavy metals decreased in children in the following order: hand-to-mouth ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals ranked as Pb > V > Cr > Cu > Zn > As > Co > Ni, and the carcinogenic risks of metals decreased in the order of Cr > Co > As > Ni. The non-carcinogenic hazard indexes and carcinogenic risks of metals in indoor dust were both lower than the safe values.

  2. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, J.-E.; Andrews, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an ESA/M5 spacecraft mission to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×1019 kg of (16) Psyche make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, 4.5 g cm-3, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. (16) Psyche orbits the Sun with semi-major axis 2.9 AU, 3º inclination, and is as yet unexplored in-situ.

  3. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, S; Quadri, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "Periodic-table-style" paper device for monitoring heavy metals in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Cao, Rong; Nilghaz, Azadeh; Guan, Liyun; Zhang, Xiwang; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-03

    If a paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD) could be made by printing indicators for detection of heavy metals in chemical symbols of the metals in a style of the periodic table of elements, it could be possible for such μ-PAD to report the presence and the safety level of heavy metal ions in water simultaneously and by text message. This device would be able to provide easy solutions to field-based monitoring of heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharges and in irrigating and drinking water. Text-reporting could promptly inform even nonprofessional users of the water quality. This work presents a proof of concept study of this idea. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI) were chosen to demonstrate the feasibility, specificity, and reliability of paper-based text-reporting devices for monitoring heavy metals in water.

  5. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. To study such ... heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area. ... mine is about 100 kilometers east of Lake. Victoria and 20 ...

  6. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  7. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    Key words: Heavy metals, freshwater, concentrations, quality, variation, distribution. ... prevalence of heavy metals in inland water of lower River. Niger drain are scarce ..... Niger waters at Ajaokuta were found to be low and within guideline.

  8. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban ... water is not mentioned by WHO, but all the samples analyzed were found to ... Key words: Drinking water quality, Heavy metals, Maximum admissible limit, ...

  9. Phytoremediation of heavy metals with several efficiency enhancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Key words: phytoremediation, heavy metal, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, multi-functional method. ... population in the twentieth century, heavy metal ... This natural and environmental friendly technology is.

  10. heavy metals and cyanide distribution in the villages surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detection limit) were higher in the wells closest to the Tailing Storage Facility ... Key Words: Heavy metals pollution, Total cyanide, ground water pollution and ..... cyanide, heavy metals and probably other hazardous substances, leakage of.

  11. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLEXI-DONEST

    the use of private electricity generating sets, in recent times, have ... soil and evaluate the impact of heavy metal on soil degradable ..... a reasonable length of time by herbivores may .... Heavy Metals in Root, Stem and Leaves of Acalypha.

  12. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs

  13. Causal inference between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors in a large-scale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Huanyun; Liu, Jianfeng; Tian, Yu; Chang, Chunying; Lei, Jing

    2017-07-01

    The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights. In this study, a general approach framework, Intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent (IDA) combined with the backdoor criterion (BC), was introduced to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and the potential environmental factors across large-scale regions. We take the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China as a case study. The causal structures and effects were identified based on the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, As, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in soil (0-20 cm depth) and vegetable (lettuce) and 40 environmental factors (soil properties, extractable heavy metals and weathering indices) in 94 samples across the PRD. Results show that the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and As) was causally influenced by soil properties and soil weathering factors, whereas no causal factor impacted the bioavailability of Cu, Hg and Pb. No latent factor was found between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors. The causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors at field experiments is consistent with that on a large scale. The IDA combined with the BC provides a powerful tool to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions. Causal inference in a large system with the dynamic changes has great implications for system-based risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activities in railway cut slope soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoyi; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Ruirui; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2018-03-07

    Railway transportation is an important transportation mode. However, railway transportation causes heavy metal pollution in surrounding soils. Heavy metal pollution has a serious negative impact on the natural environment, including a decrease of enzyme activities in soil and degradation of sensitive ecosystems. Some studies investigated the heavy metal pollution at railway stations or certain transportation hubs. However, the pollution accumulated in artificial cut slope soil all along the rails is still questioned. The interest on non-point source pollution from railways is increasing in an effort to protect the soil quality along the line. In this study, we studied spatial distributions of heavy metals and five enzyme activities, i.e., urease (UA), saccharase (SAC), protease (PRO), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (POA) in the soil, and the correlation among them beside three different railways in Sichuan Province, China, as well. Soil samples were respectively collected from 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 m away from the rails (depth of 0-8 cm). Results showed that Mn, Cd, Cu, and Zn were influenced by railway transportation in different degrees while Pb was not. Heavy metal pollution was due to the abrasion of the gravel bed as well as the tracks and freight transportation which caused more heavy metal pollution than passenger transportation. Enzymatic activities were significantly negatively correlated with heavy metals in soils, especially Zn and Cu. Finally, it is proposed that combined use of PRO and POA activities could be an indicator of the heavy metal pollution in cut slope soils. The protective measures aimed at heavy metal pollution caused by railway transportation in cut slope soils are urgent.

  15. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous phases using chemically modified waste Lyocell fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bediako, John Kwame; Wei, Wei; Kim, Sok; Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Waste Lyocell fiber was chemically modified into cellulose xanthate. • The sorbent showed high affinity for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. • The sorbent also showed strong Cu(II) selectivity in Pb(II)–Cd(II)–Cu(II) ternary metal solutions. - Abstract: In this study, an outstanding performance of chemically modified waste Lyocell for heavy metals treatment is reported. The sorbent, which was prepared by a simple and concise method, was able to bind heavy metals such as Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II), with very high efficiencies. The binding mechanisms were studied through adsorption and standard characterization tests such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. Adsorption kinetics was very fast and attained equilibrium within 5 min in all metals studied. The maximum single metal uptakes were 531.29 ± 0.28 mg/g, 505.64 ± 0.21 mg/g, and 123.08 ± 0.26 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively. In ternary metal systems, Cu(II) selectivity was observed and the underlying factors were discussed. The sorbent by its nature, could be very effective in treating large volumes of wastewater with the contact of very little amount.

  16. Pyrolysis and reutilization of plant residues after phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated sediments: For heavy metals stabilization and dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaomin; Huang, Danlian; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Rongzhong; Wei, Jingjing; Huang, Chao; Xu, Piao; Wan, Jia; Zhang, Chen

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of pyrolysis on the stabilization of heavy metals in plant residues obtained after phytoremediation. Ramie residues, being collected after phytoremediation of metal contaminated sediments, were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300-700 °C). Results indicated that pyrolysis was effective in the stabilization of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Pb in ramie residues by converting the acid-soluble fraction of metals into residual form and decreasing the TCLP-leachable metal contents. Meanwhile, the reutilization potential of using the pyrolysis products generated from ramie residues obtained after phytoremediation as sorbents was investigated. Adsorption experiments results revealed that the pyrolysis products presented excellent ability to adsorb methylene blue (MB) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 259.27 mg/g. This study demonstrated that pyrolysis could be used as an efficient alternative method for stabilizing heavy metals in plant residues obtained after phytoremediation, and their pyrolysis products could be reutilized for dye adsorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intertidal beach sands as monitors for heavy metal pollution in coastal water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.D. de; Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.

    Intertidal beach sands were investigated for their use as indicators of metal transport in a contaminated water body, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and are proposed as an alternative and rapid screening method to determine metal pollution status of coastal areas. The results showed that, at least for Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb, beach sands can be included in the existing environmental monitoring programs for heavy metal pollution in water bodies. (Author) [pt

  18. Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Claudia; Berendonk, Thomas U

    2012-01-01

    The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance, and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to critical concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Nevertheless, the respective environmental background has to be taken into account.

  19. Heavy metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in soil and water bodies impacted by agriculture and aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eSeiler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotic agents as growth promoters was banned in animal husbandry to prevent the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, in addition to antibiotic agents, heavy metals used in animal farming and aquaculture might promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. To investigate which heavy metals are likely to co-select for antibiotic resistance in soil and water, the available data on heavy metal pollution, heavy metal toxicity, heavy metal tolerance and co-selection mechanisms was reviewed. Additionally, the risk of metal driven co-selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations that potentially induce this co-selection process. Analyses of the data indicate that agricultural and aquacultural practices represent major sources of soil and water contamination with moderately to highly toxic metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. If those metals reach the environment and accumulate to selective concentrations they can trigger co-selection of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, co-selection mechanisms for these heavy metals and clinically as well as veterinary relevant antibiotics have been described. Therefore, studies investigating co-selection in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus on Cu and Zn as selecting heavy metals. Furthermore, results of the general selection mechanisms need to be carefully evaluated and the respective environmental background has to be taken into account.

