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Sample records for heavy ion fusion

  1. Heavy ion fusion

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report on the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion held May 27-29, 1986 summarizes the problems and achievements in the areas of targets, accelerators, focussing, reactor studies, and system studies. The symposium participants recognize that there are large uncertainties in Heavy Ion Fusion but many of them are also optimistic that HIF may ultimately be the best approach to fusion

  2. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    Fessenden, T.J.; Friedman, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the research status in the following areas of research in the field of heavy ion inertial fusion: (1) RF accelerators, storage rings, and synchrotrons; (2) induction linacs; (3) recirculation induction accelerator approach; (4) a new accelerator concept, the ''Mirrortron''; (5) general issues of transport, including beam merging, production of short, fat quadrupoles with nearly linear focusing, calculations of beam behaviour in image fields; 3-D electrostatic codes on drift compression with misalignments and transport around bends; (6) injectors, ion sources and RFQs, a.o., on the development of a 27 MHz RFQ to be used for the low energy portion of a new injector for all ions up to Uranium, and the development of a 2 MV carbon ion injector to provide 16 C + beams of 0.5 A each for ILSE; (7) beam transport from accelerator to target, reporting, a.o., the feasibility to suppress third-order aberrations; while Particle-in-Cell simulations on the propagation of a non-neutral ion beam in a low density gas identified photo-ionization by thermal X-rays from the target as an important source of defocusing; (9) heavy ion target studies; (10) reviewing experience with laser drivers; (11) ion cluster stopping and muon catalyzed fusion; (12) heavy ion systems, including the option of a fusion-fission burner. 1 tab

  3. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  4. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  5. Heavy ion fusion

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  6. Heavy ion fusion III

    Hammer, D.; Max, C.; Perkins, F.; Rosenbluth, M.

    1987-03-01

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  7. Heavy ion fusion

    Bock, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two accelerator scenarios for heavy ion fusion are considered as driver candidates for an ICF power plant: the RF linac with storage rings and the induction linac. The necessary beam intensity and beam quality requirements are already believed to be achievable in the long run; repetition rate and accelerator efficiency are not critical issues. Conceptual design studies have indicated that the technical problems of the ICF concept with a heavy ion driver can be solved and that the economical aspects are not prohibitive as compared to other ICF concepts. Nevertheless, many open problems still exist, and some new ones have exhibited themselves, and it has become evident that most of them cannot be investigated with existing facilities and at the present level of effort. The first section of this paper deals with current conceptual design studies and focuses on the interface between the accelerator and the reactor. The second section summarizes the present research programs and recommends that their scope should be expanded and intensified in the areas of accelerator physics and beam-target interaction and target physics. In the third section the author calls for a dedicated facility and reports on the plans and ideas for such a facility. Schematics of two proposed accelerator driver systems--the driver for HIBALL (5 MJ/pulse) and a single-pass four-beam induction linac (3 MJ/pulse)--are provided

  8. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985

  9. Heavy ion fusion sources

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A ∼ I 8/3 . We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally

  10. BNL heavy ion fusion program

    Maschke, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A principal attraction of heavy ion fusion is that existing accelerator technology and theory are sufficiently advanced to allow one to commence the design of a machine capable of igniting thermonuclear explosions. There are, however, a number of features which are not found in existing accelerators built for other purposes. The main thrust of the BNL Heavy Ion Fusion program has been to explore these features. Longitudinal beam bunching, very low velocity acceleration, and space charge neutralization are briefly discussed

  11. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K + ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 micros. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described

  12. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    Keefe, D.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986)

  13. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986)

  14. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig

  15. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

    Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Monsler, M.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Target design at LLL for heavy ion fusion power production is discussed, including target development and beam-target interaction. The energy conversion chamber design, which utilizes a liquid lithium blanket, is described. Ion beam transport theory is discussed

  16. Heavy ion fusion- Using heavy ions to make electricity

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring ∼100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris

  17. Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion reaction are considered. The experimental signatures and the importance of a quasi-fission process are examined. The anaular distributions of fission fragments for the 32 S+ 208 Pb and 16 O+ 238 U systems are presented. It is shown that the observations of quasi-fission for even rather ''light'' heavy ions poeess severe limitations on the fusion process. This result may consequently be responsible for the lack of success of the search for super heavy elements in heavy ion fusion reactions

  18. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  19. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  20. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  1. Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment study

    Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1986-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of a fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The resulting cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 100 MWe

  2. Accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accelerator technology development is presented for heavy ion drivers used in inertial confinement fusion. The program includes construction of low-velocity ''test bed'' accelerator facilities, development of analytical and experimental techniques to characterize ion beam behavior, and the study of ion beam energy deposition

  3. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C s + sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac

  4. Jason: heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion

    Callan, C.G. Jr.; Dashen, R.F.; Garwin, R.L.; Muller, R.A.; Richter, B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1978-02-01

    A few of the problems in heavy-ion-driven inertial-fusion systems are reviewed. Nothing was found within the scope of this study that would in principle bar such systems from delivering the energy and peak power required to ignite the fuel pellet. Indeed, ion-fusion seems to show great promise, but the conceptual design of ion-fusion systems is still in a primitive state. A great deal of work, mostly theoretical, remains to be done before proceeding with massive hardware development. Conclusions are given about the state of the work

  5. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development

  6. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Keefe, D.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  7. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  8. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne Conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the energy oriented program. In addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any ''emerging'' energy technology. (orig.) [de

  9. Dynamical limitations to heavy-ion fusion

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    In spite of the many attempts to synthesize superheavy elements in recent years, these efforts have not yet been successful. Recent improved theoretical models of heavy-ion fusion reactions suggest that the formation of super-heavy elements is hindered by the dynamics of the process. Several recent experiments lend support to these theories. The necessity of an excess radial velocity (extra push) over the Coulomb barrier in order to induce fusion is observed experimentally as predicted by the theory. So is a new reaction mechanism, called quasi-fission which tend to exhaust the part of the reaction cross section, which would otherwise lead to fusion. The present study shows that the angular distribution of fragments from quasi-fission processes are very sensitive to the occurrence of this reaction mechanism. A slight modification of one parameter in the theory demanded by the observation of quasi-fission for lighter projectiles via the angular distributions, has the consequence of posing even more-stringent limitations on heavy-ion-fusion reactions. This reduces even further the possibility for synthesizing and identifying superheavy elements in heavy-ion-fusion reactions

  10. Heavy ion induction linacs for fusion

    Bangerter, R.O.; Ho, D.D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976 Denis Keefe proposed the heavy ion induction linac as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plants. Subsequent research has established that heavy ion fusion (HIF) is potentially an attractive energy source and has identified the issues that must be resolved to make HIF a reality. The principal accelerator issues are achieving adequately low transverse and longitudinal emittance and acceptable cost. Results from the single and multiple beam experiments at LBL on transverse emittance are encouraging. A predicted high current longitudinal instability that can affect longitudinal emittance is currently being studied. This paper presents an overview of economics and ICF target requirements and their relationship to accelerator design. It also presents a summary of the status of heavy ion induction linac research. It concludes with a discussion of research plans, including plans for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE)

  11. rf linac approach to heavy ion fusion

    Swenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessary properties of funneling particle beams from multiple accelerators into combined beams having higher current are outlined, and methods are proposed which maximize the efficiency of this process. A heavy ion fusion driver system example is presented which shows the large advantages in system efficiency to be gained by proper funneling

  12. Recirculating induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Barnard, J.J.; Deadrick, F.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1993-01-01

    We have recently completed a two-year study of recirculating induction heavy-ion accelerators (recirculators) as low-cost drivers for inertial-fusion-energy power plants. We present here a summary of that study and other recent work on recirculators

  13. The technology of heavy-ion fusion

    Lawson, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of inertial confinement fusion using heavy ion beams as a driver is surveyed, with reference to parameters which might ultimately be suitable for a commercial power station. Particular attention is drawn to the parameters associated with the final focusing of the beam on the target. (author)

  14. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LLNL

    Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.; Callahan, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    We review the status of the experimental campaign being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, involving scaled investigations of the acceleration and transport of space-charge dominated heavy ion beams. The ultimate goal of these experiments is to help lay the groundwork for a larger scale ion driven inertial fusion reactor, the purpose of which is to produce inexpensive and clean electric power

  15. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion

    Keefe, D.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental progress to date has strengthened our belief in the soundness and attractiveness of the heavy ion method for fusion. What surprises that have shown up in the laboratory (e.g., in SBTE) have all been of the pleasant kind so far. The systems assessment has supported the view that the heavy ion approach can lead to economically attractive electric power and that a wide variety of options exists in all parameters. The systems work has also been of great help in pointing the way for the research and development activities

  16. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam γ-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of 16 O and 40 Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on 10 B + 16 O and 12 C + 14 N → 26 Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table

  17. Chamber propagation physics for heavy ion fusion

    Callahan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Chamber transport is an important area of study for heavy ion fusion. Final focus and chamber-transport are high leverage areas providing opportunities to significantly decrease the cost of electricity from a heavy ion fusion power plant. Chamber transport in two basic regimes is under consideration. In the low chamber density regime (approx-lt 0.003 torr), ballistic or nearly-ballistic transport is used. Partial beam neutralization has been studied to offset the effects of beam stripping. In the high chamber density regime (approx-gt.1 torr), two transport modes (pinched transport and channel transport) are under investigation. Both involve focusing the beam outside the chamber then transporting it at small radius (∼ 2 mm). Both high chamber density modes relax the constraints on the beam quality needed from the accelerator which will reduce the driver cost and the cost of electricity

  18. Chamber propagation physics for heavy ion fusion

    Callahan, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Chamber transport is a key area of study for heavy ion fusion. Final focus and chamber transport are high leverage areas providing opportunities to decrease significantly the cost of electricity from a heavy ion fusion power plant. Chamber transport in two basic regimes is under consideration. In the low chamber density regime (below about 0.003 Torr), ballistic or nearly ballistic transport is used. Partial beam neutralization has been studied to offset the effects of beam stripping. In the high chamber density regime (above about 0.1 Torr), two transport modes (pinched transport and channel transport) are under investigation. Both involve focusing the beam outside the chamber and then transporting it at small radius (about 2 mm). Both high chamber density modes relax the constraints on the beam quality needed from the accelerator which will reduce the driver cost and the cost of electricity. (orig.)

  19. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K + , 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than ± 0.2% over the 1 micros pulse

  20. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2005-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy. (author)

  1. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy

  2. Inertial fusion with heavy ion beams

    Bock, R.; Hofmann, I.; Arnold, R.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principle of inertial confinement is the irradiation of a small pellet filled with DT-fuel by laser or particle beams in order to compress the fuel and ignite it. As 'drivers' for this process large laser installations and light-ion devices have been built since then and the results obtained during the past few years have increased our confidence, that the ignition conditions might be reached. Further conditions, however, have to be fulfilled for operating a power plant. In particular, the driver needs to have enough efficiency to be economical, and for a continuous energy production a high repetition rate and availability is required. It is less than ten years since it was realized that heavy ion beams might be a promising candidate for achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Due to the evolution of high-energy and heavy-ion physics during the past 25 years, accelerators have attained a high technical and technological standard and an excellent operational reliability. Nevertheless, the heavy ion driver for a fusion power plant requires beam specifications exceeding those of existing accelerators considerably. (Auth.)

  3. Target design for heavy ion beam fusion

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Metzler, N.

    1981-07-01

    Target design for Heavy Ion Beam Fusion and related physics are discussed. First, a modified version of the Kidder-Bodner model for pellet gain is presented and is used to define the working point (Esub(beam) = 4.8 MJ, Gain 83) for a reactor size target. Secondly, stopping of heavy ions in hot dense plasma is investigated and numerical results for stopping powers and ranges of 10 GeV Bi-ions in Pb, Li, and PbLi-alloy are given. Finally, results of an explicit implosion calculation, using the 1-D code MINIHY, are discussed in detail. The hydrodynamic efficiency is found to be about 5%. Special attention is given to the shock sequence leading to the ignition configuration. Also the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the absorber-pusher interface is estimated. (orig.)

  4. Heavy ion inertial fusion - an overview

    Lawson, J.D.

    1983-09-01

    Energetic heavy ions represent an alternative to laser light and light ions as ''drivers'' for supplying energy for inertial confinement fusion. To induce ignition of targets containing thermonuclear fuel, an energy of several megajoules has to be focused on to a target with radius a few millimetres in a time of some tens of nanoseconds. Serious study of the use of heavy ion drivers for producing useful power in this way has been underway for seven years, though funding has been at a low level. In this paper the requirements for targets, accelerator, and reactor vessel for containing the thermonuclear explosion are surveyed, and some of the problems to be solved before the construction of a power station can realistically be contemplated are discussed. (author)

  5. 3-megajoule heavy-ion fusion driver

    Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.; Keefe, D.

    1981-06-01

    The initiation of inertial confinement fusion reactions with a heavy ion particle beam has been under intensive study since 1976, and the progress of this study is principally documented in the proceedings of annual workshops held by US National Laboratories. At this time a 3MJ, 150 TW, ion beam is a good choice to initiate microexplosions with energy gain of 100. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has made systems studies based on a Linear Induction Accelerator to meet the beam requirements. The accelerator system, expected performance and cost, and technical problems to be addressed in the near future are discussed

  6. Heavy ion fusion physics issues

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    A simple systems model has been used to determine the sensitivity of the cost of electricity and the total cost of a power plant to the various uncertainties expressed in the following six issues. (1) can, at reasonable cost, an accelerator be built that puts more than 1 MJ of energy into a small 6-D phase space volume. (2) Can the beam be focused over a distance of several meters onto a small target in a reaction chamber. (3) Do present calculations adequately describe ion energy deposition. (4) Do current numerical simulations adequately describe the hydrodynamic and thermonuclear behavior of targets. (5) Can targets be cheaply mass produced. (6) Can an economical, tritium-breeding reactor be built

  7. Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE

  8. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Keefe, D.

    1985-01-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an RF linac/storage ring combination as an intertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL

  9. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Keefe, D.

    1985-05-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an rf linac/storage ring combination as an inertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL. 28 refs., 4 figs

  10. Economic aspects of heavy ion fusion

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The usual parameter space for examining scenarios for heavy ion fusion power plants has generally been based on large, slow cycling, reactor chambers which are only marginally different from chambers proposed for laser drivers. This paper will examine the economic implications of assuming that an inexpensive, low gain pellet is available and that a suitable high-repetition rate reactor has been devised. Interesting scenarios are found that generate economically feasible power from a system with a minimum net capacity of approx. 1 GWe compared to the larger approx. 4 GWe required in previous studies

  11. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  12. Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Key events in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) field are usually marked by the dates for the International Symposium series which began in 1976 at the Claremont Hotel, and most recently in the eleventh meeting in the series at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in September 1995. The main purpose of this talk will be to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) The US program is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) The European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression

  13. Experimental approaches to heavy ion fusion

    Obayashi, H.; Fujii-e, Y.; Yamaki, T.

    1986-01-01

    As a feasibility study on heavy-ion-beam induced inertial fusion (HIF) approach, a conceptual plant design called HIBLIC-I has been worked out since 1982. The characteristic features of this design are summarized. To experimentally confirm them and prove them at least in principle, considerations are made on possible experimental programs to give substantial information on these critical phenomena. In HIBLIC-I, an accelerator complex is adopted as driver system to provide 6 beams of 208 Pb +1 ions at 15 GeV, which will be simultaneously focussed on a single shell, three layered target. The target is designed to give an energy gain of 100, so that the total beam energy of 4 MJ with 160 TW power may release 400 MJ fusion energy. A reactor chamber is cylindrical with double-walled structure made of HT-9. There are three layers of liquid Li flow inside the reactor. The innermost layer forms a Li curtain which is effective to recover the residual cavity pressure. A thick upward flow serves as coolant and tritium breeder. Tritium will be recovered by yttrium gettering system. A driver system is operated at the repetition rate of 10 Hz and supplies beams for 10 reactor chambers. Then the plant yield of fusion power becomes 4000 MWt, corresponding a net electric output of 1.5 GW. Experimental programs related to HIBLIC-I is described and discussed, including those for heavy-ion-beam experiments and proposals for lithium curtain by electron beam to clarify the key phenomena in HIBLIC-I cavity. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  15. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  16. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brady, V.; Bisognano, J.; Celata, C.; Chupp, W.W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Laslett, L.J.; Lee, E.P.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.

    1984-01-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams. (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to proportional70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units. (orig.)

  17. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  18. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  20. Progress in heavy ion fusion research

    Celata, C.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, G.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.; Sharp, W.M.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion program has recently commissioned several new experiments. In the High Current Experiment [P. A. Seidl et al., Laser Part. Beams 20, 435 (2003)], a single low-energy beam with driver-scale charge-per-unit-length and space-charge potential is being used to study the limits to transportable current posed by nonlinear fields and secondary atoms, ions, and electrons. The Neutralized Transport Experiment similarly employs a low-energy beam with driver-scale perveance to study final focus of high perveance beams and neutralization for transport in the target chamber. Other scaled experiments--the University of Maryland Electron Ring [P. G. O'Shea et al., accepted for publication in Laser Part. Beams] and the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment [R. C. Davidson, H. Qin, and G. Shvets, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1020 (2000)]--will provide fundamental physics results on processes with longer scale lengths. An experiment to test a new injector concept is also in the design stage. This paper will describe the goals and status of these experiments, as well as progress in theory and simulation. A proposed future proof-of-principle experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment, will also be described

  1. High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    Qi, N.; Schein, J.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy Ion fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in ∼0.5 A current beams with ∼20 micros pulse widths and ∼10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but suffer from sloe turn-on, heating problems for large areas, are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states, in short and long pulse bursts, with low emittance and high beam currents. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications is investigated. An existing ion source at LBNL was modified to produce ∼0.5 A, ∼60 keV Gd (A∼158) ion beams. The experimental effort concentrated on beam noise reduction, pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and achieving low beam emittance at 0.5 A ion current level. Details of the source development will be reported

  2. Accelerator aspects of heavy ion induced inertial fusion

    Boehme, D

    1983-01-01

    Besides the possibilities of the magnetic fusion those of inertial fusion have increasingly found interest. Bundled photon and corpuscular beams shall be symetrically focussed from the outside on a pellet with the fusion fuel being compressed far beyond the density of the ordinary solids. Laser, light ion and heavy ion beams can be used as driver beams. The GSI took over the project leadership for a five years' research programme with formulated questions on heavy ion fusion. The project is promoted by the BMFT. During the international symposium the opportunity of intensive discussions on research work in this field in different countries was made use of.

  3. Complete fusion in light 'heavy ion' collisions

    Volant, C.; Wieleczko, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    In the last few years a large amount of data have been obtained on the complete fusion of light ions. One of the aim of these studies was to look for aspects which could not be explained by the macroscopic description of the fusion which works quite well for heavier systems. Indeed, it was suggested that for light systems the fusion could be sometimes limited by compound nucleus properties or by some particular structures in the entrance channel. In this talk new results on fusion experiments obtained by the Saclay group are presented

  4. Plasma focus as an heavy ion source in the problem of heavy ion fusion

    Gribkov, V.A.; Dubrovskij, A.V.; Kalachev, N.V.; Krokhin, O.N.; Silin, P.V.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experiments on the ion flux formation in a plasma focus (PF) to develop a multicharged ion source for thermonuclear facility driver are presented. In plasma focus accelerating section copper ions were injected. Advantages of the suggested method of ion beam formation are demonstrated. Beam emittance equalling < 0.1 cmxmrad is obtained. Plasma focus ion energy exceeds 1 MeV. Plasma focus in combination with a neodymium laser is thought to be a perspective ion source for heavy ion fusion

  5. Heavy ion fusion reactions: comparison among different models

    Canto, L F; Carlson, B V; Hussein, M S

    1988-03-01

    A comparison among different ion fusion models is presented. In particular, the multistep aspects of the recently proposed Dinucleus Doorway Model are made explicit and the model is confronted with other compound nucleus limitation models. It is suggested that the latter models provide effective one-step descriptions of heavy ion fusion.

  6. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts

  7. Resolving key heavy-ion fusion target issues with relativistic heavy-ion research accelerators

    Arnold, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators designed for relativistic nuclear research experiments can also be adapted for target research in heavy-ion driver inertial fusion. Needle-shaped plasmas can be created that are adequate for studying basic properties of matter at high energy density. Although the ion range is very long, the specific deposited power nevertheless increases with kinetic energy, as the focus spot can be made smaller and more ions can be accumulated in larger rings

  8. Accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion: Progress and plans

    Bangerter, R.O.; Friedman, A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Program is the principal part of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program in the Office of Fusion Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy. The emphasis of the Heavy Ion Program is the development of accelerators for fusion power production. Target physics research and some elements of fusion chamber development are supported in the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, a dual purpose (defense and energy) program in the Defense Programs part of the Department of Energy. The accelerator research program will establish feasibility through a sequence of scaled experiments that will demonstrate key physics and engineering issues at low cost compared to other fusion programs. This paper discusses progress in the accelerator program and outlines how the planned research will address the key economic issues of inertial fusion energy

  9. Transport of heavy ions in inertial confinement fusion

    Parvazian, A.; Shahbandari Gouchani, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we have investigated the interaction of heavy ions (U) with a target (Au). In inertial confinement fusion method Interaction between heavy ion beam and target was simulated, Numerical analysis of the Boltzmann Fokker Planck equation used in order to optimize the material of the target and Energy deposition of ion beam to electrons and ions of target and The thickness of the target were calculated.

  10. Heavy ion fusion systems assessment - An overview

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Zuckerman, D.S.; Billman, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    A study is underway to evaluate the technical performance and economic attractiveness of linear induction-driven Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) as an energy source for electrical power generation. This study is a cooperative effort of several national laboratories, universities, industrial contractors and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) under the leadership of Los Alamos National Laboratory. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, assisted by Titan Systems, Inc, has the responsibility to integrate the cost and performance models of the driver, reactor and balance of plant systems, evaluate different system options and assess the overall technical and economic performance of an HIF power plant. Individual system options have been designed and analyzed by the other participants in the DOE-sponsored parent study and are provided for system integration and evaluation. This paper describes the integration and evaluation effort for the HIF Systems Assessment. Specific areas discussed include, the definition of Systems Requirements, the development of Assessment Methodology, the characterization of System Options, the description of Systems Assessment Code, the assessment of Code Results, the ranking of System Options, the selection of Attractive System Options, and the determination of Preferred Operating Parameter Space. The initial study effort was to define the system requirements from the standpoint of the overall power plant. This was accomplished by establishing overall power plant performance goals and specifications. The plant was assumed to be dedicated only to electrical power production in the 2020 time frame enabling the study to look beyond developmental and startup difficulties. The net plant output was defined to be between 400 and 1500 MWe which would allow investigating the effect of plant size

  11. Heavy-ion accelerator research for inertial fusion

    1987-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers a most attractive long-term solution to the problem of future energy supplies: The fuel is virtually inexhaustible and the fusion reaction is notably free of long-lived radioactive by-products. Also, because the fuel is in the form of a plasma, there is no solid fuel core that could melt down. The DOE supports two major fusion research programs to exploit these virtues, one based on magnetic confinement and a second on inertial confinement. One part of the program aimed at inertial fusion is known as Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, or HIFAR. In this booklet, the aim is to place this effort in the context of fusion research generally, to review the brief history of heavy-ion fusion, and to describe the current status of the HIFAR program

  12. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years

  13. Progress in heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion

    Friedman, A.; Bangerter, R.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with heavy-ion induction accelerators developed as fusion drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion power. It presents the results of research aimed at developing drivers having reduced cost and size as well as the Elise accelerator being built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. An experimental program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concerning recirculating induction accelerators is also presented. Eventually, the document provides some information on other elements of the U.S. Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) research program: the experimental study of beam merging, a magnetic quadrupole development program and a study of plasma lenses. (TEC). 28 refs., 6 figs

  14. Direct-driven target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. A fuel target alignment error would happen in a fusion reactor; the target alignment error induces heavy ion beam illumination non-uniformity on a target. On the other hand, heavy ion beam accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. First we study the effect of driver irradiation non-uniformity induced by the target alignment error (dz) on the target implosion. We found that dz should be less than about 130 μm for a sufficient fusion energy output. We also optimize the wobbling scheme. The spiral wobbling heavy ion beams would provide a promissing scheme to the uniform beam illumination. (paper)

  15. Inertial Fusion Driven By Intense Heavy-Ion Beams

    Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Dorf, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Terry, M.R.; Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Lidia, S.M.; Ni, P.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Takakuwa, J.H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R.A.; Koniges, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  16. Realistic modeling of chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Transport of intense heavy-ion beams to an inertial-fusion target after final focus is simulated here using a realistic computer model. It is found that passing the beam through a rarefied plasma layer before it enters the fusion chamber can largely neutralize the beam space charge and lead to a usable focal spot for a range of ion species and input conditions

  17. Dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion

    Mikhajlova, T.I.; Mikhajlov, I.N.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Di Toro, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamical effects in the initial phase of fusion reactions are studied following the evolution of two colliding 100 Mo ions. The role of elastic forces associated with the Fermi-surface deformation is shown by comparing the results obtained with and without taking the memory effects into account. The Bass barrier separating fused and scattered configurations and the lower bound for the extra push energy are estimated. Examples of cases are shown in which the excitation energy and deformation dependence of the friction parameter are fictitious and simulate the effects of collective motion related with the Fermi-surface deformations

  18. New heavy-ion-fusion accelerator research program

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-05-01

    This paper will briefly summarize the concepts of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), especially those aspects that are important to its potential for generating electrical power. It will also note highlights of the various HIF programs throughout the world. Especially significant is that the US Department of Energy (DOE) plans a program, beginning in 1984, aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The new program concentrates on the aspects of accelerator design that are important to ICF, and for this reason is called HIF Accelerator Research

  19. The fusion of heavy ions in an interaction potential model

    Zipper, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper contains the problems connected with fusion processes in heavy ions collision. Results of experimental fusion data for reactions: 9 Be + 12 C, 6 Li + 28 Si, 9 Be + 28 Si, 12 C + 28 Si, 12 C + 16 O and 16 O + 16 O are presented. Comparison of measured fusion cross sections with predictions of the fusion potential model have been made. The validity of this model for both light systems, like 9 Be + 12 C and heavy systems, like 35 Cl + 62 Ni, have been discussed. In conclusion, it should be stated that fusion cross sections could be correctly predicted by the potential model with a potential describing the elastic scattering data. (author)

  20. Design study of an accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    Katayama, T.; Noda, A.; Tokuda, N.; Hirao, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Design of a demonstration accelerator for heavy ion fusion based on a synchrotron system is briefly described. The proposed complex system of injector linac, rapid cycling synchrotron and five accumulation rings can produce a peak current 1.6 kA, peak power 32 TW and total energy 0.3 MJ. Investigations of the intrabeam scattering give a lifetime of the beam longer than the fusion cycle time of 1 sec

  1. Internuclear potentials from heavy ion fusion excitation functions

    Birkelund, J.R.; Huizenga, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is given of the determination of internuclear potentials from heavy ion fusion excitation functions. It is found that this calculation is complicated by the difficulties involved in a calculation of the frictional energy loss and by the problem of measurement of excitation function with sufficient accuracy to closely define the barrier radius. Any quantitative comparisons made between the nuclear potential derived from fusion data and theoretical nuclear potentials depend upon the solutions of the above problems. 15 references

  2. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena

  3. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly ...

    82, No. 5. — journal of. May 2014 physics pp. 879–891. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly-bound projectile breakup reactions ... on the collision energy and the moment of inertia of the deformed nucleus. ... where each individual nucleus consists of a number of protons and neutrons, in some.

  4. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented

  5. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma-types and the porous plug and hot alumino--silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino--silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented

  6. The heavy ion fusion program in the USA

    Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.; Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to >100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade. (author)

  7. Simulation of Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion-Fusion Drivers

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs

  8. SIMULATION OF CHAMBER TRANSPORT FOR HEAVY-ION FUSION DRIVERS

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2004-01-01

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs

  9. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Godlove, T.F.; Keefe, D.

    1980-03-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators

  10. Dynamics in heavy ion fusion and fission

    Bjoernholm, S.

    1972-01-01

    Dynamical aspects of heavy ion fussion and fission, mainly the aspect of damping which is meant as the dissipation of kinetic energy and the aspect of the effective mass of the fission motion, are discussed. Two categories of evidence of damping effects are given. One relates to the damping of the fission motion for the ground state shape and for the isomeric more elongated shape. The other relates to the damping of the fission motion from the last barrier to the scission point. The dependence of the effective mass associated with the fission motion on the deormation of nucleus is shown. As the elongation of the nucleus increases the effective mass of the fission motion varies strongly from being about forty times greater than the reduced mass in the beta-vibrational state of the ground state shape to being equal to the reduced mass in the moment of scission. Damping effects are expected to be propartional to the difference between the effective mass and the reduced mass. It is concluded that the damping in fussion reactions is relatively weak for lighter products and quite strong for superheavy products like 236 U or 252 Cf. (S.B.)

  11. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    Logan, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators seek to provide the scientific and technical basis for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an integrated source-to-target physics experiment recently included in the list of future facilities planned by the U.S. Department of Energy. To optimize the design of IBX and future inertial fusion energy drivers, current HIF-VNL research is addressing several key issues (representative, not inclusive): gas and electron cloud effects which can exacerbate beam loss at high beam perveance and magnet aperture fill factors; ballistic neutralized and assisted-pinch focusing of neutralized heavy ion beams; limits on longitudinal compression of both neutralized and un-neutralized heavy ion bunches; and tailoring heavy ion beams for uniform target energy deposition for high energy density physics (HEDP) studies.

  12. Heavy ion accelerators for inertial fusion

    Rubbia, C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle accelerators are used for accelerating the elementary, stable and separable constituents of matters to relativistic speed. These beams are of fundamental interest in the study on the ultimate constituents of matters and their interaction. Particle accelerators are the most promising driver for the fusion power reactors based on inertial confinement. The principle of inertial confinement fusion, radiation driven indirect drive, the accelerator complex and so on are described. (K.I.)

