WorldWideScience

Sample records for heavy high-temperature liquid-metal

  1. Experimental testing facilities for ultrasonic measurements in heavy liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nicolescu, D.; Nitu, A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM), like lead or its alloy, Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE), makes them attractive as coolant candidates in advanced nuclear systems. The opaqueness, that is common to all liquid metals, disables all optical methods. For this reason ultrasound waves are used in different applications in heavy liquid metal technology, for example for flow and velocity measurements and for inspection techniques. The practical use of ultrasound in heavy liquid metals still needs to be demonstrated by experiments. This goal requires heavy liquid metal technology facility especially adapted to this task. In this paper is presented an experimental testing facility for investigations of Heavy Liquid Metals acoustic properties, designed and constructed in RATEN ICN. (authors)

  2. Pumping liquid metal at high temperatures up to 1,673 kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, C.; Budenstein, D.; Bagepalli, M.; England, D.; Deangelis, F.; Wilk, G.; Jarrett, C.; Kelsall, C.; Hirschey, J.; Wen, H.; Chavan, A.; Gilleland, B.; Yuan, C.; Chueh, W. C.; Sandhage, K. H.; Kawajiri, Y.; Henry, A.

    2017-10-01

    Heat is fundamental to power generation and many industrial processes, and is most useful at high temperatures because it can be converted more efficiently to other types of energy. However, efficient transportation, storage and conversion of heat at extreme temperatures (more than about 1,300 kelvin) is impractical for many applications. Liquid metals can be very effective media for transferring heat at high temperatures, but liquid-metal pumping has been limited by the corrosion of metal infrastructures. Here we demonstrate a ceramic, mechanical pump that can be used to continuously circulate liquid tin at temperatures of around 1,473-1,673 kelvin. Our approach to liquid-metal pumping is enabled by the use of ceramics for the mechanical and sealing components, but owing to the brittle nature of ceramics their use requires careful engineering. Our set-up enables effective heat transfer using a liquid at previously unattainable temperatures, and could be used for thermal storage and transport, electric power production, and chemical or materials processing.

  3. Hydrodynamics of heavy liquid metal coolant processes and filtering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert K Papovyants; Yuri I Orlov; Pyotr N Martynov; Yuri D Boltoev

    2005-01-01

    to S ≤ 0,2 d p . It is demonstrated that the filtration efficiency can be significantly influenced by the properties of the capillary-porous structure of the filter material: the fiber diameter, type of braiding providing the availability of stagnant zones, porosity and wetting angle. With some simplifying prerequisites, the evaluation of the dynamics of the sedimentation growth on the porous partition has been performed as a function of time. Analysis of the conditions of the hydrodynamic separation of filter entrained particles (d p ≅ 2 μm) by the coolant flow revealed that to realize this process, it is necessary that the wall flow velocity be about V = 0,2 m/s. The object of investigations was a broad class of filter materials, including metallo-ceramics, metallic grids, carbon cloth, glass-fibers, needle-pierced cloth made of metallic fibers, grainy materials (made of aluminium oxides). By the complex of technical characteristics, with the thermal stability, cleaning efficiency (fineness), impurity retention capacity and hydraulic resistance considered, the multi-layer siliceous textured cloth (SiO 2 >95%, t 400 deg. C) and needle-pierced cloth made of 40 μm-d. metallic fibers (X18H10T steel, t ≤ 400-550 deg. C) are recommended for HLMC cleaning. The routine monitoring of the filter operation is implemented based on its resistance and the reduction of the flow rate through the filter, induced by its clogging by impurities, the clogging being dependent on the concentration of suspensions in coolant. The investigations as conducted made it possible to construct high temperature filter specimens, including those for an output capacity of 900 m 3 /h, in reference to operation and maintenance conditions of heavy liquid metal cooled nuclear power installations. (authors)

  4. Heavy liquid metal cooled FBR. Results 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuma, Yasuhiro; Soman, Yoshindo; Konomura, Mamoru; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2003-08-01

    In the feasibility studies of commercialization of an FBR fuel cycle system, the targets are economical competitiveness to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation, besides ensuring safety. Both medium size pool-type lead-bismuth cooled reactor with primary pumps system and without primary pumps system are studied to pursue their improvement in heavy metal coolant considering design requirements form plant structures. The design of plant systems are reformed, and the conceptual design is made and the commodities are analyzed. (1) Conceptual design of lead-bismuth cooled reactor with pumping system: Electrical output 750 MWe and 4-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (2) Structural analysis of main components. (3) Conceptual design of natural circulation type lead-bismuth cooled reactor: Electrical output 550 MWe and 6-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (4) Study of R and D program. (author)

  5. Faraday forcing of high-temperature levitated liquid metal drops for the measurement of surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Nevin; Ward, Kevin; Matsumoto, Satoshi; SanSoucie, Michael; Narayanan, Ranga

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a method for the measurement of surface tension using continuous periodic forcing is presented. To reduce gravitational effects, samples are electrostatically levitated prior to forcing. The method, called Faraday forcing, is particularly well suited for fluids that require high temperature measurements such as liquid metals where conventional surface tension measurement methods are not possible. It offers distinct advantages over the conventional pulse-decay analysis method when the sample viscosity is high or the levitation feedback control system is noisy. In the current method, levitated drops are continuously translated about a mean position at a small, constant forcing amplitude over a range of frequencies. At a particular frequency in this range, the drop suddenly enters a state of resonance, which is confirmed by large executions of prolate/oblate deformations about the mean spherical shape. The arrival at this resonant condition is a signature that the parametric forcing frequency is equal to the drop's natural frequency, the latter being a known function of surface tension. A description of the experimental procedure is presented. A proof of concept is given using pure Zr and a Ti 39.5 Zr 39.5 Ni 21 alloy as examples. The results compare favorably with accepted literature values obtained using the pulse-decay method.

  6. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  7. Experimental research and development of main circulation pump bearings in reactor plants using heavy liquid-metal coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zudin, A.; Beznosov, A.; Chernysh, A.; Prikazchikov, G.

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, specialists in Russia are engaged in designing the BREST-OD-300 fast neutron lead-coolant reactor plant. There is currently no experience in designing and operating axial pumps of lead-coolant reactor plants, including one of their major units – bearing unit. Selection and substantiation of operating and structural parameters of plain friction bearings used in main circulation pumps of reactor plants running on heavy liquid-metal coolants are important tasks that are solved at the NNSTU. Development of a feasible procedure for designing bearings and its components operating within the structure of the main circulation pump of a reactor plant running on a heavy liquid-metal coolant as well as guidelines for an optimized structural scheme of such bearings set a goal of performing a range of theoretically-calculated and experimental works. The report contains testing data of a hydrostatic bearing with reciprocal fricative choking tested on the NNSTU FT-4 bench running on a lead coolant within the range of 420-500degC. There have been presented a scheme of a bench for testing a contact friction bearing on a high-temperature coolant and the results of investigation tests of bearings of such type at T = 450 ÷ 500degC. Material of the bearing sleeve is steel 08X18H10T, and a possibility is provided with regard to installation of the bearing sleeves and shaft made of non-metal materials (ceramic materials, silicified graphite, etc.). The presented testing data of plain friction bearings operating in a high-temperature heavy liquid-metal coolant will serve as a ground for making an alternative choice of a plain friction bearing for the main circulation pump of a reactor plant running on a heavy liquid-metal coolant. (author)

  8. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  9. Problems of hydrogen - water vapor - inert gas mixture use in heavy liquid metal coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, V.V.; Martynov, P.N.; Gulevskij, V.A.; Teplyakov, Yu.A.; Fomin, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The reasons of slag deposit formation in circulation circuits with heavy liquid metal coolants, which can cause reactor core blockage, are considered. To prevent formation of deposits hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation circuit is used. It consists in introduction of gaseous mixtures hydrogen - water vapor - rare gas (argon or helium) directly into coolant flow. The principle scheme of hydrogen purification and the processes occurring during it are under consideration. Measures which make it completely impossible to overlap of the flow cross section of reactor core, steam generators, pumps and other equipment by lead oxides in reactor facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants are listed [ru

  10. High-power spallation target using a heavy liquid metal free surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.; Fetzer, J.R.; Batta, A.; Class, A.G.; Wetzel, Th.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of a heavy liquid metal free surface target as proposed for the multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications in Mol, Belgium, has been set up and experimentally investigated at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory. A stable operation was demonstrated in a wide range of operating conditions and the surface shape was detected and compared with numerical pre-calculations employing Star-CD. Results show a very good agreement of experiment and numerical predictions which is an essential input for other windowless target designs like the META:LIC target for the European Spallation Source. (author)

  11. Turbulent heavy liquid metal heat transfer along a heated rod in an annular cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefhalm, C.-H.; Tak, N.-I.; Piecha, H.; Stieglitz, R.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy liquid metals (HLM) are considered as coolant and spallation material in accelerator driven systems (ADS), because of their good molecular heat conductivity. This property leads to a separation of the spatial extension of thermal and viscous boundary layers. Commercially available computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD) assume an analogy of momentum and energy transfer, which is problematic for liquid metals flow. Therefore, benchmark experiments are required, in order to validate codes or modify existing models used therein. Within this article an experimental and numerical study of a thermally developing turbulent lead bismuth (PbBi) flow along a uniformly heated rod in a circular tube is presented. Local temperatures and velocity distributions are measured using thermocouples and Pitot tubes. The data are compared to simulation results computed with the CFX code package. The measured velocity profiles coincide nearly perfect with the simulation results. However, discrepancies up to 7% between the measured and computed temperatures appear. A minor part of the deviations can be explained by the imperfect experimental set-up. But, the measured shape of the thermal boundary is different to the calculated one, indicating the inadequateness of the presently used models describing the turbulent heat transport within the thermal boundary layer

  12. Theoretical and experimental studies of heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    Through the Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA provides a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, collaborative assessments, knowledge preservation, and cooperative research in areas agreed by the Member States with fast reactor and partitioning and transmutation development programmes (e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS)). Trends in advanced fast reactor and ADS designs and technology development are periodically summarized in status reports, symposia, and seminar proceedings prepared by the IAEA to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information. The use of heavy liquid metals (HLM) is rapidly diffusing in different research and industrial fields. The detailed knowledge of the basic thermal hydraulics phenomena associated with their use is a necessary step for the development of the numerical codes to be used in the engineering design of HLM components. This is particularly true in the case of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic alloy cooled fast reactors, high power particle beam targets and in the case of the cooling of accelerator driven sub-critical cores where the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design codes is mandatory. Periodic information exchange within the frame of the TWG-FR has lead to the conclusion that the experience in HLM thermal fluid dynamics with regard to both the theoretical/numerical and experimental fields was limited and somehow dispersed. This is the case, e.g. when considering turbulent exchange phenomena, free-surface problems, and two-phase flows. Consequently, Member States representatives participating in the 35th Annual Meeting of the TWG-FR (Karlsruhe, Germany, 22-26 April 2002) recommended holding a technical meeting (TM) on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Heavy Liquid Metal Thermal Hydraulics. Following this recommendation, the IAEA has convened the Technical Meeting on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of

  13. Analysis of actual status of works on technology of heavy liquid metal coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Orlov, Yu.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Principle duties in heavy liquid metal coolant technology (HLMC) are provision of the purity of coolant and surfaces of circulation loop for maintenance of design thermohydraulic characteristics, prevention of structural materials corrosion and erosion during long service life and present-day safety precautions on different stages of reactor facility operation. For this reason, current HLMC (Pb-Bi, Pb) technology must include coolant pre-operation and charging; monitoring and regulating of coolant oxygen potential; hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation loop from lead oxides-based slags; coolant filtration; reactor cover gas purification from coolant aerosols. The current topical problem is personnel training on the questions of HLMC technology [ru

  14. Oxygen sensors for Heavy Liquid Metal coolants: Calibration and assessment of the minimum reading temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassini, S., E-mail: serena.bassini@enea.it; Antonelli, A.; Di Piazza, I.; Tarantino, M.

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen sensors for Heavy Liquid Metals (HLMs) such as lead and LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) will be essential devices in future Lead Fast Reactor (LFR) and Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Potentiometric sensors based on solid electrolytes were developed in recent years to this purpose. Internal reference electrodes such as Pt-air and Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} liquid metal/metal-oxide are among the most used but they both have a weak point: Pt-air sensor has a high minimum reading temperature around 400 °C whereas Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} suffers from internal stresses induced by Bi volume variations with temperature, which may lead to the sensor failure in the long-term. The present work describes the performance of standard Pt-air and Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} sensors and compares them with recent Cu/Cu{sub 2}O sensor. Sensors with Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (YPSZ) electrolyte were calibrated in oxygen-saturated HLM between 160 and 550 °C and the electric potential compared to the theoretical one to define the accuracy and the minimum reading temperature. Standard Pt-air sensor were also tested using Yttria Totally Stabilized Zirconia (YTSZ) to assess the effect of a different electrolyte on the minimum reading temperature. The performance of Pt-air and Cu/Cu{sub 2}O sensors with YPSZ electrolyte were then tested together in low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C. The results showed that Pt-air, Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/Cu{sub 2}O sensors with YPSZ measured oxygen in HLMs down to 400 °C, 290 °C and 200 °C respectively. When the YTSZ electrolyte was used in place of the YPSZ, the Pt-air sensor measured correctly down to at least 350 °C thanks to the superior ionic conductivity of the YTSZ. When Cu/Cu{sub 2}O and Pt-air sensors were tested together in the same low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C, Cu/Cu{sub 2}O sensor worked predictably in the whole temperature range whereas Pt-air sensor exhibited a correct output only above 400 °C. - Highlights:

  15. Fuel research for subcritical and critical GEN-IV systems cooled by heavy liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, V.; Verwerft, M.

    2009-01-01

    The participation of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the worldwide GEN-IV research can be considered as an opportunity. Today's GEN-IV research at SCK-CEN is mainly driven by the interests of the project MYRRHA (Multipurpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications). The main goal of this project is to build at SCK-CEN in Mol a new generation fast spectrum, subcritical, research and materials testing reactor MYRRHA driven by a high-energy proton accelerator. This GEN-IV MTR is cooled by heavy liquid metal (Pb-Bi) and will be used for the ADS concept demonstration, testing and qualification of new fuels, transmutation targets and innovative materials. On the European scale, MYRRHA is integrated in the Euratom FP6 Integrated Project (IP) EUROTRANS (EUROpean research programme for TRANSmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system), as the small-scale experimental machine for transmutation demonstration called XT-ADS. Last but not least, this experimental facility will also demonstrate the technological feasibility of the LFR (Lead-cooled Fast Reactor) GEN-IV concept; in EU the LFR design studies are performed in the framework of the Euratom FP6 ELSY (European Lead-cooled SYstem) project, where SCK-CEN is a partner. Among the research needed to ensure a safe and reliable operation of the MYRRHA/XT ADS reactor, the development and qualification of fuel and cladding materials have been recognized as one of the main key issues to be addressed

  16. High-temperature superconductors learn from heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.

    1998-01-01

    Physicists have been intrigued by the nature of high-temperature superconductors since they were discovered 12 years ago. Superconducting materials lose their electrical resistance below a transition temperature, T c , and certain copper-oxide compounds remain superconducting at temperatures up to 160 K. Research into these materials has been driven by fundamental, yet intractable, questions about the basic concepts of condensed-matter physics and the mechanisms of superconductivity. A key question is how the electrons come together to form the Cooper pairs responsible for superconductivity. Physicists at Cambridge University have now studied two heavy-fermion compounds experimentally, and have found that the electron pairing is caused by magnetic effects (N Mathur et al. 1998 Nature 394 39). In this article the author describes their research. (UK)

  17. Computational study of heat transfer from the inner surface of a circular tube to force high temperature liquid metal flow in laminar and transition regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    transfer. The general correlation in the laminar and turbulent regions for a high temperature liquid metal was identified for the circular tube with a hydraulic diameter.

  18. Proceedings of the international workshop on the technology and thermal hydraulics of heavy liquid metals (Hg, Pb, Bi, and their eutectics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.; Bauer, G.S.

    1996-06-01

    The International Workshop on the Technology and Thermal Hydraulics of Heavy Liquid Metals (Schruns Workshop) was organized to assess the R ampersand D and technology problems associated with designing and building a heavy liquid metal target for a spallation neutron source. The European scientific community is completing a feasibility study for a future, accelerator-based, pulsed spallation neutron source that would deliver a beam power of 5 megawatts (MW) to a target. They have concluded that a liquid metal target is preferable to conventional solid targets for handling the extreme radiation environments, high heat loads, and pulsed power. Similarly, the ORNL has been funded by the DOE to design a high-power, pulsed spallation neutron source that would begin operation at about 1 MW but that could be upgraded to significantly higher powers in the future. Again, the most feasible target design appears to be a liquid metal target. Since the expertise needed to consider these problems resides in a number of disparate disciplines not normally covered by existing conferences, this workshop was organized to bring a small number of scientists and engineers together to assess the opportunities for building such a target. The objectives and goals of the Schruns Workshop were to: review and share existing information on the science and technology of heavy liquid metal systems. Evaluate the opportunities and limitations of materials compatibility, thermal hydraulics and heat transfer, chemical reactions, corrosion, radiation effects, liquid-gas mixtures, systems designs, and circuit components for a heavy liquid metal target. Establish the critical R ampersand D and technology that is necessary to construct a liquid metal target. Explore opportunities for cooperative R ampersand D among members of the international community that could expedite results, and share expertise and resources. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and

  19. Proceedings of the international workshop on the technology and thermal hydraulics of heavy liquid metals (Hg, Pb, Bi, and their eutectics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, B.R.; Bauer, G.S. [comp.

    1996-06-01

    The International Workshop on the Technology and Thermal Hydraulics of Heavy Liquid Metals (Schruns Workshop) was organized to assess the R&D and technology problems associated with designing and building a heavy liquid metal target for a spallation neutron source. The European scientific community is completing a feasibility study for a future, accelerator-based, pulsed spallation neutron source that would deliver a beam power of 5 megawatts (MW) to a target. They have concluded that a liquid metal target is preferable to conventional solid targets for handling the extreme radiation environments, high heat loads, and pulsed power. Similarly, the ORNL has been funded by the DOE to design a high-power, pulsed spallation neutron source that would begin operation at about 1 MW but that could be upgraded to significantly higher powers in the future. Again, the most feasible target design appears to be a liquid metal target. Since the expertise needed to consider these problems resides in a number of disparate disciplines not normally covered by existing conferences, this workshop was organized to bring a small number of scientists and engineers together to assess the opportunities for building such a target. The objectives and goals of the Schruns Workshop were to: review and share existing information on the science and technology of heavy liquid metal systems. Evaluate the opportunities and limitations of materials compatibility, thermal hydraulics and heat transfer, chemical reactions, corrosion, radiation effects, liquid-gas mixtures, systems designs, and circuit components for a heavy liquid metal target. Establish the critical R & D and technology that is necessary to construct a liquid metal target. Explore opportunities for cooperative R & D among members of the international community that could expedite results, and share expertise and resources. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Thermal hydraulic numerical investigation of the heavy liquid metal free surface of MYRRHA spallation target experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, A.; Class, A.

    2015-01-01

    The first advanced design of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is currently being built in SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium): MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications). The experiment investigates the free surface design of the MYRRHA target. The free surface lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) liquid metal experiment is a full-scale model of the concentric MYRRHA target. The design of the target is combined with CFD simulations using a volume of fluid method accounting for mass transfer across the free surface. The model used has been validated with water experimental results. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. In the current work, we present numerical results of Star- CD simulations employing a high-resolution interface-capturing scheme in conjunction with the cavitation model for the nominal operation conditions. Thermal hydraulic of the target is considered for the nominal flow rate and nominal heat load. Results show that the target has a very stable free surface configuration for the considered flow rate and heat load

  1. Calculation of aerodynamics of aerosol filter designs for cleaning of heavy liquid metal cooler reactor gas loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valery P Melnikov; Pyotr N Martynov; Albert K Papovyants; Ivan V Yagodkin

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One of the basic performances of aerosol filters is the aerodynamic resistance to the flow of gaseous medium to be cleaned. Calculation of the aerodynamics of aerosol filters in reference to the gas loops of reactor installations with heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) allows the design of the structural components of filters to be optimized to provide minimum initial resistance values. It is established that owing to various factors aerosol particles of different concentration and disperse composition are present always in the gas spaces of heavy liquid metal cooled reactor gas loops. To prevent the negative effect of aerosols on the equipment of the gas loops, it is reasonable to use filters of multistep design with sections of preliminary and fine cleaning to catch micron and submicron particles, respectively. A computer program and technique have been developed to evaluate the aerodynamics of folded aerosol filters for different parameters of their structural components, taking account of the aerosol spectrum and concentration. The algorithm of the calculation is presented by the example of a two-step design assembled in single vessel; the filter dimensions and pattern of the air flow to be cleaned are determined under the given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the aerodynamic resistance of filters was performed with consideration for local resistances and resistances of all the structural components of the filter (sudden constriction, expansion, the flow in air channels, filtering material and so on). Correlations have been derived for the resistance of air channels, filtering materials of preliminary and fine cleaning sections as a function of such parameters as the section depth (50-500 mm), the height of separators (3,5-20 mm), the filtering surface area (1,5-30 m 2 ). Based on the calculation results, the auto-similarity domain was brought out for the minimal values of filter resistances as a function of the ratio of

  2. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  3. Hydrodynamic problems of heavy liquid metal coolants technology in loop-type and mono-block-type reactor installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Yuri I.; Efanov, Alexander D.; Martynov, Pyotr N.; Gulevsky, Valery A.; Papovyants, Albert K.; Levchenko, Yuri D.; Ulyanov, Vladimir V.

    2007-01-01

    In the report, the influence of hydrodynamics of the loop with heavy liquid metal coolants (Pb and Pb-Bi) on the realization methods and efficiency of the coolant technology for the reactor installations of loop, improved loop and mono-block type of design has been studied. The last two types of installations, as a rule, are characterized by the following features: availability of loop sections with low hydraulic head and low coolant velocities, large squares of coolant free surfaces; absence of stop and regulating valve, auxiliary pumps on the coolant pumping-over lines. Because of the different hydrodynamic conditions in the installation types, the tasks of the coolant technology have specific solutions. The description of the following procedures of coolant technology is given in the report: purification by hydrogen (purification using gas mixture containing hydrogen), regulation of dissolved oxygen concentration in coolant, coolant filtrating, control of dissolved oxygen concentration in coolant. It is shown that change of the loop design made with economic purpose and for improvement of the installation safety cause additional requirements to the procedures and apparatuses of the coolant technology realization

  4. An alternative solution for heavy liquid metal cooled reactors fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale Di Maio, Damiano, E-mail: damiano.vitaledimaio@uniroma1.it [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy); Cretara, Luca; Giannetti, Fabio [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy); Peluso, Vincenzo [“ENEA”, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Gandini, Augusto [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy); Manni, Fabio [“SRS Engineering Design S.r.l.”, Vicolo delle Palle 25-25/b, 00186 Rome (Italy); Caruso, Gianfranco [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new fuel assembly locking system for heavy metal cooled reactor is proposed. • Neutronic, mechanical and thermal-hydraulic evaluations of the system behavior have been performed. • A comparison with other solutions has been presented. - Abstract: In the coming future, the electric energy production from nuclear power plants will be provided by both thermal reactors and fast reactors. In order to have a sustainable energy production through fission reactors, fast reactors should provide an increasing contribution to the total electricity production from nuclear power plants. Fast reactors have to achieve economic and technical targets of Generation IV. Among these reactors, Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) and Lead cooled Fast Reactors (LFRs) have the greatest possibility to be developed as industrial power plants within few decades. Both SFRs and LFRs require a great R and D effort to overcome some open issues which affect the present designs (e.g. sodium-water reaction for the SFRs, erosion/corrosion for LFRs, etc.). The present paper is mainly focused on LFR fuel assembly (FA) design: issues linked with the high coolant density of lead or lead–bismuth eutectic cooled reactors have been investigated and an innovative solution for the core mechanical design is here proposed and analyzed. The solution, which foresees cylindrical fuel assemblies and exploits the buoyancy force due to the lead high density, allows to simplify the FAs locking system, to reduce their length and could lead to a more uniform neutron flux distribution.

  5. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, ΔT, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to ∼550 degrees C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to ∼650 degrees C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above ∼600 degrees C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150 degrees C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material

  6. CFD analysis of pressure drop across grid spacers in rod bundles compared to correlations and heavy liquid metal experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu; Class, A.G., E-mail: class@kit.edu

    2017-02-15

    Early studies of the flow in rod bundles with spacer grids suggest that the pressure drop can be decomposed in contributions due to flow area variations by spacer grids and frictional losses along the rods. For these shape and frictional losses simple correlations based on theoretical and experimental data have been proposed. In the OECD benchmark study LACANES it was observed that correlations could well describe the flow behavior of the heavy liquid metal loop including a rod bundle with the exception of the core region, where different experts chose different pressure-loss correlations for the losses due to spacer grids. Here, RANS–CFD simulations provided very good data compared to the experimental data. It was observed that the most commonly applied Rehme correlation underestimated the shape losses. The available correlations relate the pressure drop across a grid spacer to the relative plugging of the spacer i.e. solidity e{sub max}. More sophisticated correlations distinct between spacer grids with round or sharp leading edge shape. The purpose of this study is to (i) show that CFD is suitable to predict pressure drop across spacer grids and (ii) to access the generality of pressure drop correlations. By verification and validation of CFD results against experimental data obtained in KALLA we show (i). The generality (ii) is challenged by considering three cases which yield identical pressure drop in the correlations. First we test the effect of surface roughness, a parameter not present in the correlations. Here we compare a simulation assuming a typical surface roughness representing the experimental situation to a perfectly smooth spacer surface. Second we reverse the flow direction for the spacer grid employed in the experiments which is asymmetric. The flow direction reversal is chosen for convenience, since an asymmetric spacer grid with given blockage ratio, may result in different flow situations depending on flow direction. Obviously blockage

  7. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  8. Effect of High Temperature or fire on heavy weight concrete properties used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, K.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the effect of different duration (1, 2 and 3 hours) of high temperatures (250 degree C, 500 degree C, 750 degree C and 950 degree C) on the physical and mechanical properties of heavy concrete shields were studied. The effect of fire fitting systems on ordinary concrete was investigated. The work was extended to determine the effect of high temperature or accidental fire on the radiation properties of heavy weight concrete. Results showed that ilmenite concrete had the highest density, absorption, and modulus of elasticity when compared to the other types of studied concrete and it had also higher values of compressive, tensile, bending and bonding strength than ordinary or baryte concrete. Ilmenite concrete had the highest attenuation of transmitted gamma rays in comparing to gravel concrete and baryte concrete. Ilmenite concrete was more resistant to elevated temperature than gravel concrete and baryte concrete. Foam or air as a fire fitting system in concrete structure that exposed to high temperature or accidental fire proved that better than water

  9. Effect of high temperature or fire on heavy weight concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, K.; EL-Hakim, E.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the use of concrete for shielding nuclear reactors. In the present work, the effect of different durations (1, 2 and 3 h) of high temperatures (250, 500, 750 and 950 deg. C) on the physical, mechanical and radiation properties of heavy concrete was studied. The effect of fire fitting systems on concrete properties was investigated. Results showed that ilmenite concrete had the highest density, modulus of elasticity and lowest absorption percent, and it had also higher values of compressive, tensile, bending and bonding strengths than gravel or baryte concrete. Ilmenite concrete showed the highest attenuation of transmitted gamma rays. Firing (heating) exposure time was inversely proportional to mechanical properties of all types of concrete. Ilmenite concrete was more resistant to elevated temperature. Foam or air proved to be better than water as a cooling system in concrete structure exposed to high temperature because water leads to a big damage in concrete properties

  10. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  11. Liquid Metal Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series...

  12. Evolution of fast reactor core spectra in changing a heavy liquid metal coolant by molten PB-208

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, D. A.; Mitenkova, E. F. [Nuclear Safety Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, Moscow, 115119 (Russian Federation); Khorasanov, G. L.; Zemskov, E. A.; Blokhin, A. I. [State Scientific Center, Russian Federation, Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    In the paper neutron spectra of fast reactor cooled with lead-bismuth or lead-208 are given. It is shown that in changing the coolant from lead-bismuth to lead-208 the core neutron spectra of the fast reactor FR RBEC-M are hardening in whole by several percents when a little share of low energy neutrons (5 eV - 50 keV) is slightly increasing. The shift of spectra to higher energies permits to enhance the fuel fission while the increased share of low energy neutrons provides more effective conversion of uranium-238 into plutonium due to peculiarity of {sup 238}U neutron capture cross section. Good neutron and physical features of molten {sup 208}Pb permit to assume it as perspective coolant for fast reactors and accelerator driven systems. The one-group cross sections of neutron radiation capture, {sigma}(n,g), by {sup 208}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 99}Tc, mix of lead and bismuth, {sup nat}Pb-Bi, averaged over neutron spectra of the fast reactor RBEC-M are given. It is shown that one-group cross sections of neutron capture by material of the liquid metal coolant consisted from lead enriched with the stable lead isotope, {sup 208}Pb, are by 4-7 times smaller {sigma}(n,g) for the coolant {sup nat}Pb-Bi. The economy of neutrons in the core cooled with {sup 208}Pb can be used for reducing reactor's initial fuel load, increasing fuel breeding and transmutation of long lived fission products, for example {sup 99}Tc. Good neutron and physical features of lead enriched with {sup 208}Pb permit to consider it as a perspective low neutron absorbing coolant for fast reactors and accelerator driven systems. (authors)

  13. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  14. Liquid metal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Roach, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal monitor of the by-pass plugging meter kind described in British Patent 1,308,466, is further provided with a pump arranged to oppose flow through a by-pass thereby to provide a constant pressure difference across an orifice and improve the sensitivity of the instrument. The monitor estimates the impurity content in a liquid metal stream. (author)

  15. Turbulent heat mixing of a heavy liquid metal flow in the MEGAPIE target geometry-The heated jet experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, Robert; Daubner, Markus; Batta, A.; Lefhalm, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    The MEGAPIE target installed at the Paul-Scherrer Institute is an example of a spallation target using eutectic liquid lead-bismuth (Pb 45 Bi 55 ) both as coolant and neutron source. An adequate cooling of the target requires a conditioning of the flow, which is realized by a main flow transported in an annular gap downwards, u-turned at a hemispherical shell into a cylindrical riser tube. In order to avoid a stagnation point close to the lowest part of the shell a jet flow is superimposed to the main flow, which is directed towards to the stagnation point and flows tangentially along the shell. The heated jet experiment conducted in the THEADES loop of the KALLA laboratory is nearly 1:1 representation of the lower part of the MEGAPIE target. It is aimed to study the cooling capability of this specific geometry in dependence on the flow rate ratio (Q main /Q jet ) of the main flow (Q main ) to the jet flow (Q jet ). Here, a heated jet is injected into a cold main flow at MEGAPIE relevant flow rate ratios. The liquid metal experiment is accompanied by a water experiment in almost the same geometry to study the momentum field as well as a three-dimensional turbulent numerical fluid dynamic simulation (CFD). Besides a detailed study of the envisaged nominal operation of the MEGAPIE target with Q main /Q jet = 15 deviations from this mode are investigated in the range from 7.5 ≤ Q main /Q jet ≤ 20 in order to give an estimate on the safe operational threshold of the target. The experiment shows that, the flow pattern establishing in this specific design and the turbulence intensity distribution essentially depends on the flow rate ratio (Q main /Q jet ). All Q main /Q jet -ratios investigated exhibit an unstable time dependent behavior. The MEGAPIE design is highly sensitive against changes of this ratio. Mainly three completely different flow patterns were identified. A sufficient cooling of the lower target shell, however, is only ensured if Q main /Q jet ≤ 12

  16. Engineering: Liquid metal pumped at a record temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinou, Konstantina

    2017-10-01

    Although liquid metals are effective fluids for heat transfer, pumping them at high temperatures is limited by their corrosiveness to solid metals. A clever pump design addresses this challenge using only ceramics. See Article p.199

  17. Structural integrity of heavy liquid-metal target installed in spallation neutron facility. Part 4: Consideration by fracture mechanics of target container window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    Developments of the neutron scattering facility is carried out under the high-intensity proton accelerator project promoted by JAERI and KEK. To estimate the structural integrity of the heavy liquid-metal (mercury) target used as a spallation neutron source in a MW-class neutron scattering facility, static and dynamic stress (including pressure wave in mercury) behaviors due to the incident of 1MW-pulsed proton beam (Maximum heat density is 461W/cc) were analyzed. In the analyses, two type target containers with semi-cylindrical type and flat-type beam windows were used as analytical models. As a result, it is confirmed that the stress generated by the pressure wave becomes the largest at the center of the beam window, and the flat-type beam window is more advantageous from the structural viewpoint than the semi-cylindrical type beam window. It has been understood that the stress generated in the beam window by the pressure wave can be treated as the secondary stress. Then, it has been understood that the stress and the stress range generated in the target window were bellow the allowable stress level defined by the standard of JIS on the maximum stress and fatigue strength. It has been experimentally confirmed that a cavitation was generated by generating the negative pressure in mercury near the target beam window and a collapse of cavitation damaged to the target container material, as pits. Then, the fracture mechanical analyses were carried out on the pit and a crack on pit tip. Consequently, it was clarified that the crack would not propagate because the inner surface of the beam window was become the compressive stress field due to the steady state thermal stress. Moreover, the evaluation technique of the cavitation which would be needed in the future was summarized. (author)

  18. Experimental studies and computational benchmark on heavy liquid metal natural circulation in a full height-scale test loop for small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: chaotics@snu.ac.kr [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero, 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jueun; Ju, Heejae; Sohn, Sungjune; Kim, Yeji; Noh, Hyunyub; Hwang, Il Soon [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Experimental studies on natural circulation for lead-bismuth eutectic were conducted. • Adiabatic wall boundaries conditions were established by compensating heat loss. • Computational benchmark with a system thermal-hydraulics code was performed. • Numerical simulation and experiment showed good agreement in mass flow rate. • An empirical relation was formulated for mass flow rate with experimental data. - Abstract: In order to test the enhanced safety of small lead-cooled fast reactors, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) natural circulation characteristics have been studied. We present results of experiments with LBE non-isothermal natural circulation in a full-height scale test loop, HELIOS (heavy eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of operability and safety of PEACER), and the validation of a system thermal-hydraulics code. The experimental studies on LBE were conducted under steady state as a function of core power conditions from 9.8 kW to 33.6 kW. Local surface heaters on the main loop were activated and finely tuned by trial-and-error approach to make adiabatic wall boundary conditions. A thermal-hydraulic system code MARS-LBE was validated by using the well-defined benchmark data. It was found that the predictions were mostly in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of mass flow rate and temperature difference that were both within 7%, respectively. With experiment results, an empirical relation predicting mass flow rate at a non-isothermal, adiabatic condition in HELIOS was derived.