  20. The Responses of Antioxidant System against the Heavy Metal-Induced Stress in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun KISA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants maintain their life cycles under the various environmental conditions such as oxidative stress induced by heavy metals. Accumulation of metal ions in plants causes the formation of free radicals and stimulates the antioxidative defense systems. In this study, the activities of APX, POD, and SOD are investigated in the leaves and roots of tomato cultivated under the heavy metal-induced stress. The activities of APX, POD, and SOD exhibited remarkable induction with the treatment of Cd, Cu and Pb (10, 20 and 50 ppm in the leaves of tomato compared to control plants except for 50 ppm Pb. In roots, APX activity changed depending on the heavy metal types and concentrations, while Cd clearly increased it with stress conditions, but Cu decreased in tomato compared to control. The activity of POD clearly exhibited that the all doses of heavy metals reduced the enzyme activity in roots polluted with heavy metals. The treatment of Cd (10, 20 and 50 ppm significantly increased the activity of SOD, however, Cu showed the opposite effect which significantly decreased with increasing doses in roots compared to uncontaminated plants. Also, roots from plants grown on the high concentration of Pb (20 and 50 ppm induced the activity of SOD. Briefly, it is clear responses which Cd significantly raised the activities of APX and SOD in leaves and roots of tomato. The decreases caused by these metals in the activity of POD and Cu in the activities of APX and SOD in roots of tomato can be clarified by the result of heavy metal-induced the over production of free radical.

  1. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Gejiu Tin Ore and Other Metal Deposits of Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuran; Danek, Tomas; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to study three main metal mining areas in Yunnan Province, to summarize and analyze the heavy metal pollution situation in each mining area, and to assess the ecological risk of the mining areas. The results showed that heavy metal pollution existed in different regions of the three mining areas with pollution elements of Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn. Risk level, besides Zhen Yuan mining area (class C), for the other two areas was class D, with Beichang mining area in Lanping as the most serious polluted mining area.

  2. Silicon mitigates heavy metal stress by regulating P-type heavy metal ATPases, Oryza sativa low silicon genes, and endogenous phytohormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Silicon (Si) application has been known to enhance the tolerance of plants against abiotic stresses. However, the protective mechanism of Si under heavy metals contamination is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the role of Si in counteracting toxicity due to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in rice plants (Oryza sativa). Results Si significantly improved the growth and biomass of rice plants and reduced the toxic effects of Cd/Cu after different stress periods. Si treatment ameliorated root function and structure compared with non-treated rice plants, which suffered severe root damage. In the presence of Si, the Cd/Cu concentration was significantly lower in rice plants, and there was also a reduction in lipid peroxidation and fatty acid desaturation in plant tissues. The reduced uptake of metals in the roots modulated the signaling of phytohormones involved in responses to stress and host defense, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid. Furthermore, the low concentration of metals significantly down regulated the mRNA expression of enzymes encoding heavy metal transporters (OsHMA2 and OsHMA3) in Si-metal-treated rice plants. Genes responsible for Si transport (OsLSi1 and OsLSi2), showed a significant up-regulation of mRNA expression with Si treatment in rice plants. Conclusion The present study supports the active role of Si in the regulation of stresses from heavy metal exposure through changes in root morphology. PMID:24405887

  3. Geochemical assessment of heavy metals pollution in surface sediments of Vellar and Coleroon estuaries, southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethaji, S; Kalaivanan, R; Arya Viswam; Jayaprakash, M

    2017-02-15

    Surface sediments were collected from Vellar and Coleroon estuaries for determine sediment texture, calcium carbonate, organic matter and heavy metals. Pollution indices such as pollution load index (PLI), contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (I geo ) were done for this study to know the level of heavy metals pollution in the estuarine ecosystem. Pearson correlation matrix and factor were used to assess the relationship and source of heavy metals in the estuarine sediments. The results of PLI values reveal that the study area was polluted by all the heavy metals. The calculated values of CF and I geo followed the decreasing order Cu>Ni>Pb>Co>Cr>Zn>Mn>Fe and illustrate that Cu, Ni and Pb are contaminated due to anthropogenic sources in both estuaries. Correlation and factor analysis suggest that FeMn oxyhydroxides, organic matter and fine particles are responsible for high concentration of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution.

  5. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  6. Heavy Metal Content of Some Jordanian and American Cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradat, Q.; Momani, K.; Mutair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy were employed to determine Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe in tobacco, wrapping paper, filter, smoke, and ash of some Jordanian and American cigarettes before and after smoking. The results of this study indicated that different constituents of cigarettes contain different concentrations of heavy metals in the different cigarette brands. Before smoking, most of the metals are found in the tobacco, whilst after smoking most of the metals remain in ash and only small amounts are with the smoke. The cigarette filters were capable of retaining some of the metals such as Cd, Pb, and Cu. The concentration of any analyte, in the constituent parts of a cigarette, varied from one brand to another, but among the different cigarette brands selected for this study, there is no specific brand that could be said to contain all the analytes at the highest or lowest concentration. The cigarette brands in this study contain relatively high average concentrations of Cd and Pb, but they are within the concentration range of foreign cigarettes that have been reported from various areas in the world . ( Author's) 21 refs., 12 tabs

  7. Soil microbial effects of smelter induced heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgren, A

    1986-01-01

    The soil concentrations of Cu and Zn at the secondary smelter were 20 00 mu g/g dry soil. Close to the primary smelter the soil was contaminated with more than ten elements including Pb, Zn, Cu and As at levels ranging between 6000 and 1000 mu g/g dry soil. The correlations between the concentrations of the metals were high at both smelters. Soil respiration rate decreased by about 75% close to both smelters. Total and fluorescein diacetate stained mycelial lengths decrease with increasing heavy metal pollution at the secondary but not at the primary smelter. The fungal community structure was strongly affected by the contamination. General common in coniferous forest soils such as Penicillium and Oidiodendron virtually vanished, while less frequent species like Paecilomyces farinosus and Geomyces pannorum dominated the site close to the smelter. Colony forming units of a number of functional groups of bacteria were found to be very sensitive to metal contamination. The urease activity of the soil was inhibited. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the metal contamination was the major environmental influence on the microbiotain the soils studied. A study of about 200 decomposition curves resulting from glutamic acid additions to the different soils produced four microbially related parameters: basal respiration rate, initial respiration rate after the addition of the glutamic acid, specific respiration rate during the exponential increase of the respiration rate and the lag time before the exponential phase. With 53 refs.

  8. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Milinović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  9. [Heavy metals in environmental media around drinking water conservation area of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gui-Tao; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhang, Cui; Bi, Chun-Juan; Cheng, Chen; Teng, Ji-Yan; Shen, Jun; Wang, Dong-Qi; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    The levels of heavy metals in Shanghai drinking water conservation area were determined, and the spatial distributions and main sources of heavy metals were investigated. Moreover, the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals was conducted. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The average concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As in road dust were 0.80, 0.23, 148.45, 127.52, 380.57, 63.17, 250.38 and 10.37 mg x kg(-1) respectively. In terms of the pollution level, the values of soils were relatively lower, with the mean contents of 0.16 (Cd), 0.33 (Hg), 30.14 (Pb), 30.66 (Cu), 103.79 (Zn), 24.04 (Ni), 65.75 (Cr) and 6.31 mg x kg(-1) (As) severally; meanwhile the average levels of heavy metals in vegetables were 0.010 (Cd), 0.016 (Hg), 0.36 (Pb), 12.80 (Cu), 61.69 (Zn), 2.04 (Ni), 2.41 (Cr) and 0.039 mg x kg(-1) (As) respectively. (2) Semivariogram and multivariate analysis indicated that heavy metals pollution of soils was induced by anthropogenic activities mostly, and the pollutants produced by traffic were the major source of heavy metals in road dust. (3) The order for heavy metal enrichment coefficients of vegetables was as following: Zn (0.589) > Cu (0.412) > 0.102 (Ni) > Cd (0.059) > Cr (0.061) > Hg (0.056) > Pb (0.012) > As (0.007), and the results indicated that Cd and Zn in vegetables were mainly from the soils, and the other metals were probably from the pollutants in the atmosphere. (4) Sediments in drinking water conservation area were probably derived from soils around; however, there was no significant relationship between heavy metals contents of them. (5) The results of ecological risk assessment of heavy metals showed that heavy metals in soils were in no-warning to warning situation, and warning to light-warning situation for road dust and vegetables. The fuzzy synthesis judgment for all the environmental media around drinking water conservation area was warning to light-warning.

  10. Bioleaching remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils using Burkholderia sp. Z-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhi; Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yi; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-15

    Bioleaching is an environment-friendly and economical technology to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils. In this study, a biosurfactant-producing strain with capacity of alkaline production was isolated from cafeteria sewer sludge and its capability for removing Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, Cu, and As was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene sequences confirmed that the strain belonged to Burkholderia sp. and named as Z-90. The biosurfactant was glycolipid confirmed by thin layer chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Z-90 broth was then used for bioleaching remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. The removal efficiency was 44.0% for Zn, 32.5% for Pb, 52.2% for Mn, 37.7% for Cd, 24.1% for Cu and 31.6% for As, respectively. Mn, Zn and Cd were more easily removed from soil than Cu, Pb and As, which was attributed to the presence of high acid-soluble fraction of Mn, Zn and Cd and high residual fraction of Cu, Pb and As. The heavy metal removal in soils was contributed to the adhesion of heavy metal-contaminated soil minerals with strain Z-90 and the formation of a metal complex with biosurfactant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  12. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  14. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North ...