  13. Heavy-ion fusion: future promise and future directions

    Dudziak, D.J.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The previous papers in this heavy-ion fusion special session have described work performed as part of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) Project. Key technical issues in the design and costing of targets, induction linacs, beam transport, reactor, balance of plant, and systems integration have been identified and described. The HIFSA systems model was used to measure the relative value of improvements in physics understanding and technology developments in many different areas. Within the limits of our 1986 knowledge and imagination, this study defines the most attractive heavy-ion fusion (HIF) power plant concepts. The project has deliberately avoided narrowing the focus to a point facility design; thus, the generic systems modeling capability developed in the process allows for relative comparisons among design options. We will describe what are thought to be achievable breakthroughs and what the relative significance of the breakthroughs will be, although the specific mechanism for achieving some breakthroughs may not be clear at this point. This degree of optimism concerning such breakthroughs is probably at least as conservative as that used in other fusion assessments

  14. Fusion barriers in heavy ion collisions

    Zhu Long; Su Jun; Xie Wenjie; Guo Chenchen; Zhang Donghong; Zhang Fengshou

    2014-01-01

    Study of fusion barrier is very important for people to better understand fusion reactions. In this paper the Improved Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (ImIQMD) model is introduced firstly. Then the shell correction effects, energy dependence, isospin effects and orientation effects of fusion barrier are studied. The fusion barriers for the fusion reactions "4"0Ca + "4"0Ca, "4"8Ca + "2"0"8Pb, "4"8Ca + "2"0"4Pb and "1"6O + "1"5"4Sm are extracted. The negative shell correction energies lower potential barriers of a certain reaction. A complex phenomenon of energy dependence is observed. It is also found that incident energy dependence of the barrier radius and barrier height shows opposite behaviors. The Coulomb potential shows weak energy dependence when distance of two colliding nuclei is lower than the touching distance. The isospin effects of the potential barrier are investigated. The orientation effects of the potential barrier are also discussed for the system "1"6O + "1"5"4Sm. (authors)

  15. Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    Kawata, S; Noguchi, K; Suzuki, T; Kurosaki, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Zhang, W; Xie, J; Zhang, H; Dai, D

    2014-01-01

    In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. (invited comment)

  16. Heavy-ion-fusion-science: summary of US progress

    Yu, S.S.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Covo, M. Kireeff; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.L.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two years noteworthy experimental and theoretical progress has been made towards the top-level scientific question for the US programme on heavy-ion-fusion-science and high energy density physics: 'How can heavy-ion beams be compressed to the high intensity required to create high energy density matter and fusion conditions?' New results in transverse and longitudinal beam compression, high-brightness transport and beam acceleration will be reported. Central to this campaign is final beam compression. With a neutralizing plasma, we demonstrated transverse beam compression by an areal factor of over 100 and longitudinal compression by a factor of > 50. We also report on the first demonstration of simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression in plasma. High beam brightness is key to high intensity on target, and detailed experimental and theoretical studies on the effect of secondary electrons on beam brightness degradation are reported. A new accelerator concept for near-term low-cost target heating experiments was invented, and the predicted beam dynamics validated experimentally. We show how these scientific campaigns have created new opportunities for interesting target experiments in the warm dense matter regime. Finally, we summarize progress towards heavy-ion fusion, including the demonstration of a compact driver-size high-brightness ion injector. For all components of our high intensity campaign, the new results have been obtained via tightly coupled efforts in experiments, simulations and theory

  17. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    Chen, Y.J.; Hewett, D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced

  18. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D. W.

    1993-05-01

    We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

  19. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research in the USA

    Bangerter, R.O.; Godlove, T.D.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Keefe, D.

    1985-01-01

    In October 1983, a Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research programme (HIFAR) was established under the Office of Energy Research of the United States Department of Energy. The programme goal over the next several years is to establish a data base in accelerator physics and technology that can allow the potential of heavy ion fusion to be accurately assessed. Three new developments have taken place in the HIFAR programme. First, a decision has been made to concentrate the experimental programme on the development of multiple-beam induction linacs. Second, new beam transport experiments over a large number of quadrupole elements show that stable beam propagation occurs for significantly higher beam currents than had been believed possible a few years ago. Third, design calculations now show that a test accelerator of modest size and cost can come within a factor of three of testing almost all of the physics and technical issues appropriate to a power plant driver. (author)

  20. Scaled beam merging experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    P. A. Seidl

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving option employed in many designs for heavy ion fusion drivers. However, the resultant transverse phase space dilution must be minimized so as not to sacrifice focusability at the target. A prototype combining experiment has been completed employing four 3-mA Cs^{+} beams injected at 160 keV. The focusing elements upstream of the merge consist of four quadrupoles and a final combined-function element (quadrupole and dipole. Following the merge, the resultant single beam is transported in a single alternating gradient channel where the subsequent evolution of the distribution function is diagnosed. The results are in fair agreement with particle-in-cell simulations. They indicate that for some heavy ion fusion driver designs, the phase space dilution from merging is acceptable.

  1. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  2. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2005-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy-ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high-energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy-ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high-energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy

  3. Heavy-ion fusion: Future promise and future directions

    Dudziak, D.J.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The previous several papers in this heavy-ion fusion special session have described work that has taken place as part of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) project. Key technical issues in the design and costing of targets, accelerator systems, beam transport, reactor and balance-of-plant, and systems integration have been identified and described. The HIFSA systems model was used to measure the relative value of improvements in physics understanding and technology developments in many different areas. The result of this study has been to, within the limits of our 1986 imagination and creativity, define the ''most attractive'' future heavy-ion fusion (HIF) power plant at some time in the future (beyond the year 2020 in this case). The project has specifically avoided narrowing the focus to a point facility design; thus, the generic systems modeling capability developed in the process allows for a relative comparison among design options. The authors describe what are thought to be achievable breakthroughs and what the relative significance of the breakthroughs will be, although the specific mechanism for achieving some breakthroughs may not be clear at this point

  4. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A high current, low emittance, high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver accelerator scale beam. Using a high charge state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system, which consists of a gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 3D beam simulations and experimental feasibility study results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector. (orig.)

  5. Progress in heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion

    Friedman, A.; Bangerter, R.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy-ion induction accelerators are being developed as fusion drivers for ICF power production in the US Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, in the Office of Fusion Energy of the US Department of Energy. In addition, they represent an attractive driver option for a high-yield microfusion facility for defense research. This paper describes recent progress in induction drivers for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF), and plans for future work. It presents research aimed at developing drivers having reduced cost and size, specifically advanced induction linacs and recirculating induction accelerators (recirculators). The goals and design of the Elise accelerator being built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), as the first stage of the ILSE (Induction Linac Systems Experiments) program, are described. Elise will accelerate, for the first time, space-charge-dominated ion beams which are of full driver scale in line-charge density and diameter. Elise will be a platform on which the critical beam manipulations of the induction approach can be explored. An experimental program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) exploring the recirculator principle on a small scale is described in some detail; it is expected that these studies will result ultimately in an operational prototype recirculating induction accelerator. In addition, other elements of the US HIF program are described

  6. Recent US advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev, E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2007-01-01

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport, and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by >50X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. We are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy

  7. Is laser cooling for heavy-ion fusion feasible?

    Ho, D.D.-M.; Brandon, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams, each with current in the kiloampere range and particle energy in the giga-electronvolt range, must be focused onto a millimetre-size spot to provide the power required for ignition of high-gain targets for inertial confinement fusion. However, the focal spot size is always enlarged by chromatic aberration generated by the thermal spread of the beam ions in the direction of beam propagation. Enlarged focal spot degrades the target performance. For high-current beams, the conventional remedy for chromatic aberration using sextupole magnets has been shown to be ineffective. If novel correction schemes can be found, then the spot size can be reduced to below that previously believed possible. Smaller spots can mean lower energy targets so that the heavy-ion fusion (HIF) scenario can look more attractive. Success in laser cooling of ion beams in storage rings has inspired us to explore the feasibility of applying laser cooling for HIF, and the recirculator configuration proposed for HIF appears to be well suited for this purpose. However, using particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical arguments, we demonstrate in this paper that although laser cooling of heavy-ion beams is feasible in principle, the rapid velocity-space diffusion of ions in the bump-in-tail distribution, set up by the cooling lasers, limits the velocity-space compressibility of the thermal spread along the beam. Consequently, laser cooling is impractical for high-current, heavy-ion beams for the proposed recirculator configuration. Nevertheless, if the recirculator architecture or the target requirement can reduce the beam current, then the cooling scheme described here would be useful. This scheme may also be applicable to the RF linac and storage ring approach to HIF.

  8. Fusion hindrance in reactions with very heavy ions: Border between normal and hindered fusion

    Shen Caiwan; Li Qingfeng; Boilley, David; Shen Junjie; Abe, Yasuhisa

    2011-01-01

    The fusion hindrance in heavy-ion collisions is studied in the framework of the two-center liquid drop model. It appears that the neck and the radial degrees of freedom might both be hampered by an inner potential barrier on their path between the contact configuration to the compound nucleus. Heavy-ion reactions with and without the two kinds of fusion hindrance are classified through systematic calculations. It is found that the number of reactions without radial fusion hindrance is much smaller than that without neck fusion hindrance, and for both kinds of fusion hindrance the number of reactions without fusion hindrance at small mass-asymmetry parameter α is smaller than that at large α. In the formation of a given compound nucleus, if a reaction with α c is not hindered, then other reactions with α>α c are also not hindered, as is well known experimentally.

  9. The heavy ion fusion research program in West Germany

    Bock, R.

    1984-01-01

    The study on the feasibility of heavy ion beam for inertial confinement fusion was started four years ago, setting the main goal to identify and investigate the key issues of heavy ion fusion concept. The fund for this program has been provided by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. In this paper, the outline of the present research is shown, and some recent achievement is summarized. Moreover, the idea about the goal and the new direction of the future program are discussed. In the present program, two activities are distinguished, that is, the expermental and theoretical studies on accelerators, target physics and atomic physics, and the conceptual design study for a heavy ion-driven power plant. A RF linac with storage rings was chosen as the driver concept. In the accelerator research, ion source studies, RFQ development and beam transport measurement have been considered. Two beam transport experiments were carried out. In the conceptual design study, the HIBALL driver concept, the reactor chamber having the first wall protection using Pb-Li eutectic and so on have been studied. An accelerator facility of modest size has been suggested for basic accelerator physics studies. (Kako, I.)

  10. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Godlove, T.F.; Keefe, D.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators. (orig.) [de

  11. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    Peterson, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10-4 torr (3×1012 cm-3) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors.

  12. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    Peterson, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10 -4 torr (3 x 10 12 cm -3 ) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors

  13. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2004-01-01

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm 2 was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm 2 of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl - was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm 2 , sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source

  14. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE

  15. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Yu, S.S.; Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.B.; Barnard, J.J.; Brown, T.; Callahan, D.A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Pemberton, S.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant

  16. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs

  17. Low frequency RFQ linacs for heavy ion fusion

    Moretti, A.; Watson, J.M.; Martin, R.L.; Lari, R.J.; Stockley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Low frequency, radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structures are under study at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as the low-velocity portion of an rf linac driver for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion. Besides offering a direct comparison with the present ANL front end, it would provide a second low-velocity Xe +1 linac for funneling experiments at 22.9 MeV. Heavy ion RFQ accelerators are characterized by their low rf operating frequency of about 10 MHz. The large size of a manifold-fed four-vane, 10 MHz RFQ resonator structure (about 6 m in diameter) makes it unacceptable for heavy ions; therefore, alternate structures are under study at Argonne. The structures under study are: (1) a Wideroe-type structure with external stub lines, (2) a Wideroe-type structure with the stub lines internal to the structure, (3) a split coaxial line resonator with modulated vanes, and (4) a interdigital line resonator with modulated cylindrical rods. The split coaxial line resonator seems best at this low frequency. It is compact and very efficient. About 15.5 m of linac structure excited with 560 kW of rf power is sufficient to accelerate 30 mA of Xe +1 with 97% transmission efficiency from 250 keV to 3 MeV

  18. Nuclear dynamics in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions

    Kapoor, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy ion induced fission and fission-like reactions evolve through a complex nuclear dynamics encountered in the medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. In the recent years, measurements of the fragment-neutron and fragment-charged particle angular correlations in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions, have provided new information on the dynamical times of nuclear deformations of the initial dinuclear complex to the fission saddle point and the scission point. From the studies of fragment angular distributions in heavy ion induced fission it has been possible to infer the relaxation times of the dinuclear complex in the K-degree of freedom and our recent measurements on the entrance channel dependence of fragment anisotropies have provided an experimental signature of the presence of fissions before K-equilibration. This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical status of the above studies with particular regard to the questions relating to dynamical times, nuclear dissipation and the effect of nuclear dissipation on the K-distributions at the fission saddle in completely equilibrated compound nucleus. (author). 19 refs., 9 figs

  19. Limitations of heavy ion synchrotron acceleration for inertial fusion

    Berley, D.; Danby, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential benefits from heavy ion inertial fusion motivate the rapid development of a program to test the principle. To define the program, accelerator parameters which have not hitherto been commonly considered must be studied interactively with basic questions of space charge limitations and charge exchange. Beam lifetime and power output efficiency may ultimately lead to a linear accelerator as the choice for an ignition device. For proof of principle, however, at power levels way beyond present inertial fusion experience, synchrotrons may have applicability at lower cost. The power and energy which can be delivered by the accelerating system to the reaction chamber are limited by space charge defocussing and intra beam charge exchange scattering, both of which are beam density dependent. These put constraints on linac injector energy, synchrotron aperture, synchrotron magnetic rigidity, acceleration time, ion species and charge to mass ratio. The accelerator system considered is classical. A linear accelerator injects into a synchrotron which accelerates the ion beam to the full energy delivered to the target. The maximum energy deliverable by a synchrotron is treated in section I. The targetting parameters and the energy gained through synchrotron acceleration completely determine the synchrotron aperture. These are discussed in sections II and III. The ion range in material is treated in section IV. The problem of intrabeam scattering is considered in section V. Finally, in section VI is a discussion of examples to meet specified goals

  20. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.

    1995-04-01

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  1. An induction Linac driven heavy-ion fusion systems model

    Zuckerman, D.S.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Waganer, L.M.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized systems model of a heavy-ion fusion (HIF) reactor power plant is presented. The model can be used to analyze the behavior and projected costs of a commercial power plant using an induction linear accelerator (Linac) as a driver. Each major component of the model (targets, reactor cavity, Linac, beam transport, power flow, balance of plant, and costing) is discussed. Various target, reactor cavity, Linac, and beam transport schemes are examined and compared. The preferred operating regime for such a power plant is also examined. The results show that HIF power plants can compete with other advanced energy concepts at the 1000-MW (electric) power level [cost of electricity (COE) -- 50 mill/kW . h] provided that the cost savings predicted for Linacs using higher charge-state ions (+3) can be realized

  2. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  3. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios

  4. Heavy-ion fusion driver research at Berkeley and Livermore

    Seidl, P.; Bangerter, R.; Celata, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy is restructuring the U.S. fusion program to place a greater emphasis on science. As a result, we will not build the ILSE or Elise heavy ion fusion (HIF) facilities described in 1992 and 1994 conferences. Instead we are performing smaller experiments to address important scientific questions. Accelerator technology for HIF is similar to that for other applications such as high energy physics and nuclear physics. The beam physics, however, differs from the physics encountered in most accelerators, where the pressure arising from the beam temperature (emittance) is the dominant factor determining beam size and focusing system design. In HIF, space charge is the dominant feature, leading us into a parameter regime where.the beam plasma frequency becomes comparable to the betatron frequency. Our experiments address the physics of non-neutral plasmas in this novel regime. Because the beam plasma frequency is low, Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations provide a good description of most of our experiments. Accelerators for HIF consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss experiments in injection, combining, and bending

  5. Heavy ion fusion targets; issues for fast ignition

    Bangerter, Roger O.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 36 years researchers have suggested and evaluated a large number of target designs for heavy ion inertial fusion. The different target designs can be classified according to their mode of ignition, their method of implosion, and their size. Ignition modes include hot-spot ignition and fast ignition. Methods of implosion include direct drive and indirect drive. Historically there has been significant work on indirectly driven targets with hot-spot ignition. Recently there has been increasing interest in directly driven targets with ion driven fast ignition. In principle, fast ignition might lead to improved target performance. On the other hand, fast ignition imposes stringent requirements on accelerators and beam physics. Furthermore, fast ignition magnifies the importance of a number of traditional target physics issues associated with ion beam energy deposition and fuel preheat. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various classes of targets. It will also discuss some issues that must be resolved to assess the feasibility of ion fast ignition

  6. Experiments at The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Seidl, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Kwan, J.W.; MacLaren, S.A.; Ponce, D.; Shuman, D.; Yu, S.; Ahle, L.; Lund, S.; Molvik, A.; Sangster, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of experiments is presented, in which the physical dimensions, emittance and perveance are scaled to explore driver-relevant beam dynamics. Among these are beam merging, focusing to a small spot, and bending and recirculating beams. The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion (VNL) is also developing two driver-scale beam experiments involving heavy-ion beams with I(sub beam) about 1 Ampere to provide guidance for the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) for driver system studies within the next 5 years. Multiple-beam sources and injectors are being designed and a one-beam module will be built and tested. Another experimental effort will be the transport of such a beam through about 100 magnetic quadrupoles. The experiment will determine transport limits at high aperture fill factors, beam halo formation, and the influence on beam properties of secondary electron Research into driver technology will be briefly presented, including the development of ferromagnetic core materials, induction core pulsers, multiple-beam quadrupole arrays and plasma channel formation experiments for pinched transport in reactor chambers

  7. Status and perspectives of heavy ion inertial fusion

    Bock, R.

    1989-04-01

    For energy production by inertial confinement fusion the heavy ion accelerator is the most promising driver candidate. A conceptual design study, HIBALL, showed for the first time that a concept of an accelerator driven power station should be feasible. Two accelerator concepts, an rf-linac with storage rings and an induction linac, both investigated in the framework of national programs during the last decade, can be seriously taken into account as driver candidates. Two accelerator facilities now under construction or design, SIS/ESR at GSI and MBE-4/ISLE at LBL, are conceived to study key issues of both driver concepts. Present activities and some new ideas on driver concepts are reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Heavy ion fusion (HIF) impulse injector design, construction, and checkout

    Wilson, M. J., LLNL

    1998-05-04

    The following report describes the design, construction, and checkout of a high-voltage (HV) impulser built for the heavy ion fusion (HIF) project. The purpose of this impulser is to provide an adjustable diode voltage source of sufficient quality and level to allow the optimization of beam transport and accelerator sections of HIF. An elegant, low-impedance, high-energy storage capacitor circuit has been selected for this application. A retrofit to the diode region has been included to provide additional beam stability and a controlled rise time. The critical part of this circuit that is common to all candidates is the impedance matching component. The following report provides a description of the implemented circuit, the basic circuit variables for wave shaping, component screening techniques, resulting operating parameters, diode modifications, operating considerations, and fault protection.

  9. Quasi-elastic scattering an alternative tool for mapping the fusion barriers for heavy-ion induced fusion reaction

    Behera, B.R.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy element synthesis through heavy-ion induced fusion reaction is an active field in contemporary nuclear physics. Exact knowledge of fusion barrier is one of the essential parameters for planning any experiments for heavy element production. Theoretically there are many models available to predict the exact barrier. Though these models are successful for predicting the fusion of medium mass nuclei, it somehow fails for predicting the exact location of barrier for fusion of heavy nuclei. Experimental determination of barrier for such reactions is required for future experiments for the synthesis of heavy elements. Traditionally fusion barrier is determined taking a double derivative of fusion excitation function. However, such method is difficult in case of fusion of heavy nuclei due to its very low fusion/capture cross section and its experimental complications. Alternatively fusion barrier can be determined by measuring the quasi-elastic cross section at backward angles. This method can be applied for determining the fusion barrier for the fusion of heavy nuclei. Experimental determination of fusion barrier by different methods and comparison of the fusion excitation function and quasi-elastic scattering methods for the determination of fusion barrier are reviewed. At IUAC, New Delhi recently a program has been started for the measurement of fusion barrier through quasi-elastic scattering methods. The experimental facility and the first results of the experiments carried out with this facility are presented. (author)

  10. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  11. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  12. 16. International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF'06)

    Adonin, A; Ausset, P; Babadunni, O; Barnard, J; Barriga-Carrasco, M; Bawa, O; Benedetti, C; Bieniosek, F; Bouchigny, S; Bret, A; Celata, Ch; Chieze, J P; Coelho, L F; Cohen, R; Coleman, J; Cremer, S; Crouseilles, N; Davidson, R; Debonnel, Ch; Deutsch, C; Didelez, J P; Efremov, V; Fedosejevs, R; Fertman, A; Friedman, A; Gardes, D; Gericke, D; Gilson, E; Golubev, A; Gombert, M M; Grisham, L; Grote, D; Gutnic, M; Haber, I; Hammel, B; Hasegawa, J; Hegelich, B M; Henestroza, E; Hoffmann, D H.H.; Horioka, K; Jacoby, J; Kaganovich, I; Katagiri, K; Kawata, S; Kikuchi, T; Kireeff Covo, M; Kurilenkov, Y; Latu, G; Lenglet, A; Logan, G; Lund, St; Maynard, G; Molvik, A; Nishinomiya, S; Ogawa, M; Oguri, Y; Piriz, A R; Popoff, R; Pusterla, M; Qin, H; Roth, M; Roy, P; Sant' Anna, M; Sasaki, T; Sefkow, A; Seidl, P; Sharkov, B; Sharp, W; Sonnendrucker, E; Spiller, P; Startsev, E; Stoltz, P; Synakowski, E; Tahir, N; Takayama, K; Tashev, B; Turchetti, G; Turtikov, V; Udrea, S; Varentsov, D; Vay, J L; Velarde, P; Welch, D R; Westenskow, G; Weyrich, K; Yaramyshev, St; Zenkevich, P

    2006-07-01

    The contributions to this symposium have been divided into 8 issues: 1) overviews of national fusion programs, 2) other fusion programs, 3) accelerators, 4) warm dense matter, 5) ion beam neutralization, 6) atomic physics, 7) beam dynamics, and 8) stopping power. This document gathers only the resumes of the articles.

  13. 16. International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF'06)

    Adonin, A.; Ausset, P.; Babadunni, O.; Barnard, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Bawa, O.; Benedetti, C.; Bieniosek, F.; Bouchigny, S.; Bret, A.; Celata, Ch.; Chieze, J.P.; Coelho, L.F.; Cohen, R.; Coleman, J.; Cremer, S.; Crouseilles, N.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, Ch.; Deutsch, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Efremov, V.; Fedosejevs, R.; Fertman, A.; Friedman, A.; Gardes, D.; Gericke, D.; Gilson, E.; Golubev, A.; Gombert, M.M.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.; Gutnic, M.; Haber, I.; Hammel, B.; Hasegawa, J.; Hegelich, B.M.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Horioka, K.; Jacoby, J.; Kaganovich, I.; Katagiri, K.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kurilenkov, Y.; Latu, G.; Lenglet, A.; Logan, G.; Lund, St.; Maynard, G.; Molvik, A.; Nishinomiya, S.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Piriz, A.R.; Popoff, R.; Pusterla, M.; Qin, H.; Roth, M.; Roy, P.; Sant'Anna, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.; Sharkov, B.; Sharp, W.; Sonnendrucker, E.; Spiller, P.; Startsev, E.; Stoltz, P.; Synakowski, E.; Tahir, N.; Takayama, K.; Tashev, B.; Turchetti, G.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.L.; Velarde, P.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.; Weyrich, K.; Yaramyshev, St.; Zenkevich, P.

    2006-01-01

    The contributions to this symposium have been divided into 8 issues: 1) overviews of national fusion programs, 2) other fusion programs, 3) accelerators, 4) warm dense matter, 5) ion beam neutralization, 6) atomic physics, 7) beam dynamics, and 8) stopping power. This document gathers only the resumes of the articles

  14. The Modular Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.; Celata, C.M.; Chao, L.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, C.S.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.; Peterson, P.F.; Reginato, L.; Rose, D.; Roy, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We report on an ongoing study on modular Heavy Ion Fusion drivers. The modular driver is characterized by 10 to 20 nearly identical induction linacs, each carrying a single high current beam. In this scheme, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) can be one of the full size induction linacs. Hence, this approach offers significant advantages in terms of driver development path. For beam transport, these modules use solenoids which are capable of carrying high line charge densities, even at low energies. A new injector concept allows compression of the beam to high line densities right at the source. The final drift compression is performed in a plasma, in which the large repulsive space charge effects are neutralized. Finally, the beam is transversely compressed onto the target, using either external solenoids or current-carrying channels (in the Assisted Pinch Mode of beam propagation). We will report on progress towards a self-consistent point design from injector to target. Considerations of driver architecture, chamber environment as well as the methodology for meeting target requirements of spot size, pulse shape and symmetry will also be described. Finally, some near-term experiments to address the key scientific issues will be discussed

  15. The Modular Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Celata, C.M.; Chao, L.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, C.S.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.; Peterson, P.F.; Reginato, L.; Rose, D.; Roy, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an ongoing study on modular Heavy Ion Fusion drivers. The modular driver is characterized by tens (∼ 20) nearly identical induction linacs, each carrying a single high current beam. In this scheme, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) can be one of the full size induction linacs. Hence, this approach offers significant advantages in terms of driver development path. For beam transport, these modules use solenoids which are capable of carrying high line charge densities, even at low energies. A new injector concept allows compression of the beam to high line densities right at the source. The final drift compression is performed in a plasma, in which the large repulsive space charge effects are neutralized. Finally, the beam is transversely compressed onto the target, using either external solenoids or current-carrying channels (in the Assisted Pinch Mode of beam propagation). We will report on progress towards a self-consistent point design from injector to target. Considerations of driver architecture, chamber environment as well as the methodology for meeting target requirements of spot size, pulse shape and symmetry will also be described. Finally, some near-term experiments to address the key scientific issues will be discussed

  16. MBE-4: an induction linac experiment for heavy ion fusion

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brodzik, D.A.

    1986-06-01

    The multiple-beam induction linac approach to a heavy ion fusion driver features continuous current amplification along the accelerator and a minimum of transverse beam manipulation from source to pellet. Current amplification and bunch length control require careful shaping of the accelerating voltages. This driver approach exploits developments in electron induction linac technology that have occurred within the last 15 years at LBL, LLNL and NBS. MBE-4 is a four beam induction linac that models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a considerably longer induction accelerator. Four parallel Cs + beams are electrostatically focussed and will be accelerated from 200 keV to approximately one MeV when the experiment is complete in the spring of 1987. The current in each of the four beams will increase from 10 to 40 mA due to both increase in beam speed and shortening of the bunch length. Results of experiments with the injector and first eight accelerating gaps are presented

  17. Longitudinal beam compression for heavy-ion inertial fusion

    Ho, D.D.M.; Brandon, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    A scheme is described for compressing a heavy-ion beam longitudinally in such a way that the compressed pulse has uniform line-charge density and longitudinal momentum. Attaining these conditions will be important in the final focusing of a beam on a small fuel capsule in an inertial confinement fusion reactor. The longitudinal dynamics can be approximately described by a one-dimensional (1-D) fluid model for charged particles. Recognizing the similarity between the 1-D charged particle equations of motion and the 1-D equations for ideal-gas flow permits us to calculate the evolution of the line-charge density and velocity profile using self-similar solutions and the method of characteristics, developed for unsteady supersonic gas dynamics, for different regions along the beam. Simple physical arguments show that although the longitudinal and transverse temperatures vary along the beam following the adiabatic laws, no substantial longitudinal and transverse emittance growth is to be expected. Particle-in-cell simulations confirm all the physical arguments. The compressed beam has negligible longitudinal momentum spread and can therefore avoid chromatic aberrations in final focus. (author) 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Probing of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy-ion ...

    2014-04-04

    Apr 4, 2014 ... Heavy-ion induced reactions; complete and incomplete fusion; ... CF reaction the projectile completely fuses with the target nucleus and the highly excited .... input parameters have been used as default except the charge and ...

  19. Elements to be considered in planning heavy ion fusion program: a summary

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of Battelle's Engineering Development Program Plan for inertial confinement fusion is presented. Included are development objectives, facilities to achieve these objectives, program strategies, and a discussion of heavy-ion driver development

  20. Performance of the K+ ion diode in the 2 MV injector for heavy ion fusion

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.

    2002-02-01

    Heavy ion beam inertial fusion driver concepts depend on the availability and performance of high-brightness high-current ion sources. Surface ionization sources have relatively low current density but high brightness because of the low temperature of the emitted ions. We have measured the beam profiles at the exit of the injector diode, and compared the measured profiles with EGUN and WARP-3D predictions. Spherical aberrations are significant in this large aspect ratio diode. We discuss the measured and calculated beam size and beam profiles, the effect of aberrations, quality of vacuum, and secondary electron distributions on the beam profile.

  1. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Oona, H.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Engelhardt, L.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-beam injector is being designed and built at Los Alamos for the US Heavy Ion Fusion Program. As part of this program, development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is being carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values

  2. Applications of induction linac technology to heavy ion fusion

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1977-07-01

    Evaluation of the application of heavy ion accelerators to ignite d-t pellets in a thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Accelerator design requirements considered include transport-limited current, beam injection conditions, and pulse bunching and focusing characteristics. The desirability of resonant and non-resonant accelerating structures is comparatively examined. The required power system switch tubes are discussed. It is concluded that heavy ion accelerators could offer a promising solution to the pellet-igniter problem. The advantages pointed out for this approach include electric efficiency greater than 10 percent, the possibility of high repetition rates (1 to 10 Hz), and a mature technological base

  3. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Heavy-ion collision simulations in various classical models are discussed. ... are also simulated in a 3-stage classical molecular dynamics (3S-CMD) ... considered as a weakly-bound cluster of deuteron and 4He nuclei, thus, ...

  4. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as open-quotes driversclose quotes for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a open-quotes taxonomyclose quotes of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area

  5. Nuclear X-ray emission after fusion of heavy ions

    Berner, Christian; Muecher, Dennis; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Faestermann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); Henning, Walter [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Morita, Kosuke; Morimoto, Kouji; Kaji, Daija [RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The goal is to establish in-beam K-X-ray spectroscopy as a sensitive tool to identify super heavy elements (SHEs) produced in fusion reactions via their proton number. SHEs, formed after cold or hot fusion, are usually identified via the alpha-decay products, which have to be connected to well-known elements. In case of hot fusion, the daughter nuclei quickly undergo spontaneous fission, so that the identification of the produced SHEs is difficult. Using the hot fusion approach in our first test experiments, the resultant products will be analysed by the gas-filled GARIS separator at the RILAC facility at RIKEN. As the X-ray detector is required to have superior energy and timing resolution to best identify the rare events at highest masses and to supress random coincidences as sufficient as possible, we chose a thin and planar geometry, which also reduces the damage caused by fast neutrons. We show first measurements using the MINIBALL Ge array at Munich. Additionally we report on our feasibility studies and on first tests using the new detector at high count rates together with a powerful DAQ system and transistor reset preamplifiers.

  6. High brightness K+ ion source for heavy ion fusion linear induction accelerators

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Rutkowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    Low emittance, high current, singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the Induction Linac System Experiment injector, ILSE. The ILSE, now in study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam considered is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumino-silicate layers (zeolite) coated on a porous tungsten cup. The Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) 120keV cesium source was redesigned and modified with the aid of an ion optics and gun design program (EGUN) to enable the evaluation of the K + source performance at high extraction currents of about 80mA from a one inch diameter source. The authors report on the source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, phase space distributions using the double slit scanning technique, and source emitting surface temperature dependence on heating power using a wire pyrometer

  7. Illumination non-uniformity of spirally wobbling beam in heavy ion fusion

    Suzuki, T.; Noguchi, K.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. The illumination non-uniformity allowed is less than a few percent in inertial fusion target implosion. Heavy ion beam (HIB) accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. In this paper the HIBs wobbling illumination scheme was optimized. (paper)

  8. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions (1)could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion-ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component--positive ions, negative ions, and electrons--can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed

  9. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  10. Multiturn Injection into Accumulators for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    Prior, C R

    1996-01-01

    The injection of heavy ions into high current rings is complicated because it is impossible to use charge exchange in material foils to produce the singly charged heavy ions needed to keep space charge manageable on the one hand, and because losses need to be rigorously restricted to < 1 % on the other. With these constraints, the number of turns that may be injected by conventional multiturn injection is limited. This paper describes how the number may be increased by a two-dimensional technique of painting Lissajous-like patterns in x-y space, using an inclined or a corner septum. Simulation examples are presented showing the nature of the beam created in the accumulator and the likely effects of space charge forces.