  19. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  20. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  1. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  2. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  3. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  4. Liquid metal purification device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takao; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns a liquid metal purification device for removing and purifying impuries in liquid metal sodium used as coolants of an FBR type reactor. A vessel having a group of pipes made of hydrogen permeable metal at the inside thereof is disposed to the inlet pipeline of a cold trap. The group of hydrogen permeable metal pipes is connected to an exhaust pipe and a vacuum pump, so that the inside of the pipes is exhausted. Liquid metal sodium branched from the main pipeline of a coolant system passes through the outer side of the group of the hydrogen permeable metal pipes. In this cae, hydrogen contained as impurities in the liquid metal sodium diffuses and permeates the hydrogen permeation metal pipes and enters into the pipe group and is discharged out of the system by the vacuum pump. This can mitigate the hydrogen removing burden of the cold trap, to extend the device life time. (I.N.)

  5. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

  6. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed

  7. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladiev, I.T.; Dzhamardzhashvili, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of electrical energy by direct conversion from thermal or electrical energy and notably to liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertors. The convertor described in this invention can be successfully used as a source of electrical energy for space vessels, for underwater vessels, for aeronautics and for the generation of electrical energy in thermal or atomic power plants. This liquid metal convertor consists of a heat source, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a steam diffuser and a condenser. These elements are connected together hydraulically in series. The condenser is connected hydraulically to a heat source, a liquid diffuser and a magnetohydrodynamic generator. These elements are interconnected hydraulically to the separator and heat source [fr

  8. Clad buffer rod sensors for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    1999-01-01

    Clad buffer rods, consisting of a core and a cladding, have been developed for ultrasonic monitoring of liquid metal processing. The cores of these rods are made of low ultrasonic-loss materials and the claddings are fabricated by thermal spray techniques. The clad geometry ensures proper ultrasonic guidance. The lengths of these rods ranges from tens of centimeters to 1m. On-line ultrasonic level measurements in liquid metals such as magnesium at 700 deg C and aluminum at 960 deg C are presented to demonstrate their operation at high temperature and their high ultrasonic performance. A spherical concave lens is machined at the rod end for improving the spatial resolution. High quality ultrasonic images have been obtained in the liquid zinc at 600 deg C. High spatial resolution is needed for the detection of inclusions in liquid metals during processing. We also show that the elastic properties such as density, longitudinal and shear wave velocities of liquid metals can be measured using a transducer which generates and receives both longitudinal and shear waves and is mounted at the end of a clad buffer rod. (author)

  9. Decay heat removal analyses on the heavy liquid metal cooled fast breeding reactor. Comparisons of the decay heat removal characteristics on lead, lead-bismuth and sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2000-04-01

    The feasibility study on several concepts for the commercial fast breeder reactor(FBR) in future has been conducted in JNC for the kinds of possible coolants and fuel types to confirm the direction of the FBR developments in Japan. In this report, Lead and Lead-Bismuth eutectic coolants were estimated for the decay heat removal characteristics by the comparison with sodium coolant that has excellent features for the heat transfer and heat transport performance. Heavy liquid metal coolants, such as Lead and Lead-Bismuth, have desirable chemical inertness for water and atmosphere. Therefore, there are many economical plant proposals without an intermediate heat transport system that prevents the direct effect on a reactor core by the chemical reaction between water and the liquid metal coolant at the hypocritical tube failure accidents in a steam generator. In this study, transient analyses on the thermal-hydraulics have been performed for the decay heat removal events in Equivalent plant' with the Lead, Lead-Bismuth and Sodium coolant by using Super-COPD code. And a resulted optimized lead cooled plant in feasibility study was also analyzed for the comparison. In conclusion, it is become clear that the natural circulation performance, that has an important roll in passive safety characteristic of the reactor, is more excellent in heavy liquid metals than sodium coolant during the decay heat removal transients. However, we need to confirm the heat transfer reduction by the oxidized film or the corrosion products expected to appear on the heat transfer surface in the Lead and Lead-Bismuth circumstance. (author)

  10. Analysis of oxidised heavy paraffininc products by high temperature comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, H; Bekker, R; Beigley, J; Rohwer, E

    2017-08-04

    Heavy petroleum fractions are produced during crude and synthetic crude oil refining processes and they need to be upgraded to useable products to increase their market value. Usually these fractions are upgraded to fuel products by hydrocracking, hydroisomerization and hydrogenation processes. These fractions are also upgraded to other high value commercial products like lubricant oils and waxes by distillation, hydrogenation, and oxidation and/or blending. Oxidation of hydrogenated heavy paraffinic fractions produces high value products that contain a variety of oxygenates and the characterization of these heavy oxygenates is very important for the control of oxidation processes. Traditionally titrimetric procedures are used to monitor oxygenate formation, however, these titrimetric procedures are tedious and lack selectivity toward specific oxygenate classes in complex matrices. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a way of increasing peak capacity for the comprehensive analysis of complex samples. Other groups have used HT-GC×GC to extend the carbon number range attainable by GC×GC and have optimised HT-GC×GC parameters for the separation of aromatics, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as sulphur-containing compounds in heavy petroleum fractions. HT-GC×GC column combinations for the separation of oxygenates in oxidised heavy paraffinic fractions are optimised in this study. The advantages of the HT-GC×GC method in the monitoring of the oxidation reactions of heavy paraffinic fraction samples are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Container for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Imazu, Takayuki; Ueda, Sabuo; Ueya, Katsumi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To arrange a vapor trapping member of a specific structure at the inlet part of a cylindrical gap formed by the inner peripheral surface of the circular opening of a container and the outer peripheral surface of a rotary plug thereby to prevent ingress of vapor in the upper part of the cylindrical gap for a long period of time. Constitution: A sealing material receiving tray is fitted to the container side of the inlet part of a cylindrical gap, and a partition plate is fitted to the rotary plug side. The tray is filled with a sealing material consisting of a large number of steel balls, mesh wire gages and the like, and the partition plate is placed in the tray thereby to carry out sealing of the container. Liquid metal vapor evaporating from the liquid level of the liquid metal adheres to the sealing material to fill the gap, and therefore ingress of vapor to the upper part of the cylindrical gap is prevented, and there is no possibility of causing seal cutting due to the use for a long period. (Sekiya, K.)

  12. Progress of liquid metal technology and application in energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji; Kamei, Mitsuru; Nei, Hiromichi.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid metals are excellent energy transport media, and recently remarkable development has been observed in the technology of handling sodium and the machinery and equipment. In nuclear fusion, the development of the use of lithium as the coolant is advanced. For space technology, attention has been paid from the early stage to various liquid metals. For general industries, liquid metals have been used for high temperature heat pipes and the utilization of solar heat, and mercury vapor turbines were manufactured for trial. Besides, attention is paid anew to liquid metal MHD electric power generation. The development of the NaS batteries for electric cars and electric power storage and the interchange of liquid metal technology with the fields of iron and steel, metallurgy and so on advance. It is expected that liquid metal technology bears future advanced energy engineering while deepening the interchange with other advanced fields also in order to reactivate atomic energy technology. Liquid metals have the features of high electric and thermal conductivities, chemical activity and opaque property as metals, and fluidity and relatively high boiling point and melting point as liquids. FBRs, fusion reactors and the power sources for space use are described. (K.I.)

  13. Water tube liquid metal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    An improved heat exchanger for use in liquid metal cooled nuclear power reactors is described in which the heat is transferred between the flow of liquid metal which is to be cooled and a forced flow of liquid which is wholly or partly evaporated. (U.K.)

  14. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described, wherein coolant is arranged to be flowed upwardly through a fuel assembly and having one or more baffles located above the coolant exit of the fuel assembly, the baffles being arranged so as to convert the upwardly directed motion of liquid metal coolant leaving the fuel assembly into a substantially horizontal motion. (author)

  15. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulriya, P.K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A.K.; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures

  16. High-temperature multiphase flowmeters in heavy-oil thermal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh, P. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Production Technology Inc. (United States)

    2005-11-01

    A review of field tests assessing the capability and advantages of multi-phase metering technology in high temperature thermal recovery processes such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) was presented. A number of different tank gauging procedures were conducted to obtain a reference flow rate. Subsequent performance tests of metered data and tank data verified the accuracy of the meter, and that water cut sampling can be attained under practical field conditions. A 12 well field test was then conducted, and an allocation factor was obtained from conventional test separators and production measurements. An improvement in the allocation factor was noted. However, a full evaluation of the multiphase meter data obtained in the field was limited by the quality of the reference field data. A 30 day well testing campaign showed a comparison of well rate data from the multi-phase meter with data from an emulsion meter. It was concluded that the multiphase meter provided consistent measurements, matching the level of accuracy attained from rigorous tank measurements. In addition, the multiphase meter eliminated the need for the equipment modifications and extra personnel interventions needed to perform tank testing and manual and automatic water cut sampling. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Liquid metal pump for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.; Maloney, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A pump for use in pumping high temperature liquids at high pressures, particularly liquid metals used to cool nuclear reactors is described. It is of the type in which the rotor is submerged in a sump but is fed by an inlet duct which bypasses the sump. A chamber, kept full of fluid, surrounds the pump casing into which fluid is bled from the pump discharge and from which fluid is fed to the rotor bearings and hence to the sump. This equalizes pressure inside and outside the pump casing and reduces or eliminates the thermal shock to the bearings and sump tank

  18. The performance of alloy 625 in the high temperature application of Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Dey, G.K.; Sundararaman, M.; Dubey, J.S.; De, P.K.; Kumar, Niraj

    2006-01-01

    Wrought and centrifugally cast alloy 625 tubes are used in the cracker units of ammonia based Heavy Water Plants (HWP). During the service of about 100,000 h, the ammonia cracker tubes, predictably, have been exposed to temperatures below 600degC to above 765degC and have undergone several hundreds of start-shutdown cycles, producing several ordered phases in the alloy. To understand the effect of the ordered phases on the structure properties, Alloy 625 samples were aged at 540degC, 700degC and 850degC temperatures, for duration up to 1200 h. Results were compared with that of cast and wrought Alloy 625 samples, which aged during the service of 100,000 h and that failed during the service after about 24,000 h along with that of aged samples, which were resolutionised at 1170degC for 2h. (author)

  19. Diversity of Metabolically Active Bacteria in Water-Flooded High-Temperature Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara N. Nazina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the overall genomic diversity of microorganisms of the Dagang high-temperature oilfield (PRC and to characterize the metabolically active fraction of these populations. At this water-flooded oilfield, the microbial community of formation water from the near-bottom zone of an injection well where the most active microbial processes of oil degradation occur was investigated using molecular, cultural, radiotracer, and physicochemical techniques. The samples of microbial DNA and RNA from back-flushed water were used to obtain the clone libraries for the 16S rRNA gene and cDNA of 16S rRNA, respectively. The DNA-derived clone libraries were found to contain bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the alkB genes encoding alkane monooxygenases similar to those encoded by alkB-geo1 and alkB-geo6 of geobacilli. The 16S rRNA genes of methanogens (Methanomethylovorans, Methanoculleus, Methanolinea, Methanothrix, and Methanocalculus were predominant in the DNA-derived library of Archaea cloned sequences; among the bacterial sequences, the 16S rRNA genes of members of the genus Geobacillus were the most numerous. The RNA-derived library contained only bacterial cDNA of the 16S rRNA sequences belonging to metabolically active aerobic organotrophic bacteria (Tepidimonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, as well as of denitrifying (Azoarcus, Tepidiphilus, Calditerrivibrio, fermenting (Bellilinea, iron-reducing (Geobacter, and sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria (Desulfomicrobium, Desulfuromonas. The presence of the microorganisms of the main functional groups revealed by molecular techniques was confirmed by the results of cultural, radioisotope, and geochemical research. Functioning of the mesophilic and thermophilic branches was shown for the microbial food chain of the near-bottom zone of the injection well, which included the microorganisms of the carbon, sulfur, iron, and nitrogen cycles.

  20. Materials requirements for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Horton, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Materials requirements for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are quite varied with requisite applications ranging from ex-reactor components such as piping, pumps, steam generators and heat exchangers to in-reactor components such as heavy section reactor vessels, core structurals, fuel pin cladding and subassembly flow ducts. Requirements for ex-reactor component materials include: good high temperature tensile, creep and fatigue properties; compatibility with high temperature flowing sodium; resistance to wear, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation; and good weldability. Requirements for in-reactor components include most of those cited above for ex-reactor components as supplemented by the following: resistance to radiation embrittlement, swelling and radiation enhanced creep; good neutronics; compatibility with fuel and fission product materials; and resistance to mass transfer via flowing sodium. Extensive programs are currently in place in a number of national laboratories and industrial contractors to address the materials requirements for LMFBRs. These programs are focused on meeting the near term requirements of early LMFBRs such as the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor as well as the longer term requirements of larger near-commercial and fully-commercial reactors

  1. Decay heat removal analyses in heavy-liquid-metal-cooled fast breeding reactors. Development of the thermal-hydraulic analysis method for lead-bismuth-cooled, natural-circulation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwasaki, Takashi [Nuclear Energy System Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ohyama, Kazuhiro [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The feasibility study on future commercial fast breeder reactors in Japan has been conducted at JNC, in which various plant design options with all the possible coolant and fuel types are investigated to determine the conditions for the future detailed study. Lead-bismuth eutectic coolant has been selected as one of the possible coolant options. During the phase-I activity of the feasibility study in FY1999 and FY2000, several plant concepts, which were cooled by the heavy liquid metal coolant, were examined to evaluate the feasibility mainly with respect to economical competitiveness with other coolant reactors. A medium-scale (300 - 550 MWe) plant, cooled by a lead-bismuth natural circulation flow in a pool type vessel, was selected as the most possible plant concept for the heavy liquid metal coolant. Thus, a conceptual design study for a lead-bismuth-cooled, natural-circulation reactor of 400 MWe has been performed at JNC to identify remaining difficulties in technological aspect and its construction cost evaluation. In this report, a thermal-hydraulic analysis method for lead-bismuth-cooled, natural-circulation reactors is described. A Multi-dimensional Steam Generator analysis code (MSG) was applied to evaluate the natural circulation plant by combination with a flow-network-type, plant dynamics code (Super-COPD). By using this combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code, decay heat removals, ULOHS and UTOP accidents were evaluated for the 100 MWe STAR-LM concept designed by ANL. In addition, decay heat removal by the Primary Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (PRACS) in the 400 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled, natural-circulation reactor, being studied at JNC, was analyzed. In conclusion, it becomes clear that the combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code is suitably applicable to analyses of lead-bismuth-cooled, natural-circulation reactors to evaluate thermal-hydraulic phenomena during steady-state and transient conditions. (author)

  2. Community Response to a Heavy Precipitation Event in High Temperature, Chemosynthetic Biofilms and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Loiacono, S. T.; Shock, E.

    2012-12-01

    Coordinated analysis of the "Bison Pool" (BP) Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 parameters revealed biogeochemical cycling and metabolic and microbial community shifts in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring ecosystem (1). The >22m outflow of BP is a gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of nutrients. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92°C chemosynthetic community in the BP source pool to a 56°C photosynthetic mat community. Metagenomic data at BP showed the potential for both heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon metabolism (rTCA and acetyl-CoA cycles) in the highest temperature, chemosynthetic regions (1). This region of the outflow is dominated by Aquificales and Pyrococcus relatives, with smaller contributions of heterotrophic Bacteria. Following a 2h heavy precipitation event we observed an influx of exogenous organic material into the source pool supplied from the meadow surrounding the BP area. We sampled biomass and fluid at several locations within the outflow immediately following the event, and on several occasions for the next eight days. Elemental analysis and carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses were conducted on biomass and sediment, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon content and δ13C of fluids were analyzed. DNA and RNA were extracted, and following RT-PCR, nitrogen cycle functional gene expression was evaluated. Previous work at BP has shown that chemosynthetic biomass may carry isotopic signatures of fractionation during carbon fixation, via the acetyl-CoA and rTCA cycles (2). However, the addition of exogenous organic carbon during the rain event had an immediate and dramatic effect on the sediments and biofilms in the chemosynthetic zone of the outflow. Dissolved organic carbon was the highest measured in six years. Chemosynthetic biomass responded by incorporating the organic carbon. Carbon isotopic signatures in chemosynthetic

  3. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi

    2014-01-01

    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)

  4. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  5. Dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy for use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy is provided which has high-temperature strength and is readily fabricable at ambient temperatures, and which is useful as structural elements of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. 4 tables

  6. Experimental study of heavy-liquid metal (LBE) flow and heat transfer along a hexagonal 19-rod bundle with wire spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacio, J., E-mail: julio.pacio@kit.edu; Daubner, M.; Fellmoser, F.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A unique experiment with lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) as working fluid was performed. • Detailed temperature measurements were implemented at three axial positions. • The experimental results present a good repeatability within the uncertainties. • Pressure drop results agree with water correlations, as expected. • The Nusselt number is well predicted by the most conservative correlation. - Abstract: An experimental campaign considering a 19-pin hexagonal rod bundle with wire spacers, cooled by forced-convective LBE was completed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA). In the frame of the European research project SEARCH (Safe Exploitation Related Chemistry for HLM Reactors, 2011–2015) the geometry and operating conditions of temperature, flow velocity and power density are representative of the fuel assemblies envisaged for the MYRRHA reactor. An extensive test matrix is evaluated, with 33 experimental runs covering a wide range of Reynolds (ca. 14 000–48 000) and Péclet (ca. 400–1500) numbers, as well as thermal powers (up to 295 kW) at 200 °C inlet temperature, indicating a good degree of reproducibility within the relatively small experimental uncertainties. Both the pressure drop and heat transfer performances are studied. When possible, a comparison with correlations available in the reviewed literature (namely, friction and heat transfer coefficients) is given. Furthermore, the detailed cross-sectional temperature distribution at three selected axial positions is obtained in the experiments and represents the main validation data for CFD. In non-dimensional terms, these profiles could be repeated at different operating conditions, for example hot and cold spots are consistently found at given locations.

  7. RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4.0 modification for transient accident scenario of Test Blanket Modules in ITER involving helium flows into heavy liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J.; Pérez, M.; Mas de les Valls, E.; Batet, L.; Sandeep, T.; Chaudhari, V.; Reventós, F.

    2015-07-01

    The Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India, is currently involved in the design and development of its Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in ITER (International Thermo nuclear Experimental Reactor). The Indian TBM concept is a Lead-Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB), which utilizes lead-lithium eutectic alloy (LLE) as tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and coolant. The first wall facing the plasma is cooled by helium gas. In preparation of the regulatory safety files of ITER-TBM, a number of off-normal event sequences have been postulated. Thermal hydraulic safety analyses of the TBM system will be carried out with the system code RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4.0 which was initially designed to predict the behavior of light water reactor systems during normal and accidental conditions. In order to analyze some of the postulated off-normal events, there is the need to simulate the mixing of Helium and Lead-Lithium fluids. The Technical University of Catalonia is cooperating with IPR to implement the necessary changes in the code to allow for the mixing of helium and liquid metal. In the present study, the RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD4 two-phase flow 6-equations structure has been modified to allow for the mixture of LLE in the liquid phase with dry Helium in the gas phase. Practically obtaining a two-fluid 6-equation model where each fluid is simulated with a set of energy, mass and momentum balance equations. A preliminary flow regime map for LLE and helium flow has been developed on the basis of numerical simulations with the OpenFOAM CFD toolkit. The new code modifications have been verified for vertical and horizontal configurations. (Author)

  8. FLIT: Flowing LIquid metal Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolemen, Egemen; Majeski, Richard; Maingi, Rajesh; Hvasta, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The design and construction of FLIT, Flowing LIquid Torus, at PPPL is presented. FLIT focuses on a liquid metal divertor system suitable for implementation and testing in present-day fusion systems, such as NSTX-U. It is designed as a proof-of-concept fast-flowing liquid metal divertor that can handle heat flux of 10 MW/m2 without an additional cooling system. The 72 cm wide by 107 cm tall torus system consisting of 12 rectangular coils that give 1 Tesla magnetic field in the center and it can operate for greater than 10 seconds at this field. Initially, 30 gallons Galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) will be recirculated using 6 jxB pumps and flow velocities of up to 10 m/s will be achieved on the fully annular divertor plate. FLIT is designed as a flexible machine that will allow experimental testing of various liquid metal injection techniques, study of flow instabilities, and their control in order to prove the feasibility of liquid metal divertor concept for fusion reactors. FLIT: Flowing LIquid metal Torus. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. Review of liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.S.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of space-power related liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Heat pipe development at Los Alamos has been on-going since 1963. Heat pipes were initially developed for thermionic nuclear-electrical power production in space. Since then Los Alamos has developed liquid metal heat pipes for numerous applications related to high temperature systems in both the space and terrestrial environments. Some of these applications include thermionic electrical generators, thermoelectric energy conversion (both in-core and direct radiation), thermal energy storage, hypersonic vehicle leading edge cooling, and heat pipe vapor laser cells. Some of the work performed at Los Alamos has been documented in internal reports that are often little-known. A representative description and summary of progress in space-related liquid metal heat pipe technology is provided followed by a reference section citing sources where these works may be found. 53 refs

  10. Pair potentials in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The argument which justifies the use of a pair potential to describe the structure-dependent term in the energy of liquid metals is briefly reviewed. Because there is an additional term in the energy which depends upon volume rather than structure, and because the pair potential itself is volume-dependent, the relationship between pair potential and observable properties such as pressure, bulk modulus and pair distribution function is more complicated for liquid metals than it is for molecular liquids. Perhaps for this reason, the agreement between pair potentials inferred from observable properties and pair potentials calculated by means of pseudo-potential theory is still far from complete. The pair potential concept is applicable only to simple liquid metals, in which the electron-ion interaction is weak. No attempt is made to discuss liquid transition and rare-earth metals, which are not simple in this sense. (author)

  11. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  12. Forces in Liquid Metal Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review of the ...... of the necessary theory and find numerically the forces to be in the 100μN range for liquid metals as mercury and liquid Gallium suspended between electrodes of 20μm radius.......Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review...

  13. Liquid metal reactor core material HT9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    1998-03-01

    A state-of-the art is surveyed on the liquid metal reactor core materials HT9. The purpose of this report is to give an insight for choosing and developing the materials to be applied to the KAERI prototype liquid metal reactor which is planned for the year of 2010. In-core stability of cladding materials is important to the extension of fuel burnup. Austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316) has been used as core material in the early LMR due to the good mechanical properties at high temperatures, but it has been found to show a poor swelling resistance. So many efforts have been made to solve this problem that HT9 have been developed. HT9 is 12Cr-1MoVW steel. The microstructure of HT9 consisted of tempered martensite with dispersed carbide. HT9 has superior irradiation swelling resistance as other BCC metals, and good sodium compatibility. HT9 has also a good irradiation creep properties below 500 dg C, but irradiation creep properties are degraded above 500 dg C. Researches are currently in progress to modify the HT9 in order to improve the irradiation creep properties above 500 dg C. New design studies for decreasing the core temperature below 500 dg C are needed to use HT9 as a core material. On the contrary, decrease of the thermal efficiency may occur due to lower-down of the operation temperature. (author). 51 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs

  14. Liquid metal heat transfer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept

  15. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, Joel; Jarriand, Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a fast neutron nuclear reactor cooled by a liquid metal driven through by a primary pump of the vertical drive shaft type fitted at its lower end with a blade wheel. To each pump is associated an exchanger, annular in shape, fitted with a central bore through which passes the vertical drive shaft of the pump, its wheel being mounted under the exchanger. A collector placed under the wheel comprises an open upward suction bell for the liquid metal. A hydrostatic bearing is located above the wheel to guide the drive shaft and a non detachable diffuser into which at least one delivery pipe gives, envelopes the wheel [fr

  16. Compact, Lightweight Electromagnetic Pump for Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Palzin, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A proposed direct-current electromagnetic pump for circulating a molten alkali metal alloy would be smaller and lighter and would demand less input power, relative to currently available pumps of this type. (Molten alkali metals are used as heat-transfer fluids in high-temperature stages of some nuclear reactors.) The principle of operation of this or any such pump involves exploitation of the electrical conductivity of the molten metal: An electric current is made to pass through the liquid metal along an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the flow channel, and a magnetic field perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis and the electric current is superimposed on the flowchannel region containing the electric current. The interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field produces the pumping force along the longitudinal axis. The advantages of the proposed pump over other such pumps would accrue from design features that address overlapping thermal and magnetic issues.

  17. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of constructing the diagrid used to support fuel assemblies of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, is described. The functions of fuel assembly support and coolant plenum are performed by discrete components of the diagrid each of which can serve the function of the other in the event of failure of one of the components. (U.K.)

  18. Liquid metal thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottowski-Duemenil, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This textbook is a report of the 26 years activity of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG). It summarizes the state of the art of liquid metal thermo-hydraulics achieved through the collaboration of scientists concerned with the development of the Fast Breeder Reactor. The first chapter entitled ''Liquid Metal Boiling Behaviour'', presents the background and boiling mechanisms. This section gives the reader a brief but thorough survey on the superheat phenomena in liquid metals. The second chapter of the text, ''A Review of Single and Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Studies and Application to Flow Stability Analysis of Boiling Liquid Metal Systems'' summarizes the difficulty of pressure drop simulation of boiling sodium in core bundles. The third chapter ''Liquid Metal Dry-Out Data for Flow in Tubes and Bundles'' describes the conditions of critical heat flux which limits the coolability of the reactor core. The fourth chapter dealing with the LMFBR specific topic of ''Natural Convection Cooling of Liquid Metal Systems''. This chapter gives a review of both plant experiments and out-of-pile experiments and shows the advances in the development of computing power over the past decade of mathematical modelling ''Subassembly Blockages Suties'' are discussed in chapter five. Chapter six is entitled ''A Review of the Methods and Codes Available for the Calculation on Thermal-Hydraulics in Rod-Cluster and other Geometries, Steady state and Transient Boiling Flow Regimes, and the Validation achieves''. Codes available for the calculation of thermal-hydraulics in rod-clusters and other geometries are reviewed. Chapter seven, ''Comparative Studies of Thermohydraulic Computer Code Simulations of Sodium Boiling under Loss of Flow Conditions'', represents one of the key activities of the LMBWG. Several benchmark exercises were performed with the aim of transient sodium boiling simulation in single channels and bundle blockages under steady state conditions and loss of

  19. Chemistry of liquid metal coolants and sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid sodium is the coolant of choice for the current generation fast breeder reactors. When sodium contains low levels of dissolved non-metallic impurities, it is highly compatible with structural steels. When the dissolved oxygen level is high, corrosion and mass transfer in sodium-steel circuits are enhanced and this involves formation of NaxMyOz type of species (M = alloying components in steels). Experience has shown that this enhancement of corrosion in a sodium circuit with all austenitic steel structural materials would not be encountered if oxygen level in sodium is below ~ 5ppm. For understanding this observation, a complete knowledge on the phase diagrams of Na-M-O systems and the thermochemical data of all relevant NaxMyOz compounds is essential. This presentation would highlight the work carried out at IGCAR on the chemistry of liquid sodium and heavy liquid metal coolants. Work carried out on various sensors for their use in these liquid metal circuits would be described and their current status would be discussed

  20. Liquid Metal Engineering and Technology. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings of the fourth international conference on liquid metal engineering and technology volume 1, are devided into 3 sections bearing on: - Apparatus and components for liquid metal (29 papers) - Liquid metal leaks, fires and fumes (10 papers) - Cleaning, decontamination, waste disposal (14 papers) [fr

  1. Liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, I.I.; Filonov, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.I.; Artemiev, L.N.; Rakhimov, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled reactor is described comprising two rotatable plugs, one of them, having at least one hole, being arranged internally of the other, a recharging mechanism with a guide tube adapted to be moved through the hole of the first plug by means of a drive, and a device for detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements, the recharging mechanism tube serving as a sampler

  2. Investigating liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel by fracture toughness tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoy, Feyzan, E-mail: fersoy@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre), Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052, Ghent (Belgium); Gavrilov, Serguei [SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre), Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Verbeken, Kim [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Heavy liquid metals such as lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) are chosen as the coolant to innovative Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors where ferritic/martensitic T91 steel is a candidate material for high temperature applications. It is known that LBE has a degrading effect on the mechanical properties of this steel. This degrading effect, which is known as liquid metal embrittlement (LME), has been screened by several tests such as tensile and small punch tests, and was most severe in the temperature range from 300 °C to 425 °C. To meet the design needs, mechanical properties such as fracture toughness should be addressed by corresponding tests. For this reason liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel was investigated by fracture toughness tests at 350 °C. Tests were conducted in Ar-5%H{sub 2} and LBE under the same experimental conditions Tests in Ar-5%H{sub 2} were used as reference. The basic procedure in the ASTM E 1820 standard was followed to perform tests and the normalization data reduction (NDR) method was used for the analysis. Comparison of the tests demonstrated that the elastic–plastic fracture toughness (J{sub 1C}) of the material was reduced by a factor in LBE and the fracture mode changed from ductile to quasi-cleavage. It was also shown that the pre-cracking environment played an important role in observing LME of the material since it impacts the contact conditions between LBE and steel at the crack tip. It was demonstrated that when specimens were pre-cracked in air and tested in LBE, wetting of the crack surface by LBE could not be achieved. When specimens were pre-cracked in LBE though, they showed a significant reduction in fracture toughness.