  15. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of some heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contamination of the aquatic systems with heavy metals from natural anthropogenic sources has become a global problem which poses threats to ecosystems and natural communities. Hence this study reviews the effects of heavy metals in freshwater fishes. Fishes bioaccumulate heavy metals (including cadmium, zinc ...

  16. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal by Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Instead of using mainly bacteria, it is also possible to use mainly algae to clean wastewater because many of the pollutant sources in wastewater are also food sources for algae. Nitrates and phosphates are common components of plant fertilizers for plants. Like plants, algae need large quantities of nitrates and phosphates to support their fast cell cycles. Certain heavy metals are also important for the normal functioning of algae. These include iron (for photosynthesis, and chromium (for metabolism. Because marine environments are normally scarce in these metals, some marine algae especially have developed efficient mechanisms to gather these heavy metals from the environment and take them up. These natural processes can also be used to remove certain heavy metals from the environment. The use of algae has several advantages over normal bacteria-based bioremediation processes. One major advantage in the removal of pollutants is that this is a process that under light conditions does not need oxygen. Instead, as pollutants are taken up and digested, oxygen is added while carbon dioxide is removed. Hence, phytoremediation could potentially be coupled with carbon sequestration. Additionally, because phytoremediation does not rely on fouling processes, odors are much less a problem. Microalgae, in particular, have been recognized as suitable vectors for detoxification and have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to physicochemical treatments. Uptake of metals by living microalgae occurs in two steps: one takes place rapidly and is essentially independent of cell metabolism – “adsorption” onto the cell surface. The other one is lengthy and relies on cell metabolism – “absorption” or “intracellular uptake.” Nonviable cells have also been successfully used in metal removal from contaminated sites. Some of the technologies in heavy metal removals, such as High Rate Algal Ponds and Algal Turf Scrubber, have been justified for

  17. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  18. Heavy Metal Displacement in Chelate-Assisted Phytoremediation of Biosolids Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, M. B.; Liphadzi, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    Heavy metals in biosolids (sewage sludge) applied to land contaminate the soil. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with biosolids following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals, as affected by a chelate, in soil (Haynie very fine sandy loam) from a 25-year old sludge farm. Soil columns (105 cm long; 39 cm in diameter) either had a plant (hybrid poplar; Populus deltoides Marsh. x P. nigra L.) or no plant. When the poplars were 144 days old, the tetrasodium salt of the chelating agent EDTA (ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid) was irrigated onto the soil at a rate of 1 g per kg of soil. Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for three toxic heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) and four essential heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Without EDTA, concentrations of the seven heavy metals in the leachate from columns with or without plants were low or below detection limits. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized all heavy metals and increased their concentration in drainage water. Without plants, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn in the leachate from columns with EDTA were above drinking-water standards. (There is no drinking-water standard for Ni.) The presence of poplar plants in the soil reduced the concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn in the leachate so it fell within drinking-water standards. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in the leachate remained above drinking-water standards with or without plants. At harvest (124 days after the EDTA application), total concentration of each heavy metal in the soil at different depths in the columns with EDTA was similar to that in the columns without EDTA. The chelate did not affect the concentration of heavy metals in the roots, stems, or leaves

  19. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by sawdust of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, D.; Stankovic, V.; Gorgievski, M.; Bogdanovic, G.; Kovacevic, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of heavy metal ions from synthetic solutions was performed using sawdust of beech, linden and poplar trees. The adsorption depends on the process time, pH of the solution, type of ions, initial concentration of metals and the sawdust concentration in suspension. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium for less than 20 min. The adsorption equilibrium follows Langmuir adsorption model. The ion exchange mechanism was confirmed assuming that the alkali-earth metals from the adsorbent are substituted by heavy metal ions and protons. On lowering the initial pH, the adsorption capacity decreased, achieving a zero value at a pH close to unity. The maximum adsorption capacity (7-8 mg g -1 of sawdust) was achieved at a pH between 3.5 and 5 for all the studied kinds of sawdust. The initial concentration of the adsorbate and the concentration of sawdust strongly affect the process. No influence of particles size was evidenced. A degree of adsorption higher than 80% can be achieved for Cu 2+ ions but it is very low for Fe 2+ ions, not exceeding 10%.

  20. Investigation of heavy metals content in medicinal plant, eclipta alba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Khan, H.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cd were investigated in a= medicinally important plant, Eclipta alba L. as well as in the soil it was grown using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The plant samples were collected from their natural habitat at three different locations of Peshawar Pakistan. The whole plant materials (roots, stems and leaves) were found to contain all heavy metals except Cd, which corresponds to their concentration in the soil it was grown. Among all the heavy metals, Fe was found to be at the highest level (8.95 to 27.7 mg/kg) followed by Mn (0.44 to 14.0 mg/kg) and Zn (1.04 to 4.50 mg/kg), while the rest of metals were at low concentration. The present study showed that E. alba L. is suitable for the control of environmental pollutants such as heavy metals, however, for medicinal purposes; it should be collected from those areas which are not contaminated with heavy metals. The purpose of the current study was to standardize various indigenous medicinal plants for heavy metals contamination and to make awareness among the public regarding its safer use and collection areas, containing high level of heavy metals and their adverse health affects. (author)

  1. Lauryl Amine as heavy metal collector of boiler ash from pulp and paper mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, M. P.; Kaban, J.; Bangun, N.; Saputra, E.

    2018-04-01

    Theincreasing of demand of pulp and paper products, will following with the growing the pulp and paper industryand generate significant mill waste. The total waste reached 1/3 of the amount raw materials used and ash boiler is the waste with the largest percentage of 52%. For that it takes effort to manage the existing waste. The boiler ash contained the chemical elements, it can be utilized such as fertilizer, because it also contains transition metals in form of heavy metal such as Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Chrome (Cr), Cupprum (Cu), Ferrum (Fe), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn), the use of boiler ash must follow the threshold specified by the Government. Several studies have been undertaken to reduce and extract heavy metals from ash and sand of the boiler by using carbon dioxide as its ligand. Eelectrochemical method was used to remove and recovery of heavy metals from the incenerator. This study focused on removal of heavy metals using Lauryl Amine as collector and three solvents namely Dichloromethane, Ethanol and n-Hexane. The treatmentswas able to extract the heavy metal and generally reduce the heavy metal content of ash boiler pulp and paper mill waste. The combination treatment used toreduce the heavy metal content of 5 gram Lauryl Amine collector in Dichloromethane solvent for 4 hours process time.

  2. Low-cost bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthy, P.; Golan-Goldhrish, A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution by toxic metals, especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr) and radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 226 Ra) is a potential hazard to health and welfare of mankind. Rapid industrial revolution has left an international legacy of soil and water contaminated with a combination of toxic and potentially carcinogenic compounds and heavy metals. Many of the contaminated sites were abandoned due to high cost of traditional clean-up approaches. Various approaches are being practiced to decontaminate heavy metals and radionuclides from polluted-soil. Remediation of heavy metal and radionuclides contaminated soils poses a significant expense to many industries and government organizations. Remediation cost in the United States and European Union alone is expected to exceed US$20 billion annually. Bioremediation strategy depends on the limitations of technology, cost and nature of the contaminant in the soil. Certain higher plants are capable of accumulation of heavy metals (2-5 %) in roots and shoots to the level far exceeding those present in the soils, these are called hyper-accumulators. Using heavy metal hyper-accumulating higher plants for environmental clean-up of contaminated soil is a recently emerged technology known as 'phytoremediation'. Genetically engineered (Transgenic) plants have a remarkable potential to absorb heavy metals and show a new avenue for biotechnology technique in Phytoremediation. The cost-effective approach of using heavy metal and radionuclide hyper-accumulators in phytoremediation is discussed. (author)

  3. Capability and Mechanisms of Macrofungi in Heavy Metal Accumulation:A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Miao-miao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some macrofungi have the ability to accumulate heavy metals, which is comparable to hyper-accumulator plants. Cordyceps militaris can accumulate Zn up to 20 000 mg·kg-1. Therefore, macrofungi have the potential to be used as an important bioremediation tool for heavy metals. In this review, we summarized the heavy metal resistant capacity of typical macrofungi and known relevant mechanisms. Generally, straw-decay fungi presented better capability for Cu, Ag and Cd enrichment than wood-decay fungi, while wood-decay fungi could accumulate Cr, Mg, Se and Pb. Different macrofungi species, different growth periods(mycelium and fruiting body and different parts of fruiting body showed different capability for heavy metals accumulation. General mechanisms for heavy metals accumulation in macrofungi included extracellular precipitation in the forms of polymeric substances, cell wall adsorption and intracellular absorption. Macrofungi could also detoxify by chelating metal ions by metallothionein(MT, secreting antioxidant enzymes(SOD, CAT, POD and degradating the misfolded proteins by ubiquitin-proteasome system(UPS. We also explored the potential of macrofungi in heavy metal remediation and pollution diagnostics as a biological indicator. Some macrofungi had been applied in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and water. Finally, some future research areas including strain breeding and genetic engineering were discussed, which might provide references for the future studies.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED FACTORS ON THE LEACHING OF HEAVY METALS FROM SMELTER WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Mizerna; Anna Król

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of leaching research of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr) from industrial waste. The impact of waste fragmentation on the level of heavy metals leaching was analyzed. The decrease of copper and zinc release and the increase of nickel leaching were observed with increasing grain size fraction of waste. Furthermore, release of contaminants in different ratio of liquid to solid (L/S = 10 dm3/kg and 2 dm3/kg) was studied. Higher concentrations of heavy ...