  11. Modeling space charge in beams for heavy-ion fusion

    Sharp, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A new analytic model is presented which accurately estimates the radially averaged axial component of the space-charge field of an axisymmetric heavy-ion beam in a cylindrical beam pipe. The model recovers details of the field near the beam ends that are overlooked by simpler models, and the results compare well to exact solutions of Poisson's equation. Field values are shown for several simple beam profiles and are compared with values obtained from simpler models

  12. Longitudinal instability in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    A induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls

  13. Notes of a symposium on heavy ion fusion, held at the Cosener's House, Abingdon on 16 June 1978

    Gray, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    This Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion was held to inform the relevant University Departments and other interested organisations of the developments and prospects in this field, and to encourage them to take up problems relevant to their research fields. Three papers were presented, on 'The Heavy Ion Fusion Concept', 'Target Design for Heavy Ion Fusion', and 'Problem Areas in Heavy Ion Fusion', with open discussion after each presentation. The meeting ended with a final period of discussion, several University groups expressing their interest in pursuing some of the problems outlined. (author)

  14. Elise - The next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.; Deadeick, F.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the main features of Elise, a future electric-focused accelerator proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research Program is to develop accelerators for fusion energy production. The Elise accelerator would be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and would be designed to be extendible so as to meet this goal. (TEC). 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. Heavy ion fusion notes 94-1 through 94-9

    Judd, D.; Rintamaki, J.; Lund, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains information on the following topics dealing with heavy ion fusion accelerators: steering errors and corrections in a small recirculator; evaluation of a capacitive beam position monitor diagnostic for use on the heavy ion recirculator; beam steering with dipole biased electrostatic quadrupoles; estimate of emittance growth; c-probes for the recirculator; analysis of the dipole plate shape and location; and generation of electric dipole waveforms

  16. Heavy ion fusion notes 94-1 through 94-9

    Judd, D.; Rintamaki, J.; Lund, S. [and others

    1995-03-13

    This report contains information on the following topics dealing with heavy ion fusion accelerators: steering errors and corrections in a small recirculator; evaluation of a capacitive beam position monitor diagnostic for use on the heavy ion recirculator; beam steering with dipole biased electrostatic quadrupoles; estimate of emittance growth; c-probes for the recirculator; analysis of the dipole plate shape and location; and generation of electric dipole waveforms.

  17. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 (micro)s pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV

  18. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Grisham, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative ion current densities. With regards to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to less than 5% while traversing a four -meter path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 5 x 10 -5 torr. Alternatively, even at chamber pressures that are too high to allow propagation of atomically neutral beams, the negative ion approach may still have appeal, since it precludes the possibly serious problem of electron contamination of a positive ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing

  19. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan D.A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Celata, C.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Debonnel, C.S.; Grote, D.P.; Efthimiom, P.C.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, W.W.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.E.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Rose, D.V.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Startsev, E.A.; Tabak, M.; Thoma, C.; Vay, J-L; Wadron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers

  20. U.S. Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers

  1. Diabatic shifts and fluctuations of heavy-ion fusion barriers

    Berdichevsky, D.; Lukasiak, A.; Noerenberg, W.; Rozmej, P.

    1988-01-01

    The fusion process for heavy nuclei is studied within a generalized formulation of the diabatic approach to collective nuclear motion. It is shown that the coupled equations of motion decouple during the approach if appropriate diabatic channels are used. Thus the mean value and the variance of the barrier are completely determined from an ensemble of diabatic channel barriers, the ensemble being defined by the initial correlations. The mean shift with respect to the adiabatic barrier and the variance are calculated from the splitting of the diabatic single-particle levels at the barrier and the initial occupation probabilities given by the pairing wavefunctions of the separated nuclei. Results are presented for 23 systems of nuclei with masses around 100. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement, in particular also for the isotopic trends. Additional effects from the destruction of pairing correlations and the diabatic screening of the fusion pocket for heavier nuclei with Z 1 Z 2 > or approx. 2000 are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Identifying heavy-ion-beam fusion design and system features with high economic leverage

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have conducted parametric economic studies for heavy-ion-beam fusion electric power plants. We examined the effects on the cost of electricity of several design parameters: maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. We found with reasonable assumptions on driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, a 2 to 3 GWe heavy-ion-beam fusion power plant, with a chamber pulse rate of 5 to 10 Hz, can be competitive with nuclear and coal power plants

  3. Multiple Coulomb excitation effects in heavy ion compound and fusion cross sections

    Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.

    1981-11-01

    A simple model for the average S-matrix that describes heavy ion direct processes in the presence of absorption due to compound nucleus formation is developed. The fluctuation cross section and the fusion cross section are then calculated for deformed heavy ion systems where multiple Coulomb excitation is important. A simple expression for the fusion cross section valid for above-barrier energies is then obtained. The formula clearly displays the modification, due to Coulomb excitation, in the usual geometrical expression. (Author) [pt

  4. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ∼ few mm), high current density (J ∼ several tens of mA/cm 2 ) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield ( ) at different operating conditions are presented for K + and Cs + contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K + beam of ∼90 mA/cm 2 were observed in 2.3 (micro)s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (∼ 1 (micro)s), high current densities (∼ 100 mA/cm 2 ) and low operating pressures ( e psilon) n (le) 0.006 π mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ∼ 5mA) by about a factor of 10

  5. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Chacon-Golcher, Edwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ~ few mm), high current density (J ~ several tens of mA/cm2) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K+ and Cs+ contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K+ beam of ~90 mA/cm2 were observed in 2.3 μs pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (~ 1 μs), high current densities (~ 100 mA/cm+) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured (εn ≤ 0.006 π· mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ~ 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  6. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring, and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Drift Compression and Final Focus Options for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Hong Qin; Davidson, Ronald C.; Barnard, John J.; Lee, Edward P.

    2005-01-01

    A drift compression and final focus lattice for heavy ion beams should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. We show that this requirement implies that the drift compression design needs to satisfy a self-similar symmetry condition. For un-neutralized beams, the Lie symmetry group analysis is applied to the warm-fluid model to systematically derive the self-similar drift compression solutions. For neutralized beams, the 1-D Vlasov equation is solved explicitly, and families of self-similar drift compression solutions are constructed. To compensate for the deviation from the self-similar symmetry condition due to the transverse emittance, four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of the drift compression such that the entire beam pulse can be focused onto the same focal spot

  8. Competition between fusion and quasi-fission in heavy ion induced reactions

    Back, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Quantitative analyses of angular distributions and angle-mass correlations have been applied to the U + Ca reaction to obtain upper limit estimates for the cross sections for complete fusion near or below the interaction barrier. Extrapolating to the systems Ca + Cm and Ca + Es using the well established scaling properties of the extra push model, an estimate of the cross sections relevant to the efforts of synthesizing super-heavy elements in the region Z = 116 and N = 184 via heavy-ion fusion reactions are obtained. A simple evaporation calculation using properties of the super heavy elements shows that the failure to observe super-heavy elements with the Ca + Cm reaction is consistent with estimates of the complete fusion process. 33 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  9. Dispersion relation approach to sub-barrier heavy ion fusion reactions

    Franzin, V.L.M.; Hussein, M.S.

    1986-07-01

    With the aid of an inverse dispersion relation, which gives the imaginary part of the fusion inclusive polarization potential (IPP) in terms of the principal part integral involving the real part of the IPP, the sub-barrier fusion of heavy ions is discussed. The system 16 O+ A Sm is taken as an example. The reactive content of the extracted IPP is analysed within the coupled channels theory. (Author) [pt

  10. Conceptual design of a heavy ion fusion energy center

    Maschke, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A Heavy Ion Accelerator system is described which is based upon existing technology, and which is capable of producing 150 MW of average beam power in 10 MJ, 200 TW bursts, 15 times per second. It consists of an rf linac which accelerates doubly ionized uranium ions to an energy of 20 GeV. Then by utilizing the well known procedure of multiturn injection, a 6.6 ms long burst of linac current is stored in 8 separate ''accumulator'' rings. At the conclusion of the filling process, a pulsed rf system bunches the beam in each of the 8 rings simultaneously. As the bunches decrease in length, they are then extracted from the rings and transported for about 1 km to one of 5 ''boilers'', in which the thermonuclear pellet has been placed. The 8 beams (2 opposing clusters of 4 beams each) are then focused simultaneously onto the pellet, resulting in a release of thermonuclear energy about 80 times larger than the input beam energy

  11. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    1990-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  12. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  13. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1988

    1988-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification -- both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  14. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    1989-12-01

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C + source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2θ quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis

  15. Interaction of heavy ions beams with hot and dense plasmas. Application to inertial fusion

    Maynard, Gilles

    1987-01-01

    The subject of this work is the variation with time, on one of the energy and charge state of an heavy ion beam which through a plasma, and on another side, of a target used in ion inertial confinement fusion. We take in account projectile excitation, and higher order corrections to the Born stopping power formula are calculated. Comparison with experimental results in gas and solid are good. In hot plasma case, non-equilibrium charge states are described. We present an hydrodynamic simulation code of one dimension and three temperatures. We show that the shortening of the heavy ions beams with temperature reinforces the radiative transfer importance. (author) [fr

  16. Use of heavy ion accelerators in fusion reactor-related radiation-damage studies

    Taylor, A.; Dobson, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    The heavy-ion accelerator has become an important tool in the study of the fundamentals of radiation damage in fission- and fusion-reactor materials. Present facilities for such studies within the Materials Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory are provided by two complementary accelerator systems. Examples of the work carried out are discussed

  17. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  18. First phase plan for experimental study of heavy-ion inertial fusion accelerator

    Hattori, Toshiyuki; Okamura, Masahiro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Aida, Toshihiro; Takeuchi, Kouichi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Itoh, Takashi; Okada, Masashi; Takahashi, Yousuke; Ishii, Yasuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    We propose the basic experiment plan of driver for heavy-ion inertial fusion by heavy-ion linac [1-3] system and the heavy-ion cooler synchrotron. As the first phase of planning, we will improve old heavy-ion accelerator system that accelerate small intensity around Cl ion with charge to mass ratio of 1/4 up to 2.4 MeV/amu. The injector of the system will exchange from the 1.6 MV Peletron Tandem accelerator to an RFQ type linac with an ECR heavy-ion source. According to building up the power sources of RF and focusing magnet, then it is able to accelerate intense around Xe ion with charge to mass ratio of 1/6 up to 2.4 MeV/amu. At the next stage of it, we will construct a heavy-ion cooler synchrotron having magneticrigidity of 3 or 6 Tm and begin to study about HIF driver. (author)

  19. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the U.S.A

    Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.D.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to >100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade

  20. Chamber-transport simulation results for heavy-ion fusion drivers

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2004-01-01

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs

  1. A liquid-drop model for the heavy-ion fusion below the Coulomb barrier

    Aguiar, Carlos Eduardo Magalhaes de.

    1988-03-01

    The enhancement of sub-barrier fusion observed in heavy ion collisions is studied in a liquid-drop model. It is shown that shape degrees of freedom related to neck formation play an important role in the fusion process, and increase the low energy fusion rates. The model predictions are in a quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, and major discrepancies seem to be found only for those systems where specific nuclear structure effects should also be considered. (author). 83 refs, 54 figs

  2. Quantum propagator approach to heavy-ion fusion

    Bao, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    The real-time path integral propagator approach is used to study the fusion probability of massive nuclei including quantum effect. An analytical expression of the probability to pass over barrier of an inverted harmonic potential is obtained, in which both height and curvature of the barrier are controlled by the neck degree of freedom. The fusion probability of three systems in central collision as a function of the center of mass energy are calculated and compared to experimental results. It is shown that the quantum fluctuation enhances the fusion probability at low energies, and the neck fluctuation makes the slope of the fusion probability curve become flatter. (author)

  3. Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research in the U. S.

    Friedman, Alex

    2002-12-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed.

  4. Three-stage classical molecular dynamics model for simulation of heavy-ion fusion

    Godre Subodh S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-stage Classical Molecular Dynamics (3S-CMD approach for heavy-ion fusion is developed. In this approach the Classical Rigid-Body Dynamics simulation for heavy-ion collision involving light deformed nucleus is initiated on their Rutherford trajectories at very large initial separation. Collision simulation is then followed by relaxation of the rigid-body constrains for one or both the colliding nuclei at distances close to the barrier when the trajectories of all the nucleons are obtained in a Classical Molecular Dynamics approach. This 3S-CMD approach explicitly takes into account not only the long range Coulomb reorientation of the deformed collision partner but also the internal vibrational excitations of one or both the nuclei at distances close to the barrier. The results of the dynamical simulation for 24Mg+208Pb collision show significant modification of the fusion barrier and calculated fusion cross sections due to internal excitations.

  5. Overview of heavy ion fusion accelerator research in the U.S

    Friedman, Alex

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed

  6. Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research in the U.S

    Friedman, A

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed

  7. Overview of theory and simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    Friedman, Alex

    2007-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  8. Chamber transport of ''foot'' pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.

    2002-02-20

    Indirect-drive targets for heavy-ion fusion must initially be heated by ''foot'' pulses that precede the main heating pulses by tens of nanoseconds. These pulses typically have a lower energy and perveance than the main pulses, and the fusion-chamber environment is different from that seen by later pulses. The preliminary particle-in-cell simulations of foot pulses here examine the sensitivity of the beam focusing to ion-beam perveance, background-gas density, and pre-neutralization by a plasma near the chamber entry port.

  9. HIFSA: Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment Project: Volume 1, Executive summary

    Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Saylor, W.W.

    1987-12-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction-linac heavy-ion accelerators to generate economical electrical power from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Cost/performance models of the major fusion power plant systems were used to identify promising areas in parameter space. Resulting cost-of-electricity projections for a plant size of 1 GWe are comparable to those from other fusion system studies, some of which were for much larger power plants. These favorable projections maintain over an unusually large domain of parameter space but depend especially on making large cost savings for the accelerator by using higher charge-to-mass ratio ions than assumed previously. The feasibility of realizing such savings has been shown by (1) experiments demonstrating transport stability better than anticipated for space-charge-dominated beams, and (2) theoretical predictions that the final transport and pulse compression in reactor-chamber environments will be sufficiently resistant to streaming instabilities to allow successful propagation of neutralized beams to the target. Results of the HIFSA study already have had a significant impact on the heavy-ion induction accelerator R and D program, especially in selection of the charge-state objectives. Also, the study should enhance the credibility of induction linacs as ICF drivers

  10. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    Barboza, N.O.

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of ∼17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, ∼200 g/cm 3 and ∼20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases ∼350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios

  11. The many languages of subbarrier heavy ion fusion

    Wolter, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The different pictures to describe subbarrier fusion are reviewed and related to each other. The direct reaction approach to fusion is developed in a Feshbach picture of open and closed channels and the role of absorptive potentials is discussed. This mono-nuclear picture which treats the degrees of freedom of one nucleus is seen versus a di-nuclear picture where the degrees of freedom of the fusing system are directly treated. Here we have performed a study of multidimensional tunneling which shows the importance of neck formation. We also discuss the problem of dissipation in subbarrier fusion. (author)

  12. Symmetric fusion of heavy ions around the Coulomb barrier energy

    Royer, G.; Remaud, B.

    1983-01-01

    Using the liquid drop model, we have performed a systematic study of the symmetric fusion with a neck degree of freedom and tunnelling effects, the nuclear potential being calculated with the proximity approach. Barrier heights and positions are in very good agreement with experimental data when they are known (light-medium systems); the recent experimental data of the reactions 58 Ni + 58 Ni and 64 Ni + 64 Ni are particularly investigated. For heavier systems double-humped fusion barriers and isomeric states are predicted which strongly limit the complete fusion probability

  13. Effects of successive critical distances in heavy ion fusion reactions

    Lee, S.M.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuse, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Successive Critical Distances is presented. It appears that whether the fusion cross section is limited by compound nucleus or entrance channel properties depends on the degree of asymmetry of the fusing nuclei. Only in the near to symmetry case does the Statistical Yrast Line emerge as a limiting factor. Otherwise, the critical angular momentum for fusion is restricted by a critical distance

  14. Recent developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

    Hagino K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fusion is a reaction to form a compound nucleus. It plays an important role in several circumstances in nuclear physics as well as in nuclear astrophysics, such as synthesis of superheavy elements and nucleosynthesis in stars. Here we discuss two recent theoretical developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The first topic is a generalization of the Wong formula for fusion cross sections in a single-channel problem. By introducing an energy dependence to the barrier parameters, we show that the generalized formula leads to results practically indistinguishable from a full quantal calculation, even for light symmetric systems such as 12C+12C, for which fusion cross sections show an oscillatory behavior. We then discuss a semi-microscopic modeling of heavy-ion fusion reactions, which combine the coupled-channels approach to the state-of-the-art nuclear structure calculations for low-lying collective motions. We apply this method to subbarrier fusion reactions of 58Ni+58Ni and 40Ca+58Ni systems, and discuss the role of anharmonicity of the low-lying vibrational motions.

  15. Near-barrier heavy-ion fusion (panel discussion)

    Vandenbosch, R.

    1991-01-01

    We are approaching a semi-quantitative understanding of the role of the coupling of shape and transfer degrees of freedom in the enhancement of near and sub-barrier fusion cross sections, although there remains some debate about the relative importance of the different degrees of freedom. The information content in fusion excitation functions is limited and it is therefore important to obtain additional information such as higher moments of the partial wave distribution. The present status of information obtained with difference probes will be critically discussed. Among the open problems in sub-barrier fusion is the importance of a neck degree of freedom and a concomitant departure of the inertial mass from the reduced mass. A coupled channels description in terms of the asymptotic exit channels may only converge slowly. (author)

  16. Review of target studies for heavy ion fusion

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.D.; Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    We present an updated set of gain curves for radiation driven ion beam targets. The improved target performance calculated with nuclear spin polarized fuel will also be discussed. We discuss the conditions required for efficient conversion to x-rays of ion beam energy. These requirements are compared with those obtained for lasers. Recent results on symmetry requirements for direct drive ion beam targets are presented

  17. Tunneling process in heavy-ion fusion and fission

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kondratyev, V.; Bonasera, A.

    1998-10-01

    We present a model towards the many-body description of sub-barrier fusion and spontaneous fission based on the semiclassical Vlasov equation and the Feynman path integral method. We define suitable collective variables from the Vlasov solution and use the imaginary time technique for the dynamics below the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  18. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    Enrique Henestroza

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final-focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit spots on the target with radii of about 2 mm. For the heavy-ion-fusion power-plant scenarios presently favored in the U.S., a substantial fraction of the ion-beam space charge must be neutralized during this final transport. The most effective neutralization technique found in numerical simulations is to pass each beam through a low-density plasma after the final focusing. To provide quantitative comparisons of these theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the neutralized-transport experiment. The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam, while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed quadrupoles, permits the study of magnet tuning, as well as the effects of phase-space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  19. Dynamics of complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion collisions

    Bao, Xiao Jun; Guo, Shu Qing; Zhang, Hong Fei; Li, Jun Qing

    2018-02-01

    In order to study the influence of the strong Coulomb and nuclear interactions on the dynamics of complete and incomplete fusion, we construct a new four-variable master equation (ME) so that the deformations as well as the nucleon transfer are viewed as consistently governed by MEs in the potential energy surface of the system. The calculated yields of quasifission fragments and evaporation residue cross section (ERCS) are in agreement with experimental data of hot fusion reactions. Comparing cross sections by theoretical results and experimental data, we find the improved dinuclear sysytem model also describes the transfer cross sections reasonably. The production cross sections of new neutron-rich isotopes are estimated by the multinucleon transfer reactions.

  20. Exploring a unique vision for heavy ion fusion

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.

    2007-08-06

    A quest for more efficient beam-to-fuel energy coupling via polar direct drive (30% overall), to enable: (1) Self-T-breeding, self-neutron-energy-absorbing, large {pi}r, T-Lean targets {at} < 4 MJ driver energies; (2) Efficient fusion energy coupling into plasma for direct MHD conversion with moderate yields < 1 GJ; (3) Balance-of-plant costs 10X lower than steam cycle (e.g., < 80 $/kWe instead of 800 $/kWe); (4) CoE low enough (<3 cts/kWehr) for affordable water and H{sub 2} fuel for 10 B people on a hot planet; and (5) Enough fissile fuel production for 38 LWR's per GW{sub fusion} if uranium gets too expensive meantime.

  1. Recirculating induction accelerator as a low-cost driver for heavy ion fusion

    Barnard, J.J.; Newton, M.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Shay, H.D.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-09-01

    As a fusion driver, a heavy ion accelerator offers the advantages of efficient target coupling, high reliability, and long stand-off focusing. While the projected cost of conventional heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers based on multiple beam induction linacs are quite competitive with other inertial driver options, a driver solution which reduces the cost by a factor of two or more will make the case for HIF truly compelling. The recirculating induction accelerator has the potential of large cost reductions. For this reason, an intensive study of the recirculator concept was performed by a team from LLNL and LBL over the past year. We have constructed a concrete point design example of a 4 MJ driver with a projected efficiency of 35% and projected cost of less than 500 million dollars. A detailed report of our findings during this year of intensive studies has been recently completed. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Acceleration systems for heavy-ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    Faltens, A.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.

    1977-01-01

    Heavy-ion beam pulse parameters needed to achieve useful electric power generation through inertial confinement fusion have been set forth. For successful ignition of a high-gain D-T target a few magajoules of energy per pulse, delivered at a peak power of several hundred terawatts, are needed; it must be deposited with an energy density of 20 to 30 magajoules per gram of the target material on which it impinges. Additional requirements must be met if this form of fusion is to be used for practical power generation; for example, the igniter system for a 1 GWe power plant should have a repetition rate in the neighborhood of 1 to 10 Hz, an overall electrical conversion efficiency from mains to beam of greater than 10%, and high availability. At present under discussion are the needs for a Heavy-Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE); an example set of parameters is given for comparison with those for a power plant

  3. Direct inner shell ionization accompanying heavy ion fusion reactions

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1987-07-01

    51 V+ 40 Ar (180 MeV) fusion reaction is studied by means of K X-ray-particle-γ-ray coincidences. K X-ray yields associated with various evaporation residues are determined separately for two ionization processes: the direct ionization by the projectile prior to the nuclear interaction and the postcollisional ionization due to the internal conversion of γ-rays. Implications for possible measurements of nuclear reaction times are discussed. 24 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Exploring a unique vision for heavy ion fusion

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    A quest for more efficient beam-to-fuel energy coupling via polar direct drive (30% overall), to enable: (1) Self-T-breeding, self-neutron-energy-absorbing, large πr, T-Lean targets (at) 2 fuel for 10 B people on a hot planet; and (5) Enough fissile fuel production for 38 LWR's per GW fusion if uranium gets too expensive meantime

  5. Preliminary results from MBE-4: A four beam induction linac for heavy ion fusion research

    Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.I.; Warwick, P.b.A.I.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a scaled experimental multiple beam induction linac. This experiment is part of a program of accelerator research for heavy ion fusion. It is shown that multiple beams can be accelerated without significant mutual interaction. Measurements of the longitudinal dynamics of a current-amplifying induction linac are presented and compared to calculations. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal dynamics is discussed

  6. Substantial reductions of input energy and peak power requirements in targets for heavy ion fusion

    Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two ways of reducing the requirements of the heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target implosion are described. Compared to estimates of target gain not using these methods, the target input energy and peak power may be reduced by about a factor of two with the use of the hybrid-implosion concept. Another factor of two reduction in input energy may be obtained with the use of spin-polarized DT fuel in the ICF target

  7. Preliminary results from MBE-4: a four beam induction linac for heavy ion fusion research

    Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.I.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a scaled experimental multiple beam induction linac. This experiment is part of a program of accelerator research for heavy ion fusion. It is shown that multiple beams can be accelerated without significant mutual interaction. Measurements of the longitudinal dynamics of a current-amplifying induction linac are presented and compared to calculations. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal dynamics is discussed

  8. Resonances and fusion in heavy ion reactions: new models and developments

    Cindro, N.

    1982-01-01

    Several aspects of the problem of the resonant behaviour of heavy-ion induced reactions are discussed. First, the problem is set in its relation to fundamental nuclear physics and our understanding of nuclear structure. It is suggested that, if the resonant behaviour of heavy-ion reactions is indeed due to the presence of particular configurations in the composite systems, these configurations must have a very specific nature which prevents their mixing with the adjacent states or else other conditons (e.g. low level density) should be met. Further on, the problem of resonant behaviour observed in back-angle elastic scattering and in forward-angle reaction data is discussed. Collisions between heavy ions leading to the composite systems 36 Ar and 40 Ca are used to discuss the apparent lack of correlation between these two sets of data. A way to understand it, based on the fragmentation of broad resonances, is suggested. In the third part the relation between structure in the fusion cross section excitation functions and that in reaction channel cross sections is discussed. Finally, in the fourth part, the orbiting-cluster model of heavy-ion resonances is briefly described and its predictions discussed. Based on this model a list is given of colliding heavy-ion systems where resonances are expected. (author)

  9. Comparative study of energy accounting for heavy ion fusion with various driver accelerators

    Kawasaki, S.; Miyahara, A.

    1980-04-01

    Typical designs of driver heavy ion accelerator systems are referred and compared with regard to the assessment of the energy payback problem involved in their applications to the inertial fusion. Detailed analyses show that the energy investment for the construction of the HIF power station is fairly smaller than the energy produced by the station in its lifetime, in spite of the large scale of its hardware. The situation could be more favourable than, or at least comparable with, the case of the magnetically confined fusion. (author)

  10. Correction of longitudinal errors in accelerators for heavy-ion fusion

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Barnard, J.J.; Langdon, A.B.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Longitudinal space-charge waves develop on a heavy-ion inertial-fusion pulse from initial mismatches or from inappropriately timed or shaped accelerating voltages. Without correction, waves moving backward along the beam can grow due to the interaction with their resistivity retarded image fields, eventually degrading the longitudinal emittance. A simple correction algorithm is presented here that uses a time-dependent axial electric field to reverse the direction of backward-moving waves. The image fields then damp these forward-moving waves. The method is demonstrated by fluid simulations of an idealized inertial-fusion driver, and practical problems in implementing the algorithm are discussed

  11. Development of heavy ion induction linear accelerators as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Warwick, A.I.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Laslett, L.J.; Lee, E.P.; Meuth, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a continuing study in the USA of the feasibility of an induction linac fusion driver, which would accelerate multiple heavy-ion beams through a sequence of pulsed transformers and amplify the beam current during acceleration. The driver cost could be $200/Joule or less and the cost of electricity in the range of .050-.055$/kWhr. As a next stage of development to assess the feasibility of this approach the authors propose an Induction Linac Systems Experiment. This will test some of the technology and multiple-beam manipulations necessary for a fusion driver

  12. Development of heavy ion induction linear accelerators as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Warwick, A.I.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.

    1988-06-01

    There is a continuing study in the USA of the feasibility of an induction linac fusion driver, which would accelerate multiple heavy-ion beams through a sequence of pulsed transformers and amplify the beam current during acceleration. The driver cost could be $200/Joule or less and the cost of electricity in the range of .050-.055$/kWhr. As a next stage of development to assess the feasibility of this approach we propose an ''Induction Linac Systems Experiment''. This will test some of the technology and multiple-beam manipulations necessary for a fusion driver. 7 refs., 1 fig

  13. Liquid-drop model description of heavy ion fusion at sub-barrier energies

    Aguiar, C E; Barbosa, V C; Canto, L F; Donangelo, R

    1987-10-05

    The enhancement of the heavy ion fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies is studied in the liquid-drop model approach. The shape of the system is described by two spheres smoothly connected by a neck, and the kinetic and potential energies are calculated within this parametrization. Underbarrier fusion cross sections for symmetric projectile-target combinations are calculated in the WKB approximation and a comparison with the available data is made. The agreement is quite satisfactory, except for those systems in which the reaction is strongly affected by the details of the nuclear structure of the collision partners.

  14. Developing models for simulation of pinched-beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion. Revision 1

    Boyd, J.K.; Mark, J.W.K.; Sharp, W.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    For heavy-ion fusion energy applications, Mark and Yu have derived hydrodynamic models for numerical simulation of energetic pinched-beams including self-pinches and external-current pinches. These pinched-beams are applicable to beam propagation in fusion chambers and to the US High Temperature Experiment. The closure of the Mark-Yu model is obtained with adiabatic assumptions mathematically analogous to those of Chew, Goldberger, and Low for MHD. Features of this hydrodynamic beam model are compared with a kinetic treatment

  15. Overview of U.S. heavy ion fusion progress and plans

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2004-01-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy

  16. Description of heavy-ion fusion in terms of direct reaction theory

    Hong, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    A direct reaction description of the heavy-ion fusion, proposed by Udagawa, Kim and Tamura, has been successfully used in calculating the fusion cross sections and the spin distributions for a number of systems in the energy regions from the sub-barrier to the above-barrier region. A fusion potential is introduced in this theory and the radius of the fusion potential is treated as an adjustable parameter. The theory is thus a one-parameter theory. The results obtained by Udagawa, Kim and Tamura showed that the radius parameter ranges from 1.4 to 1.5 fm, which is much larger than the radius (1.0 fm) used in other models. A hard evidence is shown to demonstrate the necessity of the long-ranged fusion potential radius in the near-barrier region. In the above-barrier region, the use of the energy-dependent optical potential and the energy-dependent fusion potential radius is proved to be essential in reproducing the measured fusion cross sections. As a further application of the theory, the double folded potential model is utilized to provide the real part of the optical potential. The imaginary part of the optical potential is determined so that not only the elastic scattering but also the fusion cross sections can be reproduced

  17. Issues and opportunities: beam simulations for heavy ion fusion

    Friedman, A

    1999-01-01

    UCRL- JC- 134975 PREPRINT code offering 3- D, axisymmetric, and ''transverse slice'' (steady flow) geometries, with a hierarchy of models for the ''lattice'' of focusing, bending, and accelerating elements. Interactive and script- driven code steering is afforded through an interpreter interface. The code runs with good parallel scaling on the T3E. Detailed simulations of machine segments and of complete small experiments, as well as simplified full- system runs, have been carried out, partially benchmarking the code. A magnetoinductive model, with module impedance and multi- beam effects, is under study. experiments, including an injector scalable to multi- beam arrays, a high- current beam transport and acceleration experiment, and a scaled final- focusing experiment. These ''phase I'' projects are laying the groundwork for the next major step in HIF development, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). Simulations aimed directly at the IRE must enable us to: design a facility with maximum power on target at minimal cost; set requirements for hardware tolerances, beam steering, etc.; and evaluate proposed chamber propagation modes. Finally, simulations must enable us to study all issues which arise in the context of a fusion driver, and must facilitate the assessment of driver options. In all of this, maximum advantage must be taken of emerging terascale computer architectures, requiring an aggressive code development effort. An organizing principle should be pursuit of the goal of integrated and detailed source- to- target simulation. methods for analysis of the beam dynamics in the various machine concepts, using moment- based methods for purposes of design, waveform synthesis, steering algorithm synthesis, etc. Three classes of discrete- particle models should be coupled: (1) electrostatic/ magnetoinductive PIC simulations should track the beams from the source through the final- focusing optics, passing details of the time- dependent distribution function to

  18. Study on possibility of development of a laser multicharged ion source for a heavy ion fusion driver

    Barabash, L.Z.; Krechet, K.I.; Lapitskij, Yu.Ya.; Latyshev, S.V.; Shumshurov, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The results of studying laser produced plasma ion sources for a heavy ion accelerating-storage complex used as a heavy ion fusion driver are presented. The following parameters were measured on an installation aimed for studying physical characteristics of heavy ion laser plasma for a lead target at laser radiation flux density of approximately 3x10 10 W/cm 2 : scattered ion charge composition, energy spectra and scattering angle distributions, ion currents, absolute number of ions in every charge state, plasma electron temperature. The ion current pulse duration varied from 3x10 -4 s at Z +1 to 2x10 -5 s at Z +10 . The maximum current amplitude of 2 mA corresponded to Z +7 charge. The scattering velocity increased with charge. The total number of ions that could be used for acceleration was approximately 5x10 13 for Z +2 and 5x10 12 for Z +6 per pulse. The ion laser source brightness was 2x10 11 A/cm 2 , the particle phase density was 10 18 (cmxrad) -1

  19. Overview of Theory and Modeling in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory

    Davidson, R C; Celata, C M; Cohen, R H; De Hoon, M; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I D; Lee, E P; Lee, W W; Lund, S M; Olson, C L; Qin, H; Rose, D V; Sharp, W M; Startsev, E A; Tzenov, Stephan I; Vay, J L; Welch, D R; Yu, S S

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents analytical and simulation studies of intense heavy ion beam propagation, including the injection, acceleration, transport and compression phases, and beam transport and focusing in background plasma in the target chamber. Analytical theory and simulations that support the High Current Experiment (HCX), the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and the advanced injector development program are being used to provide a basic understanding of the nonlinear beam dynamics and collective processes, and to develop design concepts for the next-step Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE), and a heavy ion fusion driver. Three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear perturbative simulations have been applied to collective instabilities driven by beam temperature anisotropy and to two-stream interactions between the beam ions and any unwanted background electrons. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 2 MV Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector have clarified t...