  3. Recent UK research and the development of high temperature design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper outlines recent research and development activities on high temperature design methods and criteria for high temperature components as utilized by liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. (orig.)

  4. Heavy liquid metal cooled FBR. Results 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayahune, Hiroki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Soman, Yoshindo; Konomura, Mamoru; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2004-08-01

    Concepts of the reactor, SG and main coolant pump have been studied considering maintainability and aseismic capability, which is a medium size pool type lead-bismuth cooled reactor. The results are following. (1) Reconsideration of reactor design concepts concerning maintainability: In pursuit of good reactor maintainability, the structural concepts of SG, UIS and core support structures have been changed to be drawn up above the upper area of the reactor system. After a few decade of interval, lead-bismuth inventory in the reactor vessel shall be fully drained for easy ISI operation of in-vessel main components such as core support structures. From the viewpoint of the reactor aseismic capability, the axial length of reactor vessel was reduced and the reactor vessel support location was changed from the top handing to the circumference of the vessel. (2) SG concept selection in conjunction with a compact reactor vessel: The concept of SG consisting of a once through type with helical coil tube is selected. 6 units of a small scale SG are arranged on a reactor roof deck along the peripheral direction, in addition to 3 units of a centrifugal mechanical pump. (3) Aseismic structural integrity of the reactor components: Aseismic structural integrity of the reactor vessel, core support structures, UIS, FHM, SG and the main pumps has been vigorously examined respectively. These components besides FHM could keep the aseismic structural integrity for strong S2 earthquake under the design condition. FHM could also keep the integrity for S1 earthquake. (4) Safety evaluation: Thermal transients following loss of flow type accident due to plant total blackout and typical manual reactor trip incident, have been evaluated to assure the pant safety design, by analyzing thermal hydraulic behavior of transients concerning core flow rate and temperatures of the plant cooling system. Loss of flow accident due to plant total blackout: The reactor coolant pumps shall be tripped and the feed water pumps also be tripped. Core decay heat shall be removed safely by pump flow coast down subsequently erecting natural circulation flow of the primary reactor auxiliary cooling system. The core outlet temperature decreases after reactor and pump trip, and the SG outlet temperature increases after loss of feed water flow respectively. In the transition phase from forced circulation to natural circulation, core cooling flow appears reversed momentarily. The reverse core flow is induced by coolant temperature changes of core outlet and SG outlet above mentioned, which caused the imbalance of natural circulation head around the core. This phenomena were discovered by two dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis for the core in the previous study. The critical core flow shall be further examined, in conjunction with countermeasures preventing unfavorable reverse core flow. (5) Impact on core outlet temperature decrease: Concerning lead-bismuth coolant corrosion/erosion effect on fuel cladding, core outlet temperature shall be descended to 445degC, satisfying design upper temperature limit of 570degC for the hottest channel fuel cladding structure. SG and reactor vessel diameters of the low temperature cycle plant are larger than the reference one. Therefore, comparison study on economics commodities between both plants has been carried out. 1) Disadvantage of electricity production is 5% output reduction. 2) The weight of reactor components summing up 6 SG's and 3 pumps is 1.08 times bigger than the reference one. 3) According to above articles, the low temperature cycle plant is 14% up weight of reactor commodities per unit electricity output. The concept of the medium size pool type lead-bismuth cooled reactor is necessary to be optimized and to be further studied concerning details of safety and economics in the near future. (author)

  5. Liquid metals replace water steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, V

    1976-12-01

    The techniques are described of power generation with regard to their effectiveness which depends on the efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy into electric energy. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion of energy is based on the use of induced electromotive force which results from the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. The use of liquid metal as the working medium makes it possible to increase the initial temperature of the magnetohydrodynamic cycle to the limit of the highest technically attainable temperatures. The total efficiency of energy conversion in magnetohydrodynamic converters is 2 to 6%.

  6. Liquid metals replace water steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques are described of power generation with regard to their effectiveness which depends on the efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy into electric energy. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion of energy is based on the use of induced electromotive force which results from the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. The use of liquid metal as the working medium makes it possible to increase the initial temperature of the magnetohydrodynamic cycle to the limit of the highest technically attainable temperatures. The total efficiency of energy conversion in magnetohydrodynamic converters is 2 to 6%. (J.B.)

  7. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  8. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1990-10-01

    The selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts. 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. Multipurpose sampler device for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Kolba, V.M.; Holmes, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    A device for collecting samples or examining a flow of liquid metal is provided for use with such as a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The sampler device includes a casing surrounded by an external heater for establishing an upper isothermal zone and a lower zone for heating the entering liquid metal. One of various inserts is suspended into the isothermal zone where it is surrounded by a shroud tube for directing liquid-metal flow from the heating zone into the top of the insert. Discharge flow from the insert gravitates through a helically wound tube in heat exchange contact with entering liquid-metal flow within the heating zone. The inserts comprise an overflow cup with upper and lower freeze seals, a filter for removing particulate matter, and a fixture for maintaining various sample materials in equilibrium with liquid-metal flow. (U.S.)

  10. Liquid metals fire control engineering handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballif, J.L.

    1979-02-01

    This handbook reviews the basic requirements of the use of liquid metals with emphasis on sodium which has the greatest current usage. It delineates the concepts necessary to design facilities both radioactive and nonradioactive for use with liquid metals. It further reviews the state-of-the-art in fire extinguishers and leak detection equipment and comments on their application and sensitivity. It also provides details on some engineering features of value to the designer of liquid metal facilities

  11. Sodium immersible high temperature microphone design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, A.P.; Anderson, T.T.; Janicek, J.J.

    1975-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a rugged high-temperature (HT) microphone for use as a sodium-immersed acoustic monitor in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs). Microphones of this design have been extensively tested in room temperature water, in air up to 1200 0 F, and in sodium up to 1200 0 F. They have been successfully installed and employed as acoustic monitors in several operating liquid metal systems. The design, construction sequence, calibration, and testing of these microphones are described. 6 references. (U.S.)

  12. Technique for detecting liquid metal leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    In a system employing flowing liquid metal as a heat transfer medium in contact with tubular members containing a working fluid, i.e., steam, liquid metal leaks through the wall of the tubular member are detected by dislodging the liquid metal compounds forming in the tubular member at the leak locations and subsequently transporting the dislodged compound in the form of an aerosol to a detector responsive to the liquid metal compound. In the application to a sodium cooled tubular member, the detector would consist of a sodium responsive device, such as a sodium ion detector

  13. Characterization of liquid metal reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, H. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The objectives of this report were to assess the material requirements for LMR environment, to select the optimum candidates for KALIMER components, to characterize the performance for establishing a database of the structural materials for KALIMER, and to develop the basic material technologies for the localization of the advanced materials. Stainless steel ingots were melted by VIM and hot-rolled to plate with the thickness of 15mm. The plate was solution-treated for 1 hr at 1100 deg C and then water-quenched. Specimens were taken parallel to the rolling direction of the plate. The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed on the high temperature mechanical properties of 316MRP (Liquid Metal Reactor, Primary candidate material) stainless steels with the different nitrogen content from 0.04 to 0.15% and with the different phosphorus content from 0.002 to 0.02%. Heat treatment was performed to investigate the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Mo steels for LMR heat transfer tube materials and core materials. The Cr-Mo steels were normalized at the temperatures between 900 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1hrs and tempered at the temperatures between 500 deg C and 800 deg C for 2hrs. Conventional optical and electron micrographic studies were carried out to investigate the martensite lath structure, carbide indentification and carbide shape. Vickers microhardness was measured at room temperature using 10g load. Tensile properties were tested at high temperature. Charpy V-notch impact tests were also carried out at temperature between -120 deg C and +180 deg C. (author). 72 refs., 28 tabs., 244 figs

  14. Liquid metal MHD generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Dixit, N.S.; Venkataramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Liquid Metal MHD (LMMHD) Generator Systems are becoming increasingly important in space and terrestrial applications due to their compactness and versatility. This report gives the current status and economic viability of LMMHD generators coupled to solar collectors, fast breeder reactors, low grade heat sources and conventional high grade heat sources. The various thermodynamic cycles in the temperatures range of 100degC-2000degC have been examined. The report also discusses the present understanding of various loss mechanisms inherent in LMMHD systems and the techniques for overcoming these losses. A small mercury-air LMMHD experimental facility being set up in Plasma Physics Division along with proposals for future development of this new technology is also presented in this report. (author)

  15. Specificity in liquid metal induced embrittlement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing features of liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE) is the observation that some liquid metal-solid metal couples are susceptible to embrittlement, while others appear to be immune. This is referred to as the specificity...

  16. Liquid metals: fundamentals and applications in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeneke, T; Khoshmanesh, K; Mahmood, N; de Castro, I A; Esrafilzadeh, D; Barrow, S J; Dickey, M D; Kalantar-Zadeh, K

    2018-04-03

    Post-transition elements, together with zinc-group metals and their alloys belong to an emerging class of materials with fascinating characteristics originating from their simultaneous metallic and liquid natures. These metals and alloys are characterised by having low melting points (i.e. between room temperature and 300 °C), making their liquid state accessible to practical applications in various fields of physical chemistry and synthesis. These materials can offer extraordinary capabilities in the synthesis of new materials, catalysis and can also enable novel applications including microfluidics, flexible electronics and drug delivery. However, surprisingly liquid metals have been somewhat neglected by the wider research community. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals underlying liquid metal research, including liquid metal synthesis, surface functionalisation and liquid metal enabled chemistry. Furthermore, we discuss phenomena that warrant further investigations in relevant fields and outline how liquid metals can contribute to exciting future applications.

  17. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acoustical study of electro- and thermal conductivity of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekuchev, V.V.; Rygalov, L.N.; Ivanova, I.V.; Barashkov, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    One established a link between electrical, elastic and structural properties of electronic smelts. One calculated polyterms of resistance and thermal conductivity of liquid metals (Be, Cd, U, V, Mo, Cr, rare-earth metals) on the basis of data covering both melting and boiling points. For some metals the values were obtained for the first time. To analyze kinetic properties of metals under high temperatures one should apply complex many-particles model representations and efficient computing equipment. It is pointed out that essential problems blocking efforts to tackle the mentioned task result in necessity to find simple though approximate models describing satisfactorily properties of metals [ru

  19. Turbulent magnetohydrodynamics in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhanu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In electrically conducting fluids, the electromagnetic field is coupled with the fluid motion by induction effects. We studied different magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, using two experiments involving turbulent flows of liquid metal. The first mid-sized uses gallium. The second, using sodium, is conducted within the VKS (Von Karman Sodium) collaboration. It has led to the observation of the dynamo effect, namely converting a part of the kinetic energy of the fluid into magnetic energy. We have shown that, depending on forcing conditions, a statistically stationary dynamo, or dynamical regimes of magnetic field can be generated. In particular, polarity reversals similar to those of Earth's magnetic field were observed. Meanwhile, experiment with Gallium has been developed to study the effects of electromagnetic induction by turbulent flows in a more homogeneous and isotropic configuration than in the VKS experiment. Using data from these two experiments, we studied the advection of magnetic field by a turbulent flow and the induced fluctuations. The development of probes measuring electrical potential difference allowed us to further highlight the magnetic braking of a turbulent flow of Gallium by Lorentz force. This mechanism is involved in the saturation of the dynamo instability. (author) [fr

  20. Inducer pumps for liquid metal reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    Pumps proposed for liquid metal reactor plants typically use centrifugal impellers as the rotating element and are required to maintain a relatively low speed to keep the suction specific speed low enough to operate at the available net positive suction head (HPSH) and to avoid cavitation damage. These low speeds of operation require that the pump diameter increase and/or multiple stages be used to achieve the design head. This frequently results in a large, heavy, complex pump design. In addition, the low speed results in a larger drive motor size so that the resultant penalty to the plant designer is multiplied. The heavier pump can also result in further complications as, e.g., the difficulty in maintaining the first critical speed sufficiently above the pump operating range to provide margin for rotor dynamic stability. To overcome some of these disadvantages, it was proposed the use of inducer pumps for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plants. This paper discusses some of the advantages of the inducer pump and the development history of designing and testing these pumps both in water and sodium. The inducer pump is seen to be a sound concept with a strong technology base derived from the aerospace and ship propulsion industries. The superior suction performance capability of the inducer offers significant system design advantages, primarily a smaller, lighter weight, less complex pump design with resulting saving in cost. Extensive testing of these pumps has been conducted in both sodium and water to demonstrate the long-life capability with no cavitation damage occurring in those designs based on Rockwell's current design criteria. These tests have utilized multiple inspection and measurement approaches to accurately assess and identify any potential for cavitation damage, and these approaches have all concluded that no damage is occurring. Therefore, it is concluded that inducer pumps can be safely designed for long life operation in sodium with

  1. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  2. MHD power conversion employing liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben, J.W.M.A.; Massee, P.

    1969-02-01

    The work performed in the field of MHD generation of electricity by means of liquid metals is described. It is shown that the study of two-phase flows is essential in this topic of research; two-phase flows are therefore described. Two types of generators which can be utilized with liquid metals have been studied. The results of this study are described. A short survey of the prospects of other liquid metal systems which emerge from a study of the literature is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning possibilities for further investigation

  3. Improvement to liquid metal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns the coolant pumps of nuclear reactors. It resolves the problems of structures which have to withstand high temperatures, the difficulties in keeping the multiple bearings of the shaft aligned, the excessive fluid flows, the risks of scoring and seizing-up by self welding, the need for narrow machining tolerances and the difficulties of access for inspection and repairs [fr

  4. The SAFR liquid metal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeister, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant would provide a viable alternate to light water reactors, especially for applications favoring small incremental capacity additions. SAFR is also a logical step to facilitate the later transition to LMFBRs. The SAFR plant concept employs multiple 350-MWe LMR Power Pak modules. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can be barge-shipped to the plant site for installation. The 350-MWe size allows SAFR to capitalize on all the inherent safety features provided by small reactors and factory fabrication, while still preserving some economy of scale. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and minimizes the overall plant construction schedule and capital cost. Each Power Pak consists of one reactor assembly and associated heat transfer equipment coupled to a single turbine generator. The reactor core employs mixed uranium-plutonium zirconium alloy metal fuel. The metal-alloy fuel (which has been used in EBR-II) has cost, safety, and safeguard advantages. The intrinsic properties of the sodium coolant (e.g., high boiling point, low vapor pressure, and strong natural convection), blended together with the pool-type LMR concept and the metal fuel, result in an inherently safe plant. Passive inherent features provide both public safety and plant investment protection. Refueling is carried out annually on each Power Pak, replacing one-fourth of the core over a 6-day refueling outage. A colocated pyroprocessing fuel cycle facility can be accommodated at the site such that no off-site shipments are required. (J.P.N.)

  5. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraviev, E.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m 2 , and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed

  6. Mechanisms of liquid-metal embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of the embrittlement of metals and alloys during deformation in contact with liquid metals are discussed. With 20Kh13 steel in a Pb-Sn melt and polycrystalline Al in the presence of various mercury solutions a.s examples, considered are the three main processes - adsorption, corrosion (dissolution), formation of new phases which cause the disintegration of materials under the action of liquid-metallic media. Presented are data on plastic ductile and strength properties of the above materials in the presence of liquid-metallic media. A model is described that takes into account the effect of the medium upon the plastic deformation and the part the medium plays in liquid-metallic embrittlement

  7. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the integral fat reactor (IFR) concept. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel, the original choice in liquid metal reactor development. An IFR development program is detailed by the authors

  8. Equipment for liquid metal pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment is proposed for measuring liquid metal pressure in piping or a tank. An auxiliary piping is connected to the piping or tank at the measuring point. The auxiliary piping transports liquid metal to a container by means of an electromagnetic pump. The piping also houses an electromagnetic flow ratemeter connected to an electric comparator. The comparator and the electromagnetic pump are connected to the pump output generator. (Z.M.)

  9. Overview of liquid-metal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    The basic features of the two-phase liquid-metal MHD energy conversion under development at Argonne National Laboratory are presented. The results of system studies on the Rankine-cycle and the open-cycle coal-fired cycle options are discussed. The liquid-metal MHD experimental facilities are described in addition to the system's major components, the generator, mixer and nozzle-separator-diffuser

  10. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof

  11. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi. No liquid metal pump with these capabilities was available commercially when this project was started, so it was necessary to develop a suitable pump in house

  12. Liquid metal MHD research and development in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branover, H.

    1993-01-01

    The study of liquid metal MHD in Israel commenced in 1973. Initially it was concentrated mainly on laminar flows influenced by external magnetic fields. In 1978 a liquid metal MHD energy conversion program was started. This program was developed at the Center for MHD Studies at Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, with the participation of specialists from the Technion, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Atomic Energy Commission, and others. The program was sponsored initially by the Israel Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, and later by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Since 1980, Solmecs, a private commercial company has become a major factor in the development of liquid metal MHD in Israel. From the very beginning the program was based on broad international cooperation. A number of overseas institutions and individuals became participants in the program. Through extensive research and evaluation of a number of concepts of liquid metal MHD power generation systems, It was established that the most promising concept, demanding a relatively short period of development, is the gravitational system using heavy metals (lead, lead alloys) as the magneto-hydrodynamic fluid and steam or gases as thermodynamic fluids. This concept was chosen for further development and industrial application, and the program related to such systems was named the Etgar Program. The main directions of research and development activities have been defined as follows: investigations of physical phenomena, development of universal numerical code for parametric studies, optimization and design of the system, material studies, development of engineering components, building and testing of integrated small-scale Etgar type systems, economic evaluation of the system and comparison with conventional technologies, development of moderate scale industrial demonstration plant. At this time 6 items have been fully implemented and activities on the last item were started. (author)

  13. On-Chip Production of Size-Controllable Liquid Metal Microdroplets Using Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Ayan, Bugra; Nama, Nitesh; Bian, Yusheng; Lata, James P; Guo, Xiasheng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-07-01

    Micro- to nanosized droplets of liquid metals, such as eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) and Galinstan, have been used for developing a variety of applications in flexible electronics, sensors, catalysts, and drug delivery systems. Currently used methods for producing micro- to nanosized droplets of such liquid metals possess one or several drawbacks, including the lack in ability to control the size of the produced droplets, mass produce droplets, produce smaller droplet sizes, and miniaturize the system. Here, a novel method is introduced using acoustic wave-induced forces for on-chip production of EGaIn liquid-metal microdroplets with controllable size. The size distribution of liquid metal microdroplets is tuned by controlling the interfacial tension of the metal using either electrochemistry or electrocapillarity in the acoustic field. The developed platform is then used for heavy metal ion detection utilizing the produced liquid metal microdroplets as the working electrode. It is also demonstrated that a significant enhancement of the sensing performance is achieved by introducing acoustic streaming during the electrochemical experiments. The demonstrated technique can be used for developing liquid-metal-based systems for a wide range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Detection of gas entrainment into liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, T., E-mail: t.vogt@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Boden, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Andruszkiewicz, A. [Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland); Eckert, K. [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We present liquid metal experiments dedicated to gas entrainment on the free surface. • Ultrasonic and X-ray attenuation techniques have been used to study the mechanisms of gas entrainment. • A comparison between bubbly flow in water and GaInSn showed substantial differences. • Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation. - Abstract: Entrainment of cover gas into the liquid metal coolant is one of the principal safety issues in the design of innovative liquid metal-cooled fast reactors. We present generic experimental studies of this phenomenon in low-melting metals. Ultrasonic and X-ray diagnostic tools were considered for a visualization of gas entrainment at the free surface of the melt. Laboratory experiments were conducted using the eutectic alloy GaInSn, which is liquid at room temperature. Vortex-activated entrainment of air at the free surface of a rotating flow was revealed by ultrasonic techniques. X-ray radioscopy was used to visualize the behavior of argon bubbles inside a slit geometry. The measurements reveal distinct differences between water and GaInSn, especially with respect to the process of bubble formation and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles. Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation.

  15. Liquid metal flow measurement by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Ono, A.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    Visualization of a liquid metal flow and image processing methods to measure the vector field are carried out by real-time neutron radiography. The JRR-3M real-time thermal neutron radiography facility in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. Lead-bismuth eutectic was used as a working fluid. Particles made from a gold-cadmium intermetallic compound (AuCd 3 ) were used as the tracer for the visualization. The flow vector field was obtained by image processing methods. It was shown that the liquid metal flow vector field was obtainable by real-time neutron radiography when the attenuation of neutron rays due to the liquid metal was less than l/e and the particle size of the tracer was larger than one image element size digitized for the image processing. (orig.)

  16. Supercritical fluid chromatography and high temperature liquid chromatography for the group-type separation of diesel fuels and heavy gas oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paproski, R.E.

    2008-07-01

    This thesis investigated the use of unconventional extraction columns for separating diesel fuels by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and for separating heavy gas oils by high temperature normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The purpose was to improve group-type resolution of the fuels, although these methods are also commonly used to determine the proportion of saturates, mono-, di-, tri-, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Higher mobile phase flow rates and unconventional column dimensions were also studied to obtain faster analysis times with both SFC and HPLC. The highest group-type resolutions with SFC were obtained by serially coupling bare titania and bare silica columns. Short packed columns and monolithic silica columns were compared at high carbon dioxide flow rates for reducing SFC analysis time, with shortpacked columns achieving 7-fold lower separation times while maintaining significant resolution. Three diesel samples had better resolution and analysis time. A thermally stable bare zircoma column for normal phase HPLC was studied at temperatures up to 200 degrees C. An increase in temperature resulted in lower retention of twenty five aromatic model compounds. Considerable improvements in peak shape, efficiency, group-type selectivity, and column re-equilibration times were obtained at elevated temperatures. At temperatures over 100 degrees C, indole and carbazole thermally decomposed in a hexane/dichloromethane mobile phase. The first order decomposition of carbazole was studied in further detail. A high resolution method was developed using titania and silica columns with valve-switching and dual gradients to separate 3 heavy gas oils. Separation was achieved in only 3 minutes using a fast analysis time method in a titania column at high flow rates.

  17. Liquid metal blanket module testing and design for ITER/TIBER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Cha, Y.; Finn, P.A.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.; Stevens, H.; Turner, L.

    1988-05-01

    A major goal for ITER is the testing of nuclear components to demonstrate the integrated performance of the most attractive concepts that can lead to a commercial fusion reactor. As part of the ITER/TIBER II study, the test program and design of test models were examined for a number of blanket concepts. The work at Argonne National Laboratory focused on self-cooled liquid metal blankets. A test program for liquid metal blankets was developed based upon the ITER/TIBER II operating schedule and the specific data needs to resolve the key issues for liquid metals. Testing can begin early in reactor operation with liquid metal MHD tests to confirm predictive capability. Combined heat transfer/MHD tests can be performed during initial plasma operation. After acceptable heat transfer performance is verified, tests to determine the integrated high temperature performance in a neutron environment can begin. During the high availability phase operation, long term performance and reliability tests will be performed. It is envisioned that a companion test program will be conducted outside ITER to determine behavior under severe accident conditions and upper performance limits. A detailed design of a liquid metal test module and auxiliary equipment was also developed. The module followed the design of the TPSS blanket. Detailed analysis of the heat transfer and tritium systems were performed, and the overall layout of the systems was determined. In general, the blanket module appears to be capable of addressing most of the testing needs. 8 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmonov, Mikhail; Makhov, Kirill; Novozhilova, Olga; Meluzov, A.G.; Beznosov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 10 5 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  19. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor has a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies supported on a diagrid and submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant within a containment vessel, the diagrid being of triple component construction and formed of a short cylindrical plenum mounted on a conical undershell and loosely embraced by a fuel store carrier. The plenum merely distributes coolant through the fuel assemblies, the load of the assemblies being carried by the undershell by means of struts which penetrate the plenum. The reactor core, fuel store carrier and undershell provide secondary containment for the plenum. (UK)

  20. Liquid metal fast reactor transient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.; Purvis, E. III

    2000-01-01

    An examination has been made of how the currently available computing capabilities could be used to reduce Liquid Metal Fast Reactor design, manufacturing, and construction cost. While the examination focused on computer analyses some other promising means to reduce costs were also examined. (author)

  1. Improvements in liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vault for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which is lined with thermal insulation to protect the vault against heat radiated from the reactor during normal operation of the reactor but whose efficiency of heat insulation is reduced in an emergency to enable excessive heat from the reactor to be dissipated through the vault. (UK)

  2. Stretchable and Soft Electronics using Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity. Liquid metals have been used for stretchable wires and interconnects, reconfigurable antennas, soft sensors, self-healing circuits, and conformal electrodes. In contrast to Hg, liquid metals based on gallium have low toxicity and essentially no vapor pressure and are therefore considered safe to handle. Whereas most liquids bead up to minimize surface energy, the presence of a surface oxide on these metals makes it possible to pattern them into useful shapes using a variety of techniques, including fluidic injection and 3D printing. In addition to forming excellent conductors, these metals can be used actively to form memory devices, sensors, and diodes that are completely built from soft materials. The properties of these materials, their applications within soft and stretchable electronics, and future opportunities and challenges are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Liquid metals. Coexistence line, critical parameters, compressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    Formulae to calculate four characteristic parameters of liquid metals (density, compressibility, critical temperature and individual parameter) according to four initial data are obtained: two values of vapor density and two values of vapor pressure. Comparison between experimental and calculation results are presented for liquid Cs, Na, Li, K, Rb

  4. PFR liquid metals disposal at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    When the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay was shut down in 1994, the UKAEA commissioned a series of studies to determine the least cost, lowest risk option for dealing with the liquid metal coolants, i.e. the sodium from the primary and secondary circuits and the NaK from the decay heat removal system. The studies concluded that leaving the liquid metals in situ was not a viable option. Removing the liquid metals had three options, provision of long term external storage facilities, re-use in other projects or treatment for final disposal. The UKAEA invited companies to bid for the challenging task of disposing of more than 1500 t of liquid metals. In 1995 UKAEA awarded NNC Ltd. one of the largest decommissioning projects ever to be let competitively in the UK. During the first year of the contract, the challenges have focused on solving design problems and a number of innovative solutions have been developed by NNC and its subcontractors. From January 1997 the focus has moved to construction on site at Dounreay, and the manufacturing and installation of the mechanical components of the plant

  5. Improvements in liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the design of the thermally insulating material used to shield the concrete containment walls in liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors are described in detail. The insulating material is composed of two layers and is placed between the primary vessel (usually steel) and the steel lined concrete containment vault. The outer layer, which clads the inner wall surface of the vault, is generally impervious to liquid metal coolant whilst the inner layer is pervious to the coolant. In normal operation, both layers protect the concrete from heat radiated from the reactor. In the event of a breach of the containment vessel, the resulting leakage of liquid metal coolant permeates the inner layer of insulating material, provides a means of heat transfer by conduction and hence reduces the overall insulating properties of the two layers. The outer layer continues to protect the wall surface of the vault from substantial direct contact with the liquid metal. Thus the two apparently conflicting requirements of good thermal insulation during normal operation and of heat transfer during loss of coolant accidents are satisfied by this novel design. Suggestions are given for possible materials for use as the insulating layers. (U.K.)

  6. Compact device to heat up a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Pelloux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Device for heating a liquid metal, sodium for instance, this device being in one piece and capable of being introduced in one go into the tank containing the liquid metal and comprising heating rods and an electromagnetic pump [fr

  7. Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories or RIB production facilities currently being designed and constructed around the world will increase the average proton beam power on target by a few orders of magnitude. Increased proton beam power results in target thermal hydraulic issues leading to new target designs, very often based on flowing liquid metal targets such as Hg, Pb, Pb-Bi. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, past electronics, into pumps with radiation sensitive components, etc. Besides the considerable amount of photon activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the delayed neutron precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. The transit time from the front of a liquid metal target into areas, where delayed neutrons may be important, can be as short as a few seconds, well within one half-life of many delayed neutron precursors. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the total neutron flux (including delayed neutrons) as a function of time and determine if delayed neutrons contribute significantly to the dose rate. In this study the multi-particle transport code MCNPX combined with the material evolution program CINDER'90 will be used to evaluate the delayed neutron flux and spectra. The following scientific issues will be addressed in this paper: - Modeling of a typical geometry of the liquid metal spallation target; - Predictions of the prompt neutron fluxes, fission fragment and spallation product distributions; - Comparison of the above parameters with existing experimental data; - Time-dependent calculations of delayed neutron precursors; - Neutron flux estimates due to the prompt and delayed neutron emission; - Proposal of an experimental program to measure delayed neutron spectra from high energy spallation-fission reactions. The results of this study should be directly applicable in the design study of the European MegaPie (1 MW

  8. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  9. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1991-12-01

    The proceedings contain 16 contributions to the following topics: 1. Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; 2. Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environment under Off-Normal Conditions; 3. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; and 4. Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium. (MM)

  10. A low cost liquid metal reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.; Anderson, C.A.; Mangus, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A new, compact Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) plant arrangement designed by Westinghouse, featuring factory-fabricated modules and an integrated fuel cycle facility, has made it possible to project a commercially competitive LMR plant for the near future. This innovative liquid metal-cooled plant design will allow a combination of capital, fuel, operation and maintenance costs that could be lower than today's fossil-fueled or light water reactor plant costs, and incorporate features which enhance public safety even beyond current high standards. Following early core loadings, the plant feeds only on depleted uranium. No shipment of fuel is required. And the plant can be tailored to produce enough plutonium to meet its need or to provide fuel for other nuclear plants

  11. Development of Korea advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Future nuclear power plants should not only have the features of improved safety and economic competitiveness but also provide a means to resolve spent fuel storage problems by minimizing volume of high level wastes. It is widely believed that liquid metal reactors (LMRs) have the highest potential of meeting these requirements. In this context, the LMR development program was launched as a national long-term R and D program in 1992, with a target to introduce a commercial LMR around 2030. Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor, is currently under the conceptual design study with the target schedule to complete its construction by the mid-2010s. This paper summarizes the KALIMER development program and major technical features of the reactor system. (author)

  12. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Breeder fuel sub-assemblies with electromagnetic brakes and fluidic valves for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors are described. The electromagnetic brakes are of relatively small proportions and the valves are of the controlled vortex type. The outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies are maintained by these means substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (UK)

  13. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel sub-assemblies for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are described which each incorporate a fluid flow control valve for regulating the rate of flow through the sub-assembly. These small electro-magnetic valves seek to maintain the outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (U.K.)