  5. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2005-01-01

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted

  6. Heavy metals hazards from Nigerian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Offor, Samuel James; Njoku, Chinonso Judith; Ofoma, Ifeoma Victoria; Chukwuogor, Chiaku Chinwe; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    Natural spices are commonly used by the people in Nigeria. They may be easily contaminated with heavy metals when they are dried and then pose a health risk for the consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of heavy metals in some commonly consumed natural spices namely Prosopis Africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica, Monodora tenuifolia and Capsicum frutescens sold in the local markets of Awka, Anambra state, South East Nigeria to estimate the potential health risk. The range of heavy metal concentration was in the order: Zn (14.09 - 161.04) > Fe (28.15 - 134.59) > Pb (2.61 - 8.97) > Cr (0.001 - 3.81) > Co (0.28 - 3.07) > Ni (0.34 - 2.89). Pb, Fe and Zn exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for spices. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) of the spices varied from 0.06-0.5. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) were all below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The lead levels in Prosopis africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica and Capsicum frutescens which are 8-30 times higher than the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 0.3 mg/kg. Lead contamination of spices sold in Awka (south east Nigeria) may add to the body burden of lead. A good quality control for herbal food is important in order to protect consumers from contamination. food products, spices, potential toxic metals, risk assessment, public health.

  7. Heavy metal contamination of stream water and sediment in the Taejon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Woong [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Koo [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-31

    Associated with the rapid pace of overpopulation and industrialization is the increase of municipal and industrial wastewater and heavy metal contamination from these point sources have received much attention in the Taejon area. To reduce the environmental problems, 21 stream sediments from Gap-chun, Yudeung-chun, Yusung-chun and Keum river have been analyzed for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The results show that heavy metal concentrations are high in sediments from the Sintanjin and Taehwa Industrial Complex area with particular reference to 1388 {mu}g/g Cu in the stream sediment of Yusung-chun. When the geochemical map drawn from the Kriging technique of these data are compared with the industrialization and urbanization index map, high concentrations of heavy metals are found in stream sediments in industrialized areas resulting from the accumulation of heavy metals from the polluting factories. Concentrations of Cu in sediments from the Taehwa Industrial Complex area and those of Zn in sediments from the Sintanjin Complex area higher than EPA standard in the U.S.A and may be the potential sources of pollution in Keum river with possible implications to human health. For the speciation of Cu, Pb and Zn, the high proportions of exchangeable phase of Cu and Zn in stream sediments indicate that the metals originate not from parent materials but from wastewater and exist as the adsorbed phase on the surface of sediments. These metals are easily dissolved into the water by the reaction and relative amounts of easily dissolved phase of metals are in the order of Cu = Zn > Pb. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Biosorption of multi-heavy metals by coral associated phosphate solubilising bacteria Cronobacter muytjensii KSCAS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, Kailasam; Sundaramanickam, Arumugam; Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Meena, Moorthy; Sathishkumar, Rengasamy Subramaniyan; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2018-06-02

    This paper examines the potential detoxification efficiency of heavy metals by phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) that were isolated from coral, sea grass and mangrove environment. Initially, four potential bacterial isolates were selected based on their phosphate solubilisation index from 42 strains and were used for the metal tolerance test. Among the four isolates, KSCAS2 exhibited maximum tolerance to heavy metals and the phenotype indicated the production of extra polymeric substances. In a multi-heavy metal experimental setup at two concentrations (100 and 200 mg L -l ), it has been demonstrated that the bacteria have extracellularly sequestered metal ions in amorphous deposits and this has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In experiments with a 100 mg L -1 initial metal concentration, the percentages of metal removal by bacteria were 55.23% of Cd, 72.45% of Cr, 76.51% of Cu and 61.51% of Zn, respectively. In subsequent experiments, when the metal concentration was increased up to 200 mg L -l , the metal removal capacity decreased as follows: 44.62%, 63.1%, 67% and 52.80% for Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn, respectively. In addition, the biosorption of heavy metals was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The heavy metal concentrations in a broth culture were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The study suggests that PSB Cronobacter muytjensii KSCAS2 can efficiently remove the heavy metals and these bacteria could be used for the metal removal from the agricultural soils. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400-800°C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  11. Beneficial of Coriander Leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) to Reduce Heavy Metals Contamination in Rod Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarti, S.; Pertiwi, C. N.; Hanani, A. Z.; Mujamil, S. I.; Putra, K. A.; Herlambang, K. C.

    2018-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in certain levels of food can disrupt human health. Heavy metals have toxic properties, cannot be overhauled or destroyed by living organisms, can accumulate in the body of organisms including humans, either directly or indirectly. Heavy metal Hg, Cd, Cr is a very toxic metals (can result in death or health problems that are not recovered in a short time), while heavy metal Co, Pb, Cu toxicity is moderate (can lead to both recoverable and non-recoverable health problems in a relatively long time). Hence the heavy metal contaminating the food must be eliminated or reduced to a safe level. One effort was use coriander leaves to reduce the contamination of heavy metals in fish/shellfish. The objective of the research was to prove the extract of coriander leaves can reduce heavy metal contamination of Pb, Hg and Cu in rod shellfish (lorjuk). The treatment of this research was long soaking in coriander leaves extract that were 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The results showed that the longer time of soaking can decrease Pb level from 4.4 ± 0.424 ppb to 1.7 ± 0.5 ppb, Hg level from 4.11± 0.07 to 1.12± 0.6 ppb, and Cu level from 433.7 ± 0.1 ppb to 117 ± 0.78 ppb. Protein content not significant decrease in rod shellfish (lorjuk) after 90 minutes soaking time, that was from 28.56 ± 0.403% to 26,625 ± 0.19%.

  12. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  13. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  14. Distribution and Analysis of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soil, Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihla Kamarudzaman, Ain; Woo, Yee Shan; Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab

    2018-03-01

    The concentration of six heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Zn and Mn were studied in the soils around Perlis. The aim of the study is to assess the heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialisation and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0 - 15 cm in five stations around Perlis. The soil samples are subjected to soil extraction and the concentration of heavy metals was determined via ICP - OES. Overall concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Mn in the soil samples ranged from 0.003 - 0.235 mg/L, 0.08 - 41.187 mg/L, 0.065 - 45.395 mg/L, 0.031 - 2.198 mg/L, 0.01 - 0.174 mg/L and 0.165 - 63.789 mg/L respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil showed the following decreasing trend, Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd. From the result, the level of heavy metals in the soil near centralised Chuping industrial areas gives maximum value compared to other locations in Perlis. As a conclusion, increasing anthropogenic activities have influenced the environment, especially in increasing the pollution loading.

  15. [Speciation and Risk Characteristics of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Su; Feng, Cheng-hong; Li, Yang-yang; Yin, Li-feng; Shen, Zhen-yao

    2016-03-15

    Based on the investigation on the distribution of total contents and speciation of 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the surface sediments at 14 typical sites of the Yangtze Estuary during three hydrological seasons ( wet, normal, and dry seasons) , this study applied equilibrium partitioning approach to build the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of the Yangtze Estuary, and assessed ecological risks of the heavy metals. The relationship between ecological risk and speciation of heavy metals was also revealed. The results showed that, except for Cd, the residual fraction was the main speciation of heavy metals, especially for As, Cr and Hg, their residual fraction proportions were all over 90%. The sediment quality guidelines of the Yangtze Estuary for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn were 43.29, 0.672, 79.65, 19.08, 0.569, 339.09, 30.87, 411.36 µg · g⁻¹, respectively. Cu had the highest ecological risk to aquatic organisms. The upstream of Yangtze Estuary was mainly affected by Yangtze River runoff, where the risks were relatively high in wet season and relatively low in normal and dry seasons. However, the downstream of the estuary was mainly affected by municipal sewage of cities like Shanghai, where the risks were relatively high, especially in normal and dry seasons. There were three different relationships between the ecological risks and speciation of the eight heavy metals.