  20. Possible use of the SNS synchrotron for feasibility tests on aspects of heavy ion fusion drivers

    Planner, C.W.; Rees, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    There remain a large number of theoretical and practical problems to be solved before a complete accelerator-driver system prototype and a target chamber prototype may be built with any confidence to allow an assessment to be made of the practicality of heavy ion fusion power plants. Two accelerator-driver systems remain under serious consideration for 1 - 10 MJ systems of ion kinetic energies approximately 10 GeV, namely, the induction linac and the storage ring systems. The possible use of the SNS synchrotron for comparative studies of these alternative accelerator-driver systems is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Research in the US on heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1986-10-01

    The US study of high-energy multigap accelerators to produce large currents of heavy ions for inertial fusion is centered on the single-pass induction linac method. The large technology base associated with multigap accelerators for high-energy physics gives confidence that high efficiency, high repetition rate, and good availability can be achieved, and that the path from scientific demonstration to commercial realization can be a smooth one. In an induction linac driver, multiple (parallel) ion beams are accelerated through a sequence of pulsed transformers. Crucial to the design is the manipulation of electric fields to amplify the beam current during acceleration. A proof-of-principle induction linac experiment (MBE-4) is underway and has begun the first demonstration of current amplification, control of the bunch ends, and the acceleration of multiple beams. A recently completed experiment, called the Single Beam Transport Experiment has shown that we can now count on more freedom to design an alternating-gradient quadrupole focusing channel to transport much higher ion-beam currents than formerly believed possible. A recent Heavy Ion Fusion System Assessment (HIFSA) has shown that a substantial cost saving results from use of multiply-charged ions, and that a remarkably broad range of options exist for viable power-plant designs. The driver cost at 3 to 4 MJ could be $200/joule or less, and the cost of electricity in the range of 50 to 55 mills/kWhr

  2. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion commercial electric power systems assessment project. Revision

    Dudziak, D.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Saylor, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    The US heavy-ion fusion (HIF) research program is oriented toward development of multiple-beam induction linacs. Over the last two years an assessment has been performed of the potential of HIF as a competitive commercial electric power source. This assessment involved several technology performance and cost issues (e.g., final beam transport system, target manufacturing, beam stability in reactor cavity environments, and reactor cavity clearing), as well as overall power plant systems integration and tradeoff studies. Results from parametric analyses using a systems code developed in the project show cost of electricity (COE) values comparable with COEs from other magnetic fusion and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plant studies; viz, 50-60 mills/kWh (1985 dollars) for 1-GWe plants. Also, significant COE insensitivity to major accelerator, target, and reactor parameters was demonstrated

  3. Heavy-ion optical potential for sub-barrier fusion deduced from a dispersion relation

    Kim, B.T.; Kim, H.C.; Park, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The heavy-ion energy-dependent optical potentials for the 16 O+ 208 Pb system are deduced from a dispersion relation. These potentials are used to analyze the elastic scattering, fusion, and spin distributions of compound nuclei for the system in a unified way based on the direct reaction theory. It turns out that the energy dependence of the optical potential is essential in explaining the data at near- and sub-barrier energies. The real part of the energy-dependent optical potential deduced was also used in calculating the elastic and fusion cross sections by the conventional barrier penetration model using an incoming wave boundary condition. The predictions of the elastic scattering, fusion cross sections, and the spin distributions of compound nuclei are not satisfactory compared with those from the direct reaction approach. It seems to originate from the fact that this model neglects absorption around the Coulomb barrier region

  4. A 3-year plan for beam science in the heavy-ion fusion virtual national laboratory

    Logan, B. Grant

    2001-01-01

    In December 1998, LBNL Director Charles Shank and LLNL Director Bruce Tarter signed a Memorandum of Agreement to create the Heavy-Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) with the purpose of improving the efficiency and productivity of heavy ion research through coordination of the two laboratories' efforts under one technical director. In 1999, PPPL Director Robert Goldston signed the VNL MOA for PPPL's heavy-ion fusion group to join the VNL. LBNL and LLNL each contribute about 45% of the $10.6 M/yr trilab VNL effort, and PPPL contributes currently about 10% of the VNL effort. The three labs carry out collaborative experiments, theory and simulations of a variety of intense beam scientific issues described below. The tri-lab HIF VNL program is part of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) fusion program. A short description of the four major tasks areas of HIF-VNL research is given in the next section. The task areas are: High Current Experiment, Final Focus/Chamber Transport, Source/Injector/Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Theory/Simulation. As a result of the internal review, more detailed reviews of the designs, costs and schedules for some of the tasks have been completed, which will provide more precision in the scheduled completion dates of tasks. The process for the ongoing engineering reviews and governance for the future management of tasks is described in section 3. A description of the major milestones and scientific deliverables for flat guidance budgets are given in section 4. Section 5 describes needs for enabling technology development for future experiments that require incremental funding

  5. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  6. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    1987-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs + injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE

  7. Overview of Theory and Modeling in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory

    Davidson, R.C.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Lee, W.W.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Tzenov, S.; Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Celata, C.M.; De Hoon, M.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Vay, J.-L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents analytical and simulation studies of intense heavy ion beam propagation, including the injection, acceleration, transport and compression phases, and beam transport and focusing in background plasma in the target chamber. Analytical theory and simulations that support the High Current Experiment (HCX), the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and the advanced injector development program are being used to provide a basic understanding of the nonlinear beam dynamics and collective processes, and to develop design concepts for the next-step Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE), and a heavy ion fusion driver. Three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear perturbative simulations have been applied to collective instabilities driven by beam temperature anisotropy and to two-stream interactions between the beam ions and any unwanted background electrons. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 2 MV Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector have clarified the influence of pulse rise time. Analytical studies and simulations of the drift compression process have been carried out. Syntheses of a four-dimensional (4-D) particle distribution function from phase-space projections have been developed. And, studies of the generation and trapping of stray electrons in the beam self-fields have been performed. Particle-in-cell simulations, involving preformed plasma, are being used to study the influence of charge and current neutralization on the focusing of the ion beam in Neutralized Transport Experiment and in a fusion chamber

  8. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    1985-08-01

    This Annual Report summarizes experimental and theoretical investigations carried out in the framework of a feasibility study of inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams, funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. After the completion of the conceptual design study HIBALL with an upgraded version, the investigations concentrated in 1984 mainly on problems of accelerator and target physics. In the area of accelerator physics the main interest was in the production and acceleration of high intensity heavy ion beams of high phase space density and in beam dynamics theory, in the area of target physics on beam-target interaction, radiation hydrodynamics, instabilities and the equation of state of highly compressed hot matter. (orig./AH)

  9. Studies on the feasibility of heavy-ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    1982-04-01

    This annual report summarizes the scientific results of work carried out in 1981 in the framework of a feasibility study for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) with heavy ion beams. This program, established in autumn 1979 and funded by the German Ministry for Science and Technology, is devoted in a first period until 1984 to the study of fundamental aspects of the field. Its principal aims are the investigation of key problems and the identification of critical issues of the heavy ion ICF concept in the fields of accelerator research, pellet physics, atomic physics, and reactor design. The research is carried out by about ten working groups at various German research centers and universities. In addition, together with a group of the University of Wisconsin a conceptual design study for a reactor plant (HIBALL) has been started in 1980 and was continued 1981. (orig.) [de

  10. Transport of intense particle beams with application to heavy ion fusion

    Buchanan, H.L.; Chambers, F.W.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Briggs, R.J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    An attractive feature of the high energy (> GeV) heavy ion beam approach to inertial fusion, as compared with other particle beam systems, is the relative simplicity involved in the transport and focusing of energy on the target inside a reactor chamber. While this focusing could be done in vacuum by conventional methods with multiple beams, there are significant advantages in reactor design if one can operate at gas pressures around one torr. In this paper we summarize the results of our studies of heavy ion beam transport in gases. With good enough charge and current neutralization, one could get a ballistically-converging beam envelope down to a few millimeters over a 10 meter path inside the chamber. Problems of beam filamentation place important restrictions on this approach. We also discuss transport in a self-focused mode, where a relatively stable pressure window is predicted similar to the observed window for electron beam transport

  11. Origin of a maximum of the astrophysical S factor in heavy-ion fusion reactions at deep subbarrier energies

    Hagino, K.; Balantekin, A. B.; Lwin, N. W.; Thein, Ei Shwe Zin

    2018-03-01

    The hindrance phenomenon of heavy-ion fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies often accompanies a maximum of an astrophysical S factor at a threshold energy for fusion hindrance. We argue that this phenomenon can naturally be explained when the fusion excitation function is fitted with two potentials, with a larger (smaller) logarithmic slope at energies lower (higher) than the threshold energy. This analysis clearly suggests that the astrophysical S factor provides a convenient tool to analyze the deep subbarrier hindrance phenomenon, even though the S factor may have a strong energy dependence for heavy-ion systems unlike that for astrophysical reactions.

  12. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Hoon, M.J.L. de; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (∼100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies (∼1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  13. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported

  14. HIBALL-II - an improved conceptual heavy ion beam driven fusion reactor study

    Badger, B.; Corradini, M.; El-Guebaly, L.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.; Klein, A.; Kulcinski, G.; Larsen, E.; Lovell, E.; Moses, G.; Peterson, R.; Pong, L.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Symon, K.; Vogelsang, W.; White, A.; Wittenberg, L.; Beckert, K.; Bock, R.; Boehne, D.; Hofmann, I.; Keller, R.; Mueller, R.; Bozsik, I.; Jahnke, A.; Brezina, J.; Nestle, H.; Wendel, W.; Wollnik, H.; Lessmann, E.; Froehlich, R.; Goel, B.; Hoebel, W.; Kessler, G.; Moellendorff, U. von; Moritz, N.; Plute, K.; Schretzmann, K.; Sze, D.

    1985-07-01

    An improved design of the HIBALL inertial-confinement fusion power station is presented. The new RF-linac based heavy ion driver has improved concepts for beam stacking, bunching and final focusing. The new target design takes into account radiation transport effects in a coarse approximation. The system of four reactors with a net total output of 3.8 GW electric is essentially the same as described earlier, however, progress in the analysis has enhanced its credibility and self-consistency. Considerations of environmental and safety aspects and cost estimates are given. (orig.) [de

  15. Longitudinal dynamics and stability in beams for heavy-ion fusion

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Successful transport of induction-driven beams for heavy-ion fusion requires careful control of the longitudinal space charge. The usual control technique is the periodic application of time-varying longitudinal electric fields, called 'ears', that on the average, balance the space-charge field. this technique is illustrated using a fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and the sensitivity of the method to errors in these ear fields is illustrated. The possibility that periodic ear fields also excite the longitudinal instability is examined

  16. Study of recirculating induction accelerator as drivers for heavy ion fusion

    Shay, H.D.; Barnard, J.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Coffield, F.; Deadrick, F.; Griffith, L.V.; Kirbie, H.C.; Neil, V.K.; Newton, M.A.; Paul, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two years ago, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a study of the viability and relative utility of recirculating induction accelerators as drivers for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF). The final draft of the report detailing the results in 284 pages was completed in September, 1991. As well as broadly involving the collaboration of many researchers from several groups at LLNL, it also benefited from contributions from several individuals in the HIF program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and from others in the HIF community nationwide. This presentation summarizes the key findings given in that report

  17. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  18. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  19. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or open-quotes driveclose quotes inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act

  20. Directions for reactor target design based on the US heavy ion fusion systems assessment

    Wilson, D.C.; Dudziak, D.; Magelssen, G.; Zuckerman, D.; Dreimeyer, D.

    1986-01-01

    We studied areas of major uncertainty in target design using the cost of electricity as our figure of merit. Net electric power from the plant was fixed at 1000 MW to eliminate large effects due to economies of scale. The system is relatively insensitive to target gain. Factors of three changes in gain cause only 8 to 12% changes in electricity cost. An increase in the peak power needed to drive targets poses only a small cost risk, but requires many more beamlets be transported to the target. A shortening of the required ion range causes both cost and beamlet difficulties. A factor of 4 decrease in the required range at a fixed driver energy increases electricity cost by 44% and raises the number of beamlets to 240. Finally, the heavy ion fusion system can accommodate large increases in target costs. To address the major uncertainties, target design should concentrate on the understanding requirements for ion range and peak driver power

  1. Recent experimental results in sub- and near-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Montagnoli, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Stefanini, Alberto M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Recent advances obtained in the field of near and sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the results obtained in the last decade, and focus is mainly on the experimental work performed concerning the influence of transfer channels on fusion cross sections and the hindrance phenomenon far below the barrier. Indeed, early data of sub-barrier fusion taught us that cross sections may strongly depend on the low-energy collective modes of the colliding nuclei, and, possibly, on couplings to transfer channels. The coupled-channels (CC) model has been quite successful in the interpretation of the experimental evidences. Fusion barrier distributions often yield the fingerprint of the relevant coupled channels. Recent results obtained by using radioactive beams are reported. At deep sub-barrier energies, the slope of the excitation function in a semi-logarithmic plot keeps increasing in many cases and standard CC calculations overpredict the cross sections. This was named a hindrance phenomenon, and its physical origin is still a matter of debate. Recent theoretical developments suggest that this effect, at least partially, may be a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. The hindrance may have far-reaching consequences in astrophysics where fusion of light systems determines stellar evolution during the carbon and oxygen burning stages, and yields important information for exotic reactions that take place in the inner crust of accreting neutron stars. (orig.)

  2. HIBALL - a conceptual heavy ion beam driven fusion reactor study. Vol. 1

    Badger, B.; El-Guebaly, L.; Engelstad, R.; Hassanein, A.; Klein, A.; Kulcinski, G.; Larsen, E.; Lee, K.; Lovell, E.; Moses, G.

    1981-12-01

    A preliminary concept for a heavy-ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion power plant is presented. The high repetition rate of the RF accelerator driver is utilized to serve four reactor chambers alternatingly. In the chambers a novel first-wall protection scheme is used. At a target gain of 83 the total net electrical output is 3.8 GW. The recirculating power fraction is below 15%. The main goal of the comprehensive HIBALL study (which is continuing) is to demonstrate the compatibility of the design of the driver, the target and the reactor chambers. Though preliminary, the present dessign is essentially self-consistent. Tentative cost estimates are given. The costs compare well with those found in similar studies on other types of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  3. Systematic study of sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion reactions

    Aguiar, C E; Aleixo, A N; Barbosa, V C; Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1989-08-14

    A systematic study of the heavy-ion fusion-cross-section enhancement at sub-barrier energies is carried out. The asymptotic energy shift introduced in a previous paper as a measure of this enhancement is considered from a theoretical point of view. It is claimed that this energy shift is composed of two terms: One of them is related to the bulk properties of nuclear matter, and the other corresponds to deviations depending on the specific nuclear structure of the collision partners. We show that the former can be approximately described by the neck-formation model for fusion and the latter is frequently a consequence of static deformation or vibrational excitation of the projectile and/or the target. A comparison of the neck-formation effects with those arising from neutron flow suggests that there is a connection between these two mechanisms. (orig.).

  4. Development of the rf linear accelerator test bed for heavy-ion fusion

    Watson, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of absorbed energy required by high gain deuterium-tritium targets for inertial confinement fusion reactors is now projected to be greater than 1 Megajoule. It has become apparent that a heavy ion fusion driver is the preferred choice in this scenario. To demonstrate this accelerator-based option, the national program has established two test beds: one at Argonne for the rf linac/storage ring approach, and one at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory developing an induction linac. The Argonne Beam Development Facility (BDF) would consist of a 40 mA rf linac for Xe + 8 , a storage ring, and a 10 GeV synchrotron. The design and status of the BDF is described as well as future program options to demonstrate as many solutions as possible of the issues involved in this approach

  5. Unified description of scattering and fusion phenomena in heavy-ion collisions

    Sahu, Basudeb; Sahu, B. B.; Mallick, G. S.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Shastry, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical recursive formula of the partial-wave scattering matrix for the total effective complex potential of nucleus-nucleus collisions is derived to conveniently analyze the data of angular variations of elastic scattering cross sections. Further, another expression of cross sections for the absorption from arbitrarily small intervals is derived. This leads to the explanation of the fusion cross section (σ fus ) data at various incident center-of-mass energies E c.m. by collecting the absorption contributions in the interior region of the effective potential. This concept is akin to that used by Udagawa et al. in the calculation of fusion cross sections in elastic channels. The interaction potential considered in the analysis is energy independent and by virtue of its weakly absorbing character it supports resonance states in different partial-wave trajectories. Consequently, occurrence of these resonances is shown to be the physical origin of the observed oscillatory structure in the variation respect to energy of the quantity D(E c.m. )=d 2 (E c.m. σ fus )/dE c.m. 2 , the second derivative of the product E c.m. σ fus with respect to E c.m. . In this article, we investigate two well-known cases of heavy-ion collisions, namely 12 C+ 208 Pb and 16 O+ 208 Pb, and obtain simultaneous and very successful explanations of cross sections for elastic scattering and fusion and the results of D(E c.m. ). These results obtained by using a somewhat novel and convenient method demonstrate the unified description of scattering and fusion for interacting heavy-ion systems

  6. Simulations of longitudinal beam dynamics of space-charge dominated beams for heavy ion fusion

    Miller, D.A.C.

    1994-12-01

    The longitudinal instability has potentially disastrous effects on the ion beams used for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion. This instability is a open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes instability with the impedance coining from the induction modules in the accelerator used as a driver. This instability can greatly amplify perturbations launched from the beam head and can prevent focusing of the beam onto the small spot necessary for fusion. This instability has been studied using the WARPrz particle-in-cell code. WARPrz is a 2 1/2 dimensional electrostatic axisymmetric code. This code includes a model for the impedance of the induction modules. Simulations with resistances similar to that expected in a driver show moderate amounts of growth from the instability as a perturbation travels from beam head to tail as predicted by cold beam fluid theory. The perturbation reflects off the beam tail and decays as it travels toward the beam head. Nonlinear effects cause the perturbation to steepen during reflection. Including the capacitive component of the, module impedance. has a partially stabilizing effect on the longitudinal instability. This reduction in the growth rate is seen in both cold beam fluid theory and in simulations with WARPrz. Instability growth rates for warm beams measured from WARPrz are lower than cold beam fluid theory predicts. Longitudinal thermal spread cannot account for this decrease in the growth rate. A mechanism for coupling the transverse thermal spread to decay of the longitudinal waves is presented. The longitudinal instability is no longer a threat to the heavy ion fusion program. The simulations in this thesis have shown that the growth rate for this instability will not be as large as earlier calculations predicted

  7. Direct-indirect mixed implosion mode in heavy ion inertial fusion

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Someya, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to realize an effective implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity on a fuel target must be suppressed less than a few percent. In this study, a direct-indirect mixture implosion mode is proposed and discussed in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. On the other hand, the HIB illumination non-uniformity depends strongly on a target displacement dz from the center of a fusion reactor chamber. In a direct-driven implosion mode, dz of ∼20 μm was tolerable, and in an indirect-implosion mode, dz of ∼100 μm was allowable. In the direct-indirect mixture mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer, the radiation transport is expected to smooth the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. Two-dimensional implosion simulations are performed, and show that the HIB illumination non-uniformity is well smoothed in the direct-indirect mixture target. Our simulation results present that a large pellet displacement of approximately a few hundred microns is allowed in order to obtain a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF

  8. Diagnostics of discharge channels for neutralized chamber transport in heavy ion fusion

    Niemann, C.; Penache, D.; Tauschwitz, A.; Rosmej, F.B.; Neff, S.; Birkner, R.; Constantin, C.; Knobloch, R.; Presura, R.; Yu, S.S.; Sharp, W.M.; Ponce, D.M.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    2002-01-01

    The final beam transport in the reactor chamber for heavy ion fusion in preformed plasma channels offers many attractive advantages compared to other transport modes. In the past few years, experiments at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) accelerator facility have addressed the creation and investigation of discharge plasmas, designed for the transport of intense ion beams. Stable, self-standing channels of 50 cm length with currents up to 55 kA were initiated in low-pressure ammonia gas by a CO 2 -laser pulse along the channel axis before the discharge is triggered. The channels were characterized by several plasma diagnostics including interferometry and spectroscopy. We also present first experiments on laser-guided intersecting discharges

  9. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  10. Study of heavy ion fusion reaction of 58Ni + 24Mg at 11 MeV/nucleon

    Shea, J.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the heavy ion fusion reaction in which a 58 Ni projectile bombards a 24 Mg target at 11 MeV/nucleon. The incident projectile energy was purposefully chosen so as the system studied to be at the onset of the more complex and interesting phenomenon of incomplete fusion. The physics motivation is to probe the central collision of a heavy, energetic, and asymmetric system by means of both inclusive and exclusive experimental measurements. The experiment was performed at HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) by using the coupled accelerators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The reaction products were measured by the new open-quotes HILI-Ringclose quotes large solid angle detector system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The thesis discusses the physics motivation and the systematics of heavy ion fusion reactions. Details of the design and construction of a new CsI(T1) Ring detector is given. Since this is the first such study performed on the Heavy Ion Light Ion (HILI) detector, an extensive discussion of the calibration procedures and the data reduction methods are given. The fusion reaction data were analyzed in both inclusive and exclusive modes with the result that a valuable new perspective on the deconvolution of the reaction mechanism has been achieved

  11. Plasma lens focusing and plasma channel transport for heavy ion fusion

    Tauschwitz, A.; Yu, S.S.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    The final focus lens in an ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion reactor is important since it sets limiting requirements for the quality of the driver beam. Improvements of the focusing capabilities can facilitate the construction of the driver significantly. A focusing system that is of interest both for heavy ion and for light ion drivers is an adiabatic, current carrying plasma lens. This lens is characterized by the fact that it can slowly (adiabatically) reduce the envelope radius of a beam over several betatron oscillations by increasing the focusing magnetic field along a tapered high current discharge. A reduction of the beam diameter by a factor of 3 to 5 seems feasible with this focusing scheme. Such a lens can be used for an ignition test facility where it can be directly coupled to the fusion target. For use in a repetitively working reactor chamber the lens has to be located outside of the reactor and the tightly focused but strongly divergent beam must be confined in a high current transport channel from the end of the lens into the immediate vicinity of the target. Laser preionization of a background gas is an efficient means to direct and stabilize such a channel. Experiments have been started to test both, the principle of adiabatic focusing, and the stability of laser preionized high current discharge channels. (author). 4 figs., 7 refs

  12. Plasma lens focusing and plasma channel transport for heavy ion fusion

    Tauschwitz, A; Yu, S S; Bangerter, R O [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    The final focus lens in an ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion reactor is important since it sets limiting requirements for the quality of the driver beam. Improvements of the focusing capabilities can facilitate the construction of the driver significantly. A focusing system that is of interest both for heavy ion and for light ion drivers is an adiabatic, current carrying plasma lens. This lens is characterized by the fact that it can slowly (adiabatically) reduce the envelope radius of a beam over several betatron oscillations by increasing the focusing magnetic field along a tapered high current discharge. A reduction of the beam diameter by a factor of 3 to 5 seems feasible with this focusing scheme. Such a lens can be used for an ignition test facility where it can be directly coupled to the fusion target. For use in a repetitively working reactor chamber the lens has to be located outside of the reactor and the tightly focused but strongly divergent beam must be confined in a high current transport channel from the end of the lens into the immediate vicinity of the target. Laser preionization of a background gas is an efficient means to direct and stabilize such a channel. Experiments have been started to test both, the principle of adiabatic focusing, and the stability of laser preionized high current discharge channels. (author). 4 figs., 7 refs.

  13. Principles of non-Liouvillean pulse compression by photoionization for heavy ion fusion drivers

    Hofmann, I.

    1990-05-01

    Photoionization of single charged heavy ions has been proposed recently by Rubbia as a non-Liouvillean injection scheme from the linac into the storage rings of a driver accelerator for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The main idea of this scheme is the accumulation of high currents of heavy ions without the usually inevitable increase of phase space. Here we suggest to use the photoionization idea in an alternative scheme: if it is applied at the final stage of pulse compression (replacing the conventional bunch compression by an rf voltage, which always increases the momentum spread) there is a significant advantage in the performance of the accelerator. We show, in particular, that this new compression scheme has the potential to relax the tough stability limitations, which were identified in the heavy ion fusion reactor study HIBALL. Moreover, it is promising for achieving the higher beam power, which is suitable for indirectly driven fusion targets (10 16 Watts/gram in contrast with the 10 14 for the directly driven targets in HIBALL). The idea of non-Liouvillean bunch compression is to stack a large number of bunches (typically 50-100) in the same phase space volume during a change of charge state of the ion. A particular feature of this scheme with regard to beam dynamics is its transient nature, since the time required is one revolution per bunch. After the stacking the intense bunch is ejected and directly guided to the target. The present study is a first step to explore the possibly limiting effect of space charge under the conditions of parameters of a full-size driver accelerator. Preliminary results indicate that there is a limit to the effective stacking number (non-Liouvillean 'compression-factor'), which is, however, not prohibitive. Requirements to the power of the photon beam from a free electron laser are also discussed. It is seen that resonant cross sections of the order of 10 -15 cm 2 lead to photon beam powers of a few Megawatt. (orig.)

  14. Radio-frequency-quadrupole linac in a heavy ion fusion driver system

    Hansborough, L.D.; Stokes, R.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of linear accelerator, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. The RFQ accelerator can be adapted to any high-current applications. A recent experimental test carried out at the Los Alamos Scienific Laboratory (LASL) has demonstrated the outstandig properties of RFQ systems. The test linac accepts a 30-mA proton beam of 100-keV energy and focuses, bunches, and accelerates the beam to an energy to 640 keV. This ia done in a length of 1.1 m, with a transmission efficiency of 87% and with a radial emittance growth of less than 60%. The proven capability of the RFQ linac, when extended to heavy ion acceleration, should provide an ideal technique for use in the low-velocity portion of a heavy-ion linac for inertial-confinement fusion. A specific concept for such an RFQ-based system is described

  15. Numerical simulation of performance of heavy ion inertial confinement fusion target with ellipsoidal chamber

    Basin, A.A.; Vatulin, V.V.; Vakhlamova, L.L.; Vinokurov, P.A.; Dement'ev, Yu.A.; Eliseev, G.M.; Ermolovich, V.F.; Morenko, L.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Remizov, G.N.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Ryabikina, N.A.; Skrypnik, S.I.; Skidan, G.I.; Tikhomirov, B.P.; Shagaliev, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    To solve the design problem of an inertial thermonuclear fusion facility requires the united efforts of scientists in various countries. In the field of heavy ion fusion a collaboration between scientists in Germany and Russia is under successful development. VNIIEF possesses advanced software for numerical simulation of the processes in thermonuclear target operation. This paper describes a target design suggested and being studied by scientists of Frankfurt University and GSI which is based on 2D non-stationary calculation of the X-ray energy transport and capsule compression. The target consists of a spherical capsule with DT fuel and an ellipsoidal chamber containment. The ion beam energy is released in two fixed converters located on the chamber axis symmetricall with respect to the capsule. The X-ray field is formed on the capsule surface with a set of special shields. The basic aim of our research is to estimate the effect of gas dynamic expansion of the chamber walls, shields and capsule on the target operation. To increase the reliability of the obtained results and the assessment of probable errors in predicting radiation field parameters and the capsule state, the calculations were accomplished in a kinetic arrangement with various techniques. (orig.)

  16. Annual report of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project, 1 October 1977--1 October 1978

    1979-02-01

    This report is divided into three parts. The first deals with the results of an analysis of the fusion problem in general, and heavy ion inertial fusion in particular. The second portion deals with the progress being made in the design and development of high current, high brightness pre-injectors and linear accelerators. The third deals with some experiments with space charge neutralization, bunching, etc

  17. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  18. Development of FET-switched induction accelerator cells for heavy-ion fusion recirculators

    Newton, M.A.; Cravey, W.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Kirbie, H.C.; Ollis, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The ''recirculator,'' a recirculating heavy-ion induction accelerator, has been identified as a promising approach for an inertial fusion driver. One of the technical challenges to building a recirculator is the requirement for a modulator that can drive the induction accelerator cells at repetition rates ≥ 100 kHz with variable pulse width and pulse repetition rate capability. A high repetition rate modulator and cell is presently being developed for use on a proposed heavy-ion recirculator. The goal is to develop an array of field-effect transistors to switch 5 kV, 1 μs pulses onto a Metglas induction core at pulse rates exceeding 100 kHz. Each transistor in the array is driven by a fiber-optic isolated gate signal that is powered by a dc/dc converter. The circuit architecture provides for core reset between pulses and produces bursts of pulses that are variable in pulse width and prf. The transistor switching array, energy storage capacitors, reset circuit and cell core are all combined into a single compact, low-impedance package. Progress of this development work will be presented with supporting data

  19. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    1983-05-01

    This Annual Report summarizes the scientific results of work carried out in 1982 in the framework of a feasibility study for inertial confinement fusion with heavy ion beams funded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology. The principal aim of this basic research program is the investigation of key problems and the identification of critical issues of the heavy ion ICF concept in the fields of accelerator research, atomic physics, target physics, and reactor design. The research is carried out by about ten working groups at various research centers and universities. One of the highlights in 1982 was a symposium held end of March at GSI which focussed on a critical analysis of the HIBALL accelerator concept. Whereas technical issues and hardware parameters were found feasible the beam dynamics in the storage rings turned out to be beyond the so far believed stability limits. As a consequence a revised accelerator scenario based on a lower charge state and a higher linac current has been investigated during the last year. First considerations were made on an experimental facility necessary for the study of high-intensity beam dynamics and of beam target interaction. Experimental studies of this kind will be of increasing importance for the future of the project. (orig.) [de

  20. Liquid wall boiler and moderator (BAM) for heavy ion-pellet fusion reactors

    Powell, J.R.; Lazareth, O.; Fillo, J.