  14. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor wherein the core, intermediate heat exchangers and liquid metal pumps are immersed in a pool of coolant such as Na, the intermediate heat exchangers are suspended from the roof, and ducting is provided in the form of a core tank or shroud interconnected with 'pods' housing the intermediate exchangers for directing coolant from the core over the heat exchanger tubes and thence back to the main pool of liquid metal. Seals are provided between the intermediate heat exchanger shells and the walls of their 'pods' to prevent liquid metal flow by-passing the heat exchanger tube bundles. As the heat exchangers must be withdrawable for servicing, and because linear differential thermal expansion of the heat exchanger and its 'pod' must be accommodated the seals hitherto have been of the sliding kind, generally known as 'piston ring type seals'. These present several disadvantages; for example sealing is not absolute, and the metal to metal seal gives rise to wear and fretting by rubbing and vibration. This could lead to seizure or jamming by the deposition of impurities in the coolant. Another difficulty arises in the need to accommodate lateral thermal expansion of the ducting, including the core tank and 'pods'. Hitherto some expansion has been allowed for by the use of expansible bellow pairs in the interconnections, or alternatively by allowing local deformations of the core tank 'pods'. Such bellows must be very flexible and hence constitute a weak section of the ducting, and local deformations give rise to high stress levels that could lead to premature failure. The arrangement described seeks to overcome these difficulties by use of a gas pocket trapping means to effect a seal against vertical liquid flow between the heat exchanger shell and the wall of the heat exchanger housing. Full details of the arrangement are described. (U.K.)

  15. Advanced liquid metal reactor plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.; Zizzo, D.; Carroll, D.

    1993-01-01

    The modular Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) power plant is controlled by an advanced state-of-the-art control system designed to facilitate plant operation, optimize availability, and protect plant investment. The control system features a high degree of automatic control and extensive amount of on-line diagnostics and operator aids. It can be built with today's control technology, and has the flexibility of adding new features that benefit plant operation and reduce O ampersand M costs as the technology matures

  16. Pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.

    1978-08-01

    Various technical aspects of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), specifically pool type LMFBR's, are summarized. The information presented, for the most part, draws upon existing data. Special sections are devoted to design, technical feasibility (normal operating conditions), and safety (accident conditions). A survey of world fast reactors is presented in tabular form, as are two sets of reference reactor parameters based on available data from present and conceptual LMFBR's. (auth)

  17. Corrosion of high temperature resisting alloys exposed to heavy fuel ash; Corrosion de aleaciones resistentes a altas temperaturas expuestas a ceniza de combustoleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Moreno, Adriana del Carmen

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the performed research was to study the degradation process by high temperature corrosion of alloys exposed to heavy fuel oil ashes through a comparative experimental evaluation of its performance that allowed to establish the mechanisms involved in the phenomenon. The experimentation carried out involved the determination of the resistance to the corrosion of 14 alloys of different type (low and medium alloy steels, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, nickel base alloys and a FeCrAl alloy of type ODS) exposed to high temperatures (580 Celsius degrees - 900 Celsius degrees) in 15 ash deposits with different corrosive potential, which were collected in the high temperature zone of boilers of thermoelectric power stations. The later studies to the corrosion tests consisted of the analysis by sweeping electron microscopy supported by microanalysis of the corroded probes, with the purpose of determining the effect of Na, V and S on the corrosivity of the ash deposits and the effect of the main alloying elements on the corrosion resistance of the alloys. Such effects are widely documented to support the proposed mechanisms of degradation that are occurring. The global analysis of the generated results has allowed to propose a model to explain the global mechanism of corrosion of alloys exposed to the high temperatures of ash deposits. The proposed model, complements the processed one by Wilson, widely accepted for fused vanadates, as far as on one hand, it considers the effect of the sodium sulfate presence (in addition to the vanadium compounds) in the deposits, and on the other hand, it extends it to temperatures higher than the point of fusion of constituent vanadium compounds of the deposits. Both aspects involve considering the roll that the process of diffusion of species has on the degradation and the capacity of protection of the alloy. The research performed allowed to confirm what the Wilson model had established for deposits with high

  18. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  19. Influence of surface effects on subsecond processes in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Khishchenko, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: We discuss a problem of experimental-data interpretation during subsecond measurements of thermophysical properties of matter at high temperatures and pressures. Peculiarity of these measurements is optical opaqueness of matter under interesting conditions (T∼1 eV, ρ∼10 4 kg m -3 ), so only at assuming of bulk specimen uniformity one can obtain a temperature dependencies of the specific properties of matter. Changing circuit current and changing sample geometry we can avoid a development of hydromagnetic instability and decrease a nonuniform heating due to skin effect. As temperature of wire surface reaches the boiling temperature under normal pressure so part of internal energy is lost because of evaporation and surface radiation at high temperature. So one can register a surface temperature and ascribe it to the whole sample bulk. Computer simulation of wire explosion taking into account surface radiation losses was carried out. Typical phase tracks for matter were obtained in both case as in consideration of radiation losses as without it. Comparison of the results with data concerning to isobaric-expansion experiments and semi-empirical multi-phase equation of state were carried out. It was proposed uniformity criterion for investigation of thermophysical properties of liquid metal by subsecond wire explosion. (author)

  20. Some Issues in Liquid Metals Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Caturla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ten articles [1–10] included in this Special Issue on “Liquid Metals” do not intend to comprehensively cover this extensive field, but, rather, to highlight recent discoveries that have greatly broadened the scope of technological applications of these materials. Improvements in understanding the physics of liquid metals are, to a large extent, due to the powerful theoretical tools in the hands of scientists, either semi-empirical [1,5,6] or ab initio (molecular dynamics, see [7]. Surface tension and wetting at metal/ceramic interfaces is an everlasting field of fundamental research with important technological implications. The review of [2] is broad enough, as the work carried out at Grenoble covers almost all interesting matters in the field. Some issues of interest in geophysics and astrophysics are discussed in [3]. The recently discovered liquid–liquid transition in several metals is dealt with in [4]. The fifth contribution [5] discusses the role of icosahedral superclusters in crystallization. In [6], thermodynamic calculations are carried out to identify the regions of the ternary phase diagram of Al-Cu-Y, where the formation of amorphous alloys is most probable. Experimental data and ab initio calculations are presented in [7] to show that an optimal microstructure is obtained if Mg is added to the Al-Si melt before than the modifier AlP alloy. Shock-induced melting of metals by means of laser driven compression is discussed in [8]. With respect to recent discoveries, one of the most outstanding developments is that of gallium alloys that are liquid at room temperature [9], and that, due to the oxide layer that readily cover their surface, maintain some “stiffness”. This has opened the possibility of 3D printing with liquid metals. The last article in this Special Issue [10] describes nano-liquid metals, a suspension of liquid metal and its alloy containing nanometer-sized particles. A room-temperature nano-liquid metal

  1. Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch

    2017-07-01

    Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.

  2. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR coolant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Choi, S. K.; Hwang, J. s.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, S. D.; Kang, Y. H.; Maeng, Y. Y.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. J.; Cha, J. H.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, S. K.; Park, C. G.; Hong, S. H.; Lee, K. H.; Chun, M. H.; Moon, H. T.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, D. N.

    1997-07-15

    Following studies have been performed during last three years as the 1.2 phase study of the mid and long term nuclear technology development plan. First, the small scale experiments using the sodium have been performed such as the basic turbulent mixing experiment which is related to the design of a compact reactor, the flow reversal characteristics experiment by natural circulation which is necessary for the analysis of local flow reversal when the electromagnetic pump is installed, the feasibility test of the decay heat removal by wall cooling and the operation of electromagnetic pump. Second, the technology of operation mechanism of sodium facility is developed and the technical analysis and fundamental experiments of sodium measuring technology has been performed such as differential pressure measuring experiment, local flow rate measuring experimenter, sodium void fraction measuring experiment, under sodium facility, the free surface movement experiment and the side orifice pressure drop experiment. A new bounded convection scheme was introduced to the ELBO3D thermo-hydraulic computer code designed for analysis of experimental result. A three dimensional computer code was developed for the analysis of free surface movement and the analysis model of transmission of sodium void fraction was developed. Fourth, the small scale key components are developed. The submersible-in-pool type electromagnetic pump which can be used as primary pump in the liquid metal reactor is developed. The SASS which uses the Curie-point electromagnet and the mock-up of Pantograph type IVTM were manufactured and their feasibility was evaluated. Fifth, the high temperature characteristics experiment of stainless steel which is used as a major material for liquid metal reactor and the material characteristics experiment of magnet coil were performed. (author). 126 refs., 98 tabs., 296 figs.

  3. Design rules for high temperature plant - the implications of recent research in relation to current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    An historical summary is presented of design rules for high temperature plant, leading to the rules applicable to high temperature reactors, particularly the liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Special attention is given to creep rupture properties of ferritic and austenitic materials used for the construction of components such as boilers and pressure vessels. (author)

  4. Design methods for high temperature power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper - reviews of design methods and design criteria currently in use for both nuclear and fossil fuelled power plant; examples chosen are (a) BS 1113, representative of design codes employed for power station boiler plant; (b) ASME Code Case N47, which is being developed for high temperature nuclear reactors, especially the liquid metal fast breeder reactor); design codes for power station boilers; Code Case N47 (design in the absence of thermal shock and thermal fatigue; design against cyclic loading at high temperature; further research in support of high temperature design methods and criteria for LMFBRs); concluding remarks. (U.K.)

  5. Potential of multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor (MPFR) as a hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, H.; Ninokata, H.; Netchaev, A.; Sawada, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the only effective alternative energy source to fossil fuels in the next century. Therefore future nuclear power plants should satisfy the following three requirements: i) multiple energy conversion capability with high temperature not only for electricity generation but also for hydrogen production, ii) extended siting capability so as to eliminate on-site refuelling, and iii) passive safety features. An aim of this paper is to describe the basic concept of the multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor system (MPFR). The MPFR introduces the U-Pu-X (X: Mn, Fe, Co) liquid metallic alloy with Ta and Ta/TaC structural materials, and satisfies all of the conditions listed above based on the following characteristics of the liquid metallic fuel: high temperature operation between 650 deg C (sodium-cooled system) and 1 200 deg C (lead-cooled system), a core lifetime of 15-30 years without radiation damage of fuel materials, and enhanced passive safety by the thermal expansion of liquid fuel and the avoidance of re-criticality due to local core fuel dispersion at fuel failure events. (authors)

  6. Austenitic stainless steel alloys with high nickel contents in high temperature liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konvicka, H.R.; Schwarz, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni base alloys (nickel content: from 15 to 70 wt%, Chromium content: 15 wt%, iron: balance) together with stainless steel (W.Nr. 1.4981) have been exposed to flowing liquid sodium at 730 0 C in four intervals up to a cumulative exposure time of 1500 hours. Weight change data and the results of post-exposition microcharacterization of specimens are reported. The corrosion rates increase with increasing nickel content and tend to become constant after longer exposure times for each alloy. The corrosion rate of stainless steel is considerably reduced due to the presence of the base alloys. Different kinetics of nickel poor (up to 35% nickel) and nickel rich (> 50% nickel) alloys and nickel transport from nickel rich to nickel poor material is observed. (orig.)

  7. Thermodynamic characterization of liquid metals at high temperature by isobaric expansion measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gathers, G.R.; Shaner, J.W.; Hodgson, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of isobaric expansion measurements for platinum are presented, including simultaneous values for enthalpy, specific volume, temperature and electrical resistivity in tabular form as well as numerical fits up to 7500 K. The specific heat for the liquid is C/sub p/ = 5.85 +- 0.30 R and is essentially constant up to 7500 K. The bulk thermal expansion coefficient increases from approx. 7.5 x 10 -5 K -1 at melt to approx. 1.03 x 10 -4 K -1 at 7500 K. The heat of fusion observed is Δh = 0.14 +- 0.03 MJ/kg and the melting point slope with pressure is estimated to be dT/sub m//dp =31 +- 10 K/GPa. The estimated critical parameters are T/sub c/ = 9285 K, P/sub c/ = 0.9492 GPa, v/sub c/ = 2.120 x 10 -4 m 3 /kg, and z/sub c/ = 0.5085. Preliminary results of a new sound velocity technique are discussed for lead. This technique will allow determination of specific heat c/sub v/, isothermal compressibility K/sub T/ and the constant temperature volume derivatives of entropy and internal energy, as well as the Gruneisen parameter γ/sub G/

  8. Design analysis of liquid metal pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    Design guidelines pertinent to liquid metal pipe supports are presented. The numerous complex conditions affecting the support stiffness and strength are addressed in detail. Topics covered include modeling of supports for natural frequency and stiffness calculations, support hardware components, formulas for deflection due to torsion, plate bending, and out-of-plane flexibility. A sample analysis and a discussion on stress analysis of supports are included. Also presented are recommendations for design improvements for increasing the stiffness of pipe supports and which were utilized in the FFTF system

  9. Developing remote techniques for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenemore, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Three devices have been designed in Britain to meet the need for special remote equipment and techniques required to inspect the reactor vessel and internals of liquid metal reactors. The ''Links Manipulator Under-Sodium Viewing System'' - a device to be used for the surveillance of reactor internals, which are submerged in sodium. An ''Automatic Guided Vehicle'' - a free roving vehicle to be used to survey the externals of the reactor vessel. The ''Snake Manipulator'' - an articulated arm used to gain access to restricted areas. (author)

  10. Liquid-metal aspects of HYLIFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hoffman, N.J.; McDowell, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter is a reactor concept for an inertial fusion electric power plant. In this concept, flowing molten lithium protects the structures of the fusion chamber from the deleterious effects of deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions and converts the pulsed fusion energy into steay thermal power. Lithium is circulated as the primary coolant to transfer heat to an intermediate sodium loop which drives a superheated steam cycle. Lithium is also the source of the tritium fuel which is recovered via a molten-salt extraction process. The liquid-metal aspects of the HYLIFE plant with particular emphasis on the lithium systems

  11. Liquid metal degassing in electromagnetic mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakhomov, A I; EHL' -FAVAKHRI, KAMAL' -ABD-RABU MOKHAMED [LENINGRADSKIJ POLITEKHNICHESKIJ INST. (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results for laboratory and industrial conditions are presented showing the favourable effect of electromagnetic mixing on hot metal degassing process. It has been found that the intensity and duration of the mixing process increase with the degree of iron and steel degassing. Initiation of cavitation phenomena during hot metal electromagnetic mixing is intensified because of the presence of alien inclusions in the metal reducing the tensile strength of the liquid metal. This is the most substantial factor contributing to the gas content in the process of electromagnetic mixing.

  12. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Allbeson, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    In a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor with a nuclear fuel assembly in a coolant-containing primary vessel housed within a concrete containment vault, there is thermal insulation to protect the concrete, the insulation being disposed between vessel and concrete and being hung from metal structure secured to and projecting from the concrete, the insulation consisting of a plurality of adjoining units each unit incorporating a pack of thermal insulating material and defining a contained void co-extensive with said pack and situated between pack and concrete, the void of each unit being connected to the voids of adjoining units so as to form continuous ducting for a fluid coolant. (author)

  13. Sorption of radiostrontium from liquid metallic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhujkov, B.L.; Kokhnyuk, V.M.; Vincent, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the radiostrontium (in particular, 82 Sr) sorption from the liquid metallic Rb in various inorganic sorbents (both metals and oxides). One studied the temperature dependence and the dynamics of the adsorption and put forward an interpretation of the observed mechanisms. The elaborated approach enables to extract 82 Sr efficiently from the Rb targets upon their irradiation by the accelerated protons. One studies various procedures and the applicability of the process to ensure elaboration of a new highly efficient process to produce 82 Sr, in particular, with the targets of the circulating Rb [ru

  14. Liquid metal mist cooling and MHD Ericsson cycle for fusion energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1989-01-01

    The combination of liquid metal mist coolant and a liquid metal MHD (LMMHD) energy conversion system (ECS) based on the Ericsson cycle is being proposed for high temperature fusion reactors. It is shown that the two technologies are highly matchable, both thermodynamically and physically. Thermodynamically, the author enables delivering the fusion energy to the cycle with probably the highest practical average temperature commensurate with a given maximum reactor design constraint. Physically, the mist cooling and LMMHD ECSs can be coupled directly, thus eliminating the need for primary heat exchangers and reheaters. The net result is expected to be a high efficiency, simple and reliable heat transport and ECS. It is concluded that the proposed match could increase the economic viability of fusion reactors, so that a thorough study of the two complementary technologies is recommended. 11 refs., 3 figs

  15. Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.

  16. The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Arnold, W.H.; Griffith, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program has been restructured to take advantage of the opportunity today to carry out R and D on truly advanced reactor technology. The program gives particular emphasis to improvements to reactor safety. The new directions are based on the technology of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Much of the basis for superior safety performance using IFR technology has been experimentally verified and aggressive programs continue in EBR-II and TREAT. Progress has been made in demonstrating both the metallic fuel and the new electrochemical processes of the IFR. The FFTF facility is converting to metallic fuel; however, FFTF also maintains a considerable US program in oxide fuels. In addition, generic programs are continuing in steam generator testing, materials development, and, with international cooperation, aqueous reprocessing. Design studies are carried out in conjunction with the IFR technology development program. In summary, the US maintains an active development program in Liquid Metal Reactor technology, and new directions in reactor safety are central to the program

  17. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation

    OpenAIRE

    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...

  18. Supersymmetry at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Kaku, M.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the properties of Green's functions in a spontaneously broken supersymmetric model at high temperatures. We show that, even at high temperatures, we do not get restoration of supersymmetry, at least in the one-loop approximation

  19. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  20. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H U [ed.

    1991-12-15

    The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) Specialists Meeting on Properties of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment was held during June 18 to June 20, 1991, at the Nuclear Research Centre (Kernforschungszentrum) in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Specialists Meeting was divided into five technical sessions which addressed topics as follows: Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environments under Off-Normal Conditions;Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium; and Conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.G.; Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800 degree F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection

  2. Liquid-metal-gas heat exchanger for HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a liquid metal heat exchanger (HE) for a helium-cooled high temperature reactor. A tube-type heat exchanger is considered as well as two direct exchangers: a bubble-type heat exchanger and a heat exchanger according to the spray principle. Experiments are made in order to determine the gas content of bubble-type heat exchangers, the dependence of the droplet diameter on the nozzle diameter, the falling speed of the droplets, the velocity of the liquid jet, and the temperature variation of liquid jets. The computer codes developed for HE calculation are structured so that they may be used for gas/liquid HE, too. Each type of HE that is dealt with is designed by accousting for a technical and an economic assessment. The liquid-lead jet spray is preferred to all other types because of its small space occupied and its simple design. It shall be used in near future in the HTR by the name of lead/helium HE. (GL) [de

  3. Radionuclide trap for liquid metal cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1978-10-01

    At liquid metal cooled reactor operating temperatures, radioactive corrosion product transport and deposition in the primary system will be sufficiently high to limit access time for maintenance of system components. A radionuclide trap has been developed to aid in controlling radioactivity transport. This is a device which is located above the reactor core and which acts as a getter, physically immobilizing radioactive corrosion products, particularly 54 Mn. Nickel is the getter material used. It is most effective at temperatures above 450 0 C and effectiveness increases with increasing temperature. Prototype traps have been tested in sodium loops for 40,000 hours at reactor primary temperatures and sodium velocities. Several possible in-reactor trap sites were considered but a location within the top of each driver assembly was chosen as the most convenient and effective. In this position the trap is changed each time fuel is changed

  4. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; Thatcher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor in which the fuel assembly has an inner zone comprised mainly of fissile material and a surrounding outer zone comprised mainly of breeder material. According to the invention the sub-assemblies in the outer zone include electro-magnetic braking devices (magnets, pole pieces and armature) for regulating the flow of coolant through the sub-assemblies. The magnetic fields of the electro-magnetic breaking devices are temperature sensitive so that as the power output of the breeder sub-assemblies increases the electro-magnetic resistance to coolant flow is reduced thereby maintaining the temperature of the coolant outlets from the sub-assemblies substantially constant. (UK)

  5. Equilibrium of current driven rotating liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Zakharov, S.V.; Zakharov, V.S.; Livadny, A.O.; Serebrennikov, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    In view of great importance of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) as a fundamental mechanism for angular momentum transfer in magnetized stellar accretion disks, several research centers are involved in experimental study of MRI under laboratory conditions. The idea of the experiment is to investigate the rotation dynamics of well conducting liquid (liquid metal) between two cylinders in axial magnetic field. In this Letter, an experimental scheme with immovable cylinders and fluid rotation driven by radial current is considered. The analytical solution of a stationary flow was found taking into account the external current. Results of axially symmetric numerical simulations of current driven fluid dynamics in experimental setup geometry are presented. The analytical solution and numerical simulations show that the current driven fluid rotation in axial magnetic field provides the axially homogeneous velocity profile suitable for MRI study in classical statement

  6. Generation of electricity using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, F.E.

    1992-01-01

    With liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics, a column of molten lead is passed through a magnetic field, thereby generating a voltage potential according to Faraday's law. The molten lead is propelled through a closed loop by steam from water injected just above where the lead is heated at the bottom of the loop. This water in turn boils explosively, propelling the lead upward through the loop and past the point where the steam escapes through a separator. Electricity can be generated more efficiently from steam with LMMHD than with conventional turbines. With the DC current generated by LMMHD, industriell cogeneration is seen as the most likely application, where the byproduct steam still has enough pressure to also power other steam-driven machinery. Furthermore, the byproduct steam is essentially lead-free since the operating temperature of the LMMHD generator is well below the temperature where lead could dissolve into the steam. (orig.) [de

  7. Flow balancing in liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Morley, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    Non-uniform flow distribution between parallel channels is one of the most serious concerns for self-cooled liquid metal blankets with electrically insulated walls. We show that uncertainties in flow distribution can be dramatically reduced by relatively simple design modifications. Several design features which impose flow uniformity by electrically coupling parallel channels are surveyed. Basic mechanisms for ''flow balancing'' are described, and a particular self-regulating concept using discrete passive electrodes is proposed for the US ITER advanced blanket concept. Scoping calculations suggest that this simple technique can be very powerful in equalizing the flow, even with massive insulator failures in individual channels. More detailed analyses and experimental verification will be required to demonstrate this concept for ITER. (orig.)

  8. Liquid metals as electrodes in polymer light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, G.G.; Gommans, H.H.P.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Brongersma, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that liquid metals can be used as cathodes in light emitting diodes (pLEDs). The main difference between the use of liquid cathodes and evaporated cathodes is the sharpness of the metal–polymer interface. Liquid metal cathodes result in significantly sharper metal–organic interfaces

  9. Ionic imbalance induced self-propulsion of liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavabeti, Ali; Daeneke, Torben; Chrimes, Adam F.; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Zhen Ou, Jian; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-08-01

    Components with self-propelling abilities are important building blocks of small autonomous systems and the characteristics of liquid metals are capable of fulfilling self-propulsion criteria. To date, there has been no exploration regarding the effect of electrolyte ionic content surrounding a liquid metal for symmetry breaking that generates motion. Here we show the controlled actuation of liquid metal droplets using only the ionic properties of the aqueous electrolyte. We demonstrate that pH or ionic concentration gradients across a liquid metal droplet induce both deformation and surface Marangoni flow. We show that the Lippmann dominated deformation results in maximum velocity for the self-propulsion of liquid metal droplets and illustrate several key applications, which take advantage of such electrolyte-induced motion. With this finding, it is possible to conceive the propulsion of small entities that are constructed and controlled entirely with fluids, progressing towards more advanced soft systems.

  10. Method of charging instruments into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the thermal shock of a reactor charging machine when charging the machine into liquid metal coolant after the machine is preheated in cover gas. Method: When a reactor fueling machine reaches at the lowermost portion the position immediately above liquid metal coolant surface level, the machine is stopped moving down. The reactor fueling machine is heated at the lowermost portion by thermal radiation from the surface of the liquid metal coolant. After the machine is thus preheated in cover gas, it is again steadily moved down by a winch and charged into the liquid metal coolant. Therefore, the thermal shock of the machine becomes low when charging the machine into the liquid metal coolant to eliminate the damage and deformation at the machine. (Yoshihara, H.)

  11. Microstructured liquid metal electron and ion sources (MILMES/MILMIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterauer, J [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Institut fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Elektronik

    1997-12-31

    Ion or electron beams can be emitted from liquid metal wetted needles, or from capillaries or slits into which the liquid metal is allowed to flow. Large-area liquid metal field emission sources have been proposed recently, using either two-dimensional, regular arrays of cones or capillaries, or even a substrate with an intrinsically microstructured surface covered by a liquid metal film. This latter concept has been realized in a pilot experiment by in situ wicking and wetting of a porous sintered metal disc. Microstructured liquid metal ion or electron sources are capable of operating in a pulsed mode at a current level which is orders of magnitude above that for steady-state operation. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs.

  12. Archive-cup insert for liquid-metal sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Kolba, V.M.; Filewicz, E.C.; Holmes, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    An insert for collecting liquid-metal samples within a vertical casing including an elongated housing with an upper and a lower overflow seal of annular shape is described. The lower seal includes a centrally located pedestal on which a sample cup is disposed. Liquid metal enters the annulus of the upper seal and overflows into the cup which fills and overflows into the lower seal. Liquid-metal overflow from the lower seal is discharged from the insert. On cooling, the liquid metal trapped within the seals solidifies to hermetically isolate the metal sample within the cup. The device is particularly applicable for use with sampling systems on liquid metal-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  13. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, M A; Khodak, A; Kaita, R

    2013-01-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m −2 , no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh–Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments. (paper)

  14. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Khodak, A.; Kaita, R.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments.

  15. Theory of exotic superconductivity and normal states of heavy electron and high temperature superconductivity materials. Progress report, February 15, 1994--February 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This is a progress report for the DOE project covering the period 2/15/94 to 2/14/95. The PI had a fruitful sabbatical during this period, and had some important new results, particularly in the area of new phenomenology for heavy fermion superconductivity. Significant new research accomplishments are in the area of odd-in-time-reversal pairing states/staggered superconductivity, the two-channel Kondo lattice, and a general model for Ce impurities which admits one-, two-, and three-channel Kondo effects. Papers submitted touch on these areas: staggered superconductivity - a new phenomenology for UPt 3 ; theory of the two-channel Kondo lattice in infinite dimensions; general model of a Ce 3+ impurity. Other work was done in the areas: Knight shift in heavy fermion alloys and compounds; symmetry analysis of singular pairing correlations for the two-channel Kondo impurity model

  16. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu [Research Institute of Engineering Technology of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2005-04-15

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  17. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  18. Study on liquid-metal MHD power generation system with two-phase natural circulation. Applicability to fast reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility study of the liquid-metal MHD power generation system combined with the high-density two-phase natural circulation has been performed for the applicability to the simple, autonomic energy conversion system of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. The present system has many promising aspects not only in the energy conversion process, but also in safety and economical improvements of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. For example, the high cycle efficiency can be expected because of the similarity of the present cycle to the Ericsson cycle. Sodium-Water Interaction problem can be excluded by proper combination of the working fluids. As the economical feature, the present system is so simple that the liquid-metal main circular pump, the steam turbine generator, and even the steam generator can be excluded if the thermodynamic working fluid is injected directly into the high temperature liquid metal MHD working fluid. In addition, the present system has the potential to be applied to various heat sources including solar energy because of the high flexibility of the operation temperature. In the present paper, as the first step of the feasibility study, the cycle analyses were performed to examine the effects of the main system parameters on the fundamental characteristics of the system. It is found that the cycle efficiency of the present system is enough competitive with that of the conventional steam turbine system. It is, however, found that the cycle efficiency depends strongly on the gas-liquid slip ratio in the two-phase flow channel. As the conclusions, it is recommended to perform experimental study to obtain the fundamental data, such as the gas-liquid slip ratio in the high-density liquid-metal two-phase natural circulation. (author)

  19. Surface studies of liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasz, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metals and alloys have been proposed for use in nuclear fusion reactors to serve as replaceable plasma-facing surfaces that remove particles and heat from reacting plasmas. Several materials are being considered for this purpose including lithium, gallium, and tin as well as some of the alloys made from these elements. In order to better understand the properties of liquid surfaces, the technique of low-energy ion scattering was used to examine the surface composition of several of these materials in vacuum as a function of temperature. Oxygen is found to rapidly segregate to the surface of several metallic liquids. The segregation process can be interpreted using a simple thermodynamic model based on Gibbs theory. In the case of an alloy of Sn and Li, Li also segregates to the liquid surface. This provides a means to produce a surface enriched in Li, which is more plasma compatible than Sn, without the need to handle large quantities of liquid Li. (author)

  20. Dynamic stabilization of imploding liquid metal liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1979-01-01

    The rotational stabilization has been proposed against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the imploding liquid metal liner. In this paper, the discussion is made on the possibility of the dynamic stabilization by applying the oscillating azimuthal magnetic field in addition to the axial field. In contrast to the rotational stabilization, the required (field) energy for this stabilization is also used for the liner driving or the plasma confinement. In the analysis, the liner subjected to the acceleration is assumed to be infinitely long, at rest and have the situation at the start of the implosion or turnaround. At turnaround, the existence of the plasma is taken into account. The perturbed motion of the liner is discussed with a linear stability analysis. Results are as follows: (1) The dynamic stabilization at the start of the implosion is possible if the distance from the conducting wall to the liner outer surface is comparable with or less than the liner thickness. (2) At turnaround, the stability is improved with decreasing the ratio of the plasma radius to that of the liner inner surface however the kink mode (m = 1) cannot be suppressed. (author)

  1. Liquid metal tribology in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.; Mack, K.J.; Gegenheimer, M.

    1984-11-01

    Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) require mechanisms operating in various sodium liquid and sodium vapor environments for extended periods of time up to temperatures of 900 K under different chemical properties of the fluid. The design of tribological systems in those reactors cannot be based on data and past experience of so-called conventional tribology. Although basic tribological phenomena and their scientific interpretation apply in this field, operating conditions specific to nuclear reactors and prevailing especially in the nuclear part of such facilities pose special problems. Therefore, in the framework of the R and D-program accompanying the construction phase of SNR 300 experiments were carried out to provide data and knowledge necessary for the lay-out of friction systems between mating surfaces of contacting components. Initially, screening tests isolated material pairs with good slipping properties and maximum wear resistance. Those materials were subjected to comprehensive parameter investigations. A multitude of laboratory scale tests have been performed under largely reactor specific conditions. Unusual superimpositions of parameters were analyzed and separated to find their individual influence on the friction process. The results of these experiments were made available to the reactor industry as well as to factories producing special tribo-materials. (orig.) [de

  2. Liquid metal coolant flow rate regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkovskij, I.V.; Glukhikh, V.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Smirnov, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of fast reactor and experimental bench operation related to liquid metal flow rate regulation are considered. Requirements to the devices for the flow rate regulation are formulated. A new type of these devices namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) throttles is described. Structural peculiarities of MHD throttles of different types are described as well. It is noted that the MHD throttles with a screw channel have the best energy mass indices. On the basis of the comparison of the MHD throttles with mechanical valves it is concluded that the MHD throttles described are useful for regulating the flow rates of any working media. Smoothness and accuracy of the flow rate regulation by the throttles are determined by the electric control circuit and may be practically anyone. The total coefficient of hydraulic losses in the throttle channel in the absence of a magnetic field is ten and more times lesser than in completely open mechanical valve. Electromagnetic time constant of the MHD throttles does not exceed several tenths of a second [ru

  3. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  4. Turbulent temperature fluctuations in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawn, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Examination of experimental data for the spectral distribution of velocity (u and v) and temperature (theta) fluctuations in the fully turbulent region of heated pipe-flow has suggested a schematic representation which incorporates the essential features. Evidence is cited to suggest that the -vtheta correlation coefficient maintains higher values that the uv coefficient at wave-numbers in the inertial subrange. The theory of Batchelor, Howells and Townsend, and limited evidence from experiments in mercury, then suggests the form of the theta 2 spectra and -vtheta cross-spectra in liquid metals. From this information, a limiting Peclet number is deduced, above which the correlation coefficient of v and theta should be a fairly weak function of Pe alone. An attempt to check this inference from published data for the RMS level of temperature fluctuations, and for the turbulent Prandtl number, proves inconclusive, because many of the correlation coefficients so estimated have values greater than unity. It is concluded that all these results for theta tilde must therefore be in error. However, since there is no evidence of very low correlation coefficients, they almost certainly lie in the range 0.5 multiply/divide 2 over a large proportion of the radius. Thus theta tilde can be estimated for any fluid in which the fluctuations are induced by uniform heating, at least to within a factor of 2, using the analysis presented. (author)

  5. Heavy liquid metal technologies at KArlsruhe Lead LAboratory KALLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Mueller, G.; Konys, J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research cover: lead-bismuth technologies; corrosion mechanism and corrosion protection; thermal hydraulics; kinetics of oxygen control systems. Detailed experimental results are presented

  6. Diverse transformations of liquid metals between different morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-09-10

    Transformation from a film into a sphere, rapid merging of separate objects, controlled self-rotation, and planar locomotion are the very unusual phenomena observed in liquid metals under application of an electric field to a liquid metal immersed in or sprayed with water. A mechanism for these effects is suggested and potential applications - for example the recovery of liquid metal previously injected into the body for therapeutic purposes - are outlined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dynamic interactions of Leidenfrost droplets on liquid metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yujie; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Leidenfrost dynamic interaction effects of the isopentane droplets on the surface of heated liquid metal were disclosed. Unlike conventional rigid metal, such conductive and deformable liquid metal surface enables the levitating droplets to demonstrate rather abundant and complex dynamics. The Leidenfrost droplets at different diameters present diverse morphologies and behaviors like rotation and oscillation. Depending on the distance between the evaporating droplets, they attract and repulse each other through the curved surfaces beneath them and their vapor flows. With high boiling point up to 2000 °C, liquid metal offers a unique platform for testing the evaporating properties of a wide variety of liquid even solid.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic instability of a cylindrical liquid-metal brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.H.; Wilhelm, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of a homopolar generator brush, consisting of a liquid-metal-filled cavity between rotating (rotor) and fixed (stator) cylinder electrodes, is analyzed in the presence of radial current transport and an axial homogeneous magnetic field. Within the frame of linear magnetohydrodynamics, it is shown that the liquid-metal flow in the brush is always unstable if the brush transports current. In the absence of current flow (infinite load) the axial magnetic field stabilizes the liquid-metal flow in the brush if the magnetic energy density is larger than a certain fraction of the energy density of the rotating fluid

  9. The coalescence of heterogeneous liquid metal on nano substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Li, Yifan; Zhou, Xuyan; Li, Tao; Li, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to study the asymmetric coalescence of heterogeneous liquid metal on graphene. Simulation results show that the anomalies in the drop coalescence is mainly caused by the wettability of heterogeneous liquid metal. The silver atoms incline to distribute on the outer layer of the gold and copper droplets, revealing that the structure is determined by the interaction between different metal atoms. The coalescence and fusion of heterogeneous liquid metal drop can be predicted by comparing the wettability and the atomic mass of metallic liquid drops, which has important implications in the industrial application such as ink-jet printing and metallurgy.