  16. Heavy Metal Tolerance and Removal Capacity of Trichoderma species Isolated from Mine Tailings in Itogon, Benguet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Tansengco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste from mining industries contains various heavy metals that can pollute the environment. Bioremediation using efficient fungi can help in eliminating these heavy metal contaminants. This study focused on the isolation, identification, and characterization of heavy metal-resistant fungi from mine tailings in Itogon, Benguet. Isolation of fungi was done by serial dilution and spread plate techniques on potato dextrose agar (PDA with an individual heavy metal, i.e. chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and nickel (Ni. Of the 29 fungal isolates, four species were selected and molecularly identified as Trichoderma virens, T. harzianum, T. saturnisporum, and T. gamsii. Growth tolerance on PDA with increasing concentrations (200-1000 ppm of an individual heavy metal indicated the following trend: T. virens > T. harzianum > T. gamsii > T. saturnisporum. Growth test indicates that all Trichoderma isolates can tolerate high levels of Cr and Pb, however tolerance to Cu, Zn, and Ni was species specific. Shakeflask culture using T. virens showed high lead removal (91-96% over broad pH range while and at neutral pH, T. virens had 70% and 63% reductions for Cu and Cr, respectively. Results of this study highlights the potential of Trichoderma isolates for biological wastewater treatment in mining industries.

  17. Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water and Fish (Tilapia sp.) Samples from Tasik Mutiara, Puchong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaniza Ismail; Idaliza Mat Saleh

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) were detected in muscle tissues of Tilapia sp. (black tilapia) collected from the lake of Taman Mutiara, Puchong. Samples were collected for several months in the end of 2009 at three sampling points. Heavy metals in fish and water samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Only Al, Cu, Fe and Zn were detected in the order Fe > Zn > Al > Cu, whereas concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were below the detection limit. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were low and below the detection limit. The levels of heavy metals in the fish samples can be considered as a serious matter of concern as it may be consumed and it signifies the degradation of lake quality. Generally, the sources of heavy metals in the Tasik Mutiara, Puchong could be attributed to the illegal waste dumping activity and discharge from the nearby sewage treatment plant into the lake which promote eutrophication in the lake. It could also be attributed to the Low Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels in the lake. (author)

  18. Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated water and sediment by eleocharis acicularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Masayuki; Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Ohmori, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Taisei Kiso Sekkei Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Faculty of Education, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa-mura (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Phytoremediation is an environmental remediation technique that takes advantage of plant physiology and metabolism. The unique property of heavy metal hyperaccumulation by the macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis is of great significance in the phytoremediation of water and sediments contaminated by heavy metals at mine sites. In this study, a field cultivation experiment was performed to examine the applicability of E. acicularis to the remediation of water contaminated by heavy metals. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in the shoots of E. acicularis were 20 200 mg Cu/kg, 14 200 mg Zn/kg, 1740 mg As/kg, 894 mg Pb/kg, and 239 mg Cd/kg. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the shoots correlate with their concentrations in the soil in a log-linear fashion. The bioconcentration factor for these elements decreases log-linearly with increasing concentration in the soil. The results indicate the ability of E. acicularis to hyperaccumulate Cu, Zn, As, and Cd under natural conditions, making it a good candidate species for the phytoremediation of water contaminated by heavy metals. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Transcriptome Response to Heavy Metals in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 Reveals New Metal Resistance Determinants That Also Promote Bioremediation by Medicago lupulina in Metal-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingmei; Jiao, Shuo; Gao, Enting; Song, Xiuyong; Li, Zhefei; Hao, Xiuli; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2017-10-15

    The symbiosis of the highly metal-resistant Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 and Medicago lupulina has been considered an efficient tool for bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted soils. However, the metal resistance mechanisms of S. meliloti CCNWSX00200 have not been elucidated in detail. Here we employed a comparative transcriptome approach to analyze the defense mechanisms of S. meliloti CCNWSX00200 against Cu or Zn exposure. Six highly upregulated transcripts involved in Cu and Zn resistance were identified through deletion mutagenesis, including genes encoding a multicopper oxidase (CueO), an outer membrane protein (Omp), sulfite oxidoreductases (YedYZ), and three hypothetical proteins (a CusA-like protein, a FixH-like protein, and an unknown protein), and the corresponding mutant strains showed various degrees of sensitivity to multiple metals. The Cu-sensitive mutant (Δ cueO ) and three mutants that were both Cu and Zn sensitive (Δ yedYZ , Δ cusA -like, and Δ fixH -like) were selected for further study of the effects of these metal resistance determinants on bioremediation. The results showed that inoculation with the Δ cueO mutant severely inhibited infection establishment and nodulation of M. lupulina under Cu stress, while inoculation with the Δ yedYZ and Δ fixH -like mutants decreased just the early infection frequency and nodulation under Cu and Zn stresses. In contrast, inoculation with the Δ cusA -like mutant almost led to loss of the symbiotic capacity of M. lupulina to even grow in uncontaminated soil. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activity and metal accumulation in roots of M. lupulina inoculated with all mutants were lower than those with the wild-type strain. These results suggest that heavy metal resistance determinants may promote bioremediation by directly or indirectly influencing formation of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. IMPORTANCE Rhizobium-legume symbiosis has been promoted as an appropriate tool for bioremediation of heavy

  20. Pre and Post-monsoon Seasonal Variation of some Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The concentration of heavy metals (Fe, As and Cu) was examine in riverbed sediments of Gomti river, Lucknow at selected sites in pre and post monsoon season for three consecutive years (2009-11). The concentration was ranged between (As: 0.07-0.7, Fe: 7462.00-7977.00, Cu: 10.98-36.73 μg g-1) in ...

  1. Structural and functional studies of heavy metal ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    to handle heavy metal ions. LpCopA is then compared to its two human homologues ATP7A and ATP7B, which cause the severe Menkes and Wilson diseases when malfunctioning. The differences between the three proteins are described and disease-causing mutations in the human proteins are analyzed. The crystal......Copper and zinc are trace elements that are crucial for the well-being of all cells and are an indispensable part of many proteins. At the same time, the intracellular levels of these metals require careful regulation, as an excess or deficiency may be lethal. P1B-ATPases are key players in Cu......+ and Zn2+ homeostasis that belong to the superfamily of P-type ATPases, transmembrane proteins which are present in virtually all lifeforms, with functions ranging from membrane potential generation to muscle relaxation. The goal of this thesis is to improve our understanding of P1B-ATPases by focusing...

  2. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M.J.; Selvaraj, K.; Agoramoorthy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

  3. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Marine Sediments of East Coast of Tamil Nadu Affected by Different Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, N; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Suresh Gandhi, M; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satapathy, K K

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the sediments of Periyakalapet to Parangipettai coast, east coast of Tamil Nadu, by using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The average heavy metal concentrations in the sediment samples were found in the order Al>Fe>Ca>Ti>K>Mg>Mn>Ba>V>Cr>Zn>La>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Cu. The average heavy metal concentrations were below the world crustal average. The degree of contamination by heavy metals was evaluated using pollution indices. The results of pollution indices revealed that titanium (Ti) and cadmium (Cd) were significantly enriched in sediments. Pearson correlation analysis was performed among heavy metal concentrations to know the existing relationship between them. Multivariate statistical technique was employed to identify the heavy metal pollution sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals onto sesame straw biochar in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in mono and multimetal forms onto sesame straw biochar (SSB). Competitive sorption of metals by SSB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities (mgg(-1)) of metals by SSB were in the order of Pb (102)≫Cd (86)≫Cr (65)>Cu (55)≫Zn (34) in the monometal adsorption isotherm and Pb (88)≫Cu (40)≫Cr (21)>Zn (7)⩾Cd (5) in the multimetal adsorption isotherm. Based on data obtained from the distribution coefficients, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models, and three-dimensional simulation, multimetal adsorption behaviors differed from monometal adsorption due to competition. Especially, during multimetal adsorption, Cd was easily exchanged and substituted by other metals. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate the heavy metal adsorption capacity of biochar in natural environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction of soil heavy metal pollution with industrialisation and the landscape pattern in Taiyuan city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Su, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaoting; Pei, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies indicated that industrialization and urbanization caused serious soil heavy metal pollution from industrialized age. However, fewer previous studies have conducted a combined analysis of the landscape pattern, urbanization, industrialization, and heavy metal pollution. This paper was aimed at exploring the relationships of heavy metals in the soil (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn) with landscape pattern, industrialisation, urbanisation in Taiyuan city using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis included correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent-sample T test, and principal component analysis (PCA). Geographic information system (GIS) was also applied to determine the spatial distribution of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution maps showed that the heavy metal pollution of the soil was more serious in the centre of the study area. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the correlations among heavy metals were significant, and industrialisation could significantly affect the concentrations of some heavy metals. Landscape diversity showed a significant negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations. The PCA showed that a two-factor model for heavy metal pollution, industrialisation, and the landscape pattern could effectively demonstrate the relationships between these variables. The model explained 86.71% of the total variance of the data. Moreover, the first factor was mainly loaded with the comprehensive pollution index (P), and the second factor was primarily loaded with landscape diversity and dominance (H and D). An ordination of 80 samples could show the pollution pattern of all the samples. The results revealed that local industrialisation caused heavy metal pollution of the soil, but such pollution could respond negatively to the landscape pattern. The results of the study could provide a basis for agricultural, suburban, and urban planning.