    1977-11-01

    Thick liquid wall blankets appear to be of great promise for heavy ion pellet fusion reactors. They avoid the severe problems of intense radiation and blast damage that would be encountered with solid blanket structures. The liquid wall material can be chosen so that its vapor pressure at the working temperature of the power cycle is well below the value at which it might interfere with the propagation of the heavy ion beam. The liquid wall can be arranged so that it does not contact any surrounding solid structure when the pellet explosion occurs, including the ends. The ends can be magnetically closed just before the pellet explosion, or a time phased flow can be used, which will leave a clear central zone into which the pellet is injected. Parametric analysis comparing three candidate liquid wall materials were carried out. The three materials were lithium, flibe, and lead (with a low concentration of disolved lithium). Lead appeared to be the best choice for the liquid wall, although any of the three should allow a practical reactor system. The parametric analyses examined the effects of pellet yield (0 to 10 GJ), pellet mass (3 g to 3 kg), liquid wall thickness (10 cm to 80 cm), vapor condensation time (0 to 10 milliseconds), degree of neutron moderation in the pellet (none to 100%), liquid wall chamber size (radius of 1.5 meters to 4 meters), Pb/Li 6 ratio (100 to 5,000), and thickness of graphite moderating zone behind the liquid wall

  1. Beam position and total current monitor for heavy ion fusion beams

    Berners, D.; Reginato, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion requires moderate currents, 1-10A, for a duration of about 1 μs. For accurate beam transport, the center of charge must be located to within ± 100 μm. Beam position and intensity may be excited at frequencies approaching 10 MHz, and the monitoring system must have adequate bandwidth to respond at these frequencies. We have modified the Rogowski technique by using distributed reactance multiturn magnetic loops so that it is suitable for measuring current position as well as amplitude. Four identical stripline coils are wound one per quadrant around a non magnetic core. The sensitivity is similar to that of a lumped coil system, with the added advantage of increased bandwidth. The voltages induced on the four separate coils are compared and suitable signal conditioning is performed to recover beam position and intensity information

  2. Dissipation, fluctuations and the fusion of heavy ions near the Coulomb barrier

    Canto, L F

    1989-01-09

    We study the role of internal degrees of freedom in the transmission of a classical particle over a potential barrier. The internal degrees of freedom are represented by harmonic oscillators and a linear approximation is adopted for the coupling. The frequency spectrum of the oscillators and the coupling strength are assumed to be such as to give rise to a weak friction in the particle coordinate. We show that the interaction with the oscillators leads to an effective increase epsilon/sub 0/ in the height of the potential barrier and to an energy-spread sigma in the transmission factor. We show also that epsilon/sub 0/ and sigma satisfy a dissipation-fluctuation relation. The theory is applied to the fusion of heavy ions at energies near the Coulomb barrier and the results are shown to be in agreement with the data.

  3. Study of heavy ion fusion: application to the system 28Si + 28Si

    Plagnol, E.

    1982-03-01

    Study of the fusion reactions between medium mass range heavy ions (experiments on 56 Ni compound nucleus formed by the reaction 28 Si + 28 Si): - analysis of the properties of the compound nucleus de-excitation process: utilization of the evaporation model based on the Hauser-Fesbach statistical model; study of the evolution of the production cross sections of the evaporation residues as a function of the excitation energy and of the angular momentum; - analysis of the kinetics of the compound nucleus formation, with construction of a model describing the various observed regimes, as a function of energy, in the compound nucleus formation cross section: study of the properties of the rotating liquid drop and of the formation kinetics evolution of the nuclei under Coulomb and nuclear potentials, up to a minimal approach distance, sticking conditions, and development towards scission or equilibrium state (compound nucleus) [fr

  4. A Scaled Beam-Combining Experiment for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    Celata, C.M.; Chupp, W.W.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.M.; Ghiorso, W.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; MacLaren, S.; Peters, C.; Seidl, P.

    1997-01-01

    Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving option employed in many designs for induction linac heavy ion fusion drivers. The resultant transverse emittance increase, due predominantly to enharmonic space charge forces, must be kept minimal so that the beam remains focusable at the target. A prototype combining experiment has been built and preliminary results are presented. Four sources each produce up to 4.8 mA Cs+ beams at 160 keV. Focusing upstream of the merge consists of four quadruples and a final combined-function element (quadruple ampersand dipole). All lattice elements of the prototype are electrostatic. Due to the small distance between beams near the merge (-3-4 mm), the electrodes here are a cage of small rods, each at different voltage

  5. X-ray spectroscopy of highly ionized heavy ions as an advanced research for controlled nuclear fusion power

    Zschornack, G.; Musiol, G.

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostics and modelling of nuclear fusion plasmas require a detailed knowledge of atomic and molecular data for highly ionized heavy ions. Experimental verification of atomic data is made on the basis of IAEA recommendations using the method of high-resolution wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to obtain contributions extensioning the available atomic data lists. Basic facilities for producing highly charged heavy ions are the electron-ion rings of the heavy ion collective accelerator and the electron beam ion source KRYON-2 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. For high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with these sources a computer-aided crystal diffraction spectrometer has been developed the precision of which is achieved by using advanced principles of measurement and control. Relativistic atomic structure calculations have been carried out for a great number of elements and configurations to obtain data in ionization regions heavily accessible to the experiment. (author)

  6. Progress towards a high-gain and robust target design for heavy ion fusion

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grant Logan, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recently [E. Henestroza et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)], a new inertial-fusion target configuration, the X-target, using one-sided axial illumination has been explored. This class of target uses annular and solid-profile heavy ion beams to compress and ignite deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel that fills the interior of metal cases that have side-view cross sections in the shape of an 'X.' X-targets using all-DT-filled metal cases imploded by three annular ion beams resulted in fuel densities of {approx}50 g/cm{sup 3} at peak compression, and fusion gains of {approx}50, comparable to heavy ion driven hohlraum targets [D. A. Callahan-Miller and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)]. This paper discusses updated X-target configurations that incorporate inside the case a propellant (plastic) and a pusher (aluminum) surrounding the DT fuel. The updated configurations are capable of assembling higher fuel areal densities {approx}2 g/cm{sup 2} using two annular beams to implode the target to peak DT densities {approx}100 g/cm{sup 3}, followed by a fast-ignition solid ion beam which heats the high-density fuel to thermonuclear temperatures in {approx}200 ps to start the burn propagation, obtaining gains of {approx}300. These targets have been modeled using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] in two- and three- dimensions to study the properties of the implosion as well as the ignition and burn propagation phases. At typical Eulerian mesh resolutions of a few microns, the aluminum-DT interface shows negligible Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth; also, the shear flow of the DT fuel as it slides along the metal X-target walls, which drives the RT and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities, does not have a major effect on the burning rate. An analytic estimate of the RT instability process at the Al-DT interface shows that the aluminum spikes generated during the pusher deceleration phase

  7. HIFSA: Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment Project: Volume 2, Technical analyses

    Dudziak, D.J.

    1987-12-01

    A two-year project was undertaken to assess the commercial potential of heavy-ion fusion (HIF) as an economical electric power production technology. Because the US HIF development program is oriented toward the use of multiple-beam induction linacs, the study was confined to this particular driver technology. The HIF systems assessment (HIFSA) study involved several subsystem design, performance, and cost studies (e.g., the induction linac, final beam transport, beam transport in reactor cavity environments, cavity clearing, target manufacturing, and reactor plant). In addition, overall power plant systems integration, parametric analyses, and tradeoff studies were performed using a systems code developed specifically for the HIFSA project. Systems analysis results show values for cost of electricity (COE) comparable to those from other inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion plant studies; viz., 50 to 60 mills/kWh (1985 dollars) for 1-GWe plant sizes. Also, significant COE insensitivity to major accelerator, target, and reactor parameters near the minima was demonstrated. Conclusions from the HIFSA study have already led to substantial modifications of the US HIF research and development program. Separate abstracts were prepared for 17 papers in these analyses

  8. Identifying heavy-ion-beam fusion design and system features with high economic leverage

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this article the authors consider a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) fusion power plant that consists of a driver, a target factory, and one or more power units. A power unit is defined as all the buildings and equipment needed to generate electric power, provided the target and beams are delivered to the reaction chamber. Because the maximum achievable pulse rate in a single chamber is limited, more than one reaction chamber may be required to achieve the desired output of a single power unit. They distinguish between multiple power units and multiple reaction chambers so that they can examine separately the effects of increasing the number of reaction chambers at a constant net power and of increasing the power level by driving more power units with a single driver. The authors conducted studies to investigate the effects on the cost of electricity (COE) of variations in several design parameters. In particular, they examined the effects of maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. They found that with a combination of improvements over their base case, HIB fusion can be economically competitive with present and future power sources

  9. Heavy-Ion Fusion Mechanism and Predictions of Super-Heavy Elements Production

    Abe, Yasuhisa; Shen Caiwan; Boilley, David; Giraud, Bertrand G.; Kosenko, Grigory

    2009-01-01

    Fusion process is shown to firstly form largely deformed mono-nucleus and then to undergo diffusion in two-dimensions with the radial and mass-asymmetry degrees of freedom. Examples of prediction of residue cross sections are given for the elements with Z = 117 and 118.

  10. What can we learn about heavy ion fusion by studying fission angular distributions

    Back, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Determinations of complete fusion reactions leading to fissionable systems are associated with problems of separating fragments from quasi-fission reactions from those arising from fission of the completely fused system. Inferring complete fusion cross sections from the minute cross sections for the evaporation residue channel is hampered by the insufficient knowledge of the branching ratio for neutron emission and fission in the decay sequence of the completely fused system. From a quantitative analysis of the fragment angular distributions it is, however, possible under certain assumptions to deduce the relative contribution of complete fusion and quasi-fission. It is found that the complete fusion process is hindered for heavy projectiles. The excess radial energy over the interaction barrier needed to induce fusion with heavy projectiles is determined in several cases and systematic trends are presented

  11. Report on the workshop on atomic and plasma physics requirements for heavy ion fusion, Argonne National Lab., December 13-14, 1979

    Kin, Y.K.; Magelssen, G.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic, molecular, and plasma physics areas that are relevant to inertial confinement fusion by energetic heavy ions are identified. Discussions are confined to problems related to the design of heavy ion accelerators, accumulation of ions in storage rings, and the beam transport in a reactor vessel

  12. Ion beam inertial fusion

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    About twenty years ago, A. W. Maschke of Brookhaven National Laboratory and R. L. Martin of Argonne National Laboratory recognized that the accelerators that have been developed for high energy and nuclear physics are, in many ways, ideally suited to the requirements of inertial fusion power production. These accelerators are reliable, they have a long operating life, and they can be efficient. Maschke and Martin noted that they can focus ion beams to small focal spots over distances of many meters and that they can readily operate at the high pulse repetition rates needed for commercial power production. Fusion, however, does impose some important new constraints that are not important for high energy or nuclear physics applications. The most challenging new constraint from a scientific standpoint is the requirement that the accelerator deliver more than 10 14 W of beam power to a small quantity (less than 100 mg) of matter. The most challenging constraint from an engineering standpoint is accelerator cost. Maschke showed theoretically that accelerators could produce adequate work. Heavy-ion fusion is widely recognized to be a promising approach to inertial fusion power production. It provides an excellent opportunity to apply methods and technology developed for basic science to an important societal need. The pulsed-power community has developed a complementary, parallel approach to ion beam fusion known as light-ion fusion. The talk will discuss both heavy-ion and light-ion fusion. It will explain target physics requirements and show how they lead to constraints on the usual accelerator parameters such as kinetic energy, current, and emittance. The talk will discuss experiments that are presently underway, specifically experiments on high-current ion sources and injectors, pulsed-power machines recirculating induction accelerators, and transverse beam combining. The talk will give a brief description of a proposed new accelerator called Elise

  13. Modeling Drift Compression in an Integrated Beam Experiment for Heavy-Ion-Fusion

    Sharp, W. M.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Celata, C. M.; Yu, S. S.

    2003-10-01

    The Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) is an induction accelerator being designed to further develop the science base for heavy-ion fusion. The experiment is being developed jointly by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. One conceptual approach would first accelerate a 0.5-1 A beam of singly charged potassium ions to 5 MeV, impose a head-to-tail velocity tilt to compress the beam longitudinally, and finally focus the beam radiallly using a series of quadrupole lenses. The lengthwise compression is a critical step because the radial size must be controlled as the current increases, and the beam emittance must be kept minimal. The work reported here first uses the moment-based model HERMES to design the drift-compression beam line and to assess the sensitivity of the final beam profile to beam and lattice errors. The particle-in-cell code WARP is then used to validate the physics design, study the phase-space evolution, and quantify the emittance growth.

  14. Operating experience with a high-current Cs+1 injector for heavy-ion fusion

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.

    1981-03-01

    The construction and assembly of a Cs ion injector consisting of a pulsed source and 3 pulsed drift tubes has been complete since April 1980. The measurement program, underway since then to characterize the beam, has been interspersed with the development of diagnostic equipment. The Cs contact ionization source and each of the 3 drift tubes are driven by 500 kV Marx generators. The injector has been operated reliably at 300 kV/stage at a repetition rate of 1 pulse/4 sec. About 10 5 pulses have been accumulated. The space charge limited diode and drift tube acceleration system were designed with the aid of the EGUN code of Herrmannsfeldt. Measurements of the beam envelope have been made by means of a movable biased charge collector. Good agreement with the EGUN calculation is found. Measurements of the beam emittance have been made at the exit of the third drift tube. The normalized emittance π epsilon N = 2 x 10 -6 π m-rad is of better optical quality than that required for further acceleration and transport in a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Induction Linac Driver

  15. Manipulation of high-current pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Griedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    For efficient induction-driven heavy-ion fusion, the current profile along a pulse must be modified in a non-selfsimilar manner between the accelerator and the target. In the accelerator, the pulse should have a duration of at least 50 ns in order to make efficient use of the induction cores, and the current should by nearly uniform along the pulse to minimize the aperture. In contrast, the optimal current profile on target consists of a main pulse of about 10 ns preceded by a longer low-current 'foot.' This pulse-shape manipulation must be carried out at the final pulse energy (5-10 GeV for 200 amu ions) in the presence of a large nonlinear longitudinal space-charge field. A straightforward method is presented here for doing the required pulse shaping. Induction-ceU voltages are generated using idealized beam profiles both in the accelerator and on target, and they are verified and checked for error sensitivity using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE

  16. 16. International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF'06)

    Adonin, A.; Ausset, P.; Babadunni, O.; Barnard, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Bawa, O.; Benedetti, C.; Bieniosek, F.; Bouchigny, S.; Bret, A.; Celata, Ch.; Chieze, J.P.; Coelho, L.F.; Cohen, R.; Coleman, J.; Cremer, S.; Crouseilles, N.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, Ch.; Deutsch, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Efremov, V.; Fedosejevs, R.; Fertman, A.; Friedman, A.; Gardes, D.; Gericke, D.; Gilson, E.; Golubev, A.; Gombert, M.M.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.; Gutnic, M.; Haber, I.; Hammel, B.; Hasegawa, J.; Hegelich, B.M.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Horioka, K.; Jacoby, J.; Kaganovich, I.; Katagiri, K.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kurilenkov, Y.; Latu, G.; Lenglet, A.; Logan, G.; Lund, St.; Maynard, G.; Molvik, A.; Nishinomiya, S.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Piriz, A.R.; Popoff, R.; Pusterla, M.; Qin, H.; Roth, M.; Roy, P.; Sant' Anna, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.; Sharkov, B.; Sharp, W.; Sonnendrucker, E.; Spiller, P.; Startsev, E.; Stoltz, P.; Synakowski, E.; Tahir, N.; Takayama, K.; Tashev, B.; Turchetti, G.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.L.; Velarde, P.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.; Weyrich, K.; Yaramyshev, St.; Zenkevich, P

    2006-07-01

    The contributions to this symposium have been divided into 8 issues: 1) overviews of national fusion programs, 2) other fusion programs, 3) accelerators, 4) warm dense matter, 5) ion beam neutralization, 6) atomic physics, 7) beam dynamics, and 8) stopping power. This document gathers only the resumes of the articles.

  17. Heavy ion inertial fusion: interface between target gain, accelerator phase space and reactor beam transport revisited

    Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.; Mark, J.W.K.; Yu, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Recently revised estimates of target gain have added additional optimistic inputs to the interface between targets, accelerators and fusion chamber beam transport. But it remains valid that neutralization of the beams in the fusion chamber is useful if ion charge state Z > 1 or if > 1 kA per beamlet is to be propagated. Some engineering and economic considerations favor higher currents

  18. Role of hexadecapole deformation of projectile 28Si in heavy-ion fusion reactions near the Coulomb barrier

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.

    2018-06-01

    The vast knowledge regarding the strong influence of quadrupole deformation β2 of colliding nuclei in heavy-ion sub-barrier fusion reactions inspires a desire to quest the sensitivity of fusion dynamics to higher order deformations, such as β4 and β6 deformations. However, such studies have rarely been carried out, especially for deformation of projectile nuclei. In this article, we investigated the role of β4 of the projectile nucleus in the fusion of the 28Si+92Zr system. We demonstrated that the fusion barrier distribution is sensitive to the sign and value of the β4 parameter of the projectile, 28Si, and confirmed that the 28Si nucleus has a large positive β4. This study opens an indirect way to estimate deformation parameters of radioactive nuclei using fusion reactions, which is otherwise difficult because of experimental constraints.

  19. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    Friedman, Alex, E-mail: af@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion Science (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, each of which has a unique arrival time and may have a unique kinetic energy. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: that the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of “main-pulse” beams relative to “foot-pulse” beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying “differential acceleration” to individual beams or sets of beams at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams “sooner” and others “later,” it is possible to simplify the beam line configuration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use differential acceleration to effect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams (e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model configurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.

  20. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    Friedman, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, each of which has a unique arrival time and may have a unique kinetic energy. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: that the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of “main-pulse” beams relative to “foot-pulse” beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying “differential acceleration” to individual beams or sets of beams at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams “sooner” and others “later,” it is possible to simplify the beam line configuration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use differential acceleration to effect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams (e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model configurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy

  1. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs

  2. Heavy ion beam fusion theory and simulation: Annual report, October 1985 to 31 January 1987

    Haber, I.

    1987-01-01

    A large number of simulations have been performed to establish a database of simulations for use in accelerator designs, and to compare the simulated emittance growths with the threshold for emittance growth actually measured in the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) at LBL. These simulations show substantial agreement with the experiment. They also extend into the parameter regime, where emittance growths are slower than could be measured in SBTE, but which may still be important to a driver system several times longer. Also demonstrated by these simulations, is that, even for beams which are not in detailed space-charge equilibrium and can therefore be subject to substantial nonlinear space-charge forces, emittance growths are restricted to what is consistent with energy conservation provided that the instability threshold is not crossed. This occurs even though energy need not be conserved in alternating gradient systems. Major modifications have been made to the two dimensional SHIFT-XY (Simulation of Heavy Ion Fusion Transport) code to add some of the three-dimensional physics associated with the transverse variation of the longitudinal fields in a long beam. Enhancements to the code have also been implemented which can decrease running times as much as 30% for typical parameters. 13 refs., 7 figs

  3. The effects of one-body dissipation and collective inertias in heavy-ion scattering and fusion

    Stryjewski, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    A classical dynamical model of heavy ion scattering and fusion is presented. The model includes deformations, deformation-dependent inertias and one-body friction in both the entrance and exit channels. The deformation-dependent inertias are calculated using a hydrodynamic approach and the one-body friction is determined with the classical wall friction formalism. This model is used to study the effects of one-body friction and collective inertias on strongly damped heavy ion reactions and fusion. Quantum-mechanical calculations suggest that the strength of classical one-body friction, as calculated by the wall formalism, is too large by a factor of 3. Therefore, the fusion excitation functions for the reactions: 16 O + 16 O, 28 Si + 28 Si, 40 Ca + 40 Ca and 56 Fe + 56 Fe are calculated and compared with similar calculations in which the strength of the wall friction has been reduced by a factor of 3. Calculations using the full wall friction reproduce the experimental fusion excitation functions more accurately than calculations using the weaker wall friction. Also, because hydrodynamical inertias are the smallest possible classical inertias, the fusion excitation functions for: 16 O + 16 O, 28 Si + 28 Si, 40 Ca + 40 Ca and 56 Fe + 56 Fe are calculated with the size of the collective inertias increased by a factor of 2 over the hydrodynamical values. Once again, calculations using hydrodynamical collective inertias reproduce the experimental fusion excitation functions more accurately than calculations using the larger collective inertias. The effects of one-body friction and collective inertias on heavy ion scattering are also investigated; reaction times, scattering angles and energy loss are determined as functions of energy and angular momentum for the reactions 98 Mo + 98 Mo and 238 U + 238 U

  4. The longitudinal wall impedance instability in a heavy-ion fusion driver

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

    1997-01-01

    For more than ten years [J. Bisognano, I. Haber, L. Smith, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 2501 (1983)], the longitudinal wall impedance instability was thought to be a serious threat to the success of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion. This instability is a open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes instability, driven by the impedance of the induction modules used to accelerate the beam. Early estimates of the instability growth rate predicted tens of e-folds due to the instability which would modulate the current and increase the longitudinal momentum spread and prevent focusing the ion beam on the small spot needed at the target. We have simulated this instability using an r-z particle-in-cell code which includes a model for the module impedance. These simulations, using driver parameters, show that growth due to the instability is smaller than in previous calculations. We have seen that growth is mainly limited to one head to tail transit by a space-charge wave. In addition, the capacitive component of the module impedance, which was neglected in the early work of Lee [E. P. Lee, Proc. Linear Accelerator Conference, (UCRL-86452), Santa Fe, NM, 1981] significantly reduces the growth rate. We have also included in the simulation intermittently applied axial confining fields which are thought to be the major source of perturbations to seed the longitudinal instability. Simulations show the beam can adjust to a systematic error in the longitudinal confining fields while a random error excites the most unstable wavelength of the instability. These simulations show that the longitudinal instability must be taken into account in a driver design, but it is not the major factor it was once thought to be. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating through a gaseous fusion target chamber

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Oliver, B.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Clark, R.E.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    In heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF), an ion beam is transported several meters through the reactor chamber to the target. This standoff distance mitigates damage to the accelerator from the target explosion. For the high perveance beams and millimeter-scale targets under consideration, the transport method is largely determined by the degree of ion charge and current neutralization in the chamber. This neutralization becomes increasingly difficult as the beam interacts with the ambient chamber environment and strips to higher charge states. Nearly complete neutralization permits neutralized-ballistic transport (main-line HIF transport method), where the ion beam enters the chamber at roughly 3-cm radius and focuses onto the target. In the backup pinched-transport schemes, the beam is first focused outside the chamber before propagating at small radius to the target. With nearly complete charge neutralization, the large beam divergence is contained by a strong magnetic field resulting from roughly 50-kA net current. In assisted-pinched transport, a preformed discharge channel provides the net current and the discharge plasma provides nearly complete charge and current neutralization of the beam. In self-pinched transport, the residual net current results solely from the beam-driven breakdown of the ambient gas. Using hybrid particle-in-cell simulation codes, the behavior of HIF driver-scale beams in these three transport modes is examined. Simulations of neutralized ballistic transport, at a few-mTorr flibe pressure, show excellent neutralization given a preformed or photoionized (from the heated target) plasma. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of assisted-pinch transport in roughly 1-Torr Xe show the importance of attaining >1-μs magnetic diffusion time to limit self-field effects and achieve good transport efficiency. For Xe gas pressures ranging from 10-150 mTorr, calculations predict a robust self-magnetic force sufficient for self

  6. Heavy ions

    CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico

    2001-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  7. Heavy ions

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  8. Three dimensional simulations of space charge dominated heavy ion beams with applications to inertial fusion energy

    Grote, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion requires injection, transport and acceleration of high current beams. Detailed simulation of such beams requires fully self-consistent space charge fields and three dimensions. WARP3D, developed for this purpose, is a particle-in-cell plasma simulation code optimized to work within the framework of an accelerator's lattice of accelerating, focusing, and bending elements. The code has been used to study several test problems and for simulations and design of experiments. Two applications are drift compression experiments on the MBE-4 facility at LBL and design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector for the proposed ILSE facility. With aggressive drift compression on MBE-4, anomalous emittance growth was observed. Simulations carried out to examine possible causes showed that essentially all the emittance growth is result of external forces on the beam and not of internal beam space-charge fields. Dominant external forces are the dodecapole component of focusing fields, the image forces on the surrounding pipe and conductors, and the octopole fields that result from the structure of the quadrupole focusing elements. Goal of the design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector is to produce a beam of as low emittance as possible. The simulations show that the dominant effects that increase the emittance are the nonlinear octopole fields and the energy effect (fields in the axial direction that are off-axis). Injectors were designed that minimized the beam envelope in order to reduce the effect of the nonlinear fields. Alterations to the quadrupole structure that reduce the nonlinear fields further were examined. Comparisons were done with a scaled experiment resulted in very good agreement

  9. Cost reduction possibilities for a heavy-ion accelerator for inertial confinement fusion

    Thayer, G.R.; Sims, J.R.; Henke, M.D.; Harris, D.B.; Dudziak, D.J.; Phillips, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A design was produced for a single module in a cost-optimized accelerator appropriate for a commercial heavy-ion power plant. The goal of the study was to determine if the cost of the accelerator module could be reduced through design options, selection of materials, and manufacturing techniques. Independent cost estimates were obtained for the three main components of the module, and cost reductions of 20% from the cost calculated by the heavy-ion accelerator design/cost-minimization computer code LIACEP were identified. 3 refs., 23 figs

  10. Design and testing of the 2 MV heavy ion injector for the Fusion Energy Research Program

    Abraham, W.; Benjegerdes, R.; Reginato, L.; Stoker, J.; Hipple, R.; Peters, C.; Pruyn, J.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Fusion Energy Research Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed and tested a pulsed 2 MV injector that produces a driver size beam of potassium ions. This paper describes the engineering aspects of this development which were generated in a closely coupled effort with the physics staff. Details of the ion source and beam transport physics are covered in another paper at this conference. This paper discusses the design details of the pulse generator, the ion source, the extractor, the diode column, and the electrostatic quadrupole column. Included will be the test results and operating experience of the complete injector

  11. Correlations between transfer and fusion in heavy ion collisions at the Coulomb barrier

    Bellwied, R.

    1989-03-01

    For the fusion of heavy atomic nuclei the nuclear-charge product exceeds Z 1 Z 2 =1600 in experiments at the Coulomb barrier a dynamical hindrance was detected. For the study of all binary reaction channels first 86 Kr induced reactions with 76 Ge, 104 Ru, and 130 Te were radiochemically studied. The relative to the fusion still unhindered system Kr+Ge shows beside the fusion only the transfer of few nucleons between projectile and target. In the reactions with Ru and Te (onsetting fusion hindrance) goes indeed a certain part (about 20%) of the missing fusion cross section in reactions with large mass flux, on the other hand however a sudden increasing of the quasi-elastic transfer of few nucleons strikes which fits well into the trend of the literature data for lighter and heavier systems and signalizes a sharply localized correlation between the vanishing of the fusion and the increasing of the transfer. In order to study further this threshold behaviour and to get additional kinematical informations on the binary reaction channels the reactions 96 Zr+ 90 Zr and 124 Sn+ 96 Zr were measured at the magnetic spectrometer of the GSI. With the spectrometer it is contrarily to the radiochemical experiments possible to determine fourfold differential cross section distributions. The sudden increasing of the cross section for quasi-elastic transfer at the threshold for fusion hindrance is completely confirmed whereby from measurements of the energy loss in the exit channel follows that (with lower weight) also complex transfer channels with essential energy damping are formed. By these experiments it has been shown for the first time that the dynamical fusion hindrance already onsets before the collisional partners reach the barrier. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 4th QUARTER 2008 MILESTONE REPORT

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Dickinson, M.R.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Katayanagi, T.; Logan, B.G.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.; More, R.M.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waltron, W.

    2008-01-01

    This milestone has been met. In the previous quarter (3rd quarter FY2008), the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) completed the new experimental target chamber facility for future Warm Dense Matter (WDM) experiments [1]. The target chamber is operational and target experiments are now underway, using beams focused by a final focus solenoid and compressed by an improved bunching waveform. Initial experiments have demonstrated the capability of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) beam to heat bulk matter in target foils. The experiments have focused on tuning and characterizing the NDCX beam in the target chamber, implementing the target assembly, and implementing target diagnostics in the target chamber environment. We have completed a characterization and initial optimization of the compressed and uncompressed NDCX beam entering the target chamber. The neutralizing plasma has been significantly improved to increase the beam neutralization in the target chamber. Preliminary results from recent beam tests of a gold cone for concentrating beam energy on target are encouraging and indicate the potential to double beam intensity on target. Other advantages of the cone include the large amount of neutralizing secondary electrons expected from the grazing incidence at the cone walls, and the shielding of the target from the edges of the beam pulse. The first target temperature measurements with the fast optical pyrometer were made on Sep. 12, 2008. The fast optical pyrometer is a unique and significant new diagnostic. These new results demonstrate for the first time beam heating of the target to a temperature well over 2000 K. The initial experimental results are suggestive of potentially interesting physics. The rapid initial rise and subsequent decay of the target temperature during the beam pulse indicate changes in the balance of beam heating and target evaporative cooling, a behavior which may be affected by phenomena such

  13. Mesh Refinement for Particle-In-Cell Plasma Simulations: Applications to - and benefits for - Heavy-Ion-Fusion

    Vay, J.-L.; Colella, P.; McCorquodale, P.; Van Straalen, B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and simulation of the power plant as a whole, or even of the driver, is not yet possible. Despite the rapid progress in computer power, past and anticipated, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques, if we are to reach our goal expeditiously. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales, in time and in space, which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g., fluid dynamics simulations) is the mesh refinement technique. They discuss the challenges posed by the implementation of this technique into plasma simulations (due to the presence of particles and electromagnetic waves). They will present the prospects for and projected benefits of its application to heavy ion fusion. In particular to the simulation of the ion source and the final beam propagation in the chamber. A collaboration project is under way at LBNL between the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG) and the HIF group to couple the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) library (CHOMBO) developed by the ANAG group to the Particle-In-Cell accelerator code WARP developed by the HIF-VNL. They describe their progress and present their initial findings

  14. Mesh refinement for particle-in-cell plasma simulations: Applications to - and benefits for HIF (heavy ion fusion)

    Vay, J.L.; Colella, P.; McCorquodale, P.; Van Straalen, B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and simulation of the power plant as a whole, or even of the drive,r is not yet possible. Despite the rapid progress in computer power, past and anticipated, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques, if they are to reach the goal expeditiously. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales, in time and in space, which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g., fluid dynamics simulations) is the mesh refinement technique. They discuss the challenges posed by the implementation of this technique into plasma simulations (due to the presence of particles and electromagnetic waves). They will present the prospects for and projected benefits of its application to heavy ion fusion, in particular to the simulation of the ion source and the final beam propagation in the chamber

  15. Heavy ion fusion year-end report, April 1, 1981-September 30, 1981

    1981-10-01

    A beam propagation experiment is being prepared to test theoretical predictions about transverse instabilities in a heavy ion beam with large space-charge effects in a long quadrupole transport system. The 200 keV injector which has the features of variable current density and variable emittance has been constructed. The Cs + pulsed drift tube injector model continues to operate for studies of beam optics, component testing in an intense ion-beam environment, and diagnostics development. The electron-beam probe has now yielded successful results on the time-resolved charge density of the Cs + ion-beam. It has revealed the existence of a significant number of electrons surrounding the ion-beam. The theory of longitudinal instabilities has been advanced. Improvements to the EGUN and other beam-dynamics codes continue and have yielded valuable results. Transport of high-intensity beams in an A.G. octupole system is under active study

  16. Fusion at counterstreaming ion beams - ion optic fusion (IOF)

    Gryzinski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The results of investigation are briefly reviewed in the field of ion optic fusion performed at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Swierk. The ion optic fusion concept is based on the possibility of obtaining fusion energy at highly ordered motion of ions in counterstreaming ion beams. For this purpose TW ion beams must be produced and focused. To produce dense and charge-neutralized ion beams the selective conductivity and ballistic focusing ideas were formulated and used in a series of RPI devices with low-pressure cylindrical discharge between grid-type electrodes. 100 kA, 30 keV deuteron beams were successfully produced and focused into the volume of 1 cm 3 , yielding 10 9 neutrons per 200 ns shot on a heavy ice target. Cylindrically convergent ion beams with magnetic anti-defocusing were proposed in order to reach a positive energy gain at reasonable energy level. (J.U.)