  10. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  11. High temperature refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator is described which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle the working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot

  12. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M

    2013-04-23

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.

  13. Nitrogen injection in stagnant liquid metal. Eulerian-Eulerian and VOF calculations by fluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A.; Esteban, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    High power spallation sources are devices that can be very useful in different fields, as medicine, material science, and also in the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). This devices use Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM) as the spallation target. Furthermore, HLM are thought to be the coolant of those big energy sources produced by the process. Fast breeder reactors, advanced nuclear reactors, as well as the future designs of fusion reactors, also consider HLM as targets or coolants. Gas injection in liquid metal flows allows the enhancement of this coolant circulation. The difference in densities between the gas and the liquid metal is a big challenge for the multiphase models implemented in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Also the changing shape of the bubbles involves extra difficulties in the calculations. A N 2 flow in stagnant Lead-Bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi), experiment available at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V (FZR) in Germany, was used in one of the work-packages of the ASCHLIM project (EU contract number FIKW-CT-2001-80121). In this paper, calculations made by the UPV/EHU (University of the Basque Country) show measuring data compared with numerical results using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code FLUENT and two multiphase models: the Eulerian-Eulerian and the Volume of Fluid (VOF). The interpretation of the experimental resulting velocities was difficult, because some parameters were not known, bubble trajectory and bubble shape, for example, as direct optical methods cannot be used, like it is done with water experiments. (author)

  14. Twin solution calorimeter determines heats of formation of alloys at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, J. B., Jr.; Kleb, R.; Kleppa, O. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calvert-type, twin liquid metal solution calorimeter determines the heats of formation of transition metal alloys at high temperatures. The twin differential calorimeter measures the small heat effects generated over extended periods of time, has maximum operating temperature of 1073 degrees K and an automatic data recording system.

  15. Blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor with liquid- metal cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, I.K.; Fedorovich, E.P.; Paramonov, P.M.; Zhokhov, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Blanket design of a hybrid thermopuclear reactor with a liquid metal coolant is described. To decrease MHD-resistance for uranium zone fuel elements a cylindrical shape is suggested and movement of liquid-metal coolant in fuel element packets is presumed to be in perpendicular to the magnetic field and fuel element axes direction. The first wall is cooled by water, blanket-by lithium-lead alloy

  16. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.; Matthews, R.B.

    1991-08-01

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Bulk viscosity and ultrasonic attenuation in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, O.N.; Murthy, B.V.S.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation in simple liquid metals has been investigated using the thermodynamic theory of relaxation processes incorporating the concept of a two state model for the liquid near the melting point. Agreement of the results with the experimental values of the ultrasonic attenuation and bulk viscosity indicates that this might be an appropriate approach to explain the excess attenuation of ultrasonic waves in liquid metals. (author)

  18. Liquid metal actuation by electrical control of interfacial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Dickey, Michael D., E-mail: michael-dickey@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    By combining metallic electrical conductivity with low viscosity, liquid metals and liquid metal alloys offer new and exciting opportunities to serve as reconfigurable components of electronic, microfluidic, and electromagnetic devices. Here, we review the physics and applications of techniques that utilize voltage to manipulate the interfacial tension of liquid metals; such techniques include electrocapillarity, continuous electrowetting, electrowetting-on-dielectric, and electrochemistry. These techniques lower the interfacial tension between liquid metals and a surrounding electrolyte by driving charged species (or in the case of electrochemistry, chemical species) to the interface. The techniques are useful for manipulating and actuating liquid metals at sub-mm length scales where interfacial forces dominate. We focus on metals and alloys that are liquid near or below room temperature (mercury, gallium, and gallium-based alloys). The review includes discussion of mercury—despite its toxicity—because it has been utilized in numerous applications and it offers a way of introducing several phenomena without the complications associated with the oxide layer that forms on gallium and its alloys. The review focuses on the advantages, applications, opportunities, challenges, and limitations of utilizing voltage to control interfacial tension as a method to manipulate liquid metals.

  19. Thermal management of Li-ion battery with liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao-Hu; Tan, Si-Cong; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid metal is used for power battery pack thermal management. • Better cooling performance and more uniform module temperature is obtained. • Less power consumption is needed. • The proposed liquid metal cooling system is robust and can cope with stressful conditions. - Abstract: Thermal management especially cooling of electric vehicles (EVs) battery pack is of great significance for guaranteeing the performance of the cells as well as safety and high-efficiency working of the EVs. Liquid cooling is a powerful way to keep the battery temperature in a proper range. However, the efficiency of conventional liquid cooling is still limited due to the inherently low thermal conductivity of the coolant which is usually water or aqueous ethanol. In this paper, a new kind of coolant, liquid metal, is proposed to be used for the thermal management of the battery pack. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate the cooling capability, pump power consumption and module temperature uniformity of the liquid metal cooling system, in comparison with that of water cooling. The results show that under the same flow conditions, a lower and more uniform module temperature can be obtained and less pump power consumption are needed in the liquid metal cooling system. In addition, liquid metal has an excellent cooling capability coping with stressful conditions, such as high power draw, defects in cells, and high ambient temperature. This makes it a promising coolant for the thermal management of high driving force EVs and quick charge batteries.

  20. Exploring liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) concepts-Liquid metal film flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Ni, M.; Miraghaie, R.; Burris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fast moving liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has been looked upon with considerable interest over the past several years, both by the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. Flowing liquid walls provide an ever replenishing contact surface to the plasma, leading to very effective particle pumping and surface heat flux removal. A key feasibility issue for flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, pertains to their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior under the spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device. MHD forces hinder the development of a smooth and controllable liquid metal flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

  1. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors of the 'pool' kind. In this type of reactor the irradiated fuel is lowered into a transfer rotor for removal to storage facilities, this rotor normally having provision for the temporary storage of 20 irradiated fuel assemblies, each within a stainless steel bucket. For insertion or withdrawal of a fuel assembly the rotor is rotated to bring the fuel assembly to a loading or discharging station. The irradiated fuel assembly is withdrawn from the rotor within its bucket and the total weight is approximately 1000 kg, which is lifted about 27 m. In the event of malfunction the combination falls back into the rotor with considerable force. In order to prevent damage to the rotor fracture pins are provided, and to prevent damage to the reactor vessel and other parts of the reactor structure deformable energy absorbing devices are provided. After a malfunction the fractured pins and the energy absorbing devices must be replaced by remote control means operated from outside the reactor vault - a complex operation. The object of the arrangement described is to provide improved energy absorbing means for fuel assemblies falling into a fuel transfer rotor. The fuel assemblies are supported in the rotor by elastic means during transfer to storage and a hydraulic dash pot is provided in at least one position below the rotor for absorbing the energy of a falling fuel assembly. It is preferable to provide dash pots immediately below a receiving station for irradiated fuel assemblies and immediately below a discharge station. Each bucket is carried in a container that is elastically supported in the transfer rotor on a helical coil compression spring, so that, in the event of a malfunction the container and bucket are returned to their normal operating position after the force of the falling load has been absorbed by the dash pot. The transfer rotor may also be provided with recoil springs to absorb the recoil energy

  2. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  3. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  4. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also i...

  5. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Described is the background work performed jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom with the purpose of developing a high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for reactor components. Existing creep-fatigue crack-growth models are reviewed, and the most promising methods are identified. Sources of material data are outlined, and results of the fundamental deformation and crack-growth tests are discussed. Results of subcritical crack-growth exploratory tests, creep-fatigue crack-growth tests under repeated thermal transient conditions, and exploratory failure tests are presented and contrasted with the analytical modeling. Crack-growth assessment methods are presented and applied to a typical liquid-metal reactor component. The research activities presented herein served as a foundation for the Flaw Assessment Guide for High-Temperature Reactor Components Subjected to Creep-Fatigue Loading published separately. 30 refs., 108 figs., 13 tabs

  6. On the capillary restriction in start-up regimes of liquid metal evaporation from capillary-porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosvetov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Evaporation of liquid metals from capillary-porous structures is one of the most effective methods of surface cooling, to which essential heat quantity is delivered at high temperatures. The paper deals with heat flux limitation, caused by incapability of core capillary forces to overcome pressure differential in heat carrier circulation shape in such evaporation regimes, when average length of free path of vapour molecule exceeds core cell size. Suggested are theoretical correlations for determination of critical heat flux density and temperature of liquid surface in starting regimes of liquid metal evaporation from rectangular slots and compound cores with screens made of foil with round perforations. The catculative and experimental values of critical heat flux density in starting regimes of sodium evaporation from rectangular slots satisfactorily agree with each other

  7. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Han, H. D.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M.

    1999-09-01

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  8. Emergency cooling system for a liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Ryoichi; Fujiwara, Toshikatsu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To suitably cool liquid metal as coolant in emergency in a liquid metal cooled reactor by providing a detector for the pressure loss of the liquid metal passing through a cooling device in a loop in which the liquid metal is flowed and communicating the detector with a coolant flow regulator. Constitution: A nuclear reactor is stopped in nuclear reaction by control element or the like in emergency. If decay heat is continuously generated for a while and secondary coolant is insufficiently cooled with water or steam flowed through a steam and water loop, a cooler is started. That is, low temperature air is supplied by a blower through an inlet damper to the cooler to cool the secondary coolant flowed into the cooler through a bypass pipe so as to finally safely stop an entire plant. Since the liquid metal is altered in its physical properties by the temperature at this time, it is detected to regulate the opening of the valve of the damper according to the detected value. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  10. High temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  11. A large economic liquid metal reactor for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, E.

    1985-01-01

    The United States has demonstrated its ability to build and operate small and medium sized liquid metal reactors and continues to operate the Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the Fast Flux Test Facility to demonstrate long life fuel designs. Similar-sized liquid metal reactors in Europe have been followed by a step-up to the 1200 MWe capacity of the Superphenix plant. To permit the United States to make a similar step-up in capacity, a 1320 MWe liquid metal reactor plant has been designed with the main emphasis on minimizing the specific capital cost in order to be competitive with light water reactor plant and fossil plant alternatives. The design is based on a four parallel heat transport loops arrangement and complies with current regulatory requirements. The primary heat transport loops are now being integrated into the reactor vessel to achieve further reduction in the capital cost

  12. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  13. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced

  14. Liquid metal cooling concepts in solar power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, P.B.; Mangus, J.D.; Whitlow, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties and proven technology of a liquid sodium heat transport system provide numerous advantages and benefits for application in a central receiver solar thermal power plant concept. The major advantages of utilizing liquid sodium are: attainment of high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, reduced relative costs, and achievement of these goals by the mid-1980's through the utilization of proven liquid metal technology developed in the power industry, without the need for extensive development programs. The utilization of liquid sodium reduces the complexity of the design of these systems, thus providing confidence in system reliability. The implementation of the proven technology in liquid metal systems also provides assurance of reliability. In addition, the ease of transition from liquid metal breeder reactor systems to solar application provides immediate availability of this technology

  15. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongseob Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm to 6.4 cm.

  16. Liquid metal flow control by DC electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Eduardo Madeira; Braz Filho, Francisco Antonio; Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2006-01-01

    The cooling system of high-density thermal power requires fluids of high thermal conductivity, such as liquid metals. Electromagnetic pumps can be used to liquid metal fluid flow control in cooling circuits. The operation of electromagnetic pumps used to flow control is based on Lorentz force. This force can be achieved by magnetic field and electric current interaction, controlled by external independent power supplies. This work presents the electromagnetic pump operational principles, the IEAv development scheme and the BEMC-1 simulation code. The theoretical results of BEMC-1 simulation are compared to electromagnetic pump operation experimental data, validating the BEMC-1 code. This code is used to evaluate the DC electromagnetic pump performance applied to Mercury flow control and others liquid metal such as Sodium, Lead and Bismuth, used in nuclear fast reactors. (author)

  17. 3-D printing of liquid metals for stretchable and flexible conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trlica, Chris; Parekh, Dishit Paresh; Panich, Lazar; Ladd, Collin; Dickey, Michael D.

    2014-06-01

    3-D printing is an emerging technology that has been used primarily on small scales for rapid prototyping, but which could also herald a wider movement towards decentralized, highly customizable manufacturing. Polymers are the most common materials to be 3-D printed today, but there is great demand for a way to easily print metals. Existing techniques for 3-D printing metals tend to be expensive and energy-intensive, and usually require high temperatures or pressures, making them incompatible with polymers, organics, soft materials, and biological materials. Here, we describe room temperature liquid metals as complements to polymers for 3-D printing applications. These metals enable the fabrication of soft, flexible, and stretchable devices. We survey potential room temperature liquid metal candidates and describe the benefits of gallium and its alloys for these purposes. We demonstrate the direct printing of a liquid gallium alloy in both 2-D and 3-D and highlight the structures and shapes that can be fabricated using these processes.

  18. Development of oxygen sensors for use in liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Ejenstam, Jesper; Szakalos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    For generation IV reactor concepts, based on liquid metal cooling, there is a need for robust oxygen sensors which can be used in the core of the reactor since corrosion can only be kept sufficiently low by controlling the dissolved oxygen content in the liquid metal. A robust, ceramic membrane type sensor has been developed at IFE/Halden (Norway) and tested in an autoclave system at KTH (Sweden). The sensor has been tested in lead-bismuth at 550 deg. C and performed well. (authors)

  19. Development of oxygen sensors for use in liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden, (Norway); Ejenstam, Jesper; Szakalos, Peter [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    For generation IV reactor concepts, based on liquid metal cooling, there is a need for robust oxygen sensors which can be used in the core of the reactor since corrosion can only be kept sufficiently low by controlling the dissolved oxygen content in the liquid metal. A robust, ceramic membrane type sensor has been developed at IFE/Halden (Norway) and tested in an autoclave system at KTH (Sweden). The sensor has been tested in lead-bismuth at 550 deg. C and performed well. (authors)

  20. Single-magnet rotary flowmeter for liquid metals

    OpenAIRE

    Priede, Jānis; Buchenau, Dominique; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    We present a theory of single-magnet flowmeter for liquid metals and compare it with experimental results. The flowmeter consists of a freely rotating permanent magnet, which is magnetized perpendicularly to the axle it is mounted on. When such a magnet is placed close to a tube carrying liquid metal flow, it rotates so that the driving torque due to the eddy currents induced by the flow is balanced by the braking torque induced by the rotation itself. The equilibrium rotation rate, which var...

  1. Performance and safety design of the advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.C.; Magee, P.M.; Boardman, C.E.; Gyorey, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program led by General Electric is developing, under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, a conceptual design for an advanced sodium-cooled liquid metal reactor plant. This design is intended to improve the already excellent level of plant safety achieved by the nuclear power industry while at the same time providing significant reductions in plant construction and operating costs. In this paper, the plant design and performance are reviewed, with emphasis on the ALMR's unique passive design safety features and its capability to utilize as fuel the actinides in LWR spent fuel

  2. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  3. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  4. High temperature reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Beno, M.F.; Mulac, W.A.; Bartels, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the last year the dependence of the apparent rate of OD + CO on water pressure was measured at 305, 570, 865 and 1223 K. An explanation was found and tested for the H 2 O dependence of the apparent rate of OH(OD) + CO at high temperatures. The isotope effect for OH(D) with CO was determined over the temperature range 330 K to 1225 K. The reason for the water dependence of the rate of OH(OD) + CO near room temperatures has been investigated but no clear explanation has been found. 1 figure

  5. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  6. Heavy-water (D2O) take-up-induced lattice expansion in the high-temperature proton conductor Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O9-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanassopoulos, K.; Wenzl, H.; Schober, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dimensional changes of the high-temperature proton conductor Ba 3 Ca 1.18 Nb 1.82 O 9-δ , when exposed to D 2 O vapor, were investigated using length-change and precision density measurements. Such information is essential for possible applications of proton conductors in solid oxide fuel cells and humidity and hydrogen sensors. A linear increase of the sample lengths with increases in the deuterium content was observed. Comparison of the present D 2 O data with those that were previously obtained for H 2 O showed that there was a small isotope effect in the lattice expansion. The fact that the length-change-versus-hydrogen-isotope-concentration curves were almost isotope independent supported the validity of the take-up reaction H 2 O(g) + V sm-bulletsm-bullet O + O x O right-reversible 2OH sm-bullet O , where V O is the vacancies in the oxygen sublattice and OH sm-bullet O is the proton that are embedded in the electron cloud of an oxygen atom. In regard to the latter equation, it was found that small islands of silver, palladium, nickel, and platinum act as catalytic promoters of the reaction and lead, for given heavy-water-steam exposure conditions, to an increase of water absorption of up to 100%, when compared with samples without the catalytic surface layers

  7. High temperature ultrasonic transducers for imaging and measurements in a liquid Pb/Bi eutectic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Voleisis, Algirdas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Mazeika, Liudas; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Kupschus, Peter; Abderrahim, Hamid Aït

    2005-04-01

    In some nuclear reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS) the core is intended to be cooled by means of a heavy liquid metal, for example, lead-bismuth (Pb/Bi) eutectic alloy. For safety and licensing reasons, an imaging method of the interior of ADS, based on application of ultrasonic waves, has thus to be developed. This paper is devoted to description of developed various ultrasonic transducers suitable for long term imaging and measurements in the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. The results of comparative experimental investigations of the developed transducers of different designs in a liquid Pb/Bi alloy up to 450 degrees C are presented. Prototypes with different high temperature piezoelectric materials were investigated: PZT, bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12), lithium niobate (LiNbO3), gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) and aluminum nitride (A1N). For acoustic coupling with the metal alloy, it was proposed to coat the active surface of the transducers by diamond like carbon (DLC). The radiation robustness was assessed by exposing the transducers to high gamma dose rates in one of the irradiation facilities at SCK x CEN. The experimental results proved that the developed transducers are suitable for long-term operation in harsh conditions.

  8. Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.

    1996-01-01

    There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer

  9. Liquid metal batteries - materials selection and fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, T.; Bund, A.; El-Mofid, W.; Horstmann, G. M.; Lalau, C.-C.; Landgraf, S.; Nimtz, M.; Starace, M.; Stefani, F.; Weber, N.

    2017-07-01

    Liquid metal batteries are possible candidates for massive and economically feasible large-scale stationary storage and as such could be key components of future energy systems based mainly or exclusively on intermittent renewable electricity sources. The completely liquid interior of liquid metal batteries and the high current densities give rise to a multitude of fluid flow phenomena that will primarily influence the operation of future large cells, but might be important for today’s smaller cells as well. The paper at hand starts with a discussion of the relative merits of using molten salts or ionic liquids as electrolytes for liquid metal cells and touches the choice of electrode materials. This excursus into electrochemistry is followed by an overview of investigations on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries, namely the Tayler instability and electromagnetically excited gravity waves. A section on electro-vortex flows complements the discussion of flow phenomena. Focus of the flow related investigations lies on the integrity of the electrolyte layer and related critical parameters.

  10. Corrosion by liquid metals - Application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavielle, Lisette.

    1978-10-01

    In this bibliographic review on the corrosion by liquid metals, the first part is devoted to the theoretical aspects of the problem and the second part concerns the corrosion of steels by liquid sodium, as example. Obvious the numerous works now published, the mechanisms are still leaving bad known [fr

  11. Liquid metal-based reconfigurable and stretchable photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Yoo, Jun Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Conventional ultraviolet (UV) lithography typically uses a photomask made of a fused silica plate covered with a layer of UV opaque material such as chromium. The photomask has passive binary patterns of UV opaque and UV transparent regions and the pattern is unalterable. We report a novel real-time dynamically reconfigurable photomask technology using a liquid metal (as a UV opaque material) filled in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, as a UV transparent material) microfluidic channels. We found that the gallium-based liquid metal (e.g. Galinstan ® ) is opaque in broad spectrum of light in the wavelength from 325 nm to 850 nm while the PDMS is highly transparent in this wide range of spectrum. We made both bright field and dark field microfluidic photomasks and transferred various patterns onto a positive photoresist. A 7-segment display microfluidic channel photomask was also fabricated and decimal numerals (from ‘0’ to ‘9’) were patterned with one photomask by dynamically reconfiguring decimal numeral shapes with on-demand injection and withdrawal of the liquid metal in specific segment microfluidic channels in the photomask. In addition, utilizing mechanical flexibility of the PDMS and the liquid metal, reconfiguration of the patterns in a microfluidic photomask under stretching was successfully tested. (paper)

  12. Fuel transfer manipulator for liquid metal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A manipulator for transferring fuel assemblies between inclined fuel chutes of a liquid metal nuclear reactor installation. Hoisting means are mounted on a mount supported by beams pivotably attached by pins to the mount and to the floor in such a manner that pivoting of the beams causes movement and tilting of a hoist tube between positions of alignment with the inclined chutes. (author)

  13. Liquid Metal Oscillation and Arc Behaviour during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudodibroto, B.Y.B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain insight into the oscillation behaviour of the liquid metal and the arc behaviour during GMA welding. Observations of the weld pool and the arc were undertaken by visual means using a high-speed video and by analysis of the voltage. To deal with the complex

  14. High temperature structural silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi 2 -based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi 2 single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi 2 possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing

  15. High temperature materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A lab facility for measuring elastic moduli up to 1700 C was constructed and delivered. It was shown that the ultrasonic method can be used to determine elastic constants of materials from room temperature to their melting points. The ease in coupling high frequency acoustic energy is still a difficult task. Even now, new coupling materials and higher power ultrasonic pulsers are being suggested. The surface was only scratched in terms of showing the full capabilities of either technique used, especially since there is such a large learning curve in developing proper methodologies to take measurements into the high temperature region. The laser acoustic system does not seem to have sufficient precision at this time to replace the normal buffer rod methodology.

  16. High temperature metallic recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. E.; Solmon, N. G.; Smeltzer, C. E.

    1981-06-01

    An industrial 4.5 MM Btu/hr axial counterflow recuperator, fabricated to deliver 1600 F combustion air, was designed to handle rapid cyclic loading, a long life, acceptable costs, and a low maintenance requirement. A cost benefit anlysis of a high temperature waste heat recovery system utilizing the recurperator and components capable of 1600 F combustion air preheat shows that this system would have a payback period of less than two years. Fifteen companies and industrial associations were interviewed and expressed great interest in recuperation in large energy consuming industries. Determination of long term environmental effects on candidate recuperator tubing alloys was completed. Alloys found to be acceptable in the 2200 F flue gas environment of a steel billet reheat furnace, were identified.

  17. Capillary Flow of Liquid Metals in Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehsara, Mohammad

    Capillary flow is driven or controlled by capillary forces, exerted at the triple line where the fluid phases meet the solid boundary. Phase field (PF) models naturally accommodate diffusive triple line motion with variable contact angle, thus allowing for the no-slip boundary condition without the stress singularities. Moreover, they are uniquely suited for modeling of topological discontinuities which often arise during capillary flows. In this study, we consider diffusive triple line motion within two PF models: the compositionally compressible (CC) and the incompressible (IC) models. We derive the IC model as a systematic approximation to the CC model, based on a suitable choice of continuum velocity field. The CC model, applied to the fluids of dissimilar mass densities, exhibits a computational instability at the triple line. The IC model perfectly represents the analytic equilibria. We develop the parameter identification procedure and show that the triple line kinetics can be well represented by the IC model's diffusive boundary condition. The IC model is first tested by benchmarking the phase-field and experimental kinetics of water, and silicone oil spreading over the glass plates in which two systems do not interact with the substrate. Then, two high-temperature physical settings involving spreading of the molten Al-Si alloy: one over a rough wetting substrate, the other over a non-wetting substrate are modeled in a T-joint structure which is a typical geometric configuration for many brazing and soldering applications. Surface roughness directly influences the spreading of the molten metal by causing break-ups of the liquid film and trapping the liquid away from the joint. In the early stages of capillary flow over non-wetting surface, the melting and flow are concurrent, so that the kinetics of wetting is strongly affected by the variations in effective viscosity of the partially molten metal. We define adequate time-dependent functions for the

  18. The Oscillatory Nature of Rotating Convection in Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Bertin, V. L.; Grannan, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is assumed to be generated by fluid motions in its liquid metal core. In this fluid, the heat diffuses significantly more than momentum and thus, the ratio of these two diffusivities, the Prandtl number Pr=ν/Κ, is well below unity. The convective flow dynamics of liquid metal is very different from Pr ≈ 1 fluids like water and those used in current dynamo simulations. In order to characterize rapidly rotating thermal convection in low Pr number fluids, we have performed laboratory experiments in a cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr ≈ 0.023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number, which characterizes the effect of rotation, varies from E = 4 10-5 to 4 10-6 and the dimensionless buoyancy forcing (Rayleigh number, Ra) varies from Ra =3 105 to 2 107. Using heat transfer measurements (Nusselt number, Nu) as well as temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes are identified for the first time in liquid metal laboratory experiments. These wall modes coexist with the bulk inertial oscillatory modes. When the strengh of the buoyancy increases, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr ≈ 1 dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, the flows that drive thermally-driven dynamo action in low Pr geophysical and astrophysical fluids can differ substantively than those occuring in current-day Pr ≈ 1 numerical models. In addition, our results suggest that relatively low wavenumber, wall-attached modes may be dynamically important in rapidly-rotating convection in liquid metals.

  19. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  20. Modern high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching Wu Chu

    1988-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911, its unusual scientific challenge and great technological potential have been recognized. For the past three-quarters of a century, superconductivity has done well on the science front. This is because sueprconductivity is interesting not only just in its own right but also in its ability to act as a probe to many exciting nonsuperconducting phenomena. For instance, it has continued to provide bases for vigorous activities in condensed matter science. Among the more recent examples are heavy-fermion systems and organic superconductors. During this same period of time, superconductivity has also performed admirably in the applied area. Many ideas have been conceived and tested, making use of the unique characteristics of superconductivity - zero resistivity, quantum interference phenomena, and the Meissner effect. In fact, it was not until late January 1987 that it became possible to achieve superconductivity with the mere use of liquid nitrogen - which is plentiful, cheap, efficient, and easy to handle - following the discovery of supercondictivity above 90 K in Y-Ba-Cu-O, the first genuine quaternary superconductor. Superconductivity above 90 K poses scientific and technological challenges not previously encountered: no existing theories can adequately describe superconductivity above 40 K and no known techniques can economically process the materials for full-scale applications. In this paper, therefore, the author recalls a few events leading to the discovery of the new class of quaternary compounds with a superconducting transition temperature T c in the 90 K range, describes the current experimental status of high-temperature superconductivity and, finally, discusses the prospect of very-high-temperature superconductivity, i.e., with a T c substantially higher than 100 K. 97 refs., 7 figs

  1. Steam generation device with heat exchange between a liquid metal coolant and the feedwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaval, C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant, the liquid metal being sodium. The steam generation device is described in detail, it allows to get an upper liquid metal level without turbulence and an easier passage for the shock wave towards the steam generator up to the liquid metal level without being laterally reflected back to the intermediate heat exchangers [fr

  2. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  3. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  4. High-temperature uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments reveal that the mechanism responsible for the superconducting properties of cuprate materials is even more mysterious than we thought. Two decades ago, Georg Bednorz and Alex Mueller of IBM's research laboratory in Zurich rocked the world of physics when they discovered a material that lost all resistance to electrical current at the record temperature of 36 K. Until then, superconductivity was thought to be a strictly low-temperature phenomenon that required costly refrigeration. Moreover, the IBM discovery - for which Bednorz and Mueller were awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics - was made in a ceramic copper-oxide material that nobody expected to be particularly special. Proposed applications for these 'cuprates' abounded. High-temperature superconductivity, particularly if it could be extended to room temperature, offered the promise of levitating trains, ultra-efficient power cables, and even supercomputers based on superconducting quantum interference devices. But these applications have been slow to materialize. Moreover, almost 20 years on, the physics behind this strange state of matter remains a mystery. (U.K.)

  5. Basic thermo-fluid dynamic problems in high temperature heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider high temperature heat exchangers to be ones where the heat transfer coefficients cannot be predicted confidently by classical analyses for pure forced convection with constant fluid properties. Alternatively, one could consider heat exchangers operating above some arbitrary temperature, say 1000F or 600C perhaps, to be at high temperature conditions. In that case, most common working fluids will be superheated vapors or gases. While some liquid metal heat exchangers are designed to operate in this range, the heat transfer coefficients of liquid metals are usually sufficiently high that the dominant thermal resistance would be due to the second fluid. This paper concentrates on convective heat transfer with gases. Typical applications include modular gas cooled nuclear reactors, proposed nuclear propulsion systems and space power plants, and superheaters in Rankine steam cycles

  6. High temperature tests for graphite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, Evgenij

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed within the framework of the EURISOL for facilities SPIRAL-II (GANIL, France) and SPES (LNL, Italy), and aims to investigate the anticipated strength properties of fine-grained graphite at elevated temperatures. It appears that the major parameters that affect to the lifetime of a graphite target of this IP are the temperature and heating time. High temperature tests were conducted to simulate the heating under the influence of a beam of heavy particles by passing thro...