  6. Spatial patterns of heavy metals in soil under different geological structures and land uses for assessing metal enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krami, Loghman Khoda; Amiri, Fazel; Sefiyanian, Alireza; Shariff, Abdul Rashid B Mohamed; Tabatabaie, Tayebeh; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2013-12-01

    One hundred and thirty composite soil samples were collected from Hamedan county, Iran to characterize the spatial distribution and trace the sources of heavy metals including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, and Fe. The multivariate gap statistical analysis was used; for interrelation of spatial patterns of pollution, the disjunctive kriging and geoenrichment factor (EF(G)) techniques were applied. Heavy metals and soil properties were grouped using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and gap statistic. Principal component analysis was used for identification of the source of metals in a set of data. Geostatistics was used for the geospatial data processing. Based on the comparison between the original data and background values of the ten metals, the disjunctive kriging and EF(G) techniques were used to quantify their geospatial patterns and assess the contamination levels of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution map combined with the statistical analysis showed that the main source of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, and V in group A land use (agriculture, rocky, and urban) was geogenic; the origin of As, Cd, and Cu was industrial and agricultural activities (anthropogenic sources). In group B land use (rangeland and orchards), the origin of metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and V) was mainly controlled by natural factors and As, Cd, Cu, and Pb had been added by organic factors. In group C land use (water), the origin of most heavy metals is natural without anthropogenic sources. The Cd and As pollution was relatively more serious in different land use. The EF(G) technique used confirmed the anthropogenic influence of heavy metal pollution. All metals showed concentrations substantially higher than their background values, suggesting anthropogenic pollution.

  7. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  8. Distribution and source apportionment studies of heavy metals in soil of cotton/wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals enriched agricultural soils have been the subject of great concern because these metals have potential to be transferred to the soil solution and afterward accumulated in food chain. To study the trace metal persistence in crop soil, 90 representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and anions (chloride, nitrates, phosphates and sulfates). Cluster and factor analysis techniques were used for the source identification of these excessive heavy metal levels and ecological risk was determined with potential ecological risk assessment. The degree of enrichment of eight studied heavy metals in comparison with the corresponding background levels decreased in order: Cd > Pb > Fe > Ni > Mn > As > Cu ~ Zn. Arsenic and cadmium exhibited 1.30- and 1.64-fold exceeded levels than threshold limits set by National environment quality standards, respectively. Cd in cotton field's soil may lead to higher potential risk than other heavy metals. On overall basis, the cumulative mean potential ecological risk for the district (207.75) corresponded to moderate risk level with higher contributions from As and Pb especially from Cd. Cadmium formed strong positive correlation with phosphate content of soil at p < 0.01. Cluster analysis indicated that Cluster 1 (extremely polluted) probably originated from anthropogenic inputs of phosphate fertilizer and past usage of arsenical pesticides.

  9. Monitoring of heavy metal load - by mosses or rain water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Maekelae, K. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The deposition of heavy metals is usually determined from precipitation chemistry but the moss technique has been increasingly used, particularly in the Nordic countries. Some international monitoring programmes, e.g. UN/ECE Integrated Monitoring, give them as alternative methods. However, their comparability has not been sufficiently determined. This study compares the two monitoring methods for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, which have different sources. The metal industry is an important source of Pb and Cd emissions. Long- range transport as well as traffic and local emissions are also important sources for Pb. The use of fertilizers and fossil fuels also result in Cd emissions. Cu and Zn are emitted from metal industries and local sources. Unlike Pb and Cd, Cu and Zn are essential elements for living organisms. Cu and Zn are needed in many enzymes and Zn in proteins. Mosses are thought to take all their nutrients from the air. The deposition of heavy metals is also effectively retained by mosses and may be used to indicate levels of heavy metal deposition. In northern countries the mosses are isolated from air (and therefore also from deposition) by snow in winter. In this study both the bulk deposition of the whole year (later `total deposition`) and the bulk deposition of the snow-free period (later `bare ground deposition`) are compared to the metal concentrations in mosses. (author)

  10. Monitoring of heavy metal load - by mosses or rain water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Maekelae, K [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The deposition of heavy metals is usually determined from precipitation chemistry but the moss technique has been increasingly used, particularly in the Nordic countries. Some international monitoring programmes, e.g. UN/ECE Integrated Monitoring, give them as alternative methods. However, their comparability has not been sufficiently determined. This study compares the two monitoring methods for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, which have different sources. The metal industry is an important source of Pb and Cd emissions. Long- range transport as well as traffic and local emissions are also important sources for Pb. The use of fertilizers and fossil fuels also result in Cd emissions. Cu and Zn are emitted from metal industries and local sources. Unlike Pb and Cd, Cu and Zn are essential elements for living organisms. Cu and Zn are needed in many enzymes and Zn in proteins. Mosses are thought to take all their nutrients from the air. The deposition of heavy metals is also effectively retained by mosses and may be used to indicate levels of heavy metal deposition. In northern countries the mosses are isolated from air (and therefore also from deposition) by snow in winter. In this study both the bulk deposition of the whole year (later `total deposition`) and the bulk deposition of the snow-free period (later `bare ground deposition`) are compared to the metal concentrations in mosses. (author)

  11. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Yujun [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang Zhifeng, E-mail: zfyang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Shanghong [Renewable Energy School, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in the water, sediment, and fish were investigated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Potential ecological risk analysis of sediment heavy metal concentrations indicated that six sites in the middle reach, half of the sites in the lower reach, and two sites in lakes, posed moderate or considerable ecological risk. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the general population and for fisherman but, in combination, there was a possible risk in terms of total target hazard quotients. Correlation analysis and PCA found that heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) may be mainly derived from metal processing, electroplating industries, industrial wastewater, and domestic sewage. Hg may also originate from coal combustion. Significant positive correlations between TN and As were observed. - Highlights: > Field survey, test and relationship of the concentrations of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish. > Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment. > Non-cancer health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish tissue. > Possible pollution source of heavy metals analyzed. - Possible ecological risk of sediment and slight non-cancer health risk of eating fish were found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  12. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Yujun; Yang Zhifeng; Zhang Shanghong

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in the water, sediment, and fish were investigated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Potential ecological risk analysis of sediment heavy metal concentrations indicated that six sites in the middle reach, half of the sites in the lower reach, and two sites in lakes, posed moderate or considerable ecological risk. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the general population and for fisherman but, in combination, there was a possible risk in terms of total target hazard quotients. Correlation analysis and PCA found that heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) may be mainly derived from metal processing, electroplating industries, industrial wastewater, and domestic sewage. Hg may also originate from coal combustion. Significant positive correlations between TN and As were observed. - Highlights: → Field survey, test and relationship of the concentrations of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish. → Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment. → Non-cancer health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish tissue. → Possible pollution source of heavy metals analyzed. - Possible ecological risk of sediment and slight non-cancer health risk of eating fish were found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  13. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  14. Phytochelatins as biomarkers for heavy metal stress in maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): combined effects of copper and cadmium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keltjens, W.G.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract

    Heavy metal contaminated soils often show increased levels of more than one metal, e.g. copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) or nickel (Ni). In case such soils are used for crop production, prediction of yield reduction or quality decline due to heavy metals in the soil

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  16. Effect of Heavy Metals on Liver, Kidney, Gills and Muscles of Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu inhabited in the Indus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahboob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan. The concentration of selected heavy metals Fe, Cr, Cu, and in gills, muscles, kidney and liver was compared with an International standard of food fish. The overall metal concentrations among different weight categories in C. carpio were in the order of Fe > Cu > Cr >. In W. attu the overall accumulation of these metals were, in order of Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb The order of accumulation of metals in gills and muscle of C. carpio was Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu; kidney and muscles of W. attu was Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb; liver Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb. An increasing trend of concentration of iron, copper, chromium and lead occurred with an increase in weight of C. carpio and W. attu. There was a significant difference in the accumulation of heavy metals in different organs of both species (p<0.01. All studied heavy metals except Cr were within permissible limits described by various international agencies like WHO, FAO and FEPA in edible tissues of C. carpio and W. attu.

  17. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, A. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: fritioff@botan.su.se; Kautsky, L. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Greger, M. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants.