  17. Beam dynamics and longitudinal instabilities in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    Lee, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    An induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls. (Author) tab., 10 refs

  18. Beam dynamics and longitudinal instabilities in heavy ion fusion induction linacs

    Lee, E.P.

    1992-08-01

    An induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls

  19. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    1984-05-01

    The studies on the ''Feasibility of Heavy Ion Beams for Inertial Confinement'' funded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology have been continued in the same extent as in previous years. This Annual Report summarizes the scientific results of research carried out in the framework of this project at various research laboratories and universities. The principal aims of this research program are the identification and investigation of key issues of the heavy ion ICF concept based on a RF linac driver. Work done in 1983 concentrated on problems of accelerator and target physics: The theoretical investigations on the dynamics of high-intensity beams were continued. For the first time a low frequency RFQ for a high A/q ratio, to be used as a first unit of an injector, was put into operation. Theoretical target studies concentrated more on fundamental physics problems in the ICF targets, and on considerations for the generation of dense plasmas by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./GG) [de

  20. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory year-end-report on heavy-ion fusion program

    Keefe, D.

    1977-01-01

    An intensive theoretical program was launched to try to understand the conditions for safe propagation of intense beam currents in focussing systems, such as continuous and interrupted solenoid lens systems, and quadrupole strong-focussing systems. Analytic methods have led to significant advances in understanding of the new problems; with computational techniques a large amount of new information has been generated on space-charge-dominated transport phenomena; also, at this time a new LBL particle numerical simulation code is almost ready to give new results. Because the Bevalac is an operating heavy ion linac and synchrotron facility with an ongoing R and D effort and in expectation of imminent upgrading to bring it up to a uranium-ion capability, it was a natural choice to make an addition to these activities to examine low-β rf accelerating structures and ion sources suitable for HIF. An experimental program on intense beam propagation was briefly discussed

  1. Heavy-Ion Fusion System Assessment Project quarterly status report, January-March 1985

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.; Faltens, A.

    1985-06-01

    A computer model of an accelerator system is a necessary ingredient in estimating the cost of construction and operation of an ion-driven ICF power plant. The LBL computer program LIACEP (Linear Induction Accelerator Cost Evaluation Program) is used to estimate the cost and efficiency of a heavy ion induction linear accelerator as a function of the ion mass, charge and energy for a specified beam output energy, power and pulse repetition frequency. In addition to estimating the accelerator system cost and efficiency, LIACEP can be used to identify the components and materials that have a high leverage on the cost and efficiency of the accelerator system. These high leverage items are logical areas for research and technology development to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of the accelerator system

  2. Three dimensional PIC simulation of heavy ion fusion beams: Recent improvements to and applications of WARP

    Grote, D.P.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-dimensional particle simulation code WARP is used to study the transport and acceleration of space-charge dominated ion beams in present-day and near-term experiments, and in fusion drivers. The algorithms employed in the 3d package and a number of applications have recently been described. In this paper the authors review the general features and major applications of the code. They then present recent developments in both code capabilities and applications. Most notable is modeling of the planned ESQ injector for ILSE, which uses the code's newest features, including subgrid-scale placement of internal conductor boundaries

  3. Effects of rotation on the stability of nuclei under fission and the possibility of fusion in heavy-ion reactions

    Mustafa, M.G.; Kumar, K.

    1975-06-01

    The two-center shell model for fission is extended to include the effects of nuclear rotation or angular momentum J. The principle of minimization of total nuclear energy with respect to a constraint on J leads to an effective potential energy which depends on J as well as moment of inertia. This effective potential energy is minimized with respect to nuclear shape variables, neutron pairing energy gap, and proton pairing energy gap for each J value. The resulting potential minima, fission barriers, and moments of inertia are quite sensitive to J. Results are given for 208 82 Pb, 240 94 Pu, and for a super-heavy nucleus, 298 114 X. Microscopic calculations of the critical angular momentum (at which the fission barrier vanishes) are compared with the rotating liquid drop calculations of Cohen, Plasil, and Swiatecki. The influence of these results on the possibility of fusion in heavy-ion reactions is discussed. (5 figures, 6 tables) (U.S.)

  4. Heavy Ion Fusion Program. Year-end report, October 1978-September 1979

    1979-01-01

    The more significant activities and results reported for this year are: (1) Commissioning, in January 1979, of a large-area Cs +1 ion source of 1.2 amperes at 500 kV. (2) Commissioning, in July 1979, of the first drift-tube of the three drift-tube accelerator. (3) Acceleration, in January 1979, of a high-brightness, 40 milliampere Xe +1 beam through a Cockcroft-Walton column to 500 kV and confirmation of satisfactory emittance and charge distribution. (4) Development of a conceptual design for a 500 J induction linac test-bed facility to test many of the features needed for the success of an igniter (LBL PUB 5031). (5) Improvements to the systems studies of a Heavy Ion Induction Linac Driver over a wide parameter range with emphasis on cost and efficiency trade-off. (6) Start-up of a (Cs +1 , Cs +1 ) ion-ion cross section measurement program. Initial results of the scattering of Cs +1 ions on Xe gas (electronically similar to Cs +1 ) have shown some surprising results. (7) Expansion of theoretical studies on the behavior of space-charge dominated ion beams

  5. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    1986-05-01

    The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification - both new features in a linac - without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) fianl bunching, transport, and accurate focussing on a small target

  6. First dedicated in-beam X-ray measurement in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Berner, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan); Henning, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division (United States); RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan); Muecher, D.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Hellgartner, S.; Maier, L. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.; Kaji, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Baba, H. [RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan); Lutter, R. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We report on an experiment aiming at in-beam X-ray spectroscopy of heavy and superheavy elements (SHE). The goal is to establish K-X-ray spectroscopy as a sensitive tool to identify SHE produced in fusion reactions. SHE, formed after cold or hot fusion, are usually identified via the alpha-decay products, which have to be connected to well-known elements. However, various theories predict spontaneous fission as the dominant decay mode for the daughter nuclides. Additionally, half-lives of these elements are expected to increase to values impeding the identification of SHE solely by their decay. The in-beam identification of the characteristic X-rays would precisely allow to identify the charge number of the produced SHE. Experiments were performed at the RIKEN Nishina Centre for Accelerator based Science by using the gas-filled magnet separator GARIS for superheavy element detection. A high-purity, low-energy planar germanium LEGe-detector was adapted to the GARIS system at the target place for the first time in order to measure the element-characteristic, prompt X-ray emission.

  7. Mechanical design of recirculating accelerator experiments for heavy-ion fusion

    Karpenko, V.

    1995-01-01

    Recirculating induction accelerators have been studied as a potential low cost driver for inertial fusion energy. At LLNL, we are developing a small (4.5-m diameter), scaled, experimental machine which will demonstrate many of the engineering solutions of a full scale driver. The small recirculator will accelerate singly ionized potassium ions from 80 to 320 keV and 2 to 8 mA, using electric dipoles for bending and permanent magnet quadrupoles for focusing in a compact periodic lattice. While very compact, and low cost, this design allows the investigation of most of the critical physics issues associated with space-charge-dominated beams in future IFE power plant drivers. This report describes the recirculator, its mechanical design, its vacuum design, and the process for aligning it. Additionally, a straight magnetic transport experiment is being carried out to test diagnostics and magnetic transport in preparation for the recirculator

  8. Electron cloud effects in intense, ion beam linacs theory and experimental planning for heavy-ion fusion

    Molvik, A.W.; Cohen, R.H.; Lund, S.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lee, E.P.; Prost, L.R.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators for HIF will operate at high aperture-fill factors with high beam current and long pulses. This will lead to beam ions impacting walls: liberating gas molecules and secondary electrons. Without special preparation a large fractional electron population ((ge)1%) is predicted in the High-Current Experiment (HCX), but wall conditioning and other mitigation techniques should result in substantial reduction. Theory and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons, from ionization of residual and desorbed gas and secondary electrons from vacuum walls, will be radially trapped in the ∼4 kV ion beam potential. Trapped electrons can modify the beam space charge, vacuum pressure, ion transport dynamics, and halo generation, and can potentially cause ion-electron instabilities. Within quadrupole (and dipole) magnets, the longitudinal electron flow is limited to drift velocities (E x B and (del)B) and the electron density can vary azimuthally, radially, and longitudinally. These variations can cause centroid misalignment, emittance growth and halo growth. Diagnostics are being developed to measure the energy and flux of electrons and gas evolved from walls, and the net charge and gas density within magnetic quadrupoles, as well as the their effect on the ion beam

  9. High-energy heavy-ion beams as igniters for commercial-scale intertial-fusion power plants

    Judd, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial-scale inertial-fusion power can be generated by producing a steady succession of thermonuclear microexplosions of small pellet targets whose ignition requires supplying a few magajoules in a few nanoseconds, a goal well beyond the present single-shot capabilities of high-power pulsed laser and electron-beam systems which also lack the needed repetition-rate capability of order one per second. However, existing high-energy accelerator technology with straightforward engineering extrapolations, applied to pulsed beams of heavy ions in low charge states, can meet all requirements. The relevant accelerator capabilities are discussed; three widely differing types of accelerators show promise. Needed developmental work is mostly on lower-energy components and can be conducted at relatively low cost. Some of the work started at several accelerator laboratories on this new approach within the past year are described, and possible goals of an early demonstration construction project are indicated

  10. Effect of focusing field error during final beam bunching in heavy-ion-beam driven inertial confinement fusion

    Kikuchi, T.; Kawata, S.; Kawata, S.; Nakajima, M.; Horioka, K.

    2006-01-01

    Emittance growth due to the transverse focusing field error is investigated during the final beam bunching in the energy driver system of heavy ion inertial fusion. The beam bunch is longitudinally compressed during the transport with the field error in the continuous focusing (CF) or the alternating gradient (AG) field lattices. Numerical calculation results show the only 2% difference of the emittance growth between the cases with and without field error in the CF lattice. In the case of the AG lattice model with the field error of 10%, the emittance growth of 2.4 times is estimated, and the major difference between the CF and AG models is indicated from the numerical simulations. (author)

  11. Conceptual design of compact heavy-ion inertial fusion driver with an r.f. LINAC with high acceleration rate

    Hattori, T.; Sasa, K.; Okamura, M.; Ito, T.; Tomizawa, H.; Katayose, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Yoshida, T.; Isokawa, K.; Aoki, M.; Fujita, N.; Okada, M.

    1996-01-01

    The interdigital-H-type (IH) linear accelerator (LINAC) is well known for its high shunt impedance at low and medium particle velocities. Therefore, it can be used to operate efficiently with a high acceleration gradient. The IH LINAC cavity is able to generate 10 MV m -1 (average acceleration gradient) with focusing of the particles by a superconducting solenoid and quadrupole. The LINAC can accelerate particles with a charge to mass ratio (q/A) greater than 1/250 from 0.3 MeV a.m.u. -1 . In a compact heavy-ion inertial fusion driver design, the total effective length of the IH LINAC cavities is about 1250 m. (orig.)

  12. Proceedings of the symposium on the many facets of heavy ion fusion reactions

    1986-01-01

    The topics of the symposium are sub- and near-barrier fusion, limitations to fusion, compound nucleus decay and spectroscopy, incomplete fusion processes, and fragmentation and liquid-gas phase transition. Separate abstracts were prepared for 54 papers in these proceedings

  13. Low-emittance uniform density Cs+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerators studies

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Garvey, T.; Johnson, R.; Chupp, W.

    1991-04-01

    Low-emittance (high-brightness) Cs + thermionic sources were developed for the heavy ion induction linac experiment MBE-4 at LBL. The MBE-4 linac accelerates four 10 mA beams from 200 ke V to 900 ke V while amplifying the current up to a factor of nine. Recent studies of the transverse beam dynamics suggested that characteristics of the injector geometry were contributing to the normalized transverse emissions growth. Phase-space and current density distribution measurements of the beam extracted from the injector revealed overfocusing of the outermost rays causing a hollow density profile. We shall report on the performance of a 5 mA scraped beam source (which eliminates the outermost beam rays in the diode) and on the design of an improved 10 mA source. The new source is based on EGUN calculations which indicated that a beam with good emissions and uniform current density could be obtained by modifying the cathode Pierce electrodes and using a spherical emitting surface. The measurements of the beam current density profile on a test stand were found to be in agreement with the numerical simulations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  14. Discrimination and competition between complete fusion and deep inelastic reactions induced by heavy ions

    Hanappe, F.; Tamain, B.

    1977-01-01

    One tries to find a way to discriminate between fission following fusion and deep inelastic processes with large mass transfer. Fragment analysis (kinetic energy, mass, charge distributions) gives generally no answer. The deexcitation properties of the fragments (gamma ray, charged particles and neutron emission) are difficult to interpret, and only recent results concerning neutron emission show different patterns for both processes. The reasons for which a system evolves towards deep inelastic processes rather than fusion are discussed

  15. Proximity approach to study fusion probabilities in heavy-ion collisions

    Raj Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The fusion cross-sections at the sub-barrier energies are found to be enhanced compared to the predictions of the barrier penetration model. The aim is to test Bass 80, Aage Winther (AW) 95, Denisov DP, Proximity 2010 and Skyrme Energy Density Formalism (SEDF) at energies above as well as below barrier height. For the present systematic study, the fusion probabilities for the reactions of 28 Si+ 24,26 Mg 30 Si+ 24 Mg and 28,30 Si+ 58,62 Ni have been calculated

  16. Heavy-ion radiography

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.; Woodruff, K.H.; MacFarland, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    High energy, heavy-ion beams offer superior discrimination of tissue electron densities at very low radiation doses. This characteristic has potential for diagnostic medical imaging of neoplasms arising in the soft tissues and organs because it can detect smaller inhomogeneities than x rays. Heavy-ion imaging may also increase the accuracy of cancer radiotherapy planning involving use of accelerated charged particles. In the current physics research program of passive heavy-ion imaging, critical modulation transfer function tests are being carried out in heavy-ion projection radiography and heavy-ion computerized tomography. The research goal is to improve the heavy-ion imaging method until it reaches the limits of its theoretical resolution defined by range straggling, multiple scattering, and other factors involved in the beam quality characteristics. Clinical uses of the imaging method include the application of heavy-ion computerized tomography to heavy-ion radiotherapy planning, to the study of brain tumors and other structures of the head, and to low-dose heavy-ion projection mammography, particularly for women with dense breasts where other methods of diagnosis fail. The ions used are primarily 300 to 570 MeV/amu carbon and neon ions accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac

  17. Collinear laser spectroscopy on In isotopes from heavy ion fusion reactions

    Ulm, G.

    1984-07-01

    Indium isotopes 107-111 were produced by 16 O-fusion reactions and investigated in a collinear laser geometry. The hyperfine structure and isotopic shifts are measured and the deduced magnetic dipole moments are in agreement with shell model calculations. The nuclear charge radii are determined from the isotopic shifts. (WL)

  18. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    1991-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ion source for the final focusing scaling experiment; reference ILSE physics design; injector and ion source development; the injector matching section; beam merging in ILSE; short quadrupole magnet design; ILSE concept induction cell studies; fast split-harp emittance measurements using a multichannel waveform analyzer; and HIFAR staff roster

  19. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  20. Roles of multi-step transfer in fusion process induced by heavy-ion reactions

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1993-06-01

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions of the systems, 12 C+ 13 C and 13 C+ 16 O- 12 C+ 17 O, the effects of the multi-step transfers and inelastic excitations on the fusion cross sections are investigated in the framework of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. Strong CRC effects of the multi-step processes are observed. Namely, the valence neutron in 13 C or 17 O plays an important role in the enhancement of the fusion. The potential barrier is effectively lowered with the formation of the covalent molecule of the configuration, 12 C+n+ 12 C or 12 C+n+ 16 O. In the analyses of the system 12 C+ 13 C, however, it is still required to introduce core-core optical potential of lower barrier height in the state of the positive total parity. This could be due to the neck formation with the nucleons contained in two core nuclei. (author)

  1. Fusion cross section measurements of astrophysical interest for light heavy ions systems within the STELLA project

    Fruet Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    The experimental setup composed of an ultra high vacuum reaction chamber, a set of 3 silicon strip detectors, up to 36 LaBr3(Ce scintillators from the UK FATIMA collaboration, and a fast rotating target system will be described. The 12C+12C fusion reaction has been studied from Elab = 11 to 5.6 MeV using STELLA at the Andromède facility in Orsay, France. Preliminary commissioning results are presented in this article.

  2. Heavy-ion targets

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  3. Advances in implosion physics, alternative targets design, and neutron effects on heavy ion fusion reactors

    Velarde, G.; Perlado, J. M.; Alonso, E.; Alonso, M.; Domínguez, E.; Rubiano, J. G.; Gil, J. M.; Gómez del Rio, J.; Lodi, D.; Malerba, L.; Marian, J.; Martel, P.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Piera, M.; Ogando, F.; Reyes, S.; Salvador, M.; Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P.; Velarde, M.; Velarde, P.

    2001-05-01

    The coupling of a new radiation transport (RT) solver with an existing multimaterial fluid dynamics code (ARWEN) using Adaptive Mesh Refinement named DAFNE, has been completed. In addition, improvements were made to ARWEN in order to work properly with the RT code, and to make it user-friendlier, including new treatment of Equations of State, and graphical tools for visualization. The evaluation of the code has been performed, comparing it with other existing RT codes (including the one used in DAFNE, but in the single-grid version). These comparisons consist in problems with real input parameters (mainly opacities and geometry parameters). Important advances in Atomic Physics, Opacity calculations and NLTE atomic physics calculations, with participation in significant experiments in this area, have been obtained. Early published calculations showed that a DT x fuel with a small tritium initial content ( x<3%) could work in a catalytic regime in Inertial Fusion Targets, at very high burning temperatures (≫100 keV). Otherwise, the cross-section of DT remains much higher than that of DD and no internal breeding of tritium can take place. Improvements in the calculation model allow to properly simulate the effect of inverse Compton scattering which tends to lower Te and to enhance radiation losses, reducing the plasma temperature, Ti. The neutron activation of all natural elements in First Structural Wall (FSW) component of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor for waste management, and the analysis of activation of target debris in NIF-type facilities has been completed. Using an original efficient modeling for pulse activation, the FSW behavior in inertial fusion has been studied. A radiological dose library coupled to the ACAB code is being generated for assessing impact of environmental releases, and atmospheric dispersion analysis from HIF reactors indicate the uncertainty in tritium release parameters. The first recognition of recombination barriers in Si

  4. Advances in implosion physics, alternative targets design, and neutron effects on heavy ion fusion reactors

    Velarde, G.; Perlado, J.M. E-mail: mperlado@denim.upm.es; Alonso, E.; Alonso, M.; Dominguez, E.; Rubiano, J.G.; Gil, J.M.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Lodi, D.; Malerba, L.; Marian, J.; Martel, P.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Piera, M.; Ogando, F.; Reyes, S.; Salvador, M.; Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P.; Velarde, M.; Velarde, P

    2001-05-21

    The coupling of a new radiation transport (RT) solver with an existing multimaterial fluid dynamics code (ARWEN) using Adaptive Mesh Refinement named DAFNE, has been completed. In addition, improvements were made to ARWEN in order to work properly with the RT code, and to make it user-friendlier, including new treatment of Equations of State, and graphical tools for visualization. The evaluation of the code has been performed, comparing it with other existing RT codes (including the one used in DAFNE, but in the single-grid version). These comparisons consist in problems with real input parameters (mainly opacities and geometry parameters). Important advances in Atomic Physics, Opacity calculations and NLTE atomic physics calculations, with participation in significant experiments in this area, have been obtained. Early published calculations showed that a DT{sub x} fuel with a small tritium initial content (x<3%) could work in a catalytic regime in Inertial Fusion Targets, at very high burning temperatures ({>=}100 keV). Otherwise, the cross-section of DT remains much higher than that of DD and no internal breeding of tritium can take place. Improvements in the calculation model allow to properly simulate the effect of inverse Compton scattering which tends to lower T{sub e} and to enhance radiation losses, reducing the plasma temperature, T{sub i}. The neutron activation of all natural elements in First Structural Wall (FSW) component of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor for waste management, and the analysis of activation of target debris in NIF-type facilities has been completed. Using an original efficient modeling for pulse activation, the FSW behavior in inertial fusion has been studied. A radiological dose library coupled to the ACAB code is being generated for assessing impact of environmental releases, and atmospheric dispersion analysis from HIF reactors indicate the uncertainty in tritium release parameters. The first recognition of recombination

  5. Molecular resonances, fusion reactions and surface transparency of interaction between heavy ions

    Abe, Yasuhisa.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the Band Crossing Model is given, including recent results on the 16 O + 16 O system. Surface Transparency is discussed in the light of the recent development in our understanding of the fusion reaction mechanisms and by calculating the number of open channels available to direct reactions. The existence of the Molecular Resonance Region is suggested in several systems by the fact that Band Crossing Region overlaps with the Transparent Region. A systematic study predicts molecular resonances in the 14 C + 14 C and 12 C + 14 C systems as prominent as those observed in the 16 O + 16 O and 12 C + 16 O systems

  6. Barrier distribution in the heavy-ions fusion near Coulomb barrier

    Shilov, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental data on fusion cross section and average angular momenta of the compound nucleus are analyzed on the basis of the coupled-channel model for the reactions 32 S+ 100 Mo and 36 S+ 96 Mo. It is shown that it is important to take into account the transfer channels with positive value Q r for the description of the data. The intermediate coupling between excited states changes the distribution of barriers and approximates them to the ones of the Stelson phenomenological model. 22 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-04-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots ({approx}100 {micro}m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with {rho}r {approx} 2 g/cm{sup 2} for a small demo/pilot plant producing {approx}40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with {rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2} producing {approx}1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q {approx} 26) ion sources for short ({approx}5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of {approx}10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles

  8. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots (∼100 (micro)m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with ρr ∼ 2 g/cm 2 for a small demo/pilot plant producing ∼40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with ρr ∼ 10 g/cm 2 producing ∼1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q ∼ 26) ion sources for short (∼5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of ∼10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles close-in to the target (built-in as part of each target); (4) beam space charge

  9. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1989--March 31, 1990

    1990-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Transverse Emittance Studies on MBE-4; MBE-4 Simulations; Beam Centroid Motion and Misalignments in MBE-4; Survey and Alignment of MBE-4; Energy Analysis of the 5mA MBE-4 Beam; An Improved 10 mA Ion Source for MBE-4; Emittance Degradation via a Wire Grid; Ion Source Development; 2 MV Injector; Electrostatic Quadrupole Prototype Development Activity; Magnetic Induction Core Studies; A Preliminary Consideration of Beam Splitting in Momentum Space; and Status of the Optimization Code HILDA

  10. Various processes occurring in strong interactions between heavy ions: Compound nucleus formation, incomplete fusion, and quasifission

    Lefort, M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of various deep processes occurring when two complex nuclei enter in collision. It is suggested that very deep inelastic processes may lead to either a compound nucleus or a composite system which shortly decays into two fission fragments (quasifission process). Particularly for heavy projectiles and targets, the predominant Coulomb potential inhibits the compound nucleus formation for low l waves. Then a critical angular momentum can be defined as the limit below which both processes (quasifission and compound nucleus formation) occur. For the heaviest nuclei, nearly all l waves below l) contribute to the quasifission phenomenon

  11. Design/cost of an induction linac for heavy ions for pellet-fusion

    Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.; Keefe, D.; Laslett, L.J.

    1979-03-01

    The physics of the pellet implosion sets stringent conditions on the accelerator driver. The beam energy should be > 1 MJ, the beam power > 100 TW (implying a pulse length approx. = 10 ns), and the specific energy deposition in the pellet > 20 MJ/g. Thus, considerable current amplification is required, e.g. from some 10 amps at the source to perhaps 10 kiloamps at the pellet. Most of this amplification can be accomplished continuously along the accelerator and the remainder achieved at the end by bunching in the final transport lines to the target chamber. A conceptual schematic of an Induction Linac Fusion Driver is shown, which includes an injector, an accelerator-buncher, and a final transport system. Here only the accelerator portion of the driver is discussed

  12. Nonfuel OandM costs for laser and heavy-ion fusion power plants

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Very simple nonfuel operating and maintenance (OandM) cost models have been used in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) commercial applications studies. Often, ICF OandM costs have been accounted for by adding a small fraction of plant initial capital cost to other annual power production costs. Lack of definition of ICF technology and/or perceptions that OandM costs would be small relative to capital-related costs are some reasons for such simple treatments. This approach does not permit rational treatment of potentially significant differences in OandM costs for ICF plants with different driver, reactor, target, etc., technologies or rational comparisons with conventional technologies. Improved understanding of ICF makes more accurate estimates for some OandM costs appear feasible. More detailed OandM cost models, even if of modest accuracy in some areas, are useful for comparisons

  13. Electron cloud measurements in heavy-ion driver for HEDP and inertial fusion energy

    Kireeff Covo, Michel; Molvik, Arthur W.; Friedman, Alex; Cohen, Ronald; Vay, Jean-Luc; Bieniosek, Frank; Baca, David; Seidl, Peter A.; Logan, Grant; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-current experiment (HCX) at LBNL is a driver scale single beam injector that provides a 1 MeV K + ion beam current of 0.18 A for 5 μs. It transports high-current beams with large fill factor (ratio of the maximum beam envelope radius to the beam pipe radius) and low emittance growth that are required to keep the cost of the power plant competitive and to satisfy the target requirements of focusing ion beams to high-power density. Beam interaction with the background gas and walls desorbs electrons that can multiply and accumulate, creating an electron cloud. This ubiquitous effect grows at higher fill factors and degrades the quality of the beam. We review simulations and diagnostics tools used to measure electron production, accumulation and its properties

  14. Heavy ion fusion half-year report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    1980-03-01

    Major elements of the program in the first half of Fiscal Year 1980 included: (1) characterization of the 1 amp, 1 MV, 2 μs beam after acceleration through one pulsed drift tube; (2) observation of current and energy spikes at the onset of the beam pulse occasioned by the unusually long transit-time (approx. 1 μsec) of the mass 133 ions across the diode gap; (3) completion of the full system, comprising of source and three drift-tubes, in February 1980; (4) development of new beam diagnostic probes for high-intensity ion beams; and (5) a major re-direction of the design effort on the Induction Linac Test Bed to bring costs, based on R/D funds that include overhead, down from the 40 million system (described in LBL PUB-5031) to the canonical 25 million

  15. Heavy ion fusion year-end report, April 1, 1983-September 30, 1983

    1983-11-01

    Some highlights of the program during this reporting period are as follows: (1) First results with the completed apparatus of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) have shown the stable propagation of a space-charge-dominated cesium-ion beam through 41 periods of an AG focussing lattice. The space-charge effects were large enough to depress the betatron phase advance per cell from sigma 0 = 60 0 to sigma = 12 0 . (2) Understanding of the reflection stabilization of longitudinal instability in a high-current beam bunch has been improved by analytical and computational studies. (3) Conceptual design studies of a multiple-beam ion induction linac suitable for the High Temperature Experiment have progressed to the stage where a first reference design (sodium, 125 MeV, 30 μC, 16 beams) is available. (4) The Long-Pulse Induction Accelerating Unit, first used to accelerate a cesium-ion beam in February 1983, has been undergoing modification in the low-level trigger circuitry to allow more precisely controlled waveform synthesis

  16. Heavy ion physics

    Kalpakchieva, R.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The international school-seminar on heavy ion physics had been organized in Dubna in may of 1993. The scientific program of reports covers the following main topics: synthesis and properties of heavy nuclei; synthesis and investigation of properties of exotic nuclei; experiments with radioactive nuclear beams; interaction between complex nuclei at low and intermediate energies. It also includes reports on laser spectroscopy and exotic nuclear beams, on some application of heavy ion beams for the problems of solid state physics, on construction of multidetector facilities and on developing of heavy ion accelerator complexes. Short communication

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code

  18. Heavy ion fusion year-end report, April 1, 1982-September 30, 1982

    1982-10-01

    Highlights from this reporting period are as follows: (1) the 200 keV cesium ion injector for the Single Beam Transport Experiment has been operated extensively in development and measurement of the quadrupole matching system and beam emittance control. Construction of the complete transport system is well advanced; (2) beam diagnostic tools continue to be improved. The electron beam probe has been used extensively to study ion beams in varying stages of charge neutralization. Development of systems using scintillators and the EG and G Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA-2) continues; (3) the Long-Pulse Induction Module (LPIM) is in the final stages of construction. A two-core prototype test cell has been assembled and tested to nearly 10 6 pulses. Development of both the switch tube (ignitron) and pulse-forming network has proceeded rapidly and successfully; (4) silica-loaded polymer insulator development is continuing at a low level; and (5) theoretical studies of longitudinal beam bunch dynamics using I. Haber's computer simulation code, quadrupole and octupole transport channels and solenoid focussing channels using neutralized beams have received considerable emphasis during this time. The exploration of possible induction linac parameters for a High Temperature experiment (HTE) is continuing

  19. Heavy ion fusion half-year report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    1984-04-01

    Results from the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) showed that stable beam transport in a 41-period AG lattice with single-particle phase advance per period, sigma 0 + 60 0 , was possible with space-charge forces large enough to depress the phase-advance to sigma = 12 0 . We have since extended that result and have shown that depression from sigma 0 = 60 0 to sigma = 8 0 is still stable. Measurements of the Cs + ion beam attenuation in the SBTE at different gas pressures, taken together with the different lattice acceptances for singly and doubly-charged ions, have allowed us to measure both the electron pick-up and electron cross-sections for Cs + on nitrogen at 160 keV. A large effort is under way to arrive at a conceptual reference design for the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE), so that final engineering design and prototyping can begin as soon as possible. The MBE design process has stimulated many detailed questions for the theory group and several important results have ensued. For instance, on the question of what magnitude of sextupole component could be tolerated in the lenses, computer simulation showed that, for a space-charge-dominated beam, a significant sextupole term had essentially no effect if the beam remained on axis, but led to intolerable emittance growth for the practical case of an off-axis beam

  20. Scientific issues in future induction linac accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Achievement of atomic-resolution electron-beam tomography will allow determination of the three-dimensional structure of nanoparticles (and other suitable specimens) at atomic resolution. Three-dimensional reconstructions will yield ''section'' images that resolve atoms overlapped in normal electron microscope images (projections), resolving lighter atoms such as oxygen in the presence of heavier atoms, and atoms that lie on non-lattice sites such as those in non-periodic defect structures. Our first demonstrations of 3-D reconstruction to atomic resolution used five zone-axis images from test specimens of staurolite consisting of a mix of light and heavy atoms. We propose combining ultra-high (sub-Angstrom) resolution zone-axis images with off-zone images by first using linear reconstruction of the off-zone images while excluding images obtained within a small range of tilts (of the order of 60 milliradian) of any zone-axis orientation, since it has been shown that dynamical effects can be mitigated by slight off-axis tilt of the specimen. The (partial) reconstruction would then be used as a model for forward calculation by image simulation in zone-axis directions and the structure refined iteratively to achieve satisfactory fits with the experimental zone-axis data. Another path to atomic-resolution tomography would combine ''zone-axis tomography'' with high-resolution dark-field hollow-cone (DFHC) imaging. Electron diffraction theory indicates that dynamic (multiple) scattering is much reduced under highly-convergent illumination. DFHC TEM is the analog of HAADF STEM, and imaging theory shows that image resolution can be enhanced under these conditions. Images obtained in this mode could provide the initial reconstruction, with zone-axis images used for refinement

  1. A 3d particle simulation code for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies

    Friedman, A.; Bangerter, R.O.; Callahan, D.A.; Grote, D.P.; Langdon, A.B.; Haber, I.