  7. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal

  8. The concepts of liquid metal of IV generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonnier, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of liquid metals, due to their large spectrum, show important possibility of sustainable development: two concepts of liquid metal (Sodium and Lead) were engaged in the frame of the IV generation. The reactors with sodium benefit from considerable background of experience and of important work on projects to aim at the price diminution and the increase of safety (EFR, JSFR). The commitment of Japan as a leader of this concept and the support by France allow to contemplate an industrial deployment from 2015. The lead reactors offer some advantages in the domain of safety but otherwise require a highly important research and development binded to the control of the corrosion, the perspective of deployment of this concept are more hypothetical

  9. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  10. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  11. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field

  12. Manipulation of Biomolecule-Modified Liquid-Metal Blobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Miyako, Eijiro

    2017-10-23

    Soft and deformable liquid metals (LMs) are building components in various systems related to uncertain and dynamic task environments. Herein we describe the development of a biomolecule-triggered external-manipulation method involving LM conjugates for the construction of future innovative soft robotics operating in physiological environments. Functional soft hybrids composed of a liquid-metal droplet, a thiolated ligand, and proteins were synthesized for the expression of diverse macroscopic commands, such as attachment to cells, binary fusion, and self-propelled movement through molecular recognition and enzymatic reactions. Our technology could be used to create new state-of-the-art soft robots for chemical and biomedical engineering applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals by electromagnetically induced acoustic cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldre, Imants; Bojarevičs, Andris; Grants, Ilmārs; Beinerts, Toms; Kalvāns, Matīss; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of magnetically induced cavitation applied for the purpose of nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals. The oscillating magnetic force due to the azimuthal induction currents and the axial magnetic field excites power ultrasound in the sample. If the fields are sufficiently high then it is possible to achieve the acoustic cavitation threshold in liquid metals. Cavitation bubble collapses are known to create microscale jets with a potential to break nanoparticle agglomerates and disperse them. The samples are solidified under the contactless ultrasonic treatment and later analyzed by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It is observed that SiC nanoparticles are dispersed in an aluminum magnesium alloy, whereas in tin the same particles remain agglomerated in micron-sized clusters despite a more intense cavitation.

  14. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  15. Sensor for thickness measurement of a liquid metal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.

    1984-04-01

    Description, calibration and measuring method of a sensor for the measure of thin liquid metal depths in a temperature range of 0-500 0 C and for shift frequencies from 0 to 100 Hz; these sensors are based on the principle of induction-coil impedance variation, as a function of the thickness of an electrical conductor matter placed in the coil magnetic field [fr

  16. Passive safety and the advanced liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors being developed today in the USA are designed to make maximum use of passive safety features. Much of the LMR safety work at Argonne National Laboratory is concerned with demonstrating, both theoretically and experimentally, the effectiveness of the passive safety features. The characteristics that contribute to passive safety are discussed, with particular emphasis on decay heat removal systems, together with examples of Argonne's theoretical and experimental programs in this area

  17. Rapid-action valve especially for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velek, V.; Cejka, J.; Jakl, J.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid-action large-diameter valve and control fitting was designed for cooling circuits of nuclear power plants with fast liquid metal cooled reactors, namely sodium cooled. The design meets the requirements for axial symmetry about the flow axis and secures the equilibrium of hydraulic and hydrodynamic forces observing the uniformity of the thickness of the fitting walls which is a pre-requisite for good resistance to thermal shock. (F.M.)

  18. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  19. Liquid metal current collector applications and material compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.; Stevens, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this paper has been to summarize briefly the material considerations involved in the development of liquid metal current collectors for homopolar machinery applications. A significant amount of data in this regard has been obtained over the last several years by individual researchers for NaK exposure conditions. However, NaK material compatibility data over the entire time and temperature range of interest is highly desirable. At DTNSRDC, a 300 kW superconducting homopolar motor and generator are under test, both utilizing free surface tongue-and-groove current collectors with NaK as the working fluid. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of other aspects of machine design, the intention is to use these machines as vehicles for testing of the several liquid metal current collector concepts which are considered worthwhile candidates for incorporation in future full-scale machines. It is likely that the optimal collector approach for a large low speed motor may be quite different from that for a smaller high speed generator, possibly involving the use of different liquid metals

  20. Prediction of liquid metal alloy radiant properties from measurements of the Hall coefficient and the direct current resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Qiu, T.

    1995-04-01

    The thermal radiative properties of high temperature solid and liquid metal alloys are particularly useful to research and development efforts in laser cladding and machining, electron beam welding and laser isotope separation. However the cost, complexity, and difficulty of measuring these properties have forced the use of crude estimates from the Hagen-Rubens relation, the Drude relations, or extrapolation from low temperature or otherwise flawed data (e.g., oxidized). The authors have found in this work that published values for the Hall coefficient and the electrical resistivity of liquid metal alloys can provide useful estimates of the reflectance and emittance of some groups of binary liquid metal and high temperature solid alloys. The estimation method computes the Drude free electron parameters, and thence the optical constants and the radiant properties from the dependence of the Hall coefficient and direct current resistivity on alloy composition (the Hall coefficient gives the free electron density and the resistivity gives the average time between collisions). They find that predictions of the radiant properties of molten cerium-copper alloy, which use the measured variations in the Hall coefficient and resistivity (both highly nonlinear) as a function of alloy fraction (rather than linear combinations of the values of the pure elements) yield a good comparison to published measurements of the variation of the normal spectral emittance (a different but also nonlinear function) of cerium-copper alloy at the single wavelength available for comparison, 0.645 μm. The success of the approach in the visible range is particularly notable because one expects a Drude based approach to improve with increasing wavelength from the visible into the infrared. Details of the estimation method, the comparison between the calculation and the measured emittance, and a discussion of what groups of elements may also provide agreement is given

  1. Conference on heat mass transfer and properties of liquid metals TF-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, A.D.; Kozlov, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of the conference TF-2002 devoted to the combined approach to problems of harnessing liquid metals as coolants for NPU are presented. The conference takes place in Obninsk, 29 - 31 October, 2002. Papers of the conference involve items on thermal hydraulics, mass transfer and safety of NPU with liquid metal coolants, structure, physical and chemical properties of liquid metal and liquid metal solutions, decommissioning of units and ecology, application of liquid metals divorced with NPU. Most of the papers of the conference are devoted to the investigation into lead and lead-bismuth coolants [ru

  2. Natural convection and boiling heat transfer of a liquid metal in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1983-02-01

    A liquid metal is often assumed as a coolant and a breeding material of a Tokamak fusion reactor. However, many problems on the thermo-hydraulics of a liquid metal in a magnetic field are still remained to be studied. In the present report, natural convection and boiling of a liquid metal in a strong magnetic field are studied to examine a fundamental feasibility of a fusion reactor cooled by a liquid metal. In the experimental study of the natural convection, the circulation of a liquid metal was found to be surpressed even by a magnetic field parallel to the gravity. A numerical study has confirmed the conclusion drawn by the experiment. In the study of boiling heat transfer, stable boiling of a liquid metal has been found also in a strong magnetic field. The burnout heat flux hardly affected by the magnetic field. These indicate a fundamental feasibility of the liquid-metal cooling for a Tokamak fusion reactor. (author)

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Liquid Metal MHD Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D. G.; Cerini, D. J.; Hays, L. G.; Weinberg, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1966-11-15

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation for space is studied. Closed- loop circulation of liquid metal without moving mechanical parts, and generation of electric power from the circulating metal, have been investigated analytically and experimentally, and the attainable cycle efficiencies have been calculated. Recent literature has pointed out the possibility of efficient a.c. generators with liquid metal as the working fluid, and this type of generator is under study. Analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 65% are attainable in a travelling-wave induction generator at the available liquid metal velocities of 100-200 m/sec, provided the generator has a length/gap ratio of no more than 50 for low friction loss, has an electrical length of no more than three wavelengths for low winding loss, and has end-effect compensation for cancelling finite-length effects in the power-generating region. The analysis leading to these conclusions is presented. The type of end-effect correction being studied is the ''compensating-pole'' technique in which an oscillating magnetic field is applied to the fluid entering and leaving the generator to make the flux linkages within the generator the same as those in a rotating or ''infinite'' generator. An experimental one-wavelength generator employing compensating poles has been fabricated, and empty-channel magnetic field measurements have been completed in preparation for tests with NaK. Two types of field measurements were made: d.c. measurements to determine the field profile as a function of phase angle and a.c. measurements to investigate the synchronization of the compensating poles with the travelling wave. The d.c. results showed that the flux linkages in the power generating region can be held close to those in a rotating machine, and the a.c. results showed that the compensating poles can be accurately synchronized with the travelling wave through transformer coupling. The component efficiencies from the

  4. Liquid metal fires. A review of work status in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Hargreaves, K.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid metal coolants (Na and NaK) are used for the transfer of heat in LMFBR circuits. Their high chemical reactivity and the high circuit operating temperatures mean that any leakage of coolant to the atmosphere can result in spontaneous combustion. Additionally spilled coolant may contact and react with structural materials such as concrete. These sodium fires and reactions with concrete are exothermic, and the fires in particular are characterised by significant evolution of heat and release of combustion product aerosols in high concentrations. A major sodium fire places special demands on the integrity of reactor secondary containment structures and may require special measures to control the release of chemically toxic (and possibly radioactive) aerosols to the environment. Precautions must also be taken to minimise damage to equipment, especially safety-related items. Work under way in laboratories in a number of countries is aimed at resolving these issues. These studies comprise investigations of the combustion mechanisms of sodium in both liquid and vapour states, and of the reactions of sodium with structural materials at high temperature. Extensive studies are also under way on the chemical and physical nature and on the behaviour of airborne reaction products released from fires. Data from these studies are used as an input to codes developed to model conditions resulting from sodium fires and thus to provide a basis for the design of containment structures and air clean-up equipment requirements. A knowledge of liquid metal combustion mechanisms is also a necessary adjunct to the development of fire prevention and fire-fighting systems. In the UK fire studies are conducted by CEGB (Berkeley Laboratories), NNC and the UKAEA, and this paper reviews the status of work carried out

  5. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  6. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) infrared detectors were studied for years but never matured sufficiently for infusion into instruments. Several recent...

  7. Applications of a high temperature sessile drop device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, B; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C [Vienna University of Technology, Insitute of Solid State Physics E-138, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Worbs, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Bereich Materialforschung, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: bernhard.schwarz@ifp.tuwien.ac.at

    2008-03-01

    The wettability of a liquid metal on a solid surface is of great technological interest for the industry (soldering, brazing, infiltration) as well as for fundamental research (diffusion, chemical reaction, intermetallic phases). The characterization of wetting is done by measuring the contact angle at the triple line of the liquid on the solid. A High Temperature Sessile Drop Device (HTSDD) was constructed and several applications were tested: (i) a wettability study of a copper-based brazing alloy (Cu-ABA) on TiN{sub x} coatings with different stoichiometries. The data derived from the HTSDD show that the reduction of the nitrogen content in the TiN coating reduces the time for reaching the final contact angle. Also for substoichiometric TiC a similar behaviour is predicted in literature. (ii) The liquid surface energy of molten metals can be estimated from the curvature of flattened droplets due to the influence of gravity. Two models were used for the calculation of the liquid surface energy of different liquid metals. (iii) From the droplet radius vs. time curves it is possible to distinguish between two different reactive wetting regimes - the diffusion and the reaction controlled reactive wetting. The beginning of this research topic will be discussed.

  8. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H.B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydro- gen. J. Chem. Phys. , 1935, v.3, 764–770. At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this struc- tural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

  9. Patterned Liquid Metal Contacts for Printed Carbon Nanotube Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joseph B; Mondal, Kunal; Neumann, Taylor V; Cardenas, Jorge A; Wang, Justin; Parekh, Dishit P; Lin, Yiliang; Ballentine, Peter; Dickey, Michael D; Franklin, Aaron D

    2018-05-14

    Flexible and stretchable electronics are poised to enable many applications that cannot be realized with traditional, rigid devices. One of the most promising options for low-cost stretchable transistors are printed carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, a major limiting factor in stretchable CNT devices is the lack of a stable and versatile contact material that forms both the interconnects and contact electrodes. In this work, we introduce the use of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) liquid metal for electrical contacts to printed CNT channels. We analyze thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using two different liquid metal deposition techniques-vacuum-filling polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel structures and direct-writing liquid metals on the CNTs. The highest performing CNT-TFT was realized using vacuum-filled microchannel deposition with an in situ annealing temperature of 150 °C. This device exhibited an on/off ratio of more than 10 4 and on-currents as high as 150 μA/mm-metrics that are on par with other printed CNT-TFTs. Additionally, we observed that at room temperature the contact resistances of the vacuum-filled microchannel structures were 50% lower than those of the direct-write structures, likely due to the poor adhesion between the materials observed during the direct-writing process. The insights gained in this study show that stretchable electronics can be realized using low-cost and solely solution processing techniques. Furthermore, we demonstrate methods that can be used to electrically characterize semiconducting materials as transistors without requiring elevated temperatures or cleanroom processes.

  10. Nuclear quadrupole relaxation and viscosity in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmacher, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the nuclear quadrupole relaxation rate due to the molecular motions in liquid metals is related to the shear and bulk viscosity and hence to the absorption coefficient of ultrasound. Application of the 'extended liquid phonon' model of Ortoleva and Nelkin - which is the third of a series of continued-fraction-approximations for the van Hove neutron scattering function - gives a relation to the self diffusion constant. The predictions of the theory concerning the temperature dependence are compared with quadrupole relaxation measurements of Riegel et al. and Kerlin et al. in liquid gallium. Agreement is found only with the data of Riegel et al. (orig.) [de

  11. Fuel rod for liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinz, P.

    1976-01-01

    In fuel rods for nuclear reactors with liquid-metal cooling (sodium), with stainless steel tubes with a nitrated surface as canning, superheating or boiling delay should be avoided. The inner wall of the can is provided along its total length with a helical fin of stainless steel wire (diameter 0.05 to 0.5 mm) to be wetted by hot sodium. This fin is mounted under prestressing and has a distance in winding of 1/10 of the wire diameter. (UWI) [de

  12. Ion beam exposure apparatus using a liquid metal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, M.

    1982-01-01

    A field effect liquid metal ion source is described. The current-voltage characteristics, the angular intensity distribution and the total energy distribution were measured for gallium, gold and lead sources. The results are presented and the effect of space charge on the emission current is discussed. Optimum working conditions for the use of the ion sources in probe formation are derived. On the basis of the experimental results, an apparatus operating at 50 kV or less was designed. Details of the design, which includes a triode ion gun and an einzel lens, are given together with preliminary results of pattern delineation with the apparatus. (Auth.)

  13. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Malang, S.; Reimann, J.; Perujo, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union (EU) concerning the development of liquid metal breeder blankets for DEMO. After several years of studies on breeding blankets, two blanket concepts are presently considered, both using the eutectic Pb-17Li: the dual-coolant concept and the water-cooled concept. The analysis of such concepts has permitted to identify the experimental areas where further data are required. Tritium control and MHD-issues are, at present, the activities on which is devoted the greatest effort within the EU. (authors). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 39 refs

  14. Addressing safety issues in a hybrid liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedyan, D.; Ehvart, Eh.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid design of a fast reactor with a liquid-metal coolant, combining the advantages of traditional loop (prevailing in the USA) and integral (prevailing in Europe) arrangements is described. Just as a loop reactor the hybrid one has separate arrangement of the core and the equipment of the primary circuit heat exchange. At the same time similar to the reactor with integral arrangement, the option considered has no complex pipeline system. This reduces sharply the possibility of sodium leakages which cause fires and personnel irradiation

  15. Numerical issues for liquid-metal boiling transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The large liquid-to-vapor density ratio of a boiling liquid-metal leads to a very abrupt change of the two-phase mixture density at the inception of boiling. Unfortunately, the strong dependence of mixture density on pressure leads to a key numerical issue that adversely affects the behavior of numerical solutions. The difficulties can be reduced by using techniques that acknowledge this functional behavior at the start of boiling. Some of the methods used include a spatially averaged density function, mathematical smoothing, and under relaxation. Nonequilibrium two-fluid models also seem to offer aid in obtaining reliable numerical solutions. (author)

  16. Feasible homopolar dynamo with sliding liquid-metal contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Priede, Jānis; Avalos-Zúñiga, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    We present a feasible homopolar dynamo design consisting of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil, which is placed above a fast-spinning metal ring and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Using a simple, analytically solvable axisymmetric model, we determine the optimal design of such a setup. For small contact resistance, the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, Rm~34.6, at which the dynamo can work, is attained at the optimal ratio of the outer and inner radii of the ri...

  17. A homopolar disc dynamo experiment with liquid metal contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos-Zúñiga, R. A.; Priede, J.; Bello-Morales, C. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present experimental results of a homopolar disc dynamo constructed at CICATA-Quer\\'etaro in Mexico. The device consists of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil which is placed above a fast-spinning metal disc and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Theoretically, self-excitation of the magnetic field is expected at the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm~45, which corresponds to a critical rotation rate of about 10 Hz. We measured the magnetic field above the di...

  18. Simplified analysis of trasients in pool type liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor will require a great effort of development in several technical disciplines. One of them is the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor and of the heat and fluid transport components inside the reactor vessel. A simplified model to calculate the maximum sodium temperatures is presented in this paper. This model can be used to optimize the layout of components inside the reactor vessel and was easily programmed in a small computer. Illustrative calculations of two transients of a typical hot pool type fast reactor are presented and compared with the results of other researchers. (author) [pt

  19. Development of inelastic design method for liquid metal reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Take, Kohji; Kaguchi, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yoshio; Uno, Tetsuro.

    1991-01-01

    Effective utilization of inelastic analysis in structural design assessment is expected to play an important role for avoiding too conservative design of liquid metal reactor plants. Studies have been conducted by the authors to develop a guideline for application of detailed inelastic analysis in design assessment. Both fundamental material characteristics tests and structural failure tests were conducted. Fundamental investigations were made on inelastic analysis method and creep-fatigue life prediction method based on the results of material characteristics tests. It was demonstrated through structural failure tests that the design method constructed based on these fundamental investigations can predict failure lives in structures subjected to cyclic thermal loadings with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  20. Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

    2001-01-01

    Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed

  1. Safety characteristics of the US advanced liquid metal reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gyorey, G.L.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design employs innovative, passive features to provide an unprecedented level of public safety and the ability to demonstrate this safety to the public. The key features employed in the core design to produce the desired passive safety characteristics are: a small core with a tight restraint system, the use of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel, control rod withdrawal limiters, and gas expansion modules. In addition, the reactor vessel and closure are designed to have the capability to withstand, with large margins, the maximum possible core disruptive accident without breach and radiological release. (author)

  2. Regulation of liquid metal coolant flow rate in experimental loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Laptev, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility to use the VRT-2, RPA-T and R 133 analog temperature regulators for the automated regulation of liquid metal flow rate in the experimental loops for investigations on sodium and sodium-potassium alloy technology is considered. The RPA-T device is shown to be the most convenient one; it is characterized by the following parameters: measuring modulus transfer coefficient is 500; the range of regulating modulus proportionality factor variation - 0.3 - 50; the range of the regulating modulus intergrating time constant variation - 5 - 500 s

  3. Hydrogen permeation resistant layers for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Reviewing the literature in the tritium diffusion field one can readily see a wide divergence in results for both the response of permeation rate to pressure, and the effect of oxide layers on total permeation rates. The basic mechanism of protective oxide layers is discussed. Two coatings which are less hydrogen permeable than the best naturally occurring oxide are described. The work described is part of an HEDL-ANL cooperative research program on Tritium Permeation in Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. This includes permeation work on hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with the hydrogen-deuterium research leading to the developments presented

  4. Many-Body Potentials For Binary Immiscible liquid Metal Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaguelle, H.

    2004-01-01

    The modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type many- body potentials have been constructed for three binary liquid immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Ag- Cu. The MAEAM potential functions are fitted to both solid and liquid state properties for only liquid pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM effective potentials, partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of these binary liquid metal alloys have been calculated using the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquids. A good agreement with the available experimental data for structure has

  5. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.; Critchley, E.

    1993-01-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented

  6. Fundamental study on cavitation erosion in liquid metal. Effect of liquid parameter on cavitation erosion in liquid metals (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Kurachi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Fumitaka; Watashi, Katsumi; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Yada, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Cavitation erosion, which possibly occurs on the surfaces of fluid machineries and components contacting flowing liquid and causes sponge-like damage on the material surface, is important problem, since it may become the cause of performance deduction, life shortening, noise, vibration of mechanical components and moreover failure of machine. Research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal is very important to confirm the safety of fast breeder reactor using sodium coolant and to avoid serious damage of the target vessel of spallation neutron source containing liquid-mercury. But the research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal has been hardly performed because of its specially in comparison with that in water. In this study, a cavitation erosion test apparatus was developed to carry out the erosion tests in low-temperature liquid metals. Cavitation erosion tests were carried out in liquid lead-bismuth alloy and in deionized water. We discuss the effect of liquid parameters and temperature effects on the erosion rate. We reach to the following conclusions. The erosion rate was evaluated in terms of a relative temperature which was defind as the percentage between freezing and boiling points. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate is 10 times in lead-bismuth alloy, and 2 to 5 times in sodium, compared with that in deionized water. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate can be evaluated in terms of the following parameter. 1 / (1/ρ L /C L +1/ρ S C S )√ρ L . Where ρ is the material density and c is the velocity of sound, L and S denote liquid and solid. In the relative temperature between 14 and 30degC, the temperature dependence on the erosion rate is due to the increase in vapor pressure. (author)

  7. Mechanical properties of LMR structural materials at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. W.; Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    1999-03-01

    Austenitic stainless is used for the structural material of liquid metal reactor (LMR) because of good mechanical properties at high temperature. Stainless steel having more resistant to temperature by adding minor element has been developing for operating the LMR at higher temperature. Of many elements, nitrogen is a prospective element to modify type 316L(N) stainless steel because nitrogen is the most effective element for solid solution and because nitrogen retards the precipitation of carbide at grain boundary. Ti, Nb, and V are added to improve creep properties by stabilizing the carbides through forming MC carbide. Testing techniques of tensile, fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue at high temperature are difficult. Moreover, testing times for creep and creep-fatigue tests are very long up to several tens of thousands hours because creep and creep-fatigue phenomena are time-dependent damage mechanism. So, it is hard to acquire the material data for designing LMR systems during a limited time. In addition, the integrity of LMR structural materials at the end of LMR life has to be predicted from the laboratory data tested during the short term because there is no data tested during 40 years. Therefore, the effect of elements on mechanical properties at high temperature was reviewed in this study and many methods to predict the long-term behaviors of structural materials by simulated modelling equation is shown in this report. (author). 32 refs., 9 tabs., 38 figs

  8. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-10-01

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs

  9. An innovative liquid metal design with worldwide application potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.; Berglund, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States nuclear program has been faced with major political, economic and technical challenges in recent years. One US program element, the Liquid Metal Reactor, has addressed these challenges in a systematic, focused manner. The result is an innovative modular design incorporating safety features that utilize inherent characteristics. This Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is based on the PRISM concept, originated by the General Electric Company in 1981. This design should also be attractive in other developed countries that have deployed, and/or are deploying, nuclear power. The design's safety features can achieve neutronic shutdown and decay heat removal without relying on operator action or engineered active safety features. The ALMR utilizes many innovations including: a passive reactor vessel air cooling system for decay heat removal; the use of a sealed reactor assembly; seismic isolation; electromagnetic primary pumps; and an in-vessel fuel transfer machine. The US ALMR design incorporates a metal fuel core as its reference, however, the required safety performance can also be achieved with an oxide core having similar safety features. This flexibility is particularly important when addressing world wide ALMR applications. The reference ALMR reactor module, of which there are nine in a typical 1395 MW e plant, has a -6 meter by -20 meter vessel and a 471 MW thermal output, with a reactor outlet temperature of 485 degrees C and an overall conversion efficiency of 33%. This plant uses a saturated steam cycle and a non-safety grade secondary sodium system

  10. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  11. Liquid metal-to-gas leak-detection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlin, E.; Witherspoon, J.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    It is desirable for liquid-metal-cooled reactors that small liquid metal-to-gas leaks be reliably detected. Testing has been performed on a number of detection systems to evaluate their sensitivity, response time, and performance characteristics. This testing has been scheduled in three phases. The first phase was aimed at screening out the least suitable detectors and optimizing the performance of the most promising. In the second phase, candidates were tested in a 1500 ft 3 walk-in type enclosure in which leaks were simulated on 24-in. and 3-in. piping. In the third phase of testing, selected type detectors were tested in the 1500-ft 3 enclosure with Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) pipe insulation configurations and detector tubing configuration with cell gas recirculation simulated. Endurance testing of detection equipment was also performed as part of this effort. Test results have been shown that aerosol-type detectors will reliably detect leaks as small as a few grams per hour when sampling pipe insulation annuli

  12. Liquid metal coolant disposal from UKAEA reactors at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the United Kingdom's Fast Reactor Development programme two reactors were built and operated at Dounreay in the North of Scotland. DFR (Dounreay Fast Reactor) was operated from 1959-1977 and PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor) was operated from 1974-1994. Both reactors are currently undergoing Stage 1 Decommissioning and are installing plant to dispose of the bulk coolant (DFR ∼ 60 tonne; PFR ∼ 1500 tonne). The coolant (NaK) remaining at DFR is mainly in the primary circuit which contains in excess of 500 TBq of Cs137. Disposal of 40 tonnes of secondary coolant has already been carried out. The paper will describe the processes used to dispose of this secondary circuit coolant and how it is intended the remaining primary circuit coolant will be handled. The programme to process the primary coolant will also be described which involves the conversion of the liquid metal to caustic and its decontamination. No PFR coolant Na has been disposed off to date. The paper will describe the current decommissioning programme activities relating to liquid metal disposal and treatment describing the materials to be disposed of and the issue of decontamination of the effluents. (author)

  13. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  14. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-03-21

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions.

  15. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions

  16. Evaluation of liquid metal protection of a limiter/divertor in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The liquid metal protection concept is proposed mainly to prolong the lifetime of a divertor or a limiter in a fusion reactor. This attractive idea for protection requires studying a wide range of problems associated with the use of liquid-metals in fusion reactors. In this work the protection by liquid-metals has concentrated on predictions of the loss rate of the film to the plasma, the operating surface temperatures required for the film, and the potential tritium inventory requirement. The effect of plasma disruptions on the liquid metal film is also evaluated. Other problems such as liquid metal compatibility with structural materials, magnetic field effects, and the effect of liquid metal contamination on plasma performance are discussed. Three candidate liquid-metals are evaluated, i.e., lithium, gallium, and tin. A wide range of reactor operating conditions valid for both near term machines (INTOR and ITER) and for the next generation commercial reactors (TPSS) are considered. This study has indicated that the evaporation rate for candidate liquid metals can be kept below the sputtering range for reasonable operating temperatures and plasma edge conditions. At higher temperatures, evaporation dominates the losses. Impurity transport calculations indicate that impurities from the plate should not reach the main plasma. One or two millimeters of liquid films can protect the structure from severe plasma disruptions. Depending on the design of the liquid metal protection system, the tritium inventory in the liquid film is predicted to be on the order of a few grams. 16 refs., 5 figs

  17. Apparatus for sealing a rotatable shield plug in a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing a rotatable shield plug in a nuclear reactor having liquid metal coolant is described. The apparatus includes a dip -ring seal adapted to provide a fluid barrier between the liquid metal and the atmosphere and to permit rotation of the shield plug. The apparatus also includes a static seal for the rotatable shield plug located between the dip-ring seal and the liquid metal. The static seal isolates the dip-ring seal from the liquid metal vapor during operation at power and can be disengaged for rotation of the shield plug

  18. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate.

  19. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate

  20. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  1. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  2. Intermetallic and electrical insulator coatings on high-temperature alloys in liquid-lithium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems for fusion-reactor blanket, applications, the corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. When the system is cooled by liquid metals, insulator coatings are required on piping surfaces in contact with the coolant. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural wall, and Be-V intermetallic coatings for first-wall components that face the plasma. Vanadium and V-base alloys are leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Various intermetallic films were produced on V-alloys and on Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid Li containing 2 at temperatures of 500--1030 degree C. CaO electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the oxygen-rich layer with <5 at. % Ca dissolved in liquid Li at 400--700 degree C. The reaction converted the oxygen-rich layer to an electrically insulating film. This coating method is applicable to reactor components because the liquid metal can be used over and over; only the solute within the liquid metal is consumed. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid Li at high temperatures

  3. Effect of Proton Irradiation on the Corrosion Behaviors of Ferritic/Martensitic Steel in Liquid Metal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) are the candidates of GEN-IV nuclear energy systems. Among various liquid metals that can be used as primary coolant material, sodium is a world widely used coolant for GEN-IV reactors. In this study, as-received Gr.92 and irradiated Gr.92 specimen in the oxygen-saturated liquid sodium were examined at high temperature for 300h. The microstructure results reveal the information of the effect of irradiation and effect of the chrome concentration in specimen. From the SRIM result, penetration distance of 40 μm in stainless steel and nominal sample thickness of 30 μm was used to avoid the damage peak and any proton implantation and From the microstructural evaluation, chromium-rich zones existed under the surface of the both of non-irradiated and irradiated materials. The irradiated materials showed chromium-rich zones with larger depths than the non-irradiated specimens.

  4. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  5. Field-Controlled Electrical Switch with Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, James; Dickey, Michael D; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    When immersed in an electrolyte, droplets of Ga-based liquid metal (LM) alloy can be manipulated in ways not possible with conventional electrocapillarity or electrowetting. This study demonstrates how LM electrochemistry can be exploited to coalesce and separate droplets under moderate voltages of ~1-10 V. This novel approach to droplet interaction can be explained with a theory that accounts for oxidation and reduction as well as fluidic instabilities. Based on simulations and experimental analysis, this study finds that droplet separation is governed by a unique limit-point instability that arises from gradients in bipolar electrochemical reactions that lead to gradients in interfacial tension. The LM coalescence and separation are used to create a field-programmable electrical switch. As with conventional relays or flip-flop latch circuits, the system can transition between bistable (separated or coalesced) states, making it useful for memory storage, logic, and shape-programmable circuitry using entirely liquids instead of solid-state materials.