  18. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritioff, A.; Kautsky, L.; Greger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants

  19. Heavy metal burden of the Pinnau river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The water phase and sediment of the Pinnau river were investigated for their heavy-metal pollution. Tests for the elements chromium, mercury, nickel, arsenic, lead, copper, cadmium, zinc and iron were carried through with sediment samples in 1984 and 1989 and with water samples in 1987 and 1989. Whereas no significant changes in the levels of these metals were found in the water phase during the two-year period of invetigation, slightly reduced levels of zinc, cadmium and mercury were established in the sediment in 1989 as compared to 1984. (orig.) [de

  20. Heavy Metals Pollution in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.H.; Ezzat, A.A.E.; El-Rayis, O.A.; Hafez, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in the water of the heavily polluted Lake Mariut (Egypt) during August 1978 to September 1979 as well as the accumulation of these metals in the different parts of the common fish, Tilapia species, were studied. The study represents a second part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The mean concentrations of the measured Zn, Gu, Fe, Mn and Cd in the lake water were 10.9, 4.2, 19.1, 26.2 and 0.62 μg/l, respectively

  1. Health concerns of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    There is a long history and an overwhelming amount of data on the toxicity of heavy metal compounds. Here a brief look is taken of some aspects of the toxicity of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, chosen for their historical importance and environmental significance, highlighting especially the contrast between the acute and chronic toxicity of purely inorganic species and their organic derivatives. For further details of other toxic metal compounds, the reader might like to consult "Elements of murder: a history of poison" by John Emsley (2005, Oxford University Press).

  2. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment.

  3. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufik Kaisupy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Muara Saban and Tanjung Pasir. High Pb and Zn distributions on November 2005 were found only in front of Cisadane estuary. Cd distribution of Cisadane estuary was constant at all station but did not show any correlation with the distance of station and estuary. The Cd content on July and November 2005 is lower than 0,001 ppm. Generally, heavy metallic elements content have a uniform distribution at all stations inspite of its distance to estuary.

  4. The Extent and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Shahrood and Damghan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2015-12-01

    The levels of 12 heavy metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) were considered in 229 soil samples in Semnan Province, Iran. To discriminate between natural and anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals, factor analysis was used. Seven factors accounting for 90.5 % of the total variance were extracted. The mining and agricultural activities along with geogenic sources have been attributed as the main causes of the levels of heavy metals in the study area. The partial least squares regression was utilized to predict the level of soil pollution index (SPI) considering the concentrations of 12 heavy metals. The eigenvectors from the first three PLS represented more than 98 % of the overall variance. The correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted SPI was 0.99 indicating the high efficiency of this method. The resultant coefficient of determination for three PLS components was 0.984 confirming the predictive ability of this method.

  5. Analysis of physical composition and heavy metals pollution of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. B.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Bai, X. J.

    2018-03-01

    By using on-site sampling and physical-chemical analysis, the physical composition and the contents of heavy metals in Beijing MSW were researched. The result showed that the main components of MSW in Beijing are mainly kitchen waste, the average content of kitchen waste are more than 60% and 50% in summer and in winter, respectively. The pollution of Cu, Hg and Cr are all more serious for MSW in Haidian and Dongcheng district. The heavy metal pollution of MSW in summer is higher than that in winter in Beijing. Seasonal impacts should be taken into consideration when dealing with MSW. The content of heavy metals in MSW exceeded the background value of soil in Haidian and Dongcheng districts. In order to reduce heavy metal pollution, the MSW should be separated collection and treated.

  6. Assessment of heavy metals leaching from (biochar obtained from industrial sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Pečkytė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar can be produced from many various feedstock including biomass residues such as straw, branches, sawdust and other agricultural and forestry waste. One of the alternatives is to obtain biochar from industrial sewage sludge, however, the use of such a product could be limited due to high quantities of heavy metals in the biochar as a product. Total concentration of heavy metals provides only limited information on the behavior of heavy metals, therefore, batch leaching and up-flow percolation leaching tests were applied to study the leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu from (biochar produced from two types of sewage sludge: from paper mill and leather industries.

  7. Heavy metal concentration in groundwater from Besant Nagar to Sathankuppam, South Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S. G. D.; Sakthivel, A. M.; Sangunathan, U.; Balasubramanian, M.; Jenefer, S.; Mohamed Rafik, M.; Kanagaraj, G.

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality is an obligatory pre-requisite to developing countries like India with rural-based economy. Heavy metal concentration in groundwater from Besant Nagar to Sathankuppam, South Chennai was analyzed to assess the acquisition process. The study area has rapid urbanization since few decades, which deteriorated the condition of the aquifer of the area. Totally 30 groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (June 2014) and post-monsoon (January 2015) from the same aquifer to assess the heavy metal concentration in groundwater. Groundwater samples were analyzed for heavy metals such as Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and Mn using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Correlation matrix revealed that there is no significant correlation between heavy metals and other parameters during pre-monsoon except EC with Cr but Fe and Zn have good positive correlation during post-monsoon.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the Cispata Bay, Colombia: A marine tropical ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Núñez, Saudith; Navarro-Frómeta, Amado; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Urango-Cárdenas, Iván

    2017-07-15

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were evaluated in shallow sediments, water, fish and seabird samples from the Cispata Bay, Colombia. The heavy metals concentrations in the sediment was in the following order: Cu>Pb>Hg>Cd. The heavy metal concentration was different (ppolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 7.0-41ngg -1 in sediment, 0.03-0.34ngmL -1 in water samples, 53.24ngg -1 in fish, and 66ngg -1 in seabirds. The high concentrations of heavy metals in seabirds may be explained by their feeding habits. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Cispata Bay may be due to hydrocarbon spills during oil transport at the nearby oil port. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  10. Statistical Analysis Of Heavy Metals Concentration In Watermelon Plants Irrigated By Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, M. J.; Maghsoudi moud, A. A.; Saffari, V. R.; Hashamipor, S. M.; Soltanizadeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated by urban wastewater is a cause of serious concern due to the potentials health problems of consuming contaminated produce. In this study it is tried to model the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe,…) as a function of their concentration in watermelon roots and stems. Our study shows there is a good relationship between them for most of collected data. By measuring the concentration in root and stem of watermelon plant samples before harvesting, the concentration of heavy metal in watermelon's fruit can be estimated by presented mathematical models. This study shows the concentrations of heavy metals in fruits, roots and stems of watermelon plants are very high and in dangerous level when irrigated by municipal waste water.

  11. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  12. Characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases in MSW slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Motomura, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    Slag products derived from the pyrolysis/melting and plasma/melting treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan were examined for the characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases using petrographic techniques. Detailed microscopic observations revealed that the shapes of heavy metal-rich inclusions are generally spherical to semi-spherical and their sizes range from submicron to scarcely large size spheres (over 100 μm). The experiments (both optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis) indicated that Fe and Cu participate in mutual substitution and different proportions, and form mainly two-phase Fe-Cu alloys that bound in the silicate glass. This alloy characterizes the composition of more than 80% of the metal-rich inclusions. Other metals and non-metals (such as Pb, Ni, Sb, Sn, P, Si, Al and S) with variable amounts and uneven distributions are also incorporated in the Fe-Cu alloy. In average, the bulk concentration of heavy metals in samples from pyrolysis/melting type is almost six times greater than samples treated under plasma/arc processing. The observations also confirmed that slag from pyrolysis origin contains remarkably higher concentration of metallic inclusions than slag from plasma treatment. In the latter, the metallic compounds are separately tapped from molten slag during the melting treatment that might lead to the generation of safer slag product for end users from environmental viewpoint.

  13. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Small Mammals the Background and Polluted Territories of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk L. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd in hemopoietic-competent organs of ecologically contrast species of small mammals (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Apodemus uralensis from natural populations of the Middle and South Urals were considered. The content of exogenous and essential trace elements in animal tissues (a liver, kidney, a spleen was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. It has been shown that bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of insectivores significantly differs from it of bank voles and wood mice. The smallest total content of heavy metals is shown in wood mice in technogenic territories of the Middle Urals. The submitted data demonstrate the competitive mechanism of the Cu, Zn, Cd. The increased concentrations of endogenous trace elements (copper, zinc in relation to a toxicant (cadmium, other things being equal, reduce cadmium accumulation level in the tissues Sorex araneus.

  14. Heavy metals in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astruc, M.; Lester, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problems associated with heavy metals in the hydrological cycle is presented. Research and practical experience from a broad spectrum of disciplines are drawn together concentrating on the following themes: water quality, domestic and industrial wastes, sludge and dredge materials, soil interactions, effects on aquatic ecosystems, organometallics (with particular reference to tin compounds), speciation, the marine environment and health effects. One paper is within INIS scope and is processed separately. (U.K.)

  15. Polution of the environment by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the problems caused by pollution of the environment by heavy metals and the important role played by nuclear examination methods such as activation analysis and particle induced X-ray emission. A number of examples taken from work initiated by the interuniversitair Reactor Instituut, demonstrate that this research should be continued and extended, particularly in relation to the expected increase in the use of coal for energy generation in electricity centres. (C.F.)