    1990-01-01

    We describe WARP, a new particle-in-cell code being developed and optimized for ion beam studies in true geometry. We seek to model transport around bends, axial compression with strong focusing, multiple beamlet interaction, and other inherently 3d processes that affect emittance growth. Constraints imposed by memory and running time are severe. Thus, we employ only two 3d field arrays (ρ and φ), and difference φ directly on each particle to get E, rather than interpolating E from three meshes; use of a single 3d array is feasible. A new method for PIC simulation of bent beams follows the beam particles in a family of rotated laboratory frames, thus ''straightening'' the bends. We are also incorporating an envelope calculation, an (r, z) model, and 1d (axial) model within WARP. The BASIS development and run-time system is used, providing a powerful interactive environment in which the user has access to all variables in the code database. 10 refs., 3 figs

  2. On the energy gain enhancement of DT+D3He fuel configuration in nuclear fusion reactor driven by heavy ion beams

    S Khoshbinfar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that advanced fuels be employed in the second generation of nuclear fusion reactors. Theoretical calculations show that in such a fuel, a high plasma temperature about 100 keV is a requisite for reaction rate improvement of nuclear fusion. However, creating such a temporal condition requires a more powerful driver than we have today. Here, introducing an optimal fuel configuration consisting of DT and D-3He layers, suitable for inertial fusion reactors and driven by heavy ion beams, the optimal energy gain conditions have been simulated and derived for 1.3 MJ system. It was found that, in this new fuel configuration, the ideal energy gain, is 22 percent more comparing with energy gain in corresponding single DT fuel layer. Moreover, the inner DT fuel layer contributed as an ignition trigger, while the outer D3He fuel acts as particle and radiation shielding as well as fuel layer.

  3. A liquid-drop model for the heavy-ion fusion below the Coulomb barrier; Um modelo de gota liquida para a fusao de ions pesados abaixo da barreira coulombiana

    Aguiar, Carlos Eduardo Magalhaes de

    1988-03-01

    The enhancement of sub-barrier fusion observed in heavy ion collisions is studied in a liquid-drop model. It is shown that shape degrees of freedom related to neck formation play an important role in the fusion process, and increase the low energy fusion rates. The model predictions are in a quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, and major discrepancies seem to be found only for those systems where specific nuclear structure effects should also be considered. (author). 83 refs, 54 figs.

  4. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  5. Research in heavy-ion nuclear physics

    Sanders, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fusion-fission in light nuclear systems; High-resolution Q-value measurement for the 24 Mg+ 24 Mg reaction; Heavy-ion reactions and limits to fusion; and Hybrid MWPC-Bragg curve detector development

  6. Negative Halogen Ions for Fusion Applications

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Westenskow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, advances in hydrogen negative ion sources have extended the usable range of hydrogen isotope neutral beams to energies suitable for large magnetically confined fusion devices. Recently, drawing upon this experience, negative halogen ions have been proposed as an alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers in inertial confinement fusion, because electron accumulation would be prevented in negative ion beams, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. This paper reports the results of an experiment comparing the current density and beam emittance of Cl+ and Cl- extracted from substantially ion-ion plasmas with that of Ar+ extracted from an ordinary electron-ion plasma, all using the same source, extractor, and emittance scanner. At similar discharge conditions, the Cl- current was typically 85-90% of the positive chlorine current, with an e-/ Cl- ratio as low as seven without grid magnets. The Cl- was as much as 76% of the Ar+ current from a discharge with the same RF drive. The minimum normalized beam emittance and inferred ion temperatures of Cl+, Cl-, and Ar+ were all similar, so the current density and optical quality of Cl- appear as suitable for heavy ion fusion driver applications as a positive noble gas ion of similar mass. Since F, I, and Br should all behave similarly in an ion source, they should also be suitable as driver beams

  7. Heavy ion accelerators

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  8. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed

  9. Design of a distributed radiator target for inertial fusion driven from two sides with heavy ion beams

    Tabak, M.; Callahan-Miller, D.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the status of a distributed radiator heavy ion target design. In integrated calculations this target ignited and produced 390-430 MJ of yieldwhen driven with 5.8-6.5 MJ of 3-4 GeV Pb ions. The target has cylindrical symmetry with disk endplates. The ions uniformly illuminate these endplates in a 5mm radius spot. We discuss the considerations which led to this design together with some previously unused design features: low density hohlraum walls in approximate pressure balance with internal low-Z fill materials, radiationsymmetry determined by the position of the radiator materials and particle ranges, and early time pressure symmetry possibly influenced by radiation shims. We discuss how this target scales to lower input energy or to lower beam power. Variant designs with more realistic beam focusing strategies are also discussed. We show the tradeoffs required for targets which accept higher particle energies

  10. Centroid and Envelope Eynamics of Charged Particle Beams in an Oscillating Wobbler and External Focusing Lattice for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Davidson, Ronald C.; Logan, B. Grant

    2011-01-01

    Recent heavy ion fusion target studies show that it is possible to achieve ignition with direct drive and energy gain larger than 100 at 1MJ. To realize these advanced, high-gain schemes based on direct drive, it is necessary to develop a reliable beam smoothing technique to mitigate instabilities and facilitate uniform deposition on the target. The dynamics of the beam centroid can be explored as a possible beam smoothing technique to achieve a uniform illumination over a suitably chosen region of the target. The basic idea of this technique is to induce an oscillatory motion of the centroid for each transverse slice of the beam in such a way that the centroids of different slices strike different locations on the target. The centroid dynamics is controlled by a set of biased electrical plates called 'wobblers'. Using a model based on moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, we show that the wobbler deflection force acts only on the centroid motion, and that the envelope dynamics are independent of the wobbler fields. If the conducting wall is far away from the beam, then the envelope dynamics and centroid dynamics are completely decoupled. This is a preferred situation for the beam wobbling technique, because the wobbler system can be designed to generate the desired centroid motion on the target without considering its effects on the envelope and emittance. A conceptual design of the wobbler system for a heavy ion fusion driver is briefly summarized.

  11. Heavy-ion radiography

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose

  12. Heavy ion storage rings

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  13. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5 degree LAB < 55 degree, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report

  14. Heavy ion collisions

    Jacak, B.V.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at very high energies provide an opportunity to recreate in the laboratory the conditions which existed very early in the universe, just after the big bang. We prepare matter at very high energy density and search for evidence that the quarks and gluons are deconfined. I describe the kinds of observables that are experimentally accessible to characterize the system and to search for evidence of new physics. A wealth of information is now available from CERN and BNL heavy ion experiments. I discuss recent results on two particle correlations, strangeness production, and dilepton and direct photon distributions

  15. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  16. Heavy-ion fusion: Channel-coupling effects, the barrier penetration model, and the threshold anomaly for heavy-ion potentials

    Satchler, G.R.; Nagarajan, M.A.; Lilley, J.S.; Thompson, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    We study the formal structure of the influence of channel coupling on near- and sub-barrier fusion. The reduction to a one-channel description is studied, with emphasis on the channel-coupling effects being manifest primarily as an energy dependence (the ''threshold anomaly'') of the real nuclear potential. The relation to the barrier penetration model is examined critically. The results of large-scale coupled-channel calculations are used as ''data'' to illustrate the discussion. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of reproducing correctly the partial-wave (or ''spin'') distributions. The simple barrier penetration model is found to be adequate to exhibit the strong enhancements due to channel couplings when the threshold anomaly is taken into account, although there may be important corrections due to the long-ranged peripheral absorption, especially from Coulomb excitation. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  17. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  18. Heavy ion accelerator GANIL

    1975-04-01

    This article presents GANIL, a large national heavy ion accelerator. The broad problems of nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and physics of condensed media which can be approached and studied with this machine are discussed first, after which the final construction project is described. The project comprises a circular injector, a separated sector cyclotron up beam stripper, and a second separated cyclotron downstream [fr

  19. Heavy-ion microscopy

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  20. Relativisitic heavy ion collisions

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the objectives and observables of Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics are presented. The first experimental results from oxygen interactions at CERN, 200 GeV/c per nucleon, and BNL, 14.5 GeV/c per nucleon are shown. The data indicate more energy emission than was originally predicted. 25 refs., 19 figs

  1. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Sabbi, G.L.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Goodin, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed

  2. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis

  3. Parametric Study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2007-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (4 (micro)s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K + ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (∼80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  4. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  5. Phenomenological approaches of dissipative heavy ion collisions

    Ngo, C.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures describe the properties of dissipative heavy ion collisions observed in low bombarding energy heavy ion reactions. These dissipative collisions are of two different types: fusion and deep inelastic reactions. Their main experimental properties are described on selected examples. It is shown how it is possible to give a simple interpretation to the data. A large number of phenomenological models have been developped to understand dissipative heavy ion collisions. The most important are those describing the collision by classical mechanics and friction forces, the diffusion models, and transport theories which merge both preceding approaches. A special emphasis has been done on two phenomena observed in dissipative heavy ion collisions: charge equilibratium for which we can show the existence of quantum fluctuations, and fast fission which appears as an intermediate mechanism between deep inelastic reactions and compound nucleus formation [fr

  6. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    1991-01-01

    The present document describes our second-year application for a continuation grant on relativistic heavy-ion research at Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, over the two-year period starting from November 15, 1990. The progress during the current budget year is presented. This year, construction of RHIC officially began. As a result, the entire Nevis nuclear physics group has made a coherent effort to create new proposal for an Open Axially Symmetric Ion Spectrometer (OASIS) proposal. Future perspectives and our plans for this proposal are described

  7. Heavy ion reactions at low energies

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Some general features of the heavy ion reactions at low energies are presented. Some kinds of processes are studied, such as: elastic scattering, peripherical reactions, deep inelastic collisions and fusion. Both, theoretical and experimental perspectives on this field are discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Brink, D M

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    Hansen, O.

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1986 beams of heavy ions up to A ∼ 40 at total energies up to E ∼ 225 GeV/-nucleon will become available for experiments at CERN (60 and 225 GeV/nucleon) and at Brookhaven (15.5 GeV/nucleon). Are these energies interesting in relation to the ideas of creating quark deconfinement? An energy consideration of the planned experiments is presented, as well as a description of the experimental arrangement. (Auth.)

  10. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  11. What product might a renewal of Heavy Ion Fusion development offer that competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs

    Logan, Grant; Lee, Ed; Yu, Simon; Briggs, Dick; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Qin, Hong; Waldron, Will; Leitner, Mattaheus; Kwan, Joe; Henestroza, Enrique; Caporaso, George; Meier, Wayne; Tabak, Max; Callahan, Debbie; Moir, Ralph; Peterson, Per

    2006-01-01

    In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers (at) 100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % Δv/v velocity tilt, allowing 5 or more bunches, and shorter bunches, and possibly 40 that would need higher peak beam intensities in order to reduce total driver energy below 1 MJ. In principle, both PLIA and induction accelerators might benefit from multiple short bunches (see June 24, 2005 talk by Logan on multi-pulsing in PLIA accelerators for IFE), although the PLIA approach, because of fixed circuit wave velocities at any z, requires imaginative work-arounds to handle the different bunch velocities required. George's RPIA06 paper also describes a different type of radial line induction linac that might be considered, but its unclear how the required pulse-to-pulse variable waveforms can be obtained with such pulselines. This initial MathCad analysis explores multi-pulsing in modular solenoid induction linacs (concept shown in Figure 1) considering high-q ECR sources, basic induction acceleration limits assuming affordable agile waveforms, transverse and longitudinal bunch confinement constraints

  12. Reaction mechanisms for the synthesis of the heaviest elements from heavy ion reactions

    Gaeggeler, H.W.

    1988-10-01

    This review paper concerns fusion reactions with light heavy-ions, cold fusion, transfer reactions using light heavy-ions or heavy ions. In two appendices, methods for the separation and detection of nuclides in the domain of heaviest elements are described and a comment on the discovery of the element 104 is given. 51 figs., 10 tabs., 335 refs

  13. Experimental fusion excitation functions and derived barrier distributions for heavy ion systems involving prolate and oblate target nuclei

    Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fusion excitation functions spanning the entire barrier region in 1 MeV energy steps for the two systems 40 Ca + 192 Os, 194 Pt are presented. The results of fission fragment angular distribution measurements for fusion-fission of 40 Ca + 197 Au at several projectile energies within the barrier region are also presented. The fusion data is of high enough precision to allow for extraction of the distribution of fusion barriers from the second differential of the product of E and σ. Basic coupled channels calculations which are in quite good agreement with the data are shown and discussed

  14. Relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.

    1984-12-01

    An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)

  15. A heavy load for heavy ions

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  16. Fusion measurements in light and medium mass heavy-ion reactions. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    Prosser, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    The data obtained for fusion residues from the 16 18 O + 24 26 Mg systems have been analyzed and are being compared to each other and to predictions from the fusion-evaporation code CASCADE. Analysis of data obtained for a small step excitation curve for the 16 O + 24 Mg system has been started to determine the possible presence of structure in the fusion cross section. Additional data for the fusion cross sections of these systems have been obtained at energies from 100 to 140 MeV at the ATLAS facility and are being analyzed. Initial measurements of the fusion-fission cross sections for 58 Ni beams, at energies up to 320 MeV on targets from 116 Sn to 170 Yb have been made. Analysis is in progress and additional experiments are planned. A collaboration is planned at Notre Dame for experiments to determine the entry line for fusion in the 12 C + 16 O system, both for the interest in this system and for preparation for additional experiments at higher energies at Michigan State when the new facility there becomes available. These experiments should lead to information about the importance of incomplete fusion in this system. Experiments to test the limitation on fusion cross sections predicted by the rotating liquid drop model are planned as higher energies become available at ATLAS and MSU

  17. European heavy ion ICF driver development

    Plass, Günther

    1996-01-01

    Approaches in Europe to heavy ion induced Inertial Confinement Fusion are oriented toward the linac-plus- storage ring technique. Despite the very limited support of this work, technical pro gress was achieved in some important areas. For the immediate future, a substantial intensity upgrade of the GSI accelerator facilities at Darmstadt is being implemented, leading to specific energy depositions of the order of 100 kJ/g and plasma temperatures of 10 to 20 eV. For the longer term, a conceptual design study of a heavy ion based Ignition Facility is being initiated.

  18. Relativistic heavy-ion physics

    Herrera Corral, G

    2010-01-01

    The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992 a proposal by the Iowa State University experimental nuclear physics group entitled ''Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics'' was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, for a three-year period beginning November 15, 1991. This is a progress report for the first six months of that period but, in order to give a wider perspective, we report here on progress made since the beginning of calendar year 1991. In the first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends,'' we give some background on the recent trends in our research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled, ''Physics Research Programs,'' is divided into three parts. First, we discuss our participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator. Second, we outline progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation (ED). A highlight of this endeavor is experiments carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1991. Third, we discuss progress in completion of our nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks and contributed talks starting in 1991 is given

  20. Heavy ion accelerating structure

    Pottier, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerating structure concerned in this invention is of the kind that have a resonance cavity inside which are located at least two longitudinal conducting supports electrically connected to the cavity by one of their ends in such a way that they are in quarter-wavelength resonance and in phase opposition. Slide tubes are electrically connected alternatively to one or the other of the two supports, they being electrically connected respectively to one or the other end of the side wall of the cavity. The feature of the structure is that it includes two pairs of supports symmetrically placed with respect to the centre line of the cavity, the supports of one pair fitted overhanging being placed symmetrically with respect to the centre line of the cavity, each slide tube being connected to the two supports of one pair. These support are connected to the slide wall of the cavity by an insulator located at their electrically free end. The accelerator structure composed of several structures placed end to end, the last one of which is fed by a high frequency field of adjustable amplitude and phase, enables a heavy ion linear accelerator to be built [fr

  1. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: simulations for tamped targets and for disk experiments in accelerator test facilities

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-01-01

    Within the last few years, there have also appeared in the Heavy-Ion Fusion literature several studies of targets which have outer tampers. One-dimensional simulations indicate higher target gains with a judicious amount of tamping. But for these targets, a full investigation has not been carried through in regards to conservative criteria for fluid instabilities as well as reasonable imperfections in target fabrication and illumination symmetry which all affect target ignition and burn. Comparisons of these results with the gain survey of Part I would have to be performed with care. These calculations suggest that experiments relating to high temperature disk heating, as well as beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics

  2. Progress in the study of mesh refinement for particle-in-cell plasma simulations and its application to heavy ion fusion

    Vay, J.-L.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and, despite rapid progress in computer power, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales in time and in space which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g. fluid dynamics simulations) is the Adaptive-Mesh-Refinement (AMR) technique. We follow in this article the progress accomplished in the last few months in the merging of the AMR technique with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method. This includes a detailed modeling of the Lampel-Tiefenback solution for the one-dimensional diode using novel techniques to suppress undesirable numerical oscillations and an AMR patch to follow the head of the particle distribution. We also report new results concerning the modeling of ion sources using the axisymmetric WARPRZ-AMR prototype showing the utility of an AMR patch resolving the emitter vicinity and the beam edge

  3. Comparison Of Quantum Mechanical And Classical Trajectory Calculations Of Cross Sections For Ion-Atom Impact Ionization of Negative - And Positive -Ions For Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Stripping cross sections in nitrogen have been calculated using the classical trajectory approximation and the Born approximation of quantum mechanics for the outer shell electrons of 3.2GeV I - and Cs + ions. A large difference in cross section, up to a factor of six, calculated in quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, has been obtained. Because at such high velocities the Born approximation is well validated, the classical trajectory approach fails to correctly predict the stripping cross sections at high energies for electron orbitals with low ionization potential

  4. Smooth transition from sudden to adiabatic states in heavy-ion fusion reactions at deep-subbarrier incident energies

    Takatoshi, Ichikawa; Kouichi, Hagino; Akira, Iwamoto

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel extension of the standard coupled-channel (CC) model in order to account for the steep falloff of fusion cross sections at deep-subbarrier incident energies. We introduce a damping factor in the coupling potential in the CC model, simulating smooth transitions from sudden to adiabatic states in deep- subbarrier fusion reactions. The CC model extended with the damping factor can reproduce well not only the steep falloff of the fusion cross section but also the saturation of the logarithmic derivatives for the fusion cross sections at deep-subbarrier energies for the 16 O+ 208 Pb, 64 Ni+ 64 Ni, and 58 Ni+ 58 Ni reactions at the deep-subbarrier energies. The important point in our model is that the transition takes place at different places for each Eigen channel. We conclude that the smooth transition from the two-body to the adiabatic one-body potential is responsible for the steep falloff of the fusion cross section

  5. Nuclear fission induced by heavy ions

    Newton, J.O.

    1988-09-01

    Because the accelerators of the 50's and 60's mostly provided beams of light ions, well suited for studying individual quantum states of low angular momentum or reactions involving the transfer of one or two nucleons, the study of fission, being an example of large-scale collective motion, has until recently been outside of the mainstream of nuclear research. This situation has changed in recent years, due to the new generation of accelerators capable of producing beams of heavy ions with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of all stable nuclei. These have made possible the study of new examples of large-scale collective motions, involving major rearrangements of nuclear matter, such as deep-inelastic collisions and heavy-ion fusion. Perhaps the most exciting development in the past few years is the discovery that dissipative effects (nuclear viscosity) play an important role in fission induced by heavy ions, contrary to earlier assumptions that the viscosity involved in fission was very weak and played only a minor role. This review will be mainly concerned with developments in heavy-ion induced fission during the last few years and have an emphasis on the very recent results on dissipative effects. Since heavy-ion bombardment usually results in compound systems with high excitation energies and angular momenta, shell effects might be expected to be small, and the subject of low energy fission, where they are important, will not be addressed. 285 refs., 58 figs

  6. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given

  7. Heavy ion beam probing

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  8. Ultrarelativistic heavy ions

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Studies with ultrarelativistic heavy ions combine aspects of cosmic ray physics, particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmogenesis. The leading theoretical concerns are the behavior of matter at very high-energy density and flux, the general behavior of space time in collisions, relativistic nuclear theory, and quantum chromodynamics. The field has developed over a period of more than thirty years, since the first observation of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays and the major developments of understanding of high-energy collisions made by Fermi and Landau in the early fifties. In the late sixties the discovery of the parton content of nucleons was rapidly followed by a great extension of high-energy collision phenomenology at the CERN ISR and subsequent confirmation of the QCD theory. In parallel the study of p-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies, especially at the CERN PS, Fermilab and the Bevalac, and in cosmic rays demonstrated that studies involving the nucleus opened up a new dimension in studies of the hadronic interaction. It is now at a high level of interest on an international scale, with major new accelerators being proposed to dedicate to this kind of study

  9. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  10. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs.

  11. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered

  12. TDHF calculations for heavy-ion collisions

    Dhar, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    In considering the TDHF theory for heavy-ion reaction calculations it is shown that this parameter-free approach spans a wide range of nuclear phenomena ranging from elastic scattering to fusion, including dissipative and collective processes, in a unified manner. The subject is considered under the headings: (1) TDHF equations, conservation laws, effective hamiltonian and initial conditions. (2) Symmetries and filling approximation. (3) Qualitative features of TDHF dynamics. (4) Comparison with experiment (fusion results, deep-inelastic reaction studies, particle emission from TDHF calculations). (U.K.)

  13. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  14. Heavy ion medical accelerator, HIMAC

    Yamada, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    The heavy ion beam is undoutedly suitable for the cancer treatment. The supriority of the heavy ions over the conventional radiations including protons and neutrons comes mainly from physical characteristics of a heavy particle with multiple charges. A straggling angle due to a multiple Coulomb scattering process in a human body is small for heavy ions, and the small scattering angle results in a good dose localization in a transverse direction. An ionization ratio of the heavy ion beam makes a very sharp peak at the ends of their range. The height of the peak is higher for the heavier ions and shows excellent biomedical effects around Ne ions. In order to apply heavy ion beams to cancer treatment, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been constructed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The accelerator complex consists of two ion sources, two successive linac tanks, a pair of synchrotron rings, a beam transport system and an irradiation system. An operation frequency is 100 MHz for two linacs, and the ion energy is 6.0 MeV/u at the output end of the linac. The other four experimental rooms are prepared for basic experiments. The synchrotron accelerates ions up to 800 MeV/u for a charge to mass ratio of 1/2. The long beam transport line provides two vertical beams in addition with two horizontal beams for the treatment. The three treatment rooms are prepared one of which is equipped with both horizontal and vertical beam lines. The whole facility will be open for all scientists who have interests in the heavy ion science as well as the biophysics. The conceptual design study of HIMAC started in 1984, and the construction of the accelerator complex was begun in March 1988. The beam acceleration tests of the injector system was successfully completed in March of this year, and tests of the whole system will be finished throughout this fyscal year. (author)

  15. Heavy ion driver technology

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report

  17. ERDA summer study of heavy ions for inertial fusion, Oakland/Berkeley, California, July 19--30, 1976. Final report

    Bangerter, R.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Judd, D.L.; Smith, L.

    1976-12-01

    Technical summaries are given for the following areas: (1) target and reactor design, (2) ion sources, (3) low-velocity acceleration, (4) atomic and molecular physics, (5) accelerator parameters, (6) beam manipulations, (7) induction linac, (8) final focusing and transmission to the target, (9) systems and cost studies, and (10) alternatives. Several groups of appendices are given that relate to these technical summaries

  18. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  19. Relativistic heavy ion research

    1992-01-01

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-p t baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion p perpendicular spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures

  20. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists

  1. Heavy Ion Physics at LHC

    Valenti, G.

    2002-01-01

    The study of heavy ion interactions constitutes an important part of the experimental program outlined for the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN and expected to be operational by 2006. ALICE 1 is the single detector having the capabilities to explore at the same time most of the characteristics of high energy heavy ion interactions. Specific studies of jet quenching and quarkonia production, essentially related to µ detection are also planned by CMS 2 .

  2. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  3. Some aspects of heavy ion macrophysics

    Ngo, C.

    1984-07-01

    In these notes we review, in a schematic way, some aspect of the physics with heavy ions. In the first lecture we review how is possible to describe the dissipative phenomena observed above the Coulomb barrier, up to 10-15 MeV/u, using transport theories. The second lecture is devoted to the question of fusion and the appearance of a new mechanism: fast fission. It is shown that one can now have a global understanding of these phenomena within single picture. The third lecture presents, in a simplified way, some results obtained recently with heavy ions in the range of 30-50 MeV/u at GANIL and SARA

  4. Engineering systems designs for a recirculating heavy ion induction accelerator

    Newton, M.A.; Barnard, J.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-05-01

    Recirculating heavy ion induction accelerators are being investigated as possible drivers for heavy ion fusion. Part of this investigation has included the generation of a conceptual design for a recirculator system. This paper will describe the overall engineering conceptual design of this recirculator, including discussions of the dipole magnet system, the superconducting quadrupole system and the beam acceleration system. Major engineering issues, evaluation of feasibility, and cost tradeoffs of the complete recirculator system will be presented and discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  5. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references

  6. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  7. Heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.

  8. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  9. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Central collisions of heavy ions

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

  11. Stopping power for heavy ions in low energy region

    Kitagawa, Mitsuo

    1983-01-01

    Review is made for the study on the power for stopping heavy ions. The studies on the power for stopping heavy ions passing through materials have been developed in the last twenty years due to the accuracy improvement in the data analysis of the power for stopping light ions, the requirement of data establishment on the power for stopping heavy ions from fusion research and the development of the experimental studies by heavy-ion accelerators. The relation between the analysis of the power for stopping heavy ions and the power for stopping light ions is described from the standpoint that the results on the power for stopping light ions serve as the guide for the study on the power for stopping heavy ions. Both at present and in future. The analysis of stopping power data with the accuracy from +-10 to 20 % is possible from the theoretical analysis of effective electric charge and its systematic table of the numerical data. The outline of the scaling rule on effective electric charge is discussed. The deviation of the experimental data from the scaling rule is discussed by comparing with the measured values of effective electric charge ratio. Various analyses of the power for stopping heavy ions are summarized. (Asami, T.)

  12. Deduction of the in-medium gluon distribution from photon-gluon fusion processes in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Greiner, M.; Hofmann, C.; Schaefer, A.; Soff, G.

    1994-08-01

    The photon-gluon fusion process into a pair of heavy quarks is studied for peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies. The double differential cross section with respect to the invariant mass and the rapidity of the produced quark pair at zero rapidity is directly proportional to the gluon distribution in the nuclear medium. Differential cross sections for the b-quark production lie well in the μbarn/GeV regime which will allow the deduction of the gluon distribution at low x. Rapidity cuts for the actual detectors are also considered. (orig.)

  13. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  14. Radiation from heavy ion collisions

    Kast, J.R.; Lee, Y.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of x rays produced in heavy ion collisions has led to a search for molecular orbital x rays, concentrating on 35 Cl ions on Al, NaCl, and C targets. Preliminary analysis of the angular dependence of continuum x rays has tentatively identified quasi-molecular K x rays. Other work completed and in progress is discussed. (3 figures) (U.S.)

  15. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    1986-05-01

    In this report the activities of the GSI Darmstadt (FRG) during 1985 concerning inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams. Short communications and abstracts are presented concerning a Z-pinch experiment, heavy ion pumped lasers and X-ray spectroscopy, the study of ion-ion collisions, a RFQ development and beam transport studies, accelerator theory, targets for SIS/ESR experiments, the rayleigh-Taylor instability, studies on the equation of state for matter under high pressure, as well as the development of computer codes. (HSI)

  16. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned

  17. Summary of heavy ion theory

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you exclamation point I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF '94 in the parallel sessions

  18. Heavy-ion radiation chemistry

    Imamura, Masashi

    1975-01-01

    New aspect of heavy ion radiation chemistry is reviewed. Experiment has been carried out with carbon ions and nitrogen ions accelerated by a 160 cm cyclotron of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. The results of experiments are discussed, taking into consideration the effects of core radius depending on heavy ion energy and of the branch tracks of secondary electrons outside the core on chemical reaction and the yield of products. The effect of core size on chemical reaction was not able to be observed, because the incident energy of heavy ions was only several tens of MeV. Regarding high radical density, attention must be given to the production of oxygen in the core. It is possible to produce O 2 in the core in case of high linear energy transfer (LET), while no production of O 2 in case of low LET radiation. This may be one of study problems in future. LET effects on the yield of decomposed products were examined on acetone, methyl-ethyl-ketone and diethyl ketone, using heavy ions (C and N) as well as gamma radiation and helium ions. These three ketones showed that the LET change of two gaseous products, H 2 and CO, was THF type. There are peaks at 50-70 eV/A in the yield of both products. The peaks suggest the occurrence of ''saturation'' in decomposition. Attention was drawn to acetone containing a small amount (2 wt.%) of H 2 O. H 2 O and CO produced from this system differ from those in the pure system. The hydrogen connection formed by such a small amount of H 2 O may mediate the energy transfer. Sodium acetate tri-hydrate produces CH 3 radical selectively by gamma-ray irradiation at 77 K. In this case, the production of CH 2 COO - increases with the increase of LET of radiation. This phenomenon may be an important study problem. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Progress toward heavy-ion IFE

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Callahan, D.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Goodin, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Successful development of heavy-ion fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy-ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a ∼3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy-ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLIFE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from X-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLIFE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HIF. A target injector experiment capable of >5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass-production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed

  20. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    Angert, N.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  1. Nuclear physics with heavy ions. 1

    Reif, R.; Schmidt, R.

    1981-01-01

    Some results obtained in nuclear physics with heavy ions in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon are summarized. A short review of the tendencies in the development of heavy ion accelerators is followed by a classification of the mechanisms observed in heavy ion interactions. The characteristics of the various types of reactions are presented. Applications of heavy ion beams in other branches of sciences are discussed. (author)

  2. BROOKHAVEN: Looking towards heavy ion physics

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    July 11-22 were busy days at Brookhaven with a two-week Summer Institute on Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics. After an intensive first week designed to introduce young physicists to high energy heavy ion research, the second week was a workshop on detector technology for Brookhaven's proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), attended by some 150 physicists

  3. Therapy tumor with the heavy ions beam

    Dang Bingrong; Wei Zengquan; Li Wenjian

    2002-01-01

    As physical characteristic of heavy ions Bragg peak, therapy tumor with heavy ions is becoming advanced technology. So, many countries have developed the technology and used to treat tumor, the societal and economic effects are beneficial to people. The authors show the development, present situation and information of research in world of advanced radiotherapy with heavy ions

  4. Spectroscopy of heavy few-electron ions

    Mokler, P.H.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper we ask first, why is it interesting to investigate heavy-few electron ions. Then the various accelerator-based methods to produce heavy few-electron ions are discussed. In the main part an overview on available heavy few-electron ion data and current experiments is given. The summary will end up with future aspects in this field. (orig.)

  5. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  6. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    2012-10-12

    Oct 12, 2012 ... Experiments using ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions study nuclear matter under ... sN N = 10 GeV for Pb+Pb collisions, corresponding to an initial .... quenching through systematic comparisons of data to models, and .... the RdAu and RCP = (0−20%)/(60−80%) factors for the J/ψ production in d+Au col-.

  7. Heavy ion activation analysis

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  8. Calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions

    Egelhof, P; Henning, W; Kienlin, A v; Meier, J; Truebenbacher, V [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.) Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik; Azgui, F [CDTN, Algiers (Algeria); Shepard, K [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-01-01

    Status and first test results are reported for a project to develop calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions. The special conditions for the detection of energetic heavy ions are discussed. Presently the investigations are focussed on semiconductor bolometers and aluminium-strip superconducting phase-transition thermometers that are cooled with liquid {sup 4}He and operate in the temperature range 1.3-4.2 K. For a germanium bolometer the temperature dependence of the resistance, voltage-current curves, the time response to heating by voltage pulses and the response to ionizing {alpha}-radiation are reported. First tests on phase transition thermometers using thin aluminum strips yield a transition width of {Delta}T=8.6 mK at T{sub c}=1.467 K. (orig.).