  6. Liquid metal reactor applications of the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.E.; Bergeron, K.D.; Gido, R.; Valdez, G.D.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1988-01-01

    The CONTAIN code is the NRC's best-estimate code for the evaluation of the conditions that may exist inside a reactor containment building during a severe accident. Included in the phenomena modeled are thermal-hydraulics, radiant and convective heat transfer, aerosol loading and transient response, fission product transport and heating effects, and interactions of sodium and corium with the containment atmosphere and structures. CONTAIN has been used by groups in Japan and West Germany to assess its ability to analyze accident consequences for liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants. In conjunction with this use, collaborative efforts to improve the modeling have been pursued. This paper summarizes the current state of the version of CONTAIN that has been enhanced with extra capabilities for LMR applications. A description of physical models is presented, followed by a review of validation exercises performed with CONTAIN. Some demonstration calculations of an integrated LMR application are presented

  7. Vessel supporting structure for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, Armel; Jullien, Georges

    1974-01-01

    The supporting structure described is for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, the vessel being of the type suspended to the end slab of the reactor. It includes a ring connected at one of its two ends to a single shell and at the other end to two shells. One of these three shells connected to the lower end of the ring forms the upper part of the vessel to be supported. The two other shells are embedded in two sperate parts of the slab. The ring and shell assembly is housed in an annular space provided in the end slab and separating it into two parts, namely a central part and a peripheral part [fr

  8. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Method of shielding a liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The primary heat transport system of a nuclear reactor - particularly for a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor - is shielded and protected from leakage by establishing and maintaining a bed of a powdered oxide closely and completely surrounding all components thereof by passing a gas upwardly therethrough at such a rate as to slightly expand the bed to the extent that the components of the system are able to expand without damage and yet the particles of a the bed remain close enough so that the bed acts as a guard vessel for the system. Preferably the gas contains 1 to 10% oxygen and the gas is passed upwardly through the bed at such a rate that the lower portion of the bed is a fixed bed while the upper portion is a fluidized bed, the line of demarcation therebetween being high enough that the fixed bed portion of the bed serves as guard vessel for the system

  10. Heating effects in a liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, G.L.R.; Aitken, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A reassessment is made of the heating occurring at the anode of a liquid metal ion source, in the light of new microscopic observations. The apex region of the cones is in the form of a cusp, or jet, even at very low currents. The calculation for ohmic heating is conclusive for low currents; no heating occurs at the anode; for high currents (approx. 50-100 μA), substantial heating is conceivable, if a long, very thin, cylindrical jet exists at the apex of the anode. The answer to the problem of external heating, in the form of electrons bombarding the anode, is not quite conclusive; this is because of the impossibility of correctly assessing the electron flux entering the anode. However, it would appear to be a definite conclusion that for reasons of self-consistency field-ionisation of thermally released atoms cannot be a significant ion emission mechanism. (author)

  11. Disintegration of liquid metals by low pressure water blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of disintegrating metals by a low cost system and subsequently incorporating them into grout mixtures has been demonstrated. A low pressure water blasting technique consisting of multiple nozzles and a converging-line jet stream was developed to disintegrate liquid metals and produce coarse metal powder and shot. Molten iron resulted in spherical shot, while copper, aluminum, and tin produced irregular shaped particles. The particle size was between 0.05 and 3 mm (0.002 and 0.1 in.), and about half the particles were smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in all cases. The water consumption was rather low, while the production rate was relatively high. The method proved to be simple and reliable. The coarse metal powders were suspendable in grout fluids, indicating that they are probably disposable by the shale hydrofracture technique

  12. Dispersion relations of the acoustic modes in divalent liquid metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collective dynamics in liquid Ca and liquid Cd was studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS. Using our experimental technique to prepare proper sample cells and high performance of an IXS beamline (BL35XU at SPring-8 in Japan, the dynamic structure factor with reasonable statistics was obtained for these divalent liquid metals. For both liquids, the dynamic structure factor at low Q exhibits a central peak with a shoulder or small hump clearly visible on each side, and the inelastic excitation energy determined using the model function composed of Lorentzian and the damped harmonic oscillator function disperses with increasing Q. The dispersion curves of these liquids were compared with that of the longitudinal acoustic phonon in each crystalline phase. From these results, clear difference in the interatomic interaction be- tween liquid Ca and liquid Cd was inferred.

  13. Light-driven liquid metal nanotransformers for biomedical theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechetka, Svetlana A.; Yu, Yue; Zhen, Xu; Pramanik, Manojit; Pu, Kanyi; Miyako, Eijiro

    2017-05-01

    Room temperature liquid metals (LMs) represent a class of emerging multifunctional materials with attractive novel properties. Here, we show that photopolymerized LMs present a unique nanoscale capsule structure characterized by high water dispersibility and low toxicity. We also demonstrate that the LM nanocapsule generates heat and reactive oxygen species under biologically neutral near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Concomitantly, NIR laser exposure induces a transformation in LM shape, destruction of the nanocapsules, contactless controlled release of the loaded drugs, optical manipulations of a microfluidic blood vessel model and spatiotemporal targeted marking for X-ray-enhanced imaging in biological organs and a living mouse. By exploiting the physicochemical properties of LMs, we achieve effective cancer cell elimination and control of intercellular calcium ion flux. In addition, LMs display a photoacoustic effect in living animals during NIR laser treatment, making this system a powerful tool for bioimaging.

  14. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants

  15. Two cylinder permanent magnet stirrer for liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarevičs, A.; Baranovskis, R.; Kaldre, I.; Milgrāvis, M.; Beinerts, T.

    2017-07-01

    To achieve a uniform liquid metal composition and temperature distribution, stirring is often necessary for industrial processes. Here, a novel permanent magnet system for liquid melt stirring is proposed. It promises very low energy consumption and options for multiple different flow types compared to traditional travelling magnetic field inductors or mechanical stirrers. The proposed system has a simple design: it consists of two rotating permanent magnet cylinders, which are magnetized transversely to the axis of the cylinders. The experimental device was developed and tested under various regimes using GaInSn alloy in a cylindrical crucible. Aluminum stirring by permanent magnets in laboratory scale is tested, and stirring impact on directional solidification of metallic alloys is experimentally investigated.

  16. Feasible homopolar dynamo with sliding liquid-metal contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priede, Jānis; Avalos-Zúñiga, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    We present a feasible homopolar dynamo design consisting of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil, which is placed above a fast-spinning metal ring and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Using a simple, analytically solvable axisymmetric model, we determine the optimal design of such a setup. For small contact resistance, the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, Rm≈34.6, at which the dynamo can work, is attained at the optimal ratio of the outer and inner radii of the rings R i /R o ≈0.36 and the spiral pitch angle 54.7°. In a setup of two copper rings with the thickness of 3 cm, R i =10 cm and R o =30 cm, self-excitation of the magnetic field is expected at a critical rotation frequency around 10 Hz

  17. Some problems in the magnetohydrodynamics of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffatt, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    When electric currents are caused to flow in an electrically conducting fluid, either by the external application of time-periodic magnetic fields or by the application of large electric potential gradients at the boundary, the associated Lorentz force is in general rotational and a fluid motion, which may be laminar or turbulent, is in general established. Three prototype problems, on which some progress has been made over the last decade, are reviewed: (i) the problem of the generation of rotation in a liquid metal by the application of a rotating magnetic field; (ii) the generation of cellular motion by the application of an alternating field of fixed direction; and (iii) the problem of the generation of fluid motion by the injection of steady current at a point electrode on the fluid boundary. All three problems are of importance in molten metal technology. (author)

  18. The US Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolin, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Based on National Energy Strategy projections, utilities will be required to substantially increase electric generating capacity over the next 40 yr to meet economic growth requirements and replace retiring capacity. Although aggressive conservation measures can save up to 85 GW(electric), ∼195 GW(electric) of additional generating capcity will still be needed by 2010. Assuming startup of new plants around 2000, US Department of Energy (DOE) analyses show that nuclear power can contribute 195 GW(electric) of capacity by 2030, or ∼20% of total electric generation. The DOE is involved in a number of strategies designed to revitalize the nuclear power industry and enable it to meet this projected need for additional capacity. Among these is an integrated overall strategy for advanced reactor development and high-level waste management. A high priority in pursuit of this strategy is the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) Program

  19. Submersion Quenching of Undercooled Liquid Metals in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. The laboratory has recently added a new capability, a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals and alloys. This is the first submersion quench system inside an electrostatic levitator. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and silicon-cobalt alloys. This rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development, including studies of metastable phases and transient microstructures. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  20. The US Liquid-Metal Reactor Program - overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.; Gyorey, G.L.; Salerno, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    The US Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) Program has three major elements being developed in an integrated fashion to produce a system meeting the US long-term nuclear energy needs. Reactor design, one of those elements, is the focus of this paper. The other two elements, the integral fast reactor metal-fuel cycle and the light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel actinide recycle, will be addressed in companion papers. The ALMR is adaptable to multiple missions with few modifications such as the core arrangements. The missions identified to date are (a) the extension of the existing uranium resources through breeding and highly efficient uranium utilization, (b) the recycle and utilization of the long-life actinides in LWR spent fuel as fissile material for the ALMR, and (c) the conversion of excess weapons fissil material into electricity. In addition to these missions, the reactor design is adaptable to either the metal-fuel cycle or the oxide fuel cycle

  1. Radioactive waste management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Fryer, R.H.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactive waste production and management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), which is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Argonne National Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since this facility, in addition to supplying power has been used to demonstrate the breeder, fuel cycling, and recently operations with defective fuel elements, various categories of waste have been handled safely over some 14 years of operation. Liquid wastes are processed such that the resulting effluent can be discharged to an uncontrolled area. Solid wastes up to 10,000 R/hr are packaged and shipped contamination-free to a disposal site or interim storage with exposures to personnel approximately 10 mrem. Gaseous waste discharges are low such as 143 Ci of noble gases in 1978 and do not have a significant effect on the environment even with operations with breached fuel

  2. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  3. Self-cooled liquid-metal blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Arheidt, K.; Barleon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A blanket concept for the Next European Torus (NET) where 83Pb-17Li serves both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The concept is based on the use of novel flow channel inserts for a decisive reduction of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop and employs beryllium as neutron multiplier in order to avoid the need for breeding blankets at the inboard side of the torus. This study includes the design, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, stresses, MHDs, corrosion, tritium recovery, and safety of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket. The results of the investigations indicate that the self-cooled blanket is an attractive alternative to other driver blanket concepts for NET and that it can be extrapolated to the conditions of a DEMO reactor

  4. Superconductor homopolar machines with liquid-metal contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyevsky, B.L.; Bazarnov, B.A.; Oktyabrsky, A.M.; Popov, N.N.; Sherstuk, A.G.; Shopen, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    Alongside with the power increase of Electric Superconductor (SC) Machines including Homopolar Machines (HM) there is a strong need of improving their working characteristics, raising the efficiency, reducing the superconductor consumption. In the paper, the results of investigating the mass, dimensional and energetic properties of SCHM are given which are illustrated by the calculation of homopolar generators in the band of nominal power per unit P n = (2-250) MW at the voltage of 12, 24, 60, 230 V and rotation frequency of 25 and 50 rps. Screened and unscreened HM of a cylindrical type with liquid-metal current collector devices (LCD) and inductor consisting of 2 opposing SC coils mounted in a fixed cryostat inside the rotating armature are investigated

  5. CFD analysis of liquid metal cooled rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.M.; Suh, K.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The model subassembly of the BREST-type reactor core is a pin bundle of square arrangement. In this bundle there are two zones which differ with respect to pin diameters and level of heat production. The model pin bundle contains one spacer grid which is located near the midplane of the rod bundle geometry. The coolant consists of a eutectic alloy of 22% sodium (Na) plus 78% potassium (K). Experiments were performed in order to observe the thermal hydraulic behavior of the liquid metal coolant in the BREST core simulator. Results were obtained for the coolant exit temperatures, central measuring pin simulator external surface temperatures, and coolant velocities at the perimeter of the measuring pin simulator. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to simulate the liquid metal flows in subchannels. Semi-fine mesh structures were used to model the flow with reasonable accuracy and speed once rigorous node resolution dependency had been tested. A subchannel analysis code was used to investigate the flows as well. Since the subchannel analysis code is based on a lumped parameter model, it only calculates the subchannel averaged velocity values. The CFD code results were averaged on the subchannel basis to be comparable with the results from the subchannel code. The mixing vane is not considered for the time being so as to simplify the problem and to reduce the computational cost. The two codes showed similar results. The difference between the experimental and computational results is considered to mainly originate from the existence of the mixing vane. (authors)

  6. CFD analysis of liquid metal cooled rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, H.M.; Suh, K.Y. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The model subassembly of the BREST-type reactor core is a pin bundle of square arrangement. In this bundle there are two zones which differ with respect to pin diameters and level of heat production. The model pin bundle contains one spacer grid which is located near the midplane of the rod bundle geometry. The coolant consists of a eutectic alloy of 22% sodium (Na) plus 78% potassium (K). Experiments were performed in order to observe the thermal hydraulic behavior of the liquid metal coolant in the BREST core simulator. Results were obtained for the coolant exit temperatures, central measuring pin simulator external surface temperatures, and coolant velocities at the perimeter of the measuring pin simulator. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to simulate the liquid metal flows in subchannels. Semi-fine mesh structures were used to model the flow with reasonable accuracy and speed once rigorous node resolution dependency had been tested. A subchannel analysis code was used to investigate the flows as well. Since the subchannel analysis code is based on a lumped parameter model, it only calculates the subchannel averaged velocity values. The CFD code results were averaged on the subchannel basis to be comparable with the results from the subchannel code. The mixing vane is not considered for the time being so as to simplify the problem and to reduce the computational cost. The two codes showed similar results. The difference between the experimental and computational results is considered to mainly originate from the existence of the mixing vane. (authors)

  7. Automated scoping methodology for liquid metal natural circulation small reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hyung M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Automated scoping methodology for natural circulation small modular reactor is developed. • In-house code is developed to carry out system analysis and core geometry generation during scoping. • Adjustment relations are obtained to correct the critical core geometry out of diffusion theory. • Optimized design specification is found using objective function value. • Convex hull volume is utilized to quantify the impact of different constraints on the scope range. - Abstract: A novel scoping method is proposed that can automatically generate design variable range of the natural circulation driven liquid metal cooled small reactor. From performance requirements based upon Generation IV system roadmap, appropriate structure materials are selected and engineering constraints are compiled based upon literature. Utilizing ASME codes and standards, appropriate geometric sizing criteria on constituting components are developed to ensure integrity of the system during its lifetime. In-house one dimensional thermo-hydraulic system analysis code is developed based upon momentum integral model and finite element methods to deal with non-uniform descritization of temperature nodes for convection and thermal diffusion equation of liquid metal coolant. In order to quickly generate critical core dimensions out of given unit cell information, an adjustment relation that relates the critical geometry estimated from one-group diffusion and that from MCNP code is constructed and utilized throughout the process. For the selected unit cell dimension ranges, burnup calculations are carried out to check the cores can generate energy over the reactor lifetime. Utilizing random method, sizing criteria, and in-house analysis codes, an automated scoping methodology is developed. The methodology is applied to nitride fueled integral type lead cooled natural circulation reactor concept to generate design scopes which satisfies given constraints. Three dimensional convex

  8. Dual-plane ultrasound flow measurements in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, Lars; Nauber, Richard; Burger, Markus; Czarske, Jürgen; Räbiger, Dirk; Franke, Sven; Eckert, Sven

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound measurement system for dual-plane, two-component flow velocity measurements especially in opaque liquids is presented. Present-day techniques for measuring local flow structures in opaque liquids disclose considerable drawbacks concerning line-wise measurement of single ultrasound probes. For studying time-varying flow patterns, conventional ultrasound techniques are either limited by time-consuming mechanical traversing or by the sequential operation of single probes. The measurement system presented within this paper employs four transducer arrays with a total of 100 single elements which allows for flow mapping without mechanical traversing. A high frame rate of several 10 Hz has been achieved due to an efficient parallelization scheme using time-division multiplexing realized by a microcontroller-based electronic switching matrix. The functionality and capability of the measurement system are demonstrated on a liquid metal flow at room temperature inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). For the first time, the primary and the secondary flow have been studied in detail and simultaneously using a configuration with two crossed measurement planes. The experimental data confirm predictions made by numeric simulation. After a sudden switching on of the RMF, inertial oscillations of the secondary flow were observed by means of a time-resolved measurement with a frame rate of 3.4 Hz. The experiments demonstrate that the presented measurement system is able to investigate complex and transient flow structures in opaque liquids. Due to its ability to study the temporal evolution of local flow structures, the measurement system could provide considerable progress for fluid dynamics research, in particular for applications in the food industry or liquid metal technologies. (paper)

  9. Dual-plane ultrasound flow measurements in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Nauber, Richard; Burger, Markus; Räbiger, Dirk; Franke, Sven; Eckert, Sven; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    An ultrasound measurement system for dual-plane, two-component flow velocity measurements especially in opaque liquids is presented. Present-day techniques for measuring local flow structures in opaque liquids disclose considerable drawbacks concerning line-wise measurement of single ultrasound probes. For studying time-varying flow patterns, conventional ultrasound techniques are either limited by time-consuming mechanical traversing or by the sequential operation of single probes. The measurement system presented within this paper employs four transducer arrays with a total of 100 single elements which allows for flow mapping without mechanical traversing. A high frame rate of several 10 Hz has been achieved due to an efficient parallelization scheme using time-division multiplexing realized by a microcontroller-based electronic switching matrix. The functionality and capability of the measurement system are demonstrated on a liquid metal flow at room temperature inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). For the first time, the primary and the secondary flow have been studied in detail and simultaneously using a configuration with two crossed measurement planes. The experimental data confirm predictions made by numeric simulation. After a sudden switching on of the RMF, inertial oscillations of the secondary flow were observed by means of a time-resolved measurement with a frame rate of 3.4 Hz. The experiments demonstrate that the presented measurement system is able to investigate complex and transient flow structures in opaque liquids. Due to its ability to study the temporal evolution of local flow structures, the measurement system could provide considerable progress for fluid dynamics research, in particular for applications in the food industry or liquid metal technologies.

  10. Thermohydraulic behavior of liquid metal pool submitted to electronic bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Patrice

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the thermohydraulics of liquid metal molten by an electron beam. We study the relationship between the liquid metal pool and the vapor rate. The aim is to find good conditions increasing the metal vapor rate. In first place, energy losses are identified. Mains are convection (buoyancy and thermo-capillary) strengthen by the deformation of the molten pool. The first action is to reduce the liquid interface deformation with a transient spot realized by scanning the electron beam. I find that in this case, the optimum vapor rate is obtained when the crossing time of the beam is smaller than characteristic time of formation of the cavity, but greater than the heating time of the surface. Secondly, I impose forces to change the morphology of the flow. Two actions are tried: magnetic field application and rotating motion of the crucible. External magnetic field application may reduce convective flow, by the creation of a magnetic brake. But in my experiment, magnetic field deteriorates electron beam before to be effective. Results obtained by the rotating motion of the crucible approve this choice to reduce energy losses and increase vapor rate. This growth of vapor rate is due to an expansion of the emitted vapor source and an increase of the central temperature of the molten pool. Nevertheless with the increase of the rotation velocity and after the optimum vapor rate, I note that the flow is not axisymmetric. My observation give to think about instabilities that are developed by baroclinic waves. The comparison of my works with the Eady's linear theory gives good results. (author) [fr

  11. Mechanical pumps for liquid metals; Pompes mecaniques pour metaux liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumier, J; Gollion, H J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pumping of liquid metals by centrifugal pumps poses two principal problems. These are hermetic sealing of the rotating shaft and, its guidance where immersed in liquid metal. The solutions to the problems used on 13 experimental pumps are given here. The resolution of the guidance problem consists in the majority of cases in the utilisation of hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, a theoretical study was instituted for the first time to calculate the bearings of the earlier pumps. After this, an experimental study was carried out, to check the theory by water tests. A relation for bearing calculation of pumps with diffusers is proposed. Finally the influence of the bearing elasticity on the shafts critical speed is studied. (authors) [French] Le pompage des metaux liquides, par des pompes centrifuges, pose 2 principaux problemes, qui sont: d'une part, la realisation d'une excellente etancheite au passage de l'arbre, d'autre part, son guidage sur la partie immergee dans le metal liquide. Les solutions retenues pour resoudre ces problemes sur 13 pompes experimentees sont presentees. Le probleme du guidage de l'arbre, a dans la majorite des cas ete resolu en utilisant un palier hydrostatique, aussi l'etude en a d'abord ete approfondie de facon theorique pour calculer les paliers des premieres pompes, puis experimentale pour controler la theorie, en effectuant des essais a l'eau. On propose une relation pour calculer les paliers des pompes a diffuseurs. On a en outre effectue une etude de l'influence de l'elasticite du palier hydrostatique sur la vitesse critique de l'arbre. (auteurs)

  12. Numerical simulation of turbulent forced convection in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodret, S; Di Maio, D Vitale; Caruso, G

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of the future generation of nuclear reactors, liquid metals are foreseen to be used as a primary coolant. Liquid metals are characterized by a very low Prandtl number due to their very high heat diffusivity. As such, they do not meet the so-called Reynolds analogy which assumes a complete similarity between the momentum and the thermal boundary layers via the use of the turbulent Prandtl number. Particularly, in the case of industrial fluid-dynamic calculations where a resolved computation near walls could be extremely time consuming and could need very large computational resources, the use of the classical wall function approach could lead to an inaccurate description of the temperature profile close to the wall. The first aim of the present study is to investigate the ability of a well- established commercial code (ANSYS FLUENT v.14) to deal with this issue, validating a suitable expression for the turbulent Prandtl number. Moreover, a thermal wall-function developed at Universite Catholique de Louvain has been implemented in FLUENT and validated, overcoming the limits of the solver to define it directly. Both the resolved and unresolved approaches have been carried out for a channel flow case and assessed against available direct numerical and large eddy simulations. A comparison between the numerically evaluated Nusselt number and the main correlations available in the literature has been also carried out. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology to a typical sub-channel case has been performed, comparing the results with literature correlations for tube banks

  13. State-of-the-art report on the development of liquid metal reactor fuel cladding materials in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kuk, Il Hiun; Ryu, Woo Seog; Jang, Jin Sung; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Dae Whan; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Woo Gon; Chung, Man Kyo; Han, Chang Hee

    1998-01-01

    PNC 1520 and PNC-FM5 have been developed as a cladding materials for LMR in Japan. PNC 1520 has superior swelling resistance and high temperature properties to PNC 31.6. And PNC-FMS steel has shown a high rupture stress as well as good neutron irradiation performance. In addition oxide dispersed ferritic steel (PNC-ODS) and 12Cr-8Mo steel have been developed. This report will give an insight for choosing and developing the materials to be applied to the KAERI prototype liquid metal reactor which is going to be operable in 2010 by analysis of the characteristics of cladding materials developed in Japan. (author). 39 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  14. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  15. Approaches to measurement of thermal-hydraulic parameters in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture considers instrumentation for liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). Included is instrumentation to measure sodium flow, pressure, temperature, acoustic noise, and sodium purity. It is divided into three major parts: (1) measurement requirements for sodium cooled reactor systems, (2) in-core and out-of-core measurements in liquid metal systems, and (3) performance measurements of water steam generators

  16. Effects of loading variables on fatigue-crack growth in liquid-metal environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE) refers to the loss of ductility in normally ductile metals and alloys when stressed while in contact with a liquid metal. In this study, the fatigue crack growth behaviour of brass in molten gallium...

  17. A pump/intermediate heat exchanger assembly for a liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathenson, R.D.; Alexion, C.C.; Sumpman, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    A heat exchanger and electromagnetic pump assembly is disclosed comprising a heat exchanger housing defining an annularly shaped cavity and supporting therein a plurality of heat transfer tubes. An electromagnetic pump disposed beneath the heat exchanger comprises a circular array of flow couplers. Each flow coupler comprises a pump duct receiving primary liquid metal and a generator duct receiving a pumped intermediate liquid metal. A first plenum chamber is in communication with the generator ducts of all the flow couplers and receives intermediate liquid metal from inlet duct. The generator ducts exit their flows of intermediate liquid metal to a second plenum chamber in communication with the heat exchanger annularly shaped cavity to permit the flow of the intermediate liquid metal therethrough. A third plenum chamber receives collectively the flows of the primary liquid metal from the tubes and directs the primary liquid metal to the pump ducts of the flow couplers. The annular magnetic field of the electromagnetic pump is produced by a circular array of electromagnets having hollow windings cooled by a flow of intermediate liquid metal via tubes and manifolds. The leads to the electromagnets pass through an annular space around the inlet duct. (author)

  18. Immersion apparatus and process for an ultrasonic transducer in a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.

    1987-01-01

    The ultrasonic transducer is introduced in a casing. The coupling zone of the transducer is covered by a layer of liquid metal. This layer is solidified and then the transducer with his coating layer is introduced in the liquid metal under an inert atmosphere. The device for immersing the transducer is claimed [fr

  19. High-temperature metallography setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, M.; Shmarjahu, D.; Elfassy, S.

    1979-06-01

    A high-temperature metallography setup is presented. In this setup the observation of processes such as that of copper recrystallization was made possible, and the structure of metals such as uranium could be revealed. A brief historical review of part of the research works that have been done with the help of high temperature metallographical observation technique since the beginning of this century is included. Detailed description of metallographical specimen preparation technique and theoretical criteria based on the rate of evaporation of materials present on the polished surface of the specimens are given

  20. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  1. Liquid metal embrittlement. From basic concepts to recent results related to structural materials for liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, D.; Goryachev, S.; Auger, T.

    2003-01-01

    At first, the basic features of LME are recalled (definition, characteristics, embrittling couples), together with classical experimental features and open questions. Then, a review of a few very recent results obtained on classical embrittling couples but using new powerful investigation techniques developed in France is proposed. Second we define LMC. The 'LME-LMC' correlation is postulated. Then we concentrate on the LME-LMC problem related to the build-up of the Liquid Metal Spallation target in the frame of the MEGAPIE project. The Russian expertise on LME is briefly mentioned. Then we present some results obtained in the frame of the Groupement de Recherche' GEDEON, focusing on steel grade T91 in contact with lead and lead-bismuth eutectic, in agreement with Russian literature. (author)

  2. The design of a heat transfer liquid metal MHD experiment for ALEX [Argonne Liquid-Metal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Lavine, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study heat transfer in liquid metal MHD flow, under conditions relevant to coolant channels for tokamak first wall and high heat flux devices, is described. The experimental configuration is a rectangular duct in a transverse magnetic field, heated on one wall parallel to the field. The specific objective of the experiment is to resolve important issues related to the presence and heat transfer characteristics of wall jets and flow instabilities in MHD flows in rectangular duct with electrically conducting walls. Available analytical tools for MHD thermal hydraulics have been used in the design of the test article and its instrumentation. Proposed tests will cover a wide range of Peclet and Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Carsten M.; Deeds, W. Edward

    1999-01-01

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

  4. Gallium-Based Room-Temperature Liquid Metals: Actuation and Manipulation of Droplets and Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Majidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallium-based room-temperature liquid metals possess extremely valuable properties, such as low toxicity, low vapor pressure, and high thermal and electrical conductivity enabling them to become suitable substitutes for mercury and beyond in wide range of applications. When exposed to air, a native oxide layer forms on the surface of gallium-based liquid metals which mechanically stabilizes the liquid. By removing or reconstructing the oxide skin, shape and state of liquid metal droplets and flows can be manipulated/actuated desirably. This can occur manually or in the presence/absence of a magnetic/electric field. These methods lead to numerous useful applications such as soft electronics, reconfigurable devices, and soft robots. In this mini-review, we summarize the most recent progresses achieved on liquid metal droplet generation and actuation of gallium-based liquid metals with/without an external force.

  5. High-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics

  6. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  7. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  8. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  9. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  10. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  11. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.; Wu, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb 3 Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take

  12. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  13. Fracture mechanical evaluation of high temperature structure and creep-fatigue defect assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jae Han

    2004-02-01

    This study proposed the evaluation procedure of high temperature structures from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics on the cylindrical structure applicable to the KALIMER, which is developed by KAERI. For the evaluation of structural integrity, linear and non-linear fracture mechanics parameters were analyzed. Parameters used in creep defect growth applicable to high temperature structure of liquid metal reactor and the evaluation codes with these parameters were analyzed. The evaluation methods of defect initiation and defect growth which were established in R5/R6 code(UK), JNC method (Japan) and RCC-MR A16(France) code were analyzed respectively. The evaluation procedure of leak before break applicable to KALIMER was preliminarily developed and proposed. As an application example of defect growth, the creep-fatigue defect growth on circumferential throughwall defect in high temperature cylindrical structure was evaluated by RCC-MR A16 and this application technology was established.

  14. Development of VHTR high temperature piping in KHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Takano, Shiro

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature pipings used for multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactors are the internally insulated pipings for transporting high temperature, high pressure helium at 1000 deg C and 40 kgf/cm 2 , and the influences exerted by their performance as well as safety to the plants are very large. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has engaged in the development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs for years. In this report, the progress of the development, the test carried out recently and the problems for future are described. KHI manufactured and is constructing a heater and internally insulated helium pipings for the large, high temperature structure testing loop constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The design concept for the high temperature pipings is to separate the temperature boundary and the pressure boundary, therefore, the double walled construction with internal heat insulation was adopted. The requirements for the high temperature pipings are to prevent natural convection, to prevent bypass flow, to minimize radiation heat transfer and to reduce heat leak through insulator supporters. The heat insulator is composed of two layers, metal laminate insulator and fiber insulator of alumina-silica. The present state of development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs is reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Recent Advancements in Liquid Metal Flexible Printed Electronics: Properties, Technologies, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview on typical properties, technologies, and applications of liquid metal based flexible printed electronics. The core manufacturing material—room-temperature liquid metal, currently mainly represented by gallium and its alloys with the properties of excellent resistivity, enormous bendability, low adhesion, and large surface tension, was focused on in particular. In addition, a series of recently developed printing technologies spanning from personal electronic circuit printing (direct painting or writing, mechanical system printing, mask layer based printing, high-resolution nanoimprinting, etc. to 3D room temperature liquid metal printing is comprehensively reviewed. Applications of these planar or three-dimensional printing technologies and the related liquid metal alloy inks in making flexible electronics, such as electronical components, health care sensors, and other functional devices were discussed. The significantly different adhesions of liquid metal inks on various substrates under different oxidation degrees, weakness of circuits, difficulty of fabricating high-accuracy devices, and low rate of good product—all of which are challenges faced by current liquid metal flexible printed electronics—are discussed. Prospects for liquid metal flexible printed electronics to develop ending user electronics and more extensive applications in the future are given.

  16. Ceramics for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocellin, A.

    1977-01-01

    Problems related to materials, their fabrication, properties, handling, improvements are examined. Silicium nitride and silicium carbide are obtained by vacuum hot-pressing, reaction sintering and chemical vapour deposition. Micrographs are shown. Mechanical properties i.e. room and high temperature strength, creep resistance fracture mechanics and fatigue resistance. Recent developments of pressureless sintered Si C and the Si-Al-O-N quaternary system are mentioned

  17. High-temperature geothermal cableheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquat, J. A.; Eifert, R. W.

    1981-11-01

    Two high temperature, corrosion resistant logging cable heads which use metal seals and a stable fluid to achieve proper electrical terminations and cable sonde interfacings are described. A tensile bar provides a calibrated yield point, and a cone assembly anchors the cable armor to the head. Electrical problems of the sort generally ascribable to the cable sonde interface were absent during demonstration hostile environment loggings in which these cable heads were used.