  16. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  17. Application of carbon nanotubes to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Martim P. S. R.; Correia, António Alberto S.; Rasteiro, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    The contamination of soils with heavy metals is a growing concern in modern societies. To avoid the spread of contamination, soil stabilization techniques can be applied mixing materials with the soil in order to partially immobilize heavy metals. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials known for its exceptional properties, like high surface area and adsorption capacity. Due to these unique properties, the potential use of CNTs in heavy metal contaminated water has been studied, with very satisfactory results; however, their application in contaminated soils is practically unexplored. This experimental work is focused on studying the potential of using CNTs in soil remediation, especially to immobilize the heavy metals ions: lead (Pb"2"+), copper (Cu"2"+), nickel (Ni"2"+), and zinc (Zn"2"+), commonly present in contaminated soils. In order to avoid CNT agglomeration, which originates the loss of their beneficial properties, an aqueous suspension of CNTs was prepared using a non-ionic surfactant combined with ultrasonic energy to promote CNTs dispersion. Then, the soil, with and without the addition of CNTs, was subjected to adsorption tests to evaluate the CNT capacity to improve heavy metal immobilization. To validate the adsorption test results, permeability tests were executed, simulating the conditions of a real-case scenario. The results obtained led to the conclusion that the addition of a small amount of dispersed CNTs can successfully increase the adsorption capacity of the soil and consequently improve the immobilization of heavy metals in the soil matrix. The immobilization percentage varies with the different heavy metals under study.

  18. Application of carbon nanotubes to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Martim P. S. R.; Correia, António Alberto S.; Rasteiro, Maria G.

    2017-04-01

    The contamination of soils with heavy metals is a growing concern in modern societies. To avoid the spread of contamination, soil stabilization techniques can be applied mixing materials with the soil in order to partially immobilize heavy metals. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials known for its exceptional properties, like high surface area and adsorption capacity. Due to these unique properties, the potential use of CNTs in heavy metal contaminated water has been studied, with very satisfactory results; however, their application in contaminated soils is practically unexplored. This experimental work is focused on studying the potential of using CNTs in soil remediation, especially to immobilize the heavy metals ions: lead (Pb2+), copper (Cu2+), nickel (Ni2+), and zinc (Zn2+), commonly present in contaminated soils. In order to avoid CNT agglomeration, which originates the loss of their beneficial properties, an aqueous suspension of CNTs was prepared using a non-ionic surfactant combined with ultrasonic energy to promote CNTs dispersion. Then, the soil, with and without the addition of CNTs, was subjected to adsorption tests to evaluate the CNT capacity to improve heavy metal immobilization. To validate the adsorption test results, permeability tests were executed, simulating the conditions of a real-case scenario. The results obtained led to the conclusion that the addition of a small amount of dispersed CNTs can successfully increase the adsorption capacity of the soil and consequently improve the immobilization of heavy metals in the soil matrix. The immobilization percentage varies with the different heavy metals under study.

  19. [Leaching characteristics of heavy metals and utilization of filter media in BAF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jin-long; Dai, Ying

    2007-10-01

    A series of leaching tests were conducted to study the solidification of heavy metals in biological filter media made with dried sludge as an additive. The maximum leaching contents of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb are obtained when pH is 1; leaching contents of heavy metals have an obvious decrease as pH is greater than or equal to 3; and it can be concluded from the results that pH has a significant influence on the leaching characteristic of heavy metals at leaching time of either 24 h or 30 d. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on filter media reveal the main compounds of the 4 heavy metals are Pb2O(CrO4), CdSiO3 and CuO, and the heavy metals are solidified in the mesh structure of Si--O. Heavy metals (such as Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) can be solidified in filter media through a series of crystalline phase changes and chemical reaction after high temperature sintering. The new filter media (obtained in test) were used in biological aerated filter (BAF) to treat wastewater (C/N about 11.5 and 25.5) in a simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) system. Based on the mechanism of SND, the average removal efficienciesof NH4(+)-N and TN filled with the new filter media (obtained in test) are about 85.5%, 90.3%, 46.6% and 49.6%, respectively, and it is higher than those of other 3 medias (Jiangxi ceramsite, Guangzhou ceramsite and Shanxi activated carbon). The results provide a better understanding of factors that may affect the immobilization and leaching characteristics of heavy metals in ceramsite, which promotes the extensive use of filter media in BAF.

  20. Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Khudzari, Jauharah; Wagiran, Husin; Hossain, I.; Ibrahim, Noorddin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of human hair as a bio-indicator for detection of heavy metals as part of environmental health surveillance programs project to develop a subject of interest in the biomedical and environmental sciences. A total of 34 hair samples were analyzed that consisting of 29 samples from sanitation workers and five samples from students. The hair samples were prepared and treated in accordance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations. The concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique by X-50 Mobile X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at Oceanography Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The performance of EDXRF analyzer was tested by Standard Reference Material (SRM 2711) Montana Soil which was in good agreement with certified value within 14% deviations except for Hg. While seven heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb were detected in both groups, three additional elements, i.e. As, Hg and Pb, were detected only in sanitation workers group. For sanitation workers group, the mean concentration of six elements, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, shows elevated concentration as compared to the control samples concentration. Results from both groups were compared and discussed in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations. - Highlights: ► We determine heavy metals in hair sample of sanitation workers and control group. ► 7 heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, were detected in both groups. ► Additional elements of As, Hg and Pb were discovered only in sanitation workers. ► Generally, mean concentration of sanitation workers show elevation in comparison. ► We report results in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations.

  1. Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

    2009-04-01

    human being. One of the most interesting techniques applied in contaminated aquifer by heavy metals is the PRBs (Troisi et al., 2002; Calvin et al., 2006), in particular broom fibers PRB (Troisi et al., 2008). The first results highlight an optimum removal capacity for contaminants underlined from following removal percentage: 98.01% (Cd), 99.95% (Cu), 97.35% (Pb) and 99.53% (Zn). A fundamental parameter for PRB design is the decay coefficient who indicates the removal capacity (degradation, transformation, adsorption/absorption, mass transport, etc.). This parameter has been determined for four heavy metals: Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) carrying out column tests. Besides, for real use of broom fibers PRB same tests have been performed, using flow cells, to estimate a relation between hydraulic conductivity of fiber and its density. References Chien C. C., H. I. Inyang and L.G. Everett (2006). Barrier Systems for Environmental Contaminant Containment and Treatment. Taylor and Francis Group eds. Troisi S., C. Fallico, S. Straface S. e L. Mazzuca. (2008). Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. CS2008A00018. Università della Calabria. Troisi S, E. Migliari and S. Straface (2002). Soil and groundwater contamination by heavy metals in the industrial area of Crotone. Third International Conference Risk Analysis III. Sintra, Ed. by C.A. Brebbia. WIT Press.

  2. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, M.; Maleki, A.

    2009-01-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  3. The pollution and the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in swan lake wetland of Sanmenxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifeng

    2018-04-01

    The soil samples were collected from swanlake wetland and digested by the national standard method. The contents of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Mn were detected and the potential ecological risk was estimated by the the potential ecological risk index. The result shows the wetland was slightly ecological hazarded. The ecosystem has been affected by the heavy metal.

  4. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, M; Maleki, A

    2009-07-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  5. Modeling of heavy metal salt solubility using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria in complex aqueous systems involving a heavy metal cation (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+) and one or more ions for which Extended UNIQUAC parameters have been published previously are modeled using the Extended UNIQUAC model. Model parameters are determined...

  6. Heavy metals pollution influence the community structure of Cyanobacteria in nutrient rich tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Jasmin, C.; Sheeba V.A.; Gireeshkumar, T.R; Nair, S.

    , Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) on community structure of cyanobacteria in a nutrient rich tropical estuary, Cochin Estuary (CE), across the southwest coast of India. Dissolved heavy metals were higher in CE during dry season, with Zn as major pollutant...

  7. Analysis of the distribution of heavy metals in the soils of Bagega ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncontrolled exploitation and degradation in the environment over the past few decades as the result of urbanization and poverty has caused a serious damage to lives and properties. The study analysed the spatial distribution of heavy metal (Fe, Cu and Zn) in Bagega, Zamfara state. Three mapping units were identified ...

  8. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  9. Glomalin in a mediterranean ecosystem affected by mining activities and its contribution to heavy metals sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, P.; Meier, F.; Borie, G.; Borie, F.

    2009-07-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and usually presents in high amounts in soil, may stabilize heavy metals such as Cu an Zn in soils affected by mining activities, as large areas of central Chile. (Author)

  10. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of ...

  11. Levels of heavy metals in fish obtained from two fishing sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekam

    Akwa Ibom State is located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and a substantial amount of the fishes consumed in the area are bought at Ifiayong and Ibaka beaches. This study was carried out to analyze heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr and As) in kidney, heart, gills and liver of silver catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) ...

  12. Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Arable Soils in Bijiang Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wei-heng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been paid much attention to soil heavy metal pollution in the Bijiang watershed caused by the Lanping lead-zinc mine. We collected 35 arable soil samples along Bijiang, then sampled and tested the contents of As, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg. And then with Nemerow Multi-Factor Index and the Potential Ecological Risk Index method, we evaluated the heavy metal pollution risk. The resul