  9. Physics of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ions

    Giubellino, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a general presentation of the physics of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ions, as seen from the experimentalist close-quote s point of view. The aim of this research is the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure, extending in this way our understanding of the strong interactions in general, and of colour confinement in particular. This young field of Physics has been growing rapidly in the past years, and any attempt to cover it in few pages will be rather sketchy and many important aspects will have to be left out. I will mainly try to cover the general motivations to undertake this study, and just mention the experimental challenges to be faced, the results from the experiments at CERN and BNL, and finally the fascinating program ahead of us, with a glimpse at the CERN LHC used as a heavy-ion collider. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Mutation induction by heavy ions

    Kiefer, J.; Stoll, U.; Schneider, E.

    1994-10-01

    Mutation induction by heavy ions is compared in yeast and mammalian cells. Since mutants can only be recovered in survivors the influence of inactivation cross sections has to be taken into account. It is shown that both the size of the sensitive cellular site as well as track structure play an important role. Another parameter which influences the probability of mutation induction is repair: Contrary to naive assumptions primary radiation damage does not directly lead to mutations but requires modification to reconstitute the genetic machinery so that mutants can survive. The molecular structure of mutations was analyzed after exposure to deuterons by amplification with the aid of polymerase chain reaction. The results-although preliminary-demonstrate that even with densely ionizing particles a large fraction does not carry big deletions which suggests that point mutations may also be induced by heavy ions.

  11. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  12. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures

  13. Experiments with stored heavy ions

    Fick, D.; Habs, D.; Jaeschke, E.

    1985-02-01

    The success of newly-developed methods of phase space cooling in proton and antiproton storage rings was sufficient for an examination of whether these methods could also be applied in storage rings for heavy ions. An expansion of these methods to heavy ion beams seems attractive for all sorts of reasons. Recently, this area was extensively discussed in a series of working meetings with the result that heavy ion storage rings are to be built for use in atomic and nuclear physics, with integrated radiation cooling and stochastic cooling, but primarily electron cooling. The current state of research and planning for the storage experiment is described. It is not intended to be a structural specification worked out in detail. The general design of the ring, however, has been established, and experimental details have deliberately been kept flexible, to thereby allow very different sorts of experiments to be conducted. The ring described with a maximum magnetic rigidity of Bp = 1.5 Tm, is designed in quadripartite symmetry. The total circumference is approximately 35 m, and there are four straight sections each 3.5 m long for the electron cooling sections, the experimental equipment, as well as HF system and injection. One of the most desirable properties of the reservoir is the multi-charge mode, which will significantly improve the operation which heavy ion beams, which reverse charge in electron cooling sections, target and residual vacuum. Initial considerations are presented with regard to stochastic and electron cooling. A review of possible classes of experiments is given and the schedule and financing of the project is outlined. 46 refs

  14. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

  15. Beam modulation for heavy ion radiotherapy

    Kanai, T.; Minohara, S.; Sudou, M.

    1993-01-01

    The first clinical trial of heavy ion radiation therapy is scheduled in 1994 by using the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In order to start the clinical trial, first, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of high energy heavy ions in human bodies, for example, dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distribution. Also the knowledge on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions is required. Based on these biophysical properties of heavy ions, monoenergetic heavy ion beam should be modulated so as to make the spread Bragg peak suitable to heavy ion radiation therapy. In order to establish a methodology to obtain the most effective spread Bragg peak for heavy ion radiation therapy, a heavy ion irradiation port at the RIKEN ring cyclotron facility was constructed. By using a 135 MeV/u carbon beam, the biophysical properties of the heavy ions were investigated, and a range modulator was designed to have uniform biological response in the spread Bragg peak. The physical and biological rationality of the spread Bragg peak were investigated. The dose, LET and biological effect of a monoenergetic heavy ion beam, the design of the range modulator, and the distributions of LET and biological dose for the spread Bragg peak are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10 7 -10 9 ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as 11 C and 19 Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs

  17. Ion accelerators as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1980-11-01

    During the past few years the possibility of using intense ion beams to ignite a pellet of fusion fuel has looked increasingly promising. Ion beams ranging in mass from protons up to uranium have been investigated and several machines have been built at different laboratories to investigate the required technology. Light ion drivers are based on the use of high current, high voltage diodes arranged around a central target. These devices have the necessary power and energy to initiate fusion burn but suffer from the inability to transport stably the necessary huge beam currents over long distances to a small target. Heavy ion drivers are based either on the radio-frequency linac or the induction linac. Because heavy ions have a much shorter range than light ions of the same energy, one is able to raise the beam voltage by a factor of one-thousand and lower the current correspondingly. The expected parameters for a fusion driver will be delineated and the present state of development of the technology for the candidate ion beam drivers will be described in light of these desiderata

  18. Heavy ion physics at CERN

    Vesztergombi, G.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the present status and future plans for heavy ion experiments at CERN-SPS and CERN-LHC accelerators is given. The planned three phases give possibilities to study the properties of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP). At the present stage the feasibility of high energy ion-ion experiments with their very abundant secondary hadron production, shows that there is a chance to obtain high densities, and to look for the onset of new, collective phenomena. In a second phase, there should be a chance to obtain more conclusive evidence for the onset of quark deconfinement. In the third stage, the average energy densities rise above the deconfinement threshold, so that a study of the properties of QGP should become possible. (G.P.)

  19. Detector issues for relativistic heavy ion experimentation

    Gordon, H.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of experiments using relativistic heavy ion beams are discussed. The problems that the current generation of light ion experiments would face in using gold beams are noted. A brief review of colliding beam experiments for heavy ion beams is contrasted with requirements for SSC detectors. 11 refs., 13 figs

  20. Filamentation of a converging heavy ion beam

    Lee, E.P.; Buchanan, H.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    A major concern in the use of heavy ion beams as igniters in pellet fusion systems is the vulnerability of the beam to the transverse flamentation instability. The undesirable consequence of this mode is the transverse heating of the beam to the extent that convergence on the pellet becomes impossible. This work considers the case of a beam injected into a gas filled reactor vessel, where finite pulse length and propagation distance play an important role in limiting growth. Two geometries are analyzed: a nonconverging case where the radius at injection is nearly equal to the desired radius at the pellet, and a converging case in which the injection radius is large and the beam is pre-focused to converge at the target. It is found that a cold beam will be severely disrupted if the product of the magnetic plasma frequency and the propagation distance is much larger than unity

  1. Superconducting heavy-ion linacs

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of plans developed by four different groups for the construction of small superconducting linacs to boost the energy of heavy ions from existing tandem electrostatic accelerators. The projects considered are the linac under construction at Argonne and the design efforts at Karlsruhe, at Stanford, and by a Cal Tech-Stony Brook collaboration. The intended uses of the accelerator systems are stated. Beam dynamics of linacs formed of short independently-phased resonators are reviewed, and the implications for performance are discussed. The main parameters of the four linacs are compared, and a brief analysis of accelerating structures is given

  2. Heavy ion scattering; a fixed energy inverse problem

    Amos, K.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy ion scattering has been studied quite intensively in the last decade and central in most analyses of data from such experiments be they on fusion, particle transfer or internal state excitations of the colliding pair, is the inter-ion interaction affecting their relative motion. It is customary to use the elastic scattering data to constrain solutions of the (nonrelativistic) Schroedinger equation to ascertain the character of that (central and complex) heavy ion potential. These matters for projectiles ranging from the lightest 'heavy' ion, a proton, to Oxygen nuclei are considered in brief herein. The targets range from 12 C to 208 Pb. The central entity in the analyses to be discussed will be the S-function, and so for completeness, the simple potential scattering theory details are presented that specify the S-function and relate it to measured cross-sections. 20 refs., 18 figs

  3. Summary of the relativistic heavy ion sessions

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions span four orders of magnitude in energy in the laboratory and a few more in theory. In the two years since the last Intersections conference, experiments in the field of very high energy heavy ion research have begun at CERN and Brookhaven. The prime motivation for these experiments is the possibility of forming quark matter. This paper is a review of the topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

  4. International cooperation in heavy-ion research

    Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The rapidly growing research applications of heavy ions in basic biology and medicine have stimulated interest in this field in many countries. LBL, with its unique facilities and its scientific programs, is the focal point of interest. Plans are underway in several countries, including France, Japan, West Germany, and Canada, to build heavy-ion facilities, and to collaborate with our staff at LBL in heavy-ion research in physics, biology, and medicine

  5. Summary talk at the symposium on relativistic heavy ion research G.S.I., Darmstadt, Germany

    Grunder, H.A.

    1978-03-01

    Ideas expressed at the symposium and the general state of relativistic heavy-ion research are reviewed. The relationship with biology and medicine and with fusion is addressed. What has been learned about heavy ions and suggested possible next research steps are tabulated. 3 figures, 4 tables

  6. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    Veres, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  7. Concluding remarks presented at the Symposium on heavy ion reaction dynamics on the tandem energy region

    Betts, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the divisions between different heavy ion reaction processes. Fusion, deep inelastic, quasi-elastic and elastic interactions are discussed in terms of coupled channel calculations. 20 refs., 8 figs

  8. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  9. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  10. Giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions

    Hussein, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    The several roles of multipole giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. In particular, the modifications in the effective ion-ion potencial due to the virtual excitation of giant resonances at low energies, are considered and estimated for several systems. Real excitation of giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies are then discussed and their importance in the approach phase of deeply inelastic processes in emphasized. Several demonstrative examples are given. (Author) [pt

  11. Transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions

    Garvey, T.; Eylon, S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.

    1991-01-01

    Current amplification of heavy ion beams is an integral feature of the induction linac approach to heavy ion fusion. As part of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at LBL the authors have been studying the evolution of the transverse emittance of ion beams while they are undergoing current amplification, achieved by longitudinal bunch compression and acceleration. Experiments are conducted on MBE-4, a four beam Cs + induction linac. The space-charge dominated beams of MBE-4 are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles while they are accelerated from nominally 200 keV up to ∼ 1 MEV by 24 accelerating gaps. Initially the beams have currents of typically 4 mA to 10 mA per beam. Early experimental results showed a growth of the normalized emittance by a factor of 2 while the beam current was amplified by up to 9 times its initial value. The authors will discuss the results of recent experiments in which a mild bunch length compression rate, more typical of that required by a fusion driver, has shown that the normalized emittance can be maintained at its injection value (0.03 mm-mr) during acceleration

  12. Nuclear research with heavy ions

    Kaplan, M.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Asymmetric fission of 149 Tb* from the finite-range, rotating-liquid-drop model: mean total kinetic energies for binary fragmentation; charged-particle evaporation from hot composite nuclei: evidence over a broad Z range for distortions from cold nuclear profiles; the role of reversed kinematics and double kinematic solutions in nuclear reactions studies; production of intermediate-mass-fragments in the reaction 98 Mo + 51 V at an excitation energy E* = 224-MeV; emission of light charged particles in the reaction 344-MeV 28 Si + 121 Sb; continued developments of the statistical evaporation code LILITA N90; and planning for heavy-ion-collision studies at very high energies: the STAR collaboration at RHIC

  13. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    Iancu, Edmond [IPhT, Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  14. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry

  15. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  16. Relativistic heavy ion research at Berkeley

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The project of a superconducting synchrotron for heavy ions with 1 TeV/amu is described. In this connection the physics is discussed which can be studied by this accelerator. Furthermore, the HISS-heavy ion spectrometer system and the Plastic Ball detector are described. (HSI).

  17. Heavy ion reactions at high energies

    Jakobsson, Bo.

    1977-01-01

    A review on heavy ion experiments at energies >0.1GeV/nucleon is presented. Reaction cross-sections, isotope production cross-sections and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Some recent models for heavy ion reactions like the abrasion-ablation model, the fireball model and the different shock-wave models are also presented

  18. 7th high energy heavy ion study

    Bock, R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Stock, R.

    1985-03-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. They deal with relativistic heavy ion reactions, the expansion and freeze-out of nuclear matter, anomalon experiments, and multifragmentation and particle correlations in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  19. Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Salur, Sevil

    2008-01-01

    Jet quenching measurements using leading particles and their correlations suffer from known biases, which can be removed via direct reconstruction of jets in central heavy ion collisions. In this talk, we discuss several modern jet reconstruction algorithms and background subtraction techniques that are appropriate to heavy ion collisions

  20. The threshold anomaly for heavy-ion scattering

    Satchler, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The real parts of optical potentials deduced from heavy-ion scattering measurements become rapidly more attractive as the bombarding energy is reduced close to the top of the Coulomb barrier. This behavior is explained as a coupled-channels effect, and is related to the corresponding reduction in the absorptive potential through a dispersion relation which expresses the consequences of causality. Another manifestation of this ''anomaly'' is the striking enhancement observed for the near- and sub-barrier fusion of two heavy ions. The barrier penetration model of fusion is examined critically in this context. It is also stressed that similar anomalies could appear in the energy dependence of nonelastic scattering. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Heavy flavours in ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions

    Rosnet, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    The ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions are the today's only means to tackle in laboratory conditions the phase diagram in quantum chromodynamics and the strong interaction. The most recent theoretical studies predict a phase transition between the cold nuclear matter (a hadronic gas) and a plasma of quarks and gluons. Heavy flavour can characterize the nuclear matter produced in a heavy ion collision as well as its spatial-temporal evolution. Their study can be made through their decay into muons. The first part of this work presents the issue of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the role of heavy flavours. In the second part the author reviews the results of experiments performed at RHIC and particularly presents the analysis of the mass spectrum of dimuons in the Phenix experiment. The third part describes the muon trigger system of the Alice experiment at CERN and the expected performances for the study of di-muons

  2. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented

  3. Emittance growth from rotated quadrupoles in heavy ion accelerators

    Barnard, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We derive a set of moment equations which incorporates linear quadrupolar focusing and space-charge defocusing, in the presence of rotational misalignments of the quadrupoles about the direction of beam propagation. Although the usual beam emittance measured relative to fixed transverse x and y coordinate axes is not constant, a conserved emittance-like quantity has been found. Implications for alignment tolerances in accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion are discussed

  4. Transport and error sensitivity in a heavy-ion recirculator

    Sharp, W.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-05-01

    An envelope code has been developed to facilitate the design of a recirculating accelerator for a heavy-ion fusion reactor. A novel feature of the model is the treatment of the beam charge density as a Lagrangian fluid in the axial direction. Transport results for a preliminary recirculator design are presented, and sensitivity of the transport to errors in the magnet strength is discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs

  5. Heavy ion collisions at energies near the Coulomb barrier 1990

    Nagarajan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    During recent years, detailed experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out on heavy ion collisions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. These studies have provided direct evidence of strong couplings between the various reaction channels available at energies near the top of the Coulomb barrier. This field of research has remained the focus of interest and with improved experimental techniques, new detailed high resolution data have been obtained. The workshop on ''Heavy Ion Collisions at Energies Close to the Coulomb Barrier'' was organized with the aim of reviewing the current understanding of the collision dynamics and to discuss future directions in this area of research. The topics discussed at the workshop were broadly classified under the titles: quasielastic reactions; fusion of heavy ions; and shape and spin dependence in heavy ion collisions. The last of these topics was included to review new data obtained with polarized heavy ions and their theoretical interpretations. This volume contains the invited and contributed talks as well as a few short presentations during panel discussions. (author)

  6. Cellular radiobiology of heavy-ion beams

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Roots, R.J.; Yang, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of this research program: relative biological effectiveness and oxygen enhancement ratio of silicon ion beams; heavy ion effects on the cell cycle; the potentiation effect (2 doses of high LET heavy-ion radiations separated by 2 to 3 hours); potentially lethal damage in actively growing cells and plateau growth cells; radiation induced macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry; lethal effects of dual radiation; and the development of a biophysical repair/misrepair model

  7. Potential surfaces in symmetric heavy-ion reactions

    Royer, G.; Piller, C.; Mignen, J.; Raffray, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The entrance channel in symmetric heavy-ion reactions is studied in the liquid-drop model approach including the nuclear proximity energy and allowing ellipsoidal deformations of the colliding nuclei. In the whole mass range a sudden transition occurs from oblate to prolate shapes when the proximity forces become important. This strongly affects the effective moment of inertia. The ellipsoidal deformations reduce the fusion barrier width for light systems and lower the potential barrier height for medium and heavy nuclei. The results are in agreement with the empirical effective barrier shift determined by Aguiar et al for the 58 Ni + 58 Ni, 74 Ge + 74 Ge and 80 Se + 80 Se systems. The sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion reactions might be explained by the slowness of the process. Below the static fusion barrier, the reaction time is long; allowing some adiabaticity and deformations of the colliding ions. Above the barrier, the reaction is more sudden and the deformation degree of freedom is frozen

  8. Progress toward fusion with light ions

    1980-01-01

    New results in target design, beam generation and transport, and pulse power technology have led to a program shift stressing light ion-driven inertial confinement fusion. According to present estimates, a gain ten fusion pellet will require at least one megajoule and approx. 100 TW power input. Progress in ion sources has resulted in beam power density of approx. 1 TW/cm 2 , a factor of ten increase over the last year, and cylindrical implosion experiments have been performed. Other experiments have demonstrated the ability to transport ion and electron beams with high efficiency and have confirmed numerical predictions on the properties of beam transport channels converging at a target. These developments together with improvements in pulse power technology allow us to project that the 72 beam, 100 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator, PBFA-II will attain target output energy equal to stored energy in the accelerator

  9. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  10. Light ion driven inertial fusion reactor concepts

    Cook, D.L.; Sweeney, M.A.; Buttram, M.T.; Prestwich, K.R.; Moses, G.A.; peterson, R.R.; Lovell, E.G.; Englestad, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of designing fusion reactor systems using intense beams of light ions has been investigated. concepts for beam production, transport, and focusing on target have been analyzed in light of more conservative target performance estimates. Analyses of the major criteria which govern the design of the beam-target-cavity tried indicate the feasibility of designing power systems at the few hundred megawatt (electric) level. This paper discusses light ion fusion reactor (LIFR) concepts and presents an assessment of the design limitations through quantitative examples

  11. Fusion-Fission process and gamma spectroscopy of binary products in light heavy ion collisions (40 {<=} A{sub CN} {<=} 60); Processus de fusion-fission et spectroscopie gamma des produits binaires dans les collisions entre ions lourds legers (40 {<=} A{sub NC} {<=} 60)

    Nouicer, Rachid [Institut de Recherche Subatomique, CNRS-IN2P3 - Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-11-21

    During the work on which this Thesis is based, the significant role of the Fusion-Fission Asymmetric mechanism in light heavy ion collisions (A{sub NC} {<=} 60) has been emphasized. The Spin Dis-alignment in the oblate-oblate system has supplied evidence for the first time for the Butterfly mode in a resonant-like reaction. These two aspects, one macroscopic and the other more closely related to microscopic effects are certainly different from a conceptual point of view but are quite complementary for a global understanding of dinuclear systems. In the first part, inclusive and exclusive measurements of the {sup 35}Cl + {sup 12}C and {sup 35}Cl + {sup 24}Mg reaction have been performed at 8 MeV/nucleon in the Saclay experiment. These measurements have permitted us to verify the origin of products which have given rise of the asymmetric fusion-fission mechanism and which have demonstrated that the three-body process in this energy range is very weak. In the second part the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si reaction has been performed at the resonance energy E{sub lab}> = 111.6 MeV at Strasbourg with the Eurogam phase II multi-detector array and VIVITRON accelerator. An angular momentum J{sup {pi}} 38{sup +} for inelastic and mutual channels of the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si exit channel has been measured and has supplied evidence for a spin dis-alignment which has been interpreted in the framework of a molecular model by Butterfly motion. The spectroscopic study of {sup 32}S nucleus, has revealed the occurrence of a new {gamma}-ray transition 0{sup +}(8507.8 keV) {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +}(2230.2 keV). (author) 105 refs., 116 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Multi-unit inertial fusion plants based on HYLIFE-II, with shared heavy-ion RIA driver and target factory, producing electricity and hydrogen fuel

    Logan, G.; Moir, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-05

    Following is a modification of the IFEFUEL systems code, called IFEFUEL2, to treat specifically the HYLIFE-II target chamber concept. The same improved Recirculating Induction Accelerator (RIA) energy scaling model developed recently by Bieri is used in this survey of the economics of multi-unit IFE plants producing both electricity and hydrogen fuel. Reference cases will assume conventional HI-indirect target gains for a 2 mm spot, and improved HYLIFE-II BoP models as per Hoffman. Credits for improved plant availability and lower operating costs due to HYLIFE-II`s 30-yr target chamber lifetime are included, as well as unit cost reductions suggested by Delene to credit greater {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} benefits for the duplicated portions of a multi-unit plant. To illustrate the potential impact of more advanced assumptions, additional {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} cases will consider the possible benefits of an MHD + Steam BoP, where direct MHD conversion of plasma from baseball-size LiH target blanket shells is assumed to be possible in a new (as yet undesigned) liquid Flibe-walled target chamber, together and separately, with advanced, higher-gain heavy-ion targets with Fast Ignitors. These runs may help decide the course of a possible future {open_quotes}HYLIFE-III{close_quotes} IFE study. Beam switchyard and final focusing system costs per target chamber are assumed to be consistent with single-sided illumination, for either {open_quotes}conventional{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} indirect target gain assumptions. Target costs are scaled according to the model by Woodworth. In all cases, the driver energy and rep rate for each chosen number of target chambers and total plant output will be optimized to minimize the cost of electricity (CoE) and the associated cost of hydrogen (CoH), using a relationship between CoE and CoH to be presented in the next section.

  13. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  14. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    1989-07-01

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  15. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  16. New approach to description of fusion-fission dynamics in super-heavy element formation

    Zagrebaev, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    A new mechanism of the fusion-fission process for a heavy nuclear system is proposed, which takes place in the (A 1 , A 2 ) space, where A 1 and A 2 are two nuclei, surrounded by a certain number of shared nucleons ΔA. The nuclei A 1 and A 2 gradually lose (or acquire) their individualities with increasing (or decreasing) a number of collectivized nucleons ΔA. The driving potential in the (A 1 , A 2 ) space is derived, which allows the calculation of both the probability of the compound nucleus formation and the mass distribution of fission and quasi-fission fragments in heavy ion fusion reactions. The cross sections of super-heavy element formation in the 'hot' and 'cold' fusion reactions have been calculated up to Z CN =118. (author)

  17. Fusion of light ion systems at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier

    Arnould, M.; Howard, W.M.; Cusson, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental fusion cross sections for light ion systems at energies below the Coulomb barrier become available in greater and greater number, and provide a stringent test of the macroscopic and microscopic physics involved in models of heavy-ion reactions. Measurements and predictions of the fusion cross sections for 12 C + 12 C, 12 C + 16 O and 16 O + 16 O are also of major importance in astrophysics. (orig.) [de

  18. Energy straggling of heavy ions in solids

    Cowern, N.E.B.

    1979-08-01

    The energy-loss straggling of heavy ions has been studied, principally in the Born Approximation region v > zv 0 . Measurements were made with 5.486 MeV α particles, 5 - 48 MeV 16 0 ions, and 3 - 36 MeV 12 C ions, incident on thin uniform Al foils. The thickness uniformity of the foils was studied with a proton microbeam and a surface profiler, and their homogeneity, purity and isotropy were investigated by electron microscope, proton backscattering, and X-ray diffraction studies. Using the Bethe theory of energy loss the charge-exchange model of energy straggling for heavy ions is confirmed. (author)

  19. Development of heavy ion linear accelerators

    Bomko, V.A.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the known heavy ion accelerators is given. It is stated that cyclic and linear accelerators are the most perspective ones in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon according to universality in respect with the possibility of ion acceleration of the wide mass range. However, according to the accelerated beam intensity of the heavier ions the linear accelerators have considerable advantages over any other types of accelerators. The review of the known heavy ion linac structures permits to make the conclusion that a new modification of an accelerating structure of opposite pins excited on a H-wave is the most perspective one [ru

  20. Heavy ion facility for radiation therapy

    Leemann, C.; Alonso, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Hoyer, E.; Lou, K.; Staples, J.; Voelker, F.

    1977-03-01

    The accelerator requirements of particle radiation therapy are reviewed and a preliminary design of a heavy ion synchrotron for hospital installation is presented. Beam delivery systems and multi-treatment room arrangements are outlined

  1. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections

  2. Scattering and transfer reactions with heavy ions

    Hussein, M.S.

    From the elastic scattering analysis the input parameters are found for the inelastic scattering analysis and the transfer reactions of the heavy ion reactions. The main theme reported is the likeness and conection among these processes. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Radiobiological comparison of pions and heavy ions

    Raju, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The physical and radiobiological differences between some aspects of pions and heavy ions are discussed, followed by a discussion of acute and late effects of high LET radiations compared to low LET radiations

  4. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was ... by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and ... charge. At low temperature and density the quarks and gluons are confined within.

  5. Jet-Underlying Event Separation Method for Heavy Ion Collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Hanks, J. A.; Sickles, A. M.; Cole, B. A.; Franz, A.; McCumber, M. P.; Morrison, D. P.; Nagle, J. L.; Pinkenburg, C. H.; Sahlmueller, B.; Steinberg, P.; von Steinkirch, M.; Stone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructed jets in heavy ion collisions are a crucial tool for understanding the quark-gluon plasma. The separation of jets from the underlying event is necessary particularly in central heavy ion reactions in order to quantify medium modifications of the parton shower and the response of the surrounding medium itself. There have been many methods proposed and implemented for studying the underlying event substructure in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we detail a me...

  6. Heavy-ion-linac post-accelerators

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the tandem-linac system for heavy-ion acceleration are reviewed and illustrated in terms of the technology and performance of the superconducting heavy-ion energy booster at Argonne. This technology is compared briefly with the corresponding technologies of the superconducting linac at Stony Brook and the room-temperature linac at Heidelberg. The performance possibilities for the near-term future are illustrated in terms of the proposed extension of the Argonne booster to form ATLAS

  7. Heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Nevski, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to study high-p T physics in proton-proton collisions at the LHC design luminosity. The detector capabilities for heavy-ion physics are now being evaluated. This paper reports on a preliminary assessment of the baseline ATLAS detector potential for heavy-ion physics. The ATLAS sensitivity to some of the expected signatures from the quark-gluon plasma (e.g. jet quenching, Υ suppression) is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs

  9. Validating PHITS for heavy ion fragmentation reactions

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy-ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy-ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u "4"8Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably. (authors)

  10. Localization effects in heavy ion collisions

    Donangelo, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radial and angular localization in heavy ion reactions on deformed nuclei is discussed. A theoretical method appropriate to study these localization effects is briefly described and then applied to the determination of deformed heavy ion potentials from inclastic scattering data. It is argued that one-and two-nucleon transfer reactions on deformed nuclei can provide a probe of nuclear structure in high angular momentum states and be at least qualitatively analyzed in the light of these localization concepts. (Author) [pt

  11. Now day methods for heavy ion monitoring

    Luk'yanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Chubaryan, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Up-to-date methods for identification of products yield as a result of heavy ion interaction with nuclei are described. Monitoring of total ionization has been realized by gas-filled ionization chambers semiconductor detectors, scintillators. A method for specific ionization loss monitoring and time-of-flight technique for heavy-ion mass identification are considered. Advantages of the method for identification of nuclear reaction prodUcts by means of a magnetic analyzer are displayed

  12. Atomic collisions in fusion plasmas involving multiply charged ions

    Salzborn, E.

    1980-01-01

    A short survey is given on atomic collisions involving multiply charged ions. The basic features of charge transfer processes in ion-ion and ion-atom collisions relevant to fusion plasmas are discussed. (author)

  13. Review of heavy ion reaction mechanisms

    Ngo, C.

    1986-04-01

    We review some of the many aspects of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms observed at bombarding energies smaller than approximately 50 MeV/u that is to say in what is called the low bombarding energy domain and the intermediate bombarding energy domain. We emphasize the results concerning the use of very heavy projectiles which has led to the observation of new mechanisms

  14. Physics with heavy ions at LHC

    Safarik, K.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the motivation to study heavy ion collisions at LHC, and the experimental conditions under which detectors will have to operate. A short description of the detectors under construction is given. Physics performance is illustrated in two examples, which will become accessible at LHC energies, jet quenching and heavy-flavor production. (author)

  15. Heavy quarks and squarks from W-gluon fusion

    Lindfors, J.

    1986-05-01

    We discuss Wg-fusion as a source of heavy quark and squark pairs at very high energy hadron colliders. Effective W approximation is used to calculate the cross-sections analytically in the forward scattering configuration; good agreement is obtained with exact numerical calculations. W-gluon fusion is found to be not nearly as important a production mechanism of heavy squarks as it is of heavy quarks. This is especially true when the mass-splitting within the SU(2) L doublet is small

  16. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  17. Pulsed power ion accelerators for inertially confined fusion

    Olson, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Current research is described on pulsed power ion accelerators for inertial fusion, i.e., ion diodes and collective accelerators. Particle beam energy and power requirements for fusion, and basic deposition characteristics of charged particle beams are discussed. Ion diodes and collective accelerators for fusion are compared with existing conventional accelerators

  18. Respectives of heavy ion physics in JINR

    Flerov, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Perspectives of heavy ion physics in JINR are discussed. The main attention is paid to directions that are connected with the application of intensive beams of U-400 cyclotron. Experiments into studying stability limits of heavy atomic nuclei are considered. The possibility of using beams of heavy ions in applied fields, particularly for the production of very thin nuclear filters is noted. Prospects of synthesis of superheavy elements (SHE) and SHE search in nature are also considered. The data on the events of spontaneous fission found in meteorite and hydrotherms and the data on lengths of tracks in olivines from meteorite prove the possibility of obtaining evidences of SHE existence in nature

  19. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 1ST QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORT: Simulations of fast correction of chromatic aberrations to establish physics specifications for implementation on NDCX-1 and NDCX-2

    Lidia, S.M.; Lund, S.M.; Seidl, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. Focal spot differences at the target plane between the compressed and uncompressed regions of the beam pulse have been modeled and measured on NDCX-1. Time-dependent focusing and energy sweep from the induction bunching module are seen to increase the compressed pulse spot size at the target plane by factors of two or more, with corresponding scaled reduction in the peak intensity and fluence on target. A time-varying beam envelope correction lens has been suggested to remove the time-varying aberration. An Einzel (axisymmetric electric) lens system has been analyzed and optimized for general transport lines, and as a candidate correction element for NDCX-1. Attainable high-voltage holdoff and temporal variations of the lens driving waveform are seen to effect significant changes on the beam envelope angle over the duration of interest, thus confirming the utility of such an element on NDCX-1. Modeling of the beam dynamics in NDCX-1 was performed using a time-dependent (slice) envelope code and with the 3-D, self-consistent, particle-in-cell code WARP. Proof of concept was established with the slice envelope model such that the spread in beam waist positions relative to the target plane can be minimized with a carefully designed

  20. Transport description of intermediate processes in heavy ion collisions

    Ayik, S.; Shivakumar, B.; Shapira, D.

    1986-01-01

    An extension of the diffusion model is proposed in order to describe the intermediate processes and the compound nucleus formation in heavy ion collisions. The model describes the intermediate processes and fusion in terms of the formation and the evolution of a long-lived dinuclear molecular complex (DMC) and its subsequent decay by fragmentation. The colliding ions can be trapped into the pocket of the entrance channel nucleus-nucleus potential and a DMC is formed. This DMC acts as a doorway state towards formation of a completely equilibrated compound nucleus (CN). It evolves through the exchange of nucleons to different dinuclear configurations. At each stage of its evolution, there is a finite probability for direct fragmentation into outgoing channels by thermal penetration over the barrier. The doorway states that do not fragment relax into a CN configuration and are identified as the fusion yield. 8 refs