  18. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  19. High temperature fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.; dePaz, J.F.; Gohar, M.Y.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fusion energy may have unique advantages over other systems as a source for high temperature process heat. A conceptual design of a blanket for a 7 m tokamak reactor has been developed that is capable of producing 1100 0 C process heat at a pressure of approximately 10 atmospheres. The design is based on the use of a falling bed of MgO spheres as the high temperature heat transfer system. By preheating the spheres with energy taken from the low temperature tritium breeding part of the blanket, 1086 MW of energy can be generated at 1100 0 C from a system that produces 3000 MW of total energy while sustaining a tritium breeding ratio of 1.07. The tritium breeding is accomplished using Li 2 O modules both in front of (6 cm thick) and behind (50 cm thick) the high temperature ducts. Steam is used as the first wall and front tritium breeding module coolant while helium is used in the rear tritium breeding region. The system produces 600 MW of net electricity for use on the grid

  20. The Dounreay PFR Liquid-Metal Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.V.; Comline, A.; Small, J.; Blyth, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UKAEA Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay had a liquid sodium-cooled core. Following its shutdown in 1994, the liquid metal is being removed from the reactor and other vessels by means of specialized equipment and reacted with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide in a special vessel. The reaction products are neutralized with hydrochloric acid to produce a saline solution.The reactor sodium delivery and processing equipment is all of novel design. As sodium has been withdrawn from the vessel, it has been necessary to switch off the primary sodium pumps (used to heat the sodium), and the reactor is now kept at temperature by a purpose-designed electric heater and a NaK loop heater.A primary sodium extract pump has currently removed [approximately]450 tonnes of primary sodium from the reactor. As the level falls special equipment will be used to punch a hole in the primary circuit pipe work and to drill the strongback to allow trapped sodium to drain for extraction

  1. Complaint liquid metal electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Lauren R.; Majidi, Carmel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a liquid-phase metal electrode to be used with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). DEAs are favorable for soft-matter applications where high efficiency and response times are desirable. A consistent challenge faced during the fabrication of these devices is the selection and deposition of electrode material. While numerous designs have been demonstrated with a variety of conductive elastomers and greases, these materials have significant and often intrinsic shortcomings, e.g. low conductivity, hysteresis, incapability of large deformations, and complex fabrication requirements. The liquid metal alloy eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) is a promising alternative to existing compliant electrodes, having both high conductivity and complete soft-matter functionality. The liquid electrode shares almost the same electrical conductivity as conventional metal wiring and provides no mechanical resistance to bending or stretching of the DEA. This research establishes a straightforward and effective method for quickly depositing EGaIn electrodes, which can be adapted for batch fabrication, and demonstrates the successful actuation of sample curved cantilever elastomer actuators using these electrodes. As with the vast majority of electrostatically actuated elastomer devices, the voltage requirements for these curved DEAs are still quite significant, though modifications to the fabrication process show some improved electrical properties. The ease and speed with which this method can be implemented suggests that the development of a more electronically efficient device is realistic and worthwhile.

  2. Extreme Toughening of Soft Materials with Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Navid; Bartlett, Michael D; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-05-01

    Soft and tough materials are critical for engineering applications in medical devices, stretchable and wearable electronics, and soft robotics. Toughness in synthetic materials is mostly accomplished by increasing energy dissipation near the crack tip with various energy dissipation techniques. However, bio-materials exhibit extreme toughness by combining multi-scale energy dissipation with the ability to deflect and blunt an advancing crack tip. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic materials architecture that also exhibits multi-modal toughening, whereby embedding a suspension of micron sized and highly deformable liquid metal (LM) droplets inside a soft elastomer, the fracture energy dramatically increases by up to 50x (from 250 ± 50 J m -2 to 11,900 ± 2600 J m -2 ) over an unfilled polymer. For some LM-embedded elastomer (LMEE) compositions, the toughness is measured to be 33,500 ± 4300 J m -2 , which far exceeds the highest value previously reported for a soft elastic material. This extreme toughening is achieved by (i) increasing energy dissipation, (ii) adaptive crack movement, and (iii) effective elimination of the crack tip. Such properties arise from the deformability of the LM inclusions during loading, providing a new mechanism to not only prevent crack initiation, but also resist the propagation of existing tears for ultra tough, soft materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Liquid metal actuator driven by electrochemical manipulation of surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Loren; Wissman, James; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    We examine the electrocapillary properties of a fluidic actuator composed of a liquid metal droplet that is submerged in electrolytic solution and attached to an elastic beam. The beam deflection is controlled by electrochemically driven changes in the surface energy of the droplet. The metal is a eutectic gallium-indium alloy that is liquid at room temperature and forms an nm-thin Ga2O3 skin when oxidized. The effective surface tension of the droplet changes dramatically with oxidation and reduction, which are reversibly controlled by applying low voltage to the electrolytic bath. Wetting the droplet to two copper pads allows for a controllable tensile force to be developed between the opposing surfaces. We demonstrate the ability to reliably control force by changing the applied oxidizing voltage. Actuator forces and droplet geometries are also examined by performing a computational fluid mechanics simulation using Surface Evolver. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements and provide additional confirmation that actuation is driven by surface tension.

  4. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations

  5. Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    The diameter (d f ) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end

  6. Improved alloys for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An alloy is specified suitable for use at elevated temperatures and especially in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor consisting essentially of a nickel-chromium steel having a specified range of composition of C, Mn, Si, Zr, V, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, B, and the balance iron with incidental impurities, the alloy exhibiting a swelling at peak swelling temperature of less than 10% wherein the matrix composition has after heat treatment at a temperature within the range of 1000 0 C to 1100 0 C for about one half hour followed by aging at a temperature within the range of from 700 0 C to 815 0 C for a time period of between 10 to 24 hours, the longer hours being associated with the lower temperatures and vice-versa, and after the removal of the non-equilibrium gamma prime and other precipitated phases a composition within a specified range of composition of Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, the balance being essentially iron. (U.K.)

  7. The ion-electron correlation function in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Tamaki, S.; Waseda, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The structure factors of liquid Zn at 723 K, Sn at 523 K and Bi at 573 K have been determined by neutron diffraction with sufficient accuracy and compared with those of X-ray diffraction. A remarkable difference in the structural information between the two methods is clearly found around the first peak region as well as in the slightly varied peak positions, and it is apparently larger than the experimental errors. With these facts in mind, a new method evaluating the ion-electron correlation function in liquid metals has been proposed by using the measured structural data of X-rays and neutrons, with the help of theoretical values of the electron-electron correlation function by he Utsumi-Ichimaru scheme. This method has been applied to liquid Zn, Sn and Bi, and the radial distribution function of valence electrons around an ion has been estimated, from which the ionic radius and the schematic diagram of the electron distribution map are obtained. The ionic radii evaluated in this work have been found to agree well with those proposed by Pauling. (author)

  8. Safety design analyses of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, S.D.; Park, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    The national long-term R and D program updated in 1997 requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self consistent design meeting a set of the major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of current emphasis include those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve supporting R and D programs of substance. This paper summarizes some of the results of engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER. (author)

  9. Liquid metal liner implosion systems with blade lattice for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the liquid liner implosion systems with the blade lattice is proposed for the rotational stabilization of the liner inner surface which is facing a plasma in a fusion reactor. The blades are electrically conducting and inclined to the radial direction. Its major function is either acceleration or deceleration of the liner in the azimuthal direction. This system enables us to exclude the rotary mechanism for the liner rotation. In this system, the liner is formed as an annular flow of a liquid metal (the waterfall concept). Results show that there is no significant difference of the energy cost for the stabilization compared with the earlier proposed system where a liner is rotated rigidly before implosion. Furthermore, the application of the rotating blade lattice makes it possible to reduce the rotational kinetic energy required for the stabilization at turnaround, where the lattice acts as an impeller in the initial liner rotation. There is an optimum blade angle to maximize the compressed magnetic field energy inside the liner for a given driving energy. (author)

  10. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Evaluating advanced LMR [liquid metal reactor] reactivity feedbacks using SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of the PRISM and SAFR Liquid Metal Reactors with SSC are discussed from a safety and licensing perspective. The PRISM and SAFR reactors with metal fuel are designed for inherent shutdown responses to loss-of-flow and loss-of-heat-sink events. The demonstration of this technology was performed by EBR-II during experiments in April 1986 by ANL (Planchon, et al.). Response to postulated TOPs (control rod withdrawal) are made acceptable largely by reducing reactivity swings, and therefore minimizing the size of possible ractivity insertions. Analyses by DOE and the contractors GE, RI, and ANL take credit for several reactivity feedback mechanisms during transient calculations. These feedbacks include Doppler, sodium density, and thermal expansion of the grid plates, the load pads, the fuel (axial) and the control rod which are now factored into the BNL SSC analyses. The bowing feedback mechanism is not presently modeled in the SSC due to its complexity and subsequent large uncertainty. The analysis is conservative by not taking credit for this negative feedback mechanism. Comparisons of BNL predictions with DOE contractors are provided

  12. Coolant circulation system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, R.A.; Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a liquid metal circulation system comprising an electromagnetic pump comprised of: (a) an elongated cylindrical pump support housing; (b) a cylindrical pressure dome structure coaxially situated and supported within the pump support housing, having a closed, hemispherical upper end and an open, cylindrical lower end; (c) a cylindrical pump coaxially situated within the pressure dome structure including: (1) a central core body of laminated transformer steel having six peripherally equally spaced helical grooves on its outer surface extending the entire length of the central core body, (2) a multiplicity of square, ceramic insulated copper wires situated in the helical grooves, (3) electrical leads extending from the terminal ends of the square copper wires through the upper end of the pressure dome structure and to a three-phase low voltage/high amperage power source, (4) an austenitic stainless steel jacket covering the outer surface of the central core body and covering the helically coiled square copper wires, the outer stainless steel jacket and the inner surface of the pressure dome structure defining an annular flow passage

  13. Soft Multifunctional Composites and Emulsions with Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Navid; Hellebrekers, Tess; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-07-01

    Binary mixtures of liquid metal (LM) or low-melting-point alloy (LMPA) in an elastomeric or fluidic carrier medium can exhibit unique combinations of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This emerging class of soft multifunctional composites have potential applications in wearable computing, bio-inspired robotics, and shape-programmable architectures. The dispersion phase can range from dilute droplets to connected networks that support electrical conductivity. In contrast to deterministically patterned LM microfluidics, LMPA- and LM-embedded elastomer (LMEE) composites are statistically homogenous and exhibit effective bulk properties. Eutectic Ga-In (EGaIn) and Ga-In-Sn (Galinstan) alloys are typically used due to their high conductivity, low viscosity, negligible nontoxicity, and ability to wet to nonmetallic materials. Because they are liquid-phase, these alloys can alter the electrical and thermal properties of the composite while preserving the mechanics of the surrounding medium. For composites with LMPA inclusions (e.g., Field's metal, Pb-based solder), mechanical rigidity can be actively tuned with external heating or electrical activation. This progress report, reviews recent experimental and theoretical studies of this emerging class of soft material architectures and identifies current technical challenges and opportunities for further advancement. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Competing forces in liquid metal electrodes and batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan F.; Kelley, Douglas H.; Salas, Alejandro; Starace, Marco; Weber, Norbert; Weier, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries are proposed for low-cost grid scale energy storage. During their operation, solid intermetallic phases often form in the cathode and are known to limit the capacity of the cell. Fluid flow in the liquid electrodes can enhance mass transfer and reduce the formation of localized intermetallics, and fluid flow can be promoted by careful choice of the locations and topology of a battery's electrical connections. In this context we study four phenomena that drive flow: Rayleigh-Bénard convection, internally heated convection, electro-vortex flow, and swirl flow, in both experiment and simulation. In experiments, we use ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to measure the flow in a eutectic PbBi electrode at 160 °C and subject to all four phenomena. In numerical simulations, we isolate the phenomena and simulate each separately using OpenFOAM. Comparing simulated velocities to experiments via a UDV beam model, we find that all four phenomena can enhance mass transfer in LMBs. We explain the flow direction, describe how the phenomena interact, and propose dimensionless numbers for estimating their mutual relevance. A brief discussion of electrical connections summarizes the engineering implications of our work.

  15. A theoretical model of a liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingham, D.R.; Swanson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    A model of liquid metal ion source (LMIS) operation has been developed which gives a consistent picture of three different aspects of LMI sources: (i) the shape and size of the ion emitting region; (ii) the mechanism of ion formation; (iii) properties of the ion beam such as angular intensity and energy spread. It was found that the emitting region takes the shape of a jet-like protrusion on the end of a Taylor cone with ion emission from an area only a few tens of A across, in agreement with recent TEM pictures by Sudraud. This is consistent with ion formation predominantly by field evaporation. Calculated angular intensities and current-voltage characteristics based on our fluid dynamic jet-like protrusion model agree well with experiment. The formation of doubly charged ions is attributed to post-ionization of field evaporated singly charged ions and an apex field strength of about 2.0 V A -1 was calculated for a Ga source. The ion energy spread is mainly due to space charge effects, it is known to be reduced for doubly charged ions in agreement with this post-ionization mechanism. (author)

  16. Study of liquid metal mixed convection in cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Philippe.

    1979-10-01

    This study has enabled some results to be obtained on the flow of liquid metals in cavities. The effects of different adimensional parameters characteristic of mixed convection flows were experimentally demonstrated. In the case of a roof heated cavity, three zones were distinguished: the mixing zone at the channel exit, a quasi constant temperature recirculation zone and a stratified zone at the top of the cavity. The thickness of this last region depends on natural convection effects: it disappears completely in a pure forced convection regime. A simple model using a critical Richardson number concept was developed in order to be able to predict the thickness of this region. Heat transfer correlation formulas were established both for the heated roof and forward direction heated wall cases. Some data was also obtained on temperature fluctuations for both cases. The different topics investigated are useful for defining heat transfers in certain regions of fast neutron sodium cooled reactors. A more extensive program is currently being developed in order to be able to investigate a wider range of variations in the above mentioned parameters and to more closely approximate reactor vessels [fr

  17. Conceptual safety design analysis of Korea advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, S. D.; Park, C. K.

    1999-01-01

    The national long-term R and D program, updated in 1977, requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 Mwe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self-consistent design meeting a set of major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of the current emphasis includes those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve extensive supporting R and D programs. This paper summarizes some of the results of conceptual engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER in the area of inherent safety, passive decay heat removal, sodium water reaction, and seismic isolation. (author)

  18. High temperature experiment for accelerator inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The High Temperature Experiment (HTE) is intended to produce temperatures of 50-100 eV in solid density targets driven by heavy ion beams from a multiple beam induction linac. The fundamental variables (particle species, energy number of beamlets, current and pulse length) must be fixed to achieve the temperature at minimum cost, subject to criteria of technical feasibility and relevance to the development of a Fusion Driver. The conceptual design begins with an assumed (radiation-limited) target temperature and uses limitations due to particle range, beamlet perveance, and target disassembly to bound the allowable values of mass number (A) and energy (E). An accelerator model is then applied to determine the minimum length accelerator, which is a guide to total cost. The accelerator model takes into account limits on transportable charge, maximum gradient, core mass per linear meter, and head-to-tail momentum variation within a pulse

  19. Technology which led to the westinghouse inherently safe liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.E.; Coffield, R.D.; Doncals, R.A.; Kalinowski, J.E.; Markley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor programs resulted in an understanding of liquid metal reactor behavior that is being used to design inherent safety capability into liquid metal reactors. Technological advances give the same beneficial operating characteristics of conventional liquid metal reactors, however, the addition of inherently safe design features precludes the initiation of hypothetical core disruptive accidents. These innovative features permit inherent safety capability to be demonstrated with more than adequate margins. Also, the variety of inherent safety features provides the designers with options in selecting inherent design features for a specific reactor application

  20. Contact-free measurement of the flow field of a liquid metal inside a closed container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinicke Christiane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of flow velocities inside metal melts is particularly challenging. Due to the high temperatures of the melts it is impossible to employ measurement techniques that require either mechanical contact with the melt or are only adaptable to translucent fluids. In the past years a number of electromagnetic techniques have been developed that allows a contact-free measurement of volume flows. One of these techniques is the so-called Lorentz Force Velocimetry (LFV in which the metal flow is exposed to an external, permanent magnetic field. The interaction between the metal and the magnet not only leads to a force on the fluid, but also on the magnet. The force can be measured and is proportional to the velocity of the melt. Moreover, by using a small permanent magnet it is possible to resolve spatial structures inside the flow.We will demonstrate this using a model experiment that has been investigated with different reference techniques previously. The experimental setup is a cylindrical vessel filled with a eutectic alloy which is liquid at room temperature. The liquid metal can be set into motion by means of a propeller at the top of the liquid. Depending on the direction of rotation of the propeller, the flow inside the vessel takes on different states. Beside the vessel, we place a Lorentz Force Flowmeter (LFF equipped with a small permanent magnet. By measuring the force on the magnet at different positions and different rotation speeds, we demonstrate that we can qualitatively and quantitatively reconstruct the flow field inside the vessel.

  1. Thermophysical measurements on liquid metals above 4000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaner, J.W.; Gathers, G.R.; Hodgson, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Thermophysical data are presented for liquid niobium up to approximately 6000 0 K and for liquid lead up to approximately 5000 0 K. These new results are summarized along with previously obtained high temperature data for liquid molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, and uranium

  2. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  3. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  4. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  5. CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)

  6. High temperature divertor plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi.

    1991-02-01

    High temperature divertor plasma operation has been proposed, which is expected to enhance the core energy confinement and eliminates the heat removal problem. In this approach, the heat flux is guided through divertor channel to a remote area with a large target surface, resulting in low heat load on the target plate. This allows pumping of the particles escaping from the core and hence maintaining of the high divertor temperature, which is comparable to the core temperature. The energy confinement is then determined by the diffusion coefficient of the core plasma, which has been observed to be much lower than the thermal diffusivity. (author)

  7. High temperature superconductors and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a superconductive compound having the formula: Ni/sub 1-x/M/sub x/Z/sub y/ wherein M is a metal which will destroy the magnetic character of nickel (preferably copper, silver or gold); Z is hydrogen or deuterium; x is 0.1 to 0.9; and y, correspondingly, 0.9 to 0.1, and method of conducting electric current with no resistance at relatively high temperature of T>1 0 K comprising a conductor consisting essentially of the superconducting compound noted above

  8. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  9. Steady-state natural circulation analysis with computational fluid dynamic codes of a liquid metal-cooled accelerator driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abanades, A.; Pena, A.

    2009-01-01

    A new innovative nuclear installation is under research in the nuclear community for its potential application to nuclear waste management and, above all, for its capability to enhance the sustainability of nuclear energy in the future as component of a new nuclear fuel cycle in which its efficiency in terms of primary Uranium ore profit and radioactive waste generation will be improved. Such new nuclear installations are called accelerator driven system (ADS) and are the result of a profitable symbiosis between accelerator technology, high-energy physics and reactor technology. Many ADS concepts are based on the utilization of heavy liquid metal (HLM) coolants due to its neutronic and thermo-physical properties. Moreover, such coolants permit the operation in free circulation mode, one of the main aims of passive systems. In this paper, such operation regime is analysed in a proposed ADS design applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

  10. Liquid metal current collectors for high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent interest in superconducting motors and generators has created a renewed interest in homopolar machinery. Homopolar machine designs have always been limited by the need for compact, high-current, low-voltage, sliding electrical curent collectors. Conventional graphite-based solid brushes are inadequate for use in homopolar machines. Liquid metals, under certain conditions of relative sliding velocities, electrical currents, and magnetic fields are known to be capable of performing well in homopolar machines. An effort to explore the capabilities and limits of a tongue-and-groove style current collector, utilizing sodium-potassium eutectic alloy (NaK) as the working fluid in high sliding speed operation is reported here. A double current collector generator model with a 14.5-cm maximum rotor diameter, 20,000 rpm rotational capability, and electrical current carrying ability was constructed and operated successfully at a peripheral velocity of 125 m/s. The limiting factor in these experiments was a high-speed fluid-flow instability resulting in the ejection of the working fluid from the operating portions of the collectors. The effects of collector size and geometry, working fluid (NaK or water), and cover gas pressure are reported. Hydrodynamic frictional torque-speed curves are given for the two fluids and for several geometries. Electrical resistances as a function of peripheral velocity at 60 amperes are reported, and the phenomenology of the high-speed fluid-flow instabilities is discussed. The possibility of long-term high-speed operation of current collectors of the tongue-and-groove type, along with experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic friction losses at high peripheral velocities, is considered

  11. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Technical Meeting is to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials

  12. Space- and time-resolved resistive measurements of liquid metal wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhoseini, S. M. H.; Volpe, F. A., E-mail: fvolpe@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In a fusion reactor internally coated with liquid metal, it will be important to diagnose the thickness of the liquid at various locations in the vessel, as a function of time, and possibly respond to counteract undesired bulging or depletion. The electrical conductance between electrodes immersed in the liquid metal can be used as a simple proxy for the local thickness. Here a matrix of electrodes is shown to provide spatially and temporally resolved measurements of liquid metal thickness in the absence of plasma. First a theory is developed for m × n electrodes, and then it is experimentally demonstrated for 3 × 1 electrodes, as the liquid stands still or is agitated by means of a shaker. The experiments were carried out with Galinstan, but are easily extended to lithium or other liquid metals.

  13. Space- and time-resolved resistive measurements of liquid metal wall thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirhoseini, S. M. H.; Volpe, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    In a fusion reactor internally coated with liquid metal, it will be important to diagnose the thickness of the liquid at various locations in the vessel, as a function of time, and possibly respond to counteract undesired bulging or depletion. The electrical conductance between electrodes immersed in the liquid metal can be used as a simple proxy for the local thickness. Here a matrix of electrodes is shown to provide spatially and temporally resolved measurements of liquid metal thickness in the absence of plasma. First a theory is developed for m × n electrodes, and then it is experimentally demonstrated for 3 × 1 electrodes, as the liquid stands still or is agitated by means of a shaker. The experiments were carried out with Galinstan, but are easily extended to lithium or other liquid metals.

  14. Temperature-dependent thermo-elastic properties of s-, p- and d-block liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.; Arafin, S.; George, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic relations involving experimentally known physical quantities are used to determine the ratio of specific heats, γ, for s-block (Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg), d-block (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg,) and p-block (Al, Ga, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, Se, Te) liquid metals. γ is further utilized to determine reliable values for the isothermal compressibility (κ T ) and the specific heat at constant volume (C V ) for these liquid metals near and above the melting temperatures. These data are of considerable significance for various thermo-physical analysis of liquid metals. We have also evaluated the Grueneisen function and its temperature dependence to establish the correlation between the thermal expansion and the elastic response to thermally induced stress. The values of acoustic impedance for liquid metals are evaluated and its physical significance is discussed for the transmission of elastic waves across metallic interfaces

  15. The effects of microstructure on crack initiation in liquid-metal environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement under tensile test conditions is identified by the existence of a characteristic ductility trough. In this study, the effect of molten gallium on the behaviour of two brass alloys with different microstructures...

  16. Studies of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.

    1989-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) discovered are from the family of ceramic oxides. Their large scale utilization in electrical utilities and in microelectronic devices are the frontal challenges which can perhaps be effectively met only through consolidated efforts and expertise of a multidisciplinary nature. During the last two years the growth of the new field has occurred on an international scale and perhaps has been more rapid than in most other fields. There has been an extraordinary rush of data and results which are continually being published as short texts dispersed in many excellent journals, some of which were started to ensure rapid publication exclusively in this field. As a result, the literature on HTSCs has indeed become so massive and so diffuse that it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep abreast with the important and reliable facets of this fast-growing field. This provided the motivation to evolve a process whereby both professional investigators and students can have ready access to up-to- date in-depth accounts of major technical advances happening in this field. The present series Studies of High Temperature Superconductors has been launched to, at least in part, fulfill this need

  17. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  18. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kugel, H.W.; Goranson, P.; Kaita, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed

  19. Experiments with Liquid Metal Walls: Status of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Kozub, Thomas; Berzak, Laura; Hammett, Gregory; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Jacobson, Craig M.; Lucia, Matthew; Jones, Andrew; Lundberg, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Majeski, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in Ohmically-heated tokamak plasmas wa...

  20. Method and device for electromagnetic pumping by conduction of liquid metals having low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The invention is related to a method for pumping of liquid metals having a low electrical conductivity. To lower the resistance of the conductive spire containing liquid metal to be pumped, a tape formed by a conductive metal such as copper or nickel is inserted in that spire. The tape is interrupted at the level of the air gap of the main magnetic circuit at least when the conductive spire passes through that air gap

  1. The PFR challenge: how to dispose of 1500t of liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The decommissioning of liquid metal cooled FBRs presents many interesting challenges requiring innovative engineering solutions. In advance of the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay in Scotland being shut down in 1994 the owners, UKAEA, commissioned a series of risk and cost assessment studies to determine the least risk, lowest cost long term strategy. This concluded that a priority was safe disposal of the large inventories of liquid metal coolant. UK companies were invited to take up the challenge. (author)

  2. Experience on the removal of impurities from liquid metal systems by cold-trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, J. A.

    1963-10-15

    Experience in impurity removal by cold-trapping, which was obtained on DFR and its associated liquid metal rigs, is reviewed. The development of the present DFR cold-trapping system is outlined, and the operation of the additional pumped loops, which were required in order to control the reactor impurity levels, are described. Operation of the liquid metal rigs ancillary to the reactor project is discussed with particular reference to the control of impurity levels. (auth)

  3. High temperature nuclear heat for isothermal reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature nuclear heat can be used to operate a reformer with various feedstock materials. The product synthesis gas can be used not only as a source for hydrogen and as a feedstock for many essential chemical industries, such as ammonia and other products, but also for methanol and synthetic fuels. It can also be burnt directly in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine in an efficient combined cycle and generate electricity. In addition, it can be used as fuel for fuel cells. The reforming reaction is endothermic and the contribution of the nuclear energy to the calorific value of the final product (synthesis gas) is about 25%, compared to the calorific value of the feedstock reactants. If the feedstock is from fossil origin, the nuclear energy contributes to a substantial reduction in CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. The catalytic steam reforming of natural gas is the most common process. However, other feedstock materials, such as biogas, landfill gas and CO 2 -contaminated natural gas, can be reformed as well, either directly or with the addition of steam. The industrial steam reformers are generally fixed bed reactors, and their performance is strongly affected by the heat transfer from the furnace to the catalyst tubes. In top-fired as well as side-fired industrial configurations of steam reformers, the radiation is the main mechanism of heat transfer and convection heat transfer is negligible. The flames and the furnace gas constitute the main sources of the heat. In the nuclear reformers developed primarily in Germany, in connection with the EVA-ADAM project (closed cycle), the nuclear heat is transferred from the nuclear reactor coolant gas by convection, using a heating jacket around the reformer tubes. In this presentation it is proposed that the helium in a secondary loop, used to cool the nuclear reactor, will be employed to evaporate intermediate medium, such as sodium, zinc and aluminum chloride. Then, the vapors of the medium material transfer

  4. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Jerry D [Reactor Systems Development and Technology, Office of Nuclear Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Horton, Kenneth E [Division of International Programs, Office of Nuclear Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear power research and development program continues to focus on advanced large and mid-size light water reactors, advanced liquid metal fast reactors, and modular high temperature gas cooled reactors. This paper discusses the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor program, which is composed of a small, passively safe fast reactor coupled with a metal fuel cycle that incorporates actinide recycle, and an emerging effort to process LWR spent fuel for LMR fissile material, and to enhance the LWR waste management. The liquid metal reactor concept has a sound technology base, with some three decades of research and development both in this and other countries. An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Notable among the research facilities is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-Il (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. Subsequent to the DOE directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, significant effort was placed in finding international financial support for this reactor. This initiative was not successful. Therefore, although there may be a potential future mission for the FFTF, the Secretary of Energy announced on March 13, 1992 that the FFTF will be put in a standby condition starting April 1, 1992. Current U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) activity is focused on providing a reactor and fuel cycle system with improved safety margins, better economics, and an attractive waste management (actinide recycle) option. Special attention is being directed to passive safety features, large design margins, modular plant construction, standardized plant design leading to simplified licensing and shorter construction schedules, factory fabrication

  5. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Jerry D.; Horton, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear power research and development program continues to focus on advanced large and mid-size light water reactors, advanced liquid metal fast reactors, and modular high temperature gas cooled reactors. This paper discusses the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor program, which is composed of a small, passively safe fast reactor coupled with a metal fuel cycle that incorporates actinide recycle, and an emerging effort to process LWR spent fuel for LMR fissile material, and to enhance the LWR waste management. The liquid metal reactor concept has a sound technology base, with some three decades of research and development both in this and other countries. An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Notable among the research facilities is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-Il (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. Subsequent to the DOE directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, significant effort was placed in finding international financial support for this reactor. This initiative was not successful. Therefore, although there may be a potential future mission for the FFTF, the Secretary of Energy announced on March 13, 1992 that the FFTF will be put in a standby condition starting April 1, 1992. Current U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) activity is focused on providing a reactor and fuel cycle system with improved safety margins, better economics, and an attractive waste management (actinide recycle) option. Special attention is being directed to passive safety features, large design margins, modular plant construction, standardized plant design leading to simplified licensing and shorter construction schedules, factory fabrication

  6. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

  7. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  8. Etude des propriétés rhéologiques des coupes lourdes à haute température et pression Study of the Rheological Properties of Heavy Cuts At High Temperature and Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les procédés rencontrés dans la valorisation des résidus et des huiles lourdes font appel à des équipements dont le dimensionnement optimal exige la connaissance précise des propriétés rhéologiques de la phase hydrocarbonée impliquée et ce, dans un large domaine de température et de pression. En conséquence, le Laboratoire de Thermodynamique du Centre Réacteurs et Processus de l'École Nationale Supérieure des Mines (ENSM de Paris s'est attaché au développement d'un viscosimètre approprié à ces mesures. Il est basé sur la détermination du couple résistant provoqué par le fluide à étudier, cisaillé entre deux cylindres coaxiaux en rotation relative. Le domaine de viscosité balayé s'étend de 10 à 40 000 cP, les température et pression maximales d'utilisation étant respectivement de 500°C et 30 MPa. La qualité des résultats fournis par cet appareillage a été testée, à des températures et dilution variables, sur quelques coupes lourdes issues des bruts Safaniya et Boscan après désasphaltage ou hydroviscoréduction. On obtient ainsi des valeurs fiables, reproductibles et précises de la viscosité des coupes lourdes hydrocarbonées sur un large domaine de température. Au-delà de 430-440°C toutefois, la pression opératoire de la cellule, fixée par la quantité du gaz admis, augmente brusquement, révélant un craquage thermique important des échantillons et offrant ainsi un moyen d'étude et de simulation des procédés industriels de viscoréduction. Processes used for the upgrading of residues and heavy oils makes use of equipment for which the optimal sizing requires the exact understanding of the rheological properties of the hydrocarbon phase involved over a wide temperature and pressure range. Therefore, the thermodynamics laboratory of the ENSM Center for Reactors and Processes has carried out the development of a viscosimeter suited for such measurements. It is based on determining the

  9. The high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, U.

    1991-01-01

    The book deals with the development of the German high-temperature reactor (pebble-bed), the design of a prototype plant and its (at least provisional) shut-down in 1989. While there is a lot of material on the HTR's competitor, the fast breeder, literature is very incomplete on HTRs. The author describes HTR's history as a development which was characterised by structural divergencies but not effectively steered and monitored. There was no project-oriented 'community' such as there was for the fast breeder. Also, the new technology was difficult to control there were situations where no one quite knew what was going on. The technical conditions however were not taken as facts but as a basis for interpretation, wishes and reservations. The HTR gives an opportunity to consider the conditions under which large technical projects can be carried out today. (orig.) [de

  10. High temperature creep of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, A.; Kovacs, I.

    1978-01-01

    The creep behaviour of polycrystalline vanadium of 99.7% purity has been investigated in the temperature range 790-880 0 C in a high temperature microscope. It was found that the creep properties depend strongly on the history of the sample. To take this fact into account some additional properties such as the dependence of the yield stress and the microhardness on the pre-annealing treatment have also been studied. Samples used in creep measurements were selected on the basis of their microhardness. The activation energy of creep depends on the microhardness and on the creep temperature. In samples annealed at 1250 0 C for one hour (HV=160 kgf mm -2 ) the rate of creep is controlled by vacancy diffusion in the temperature range 820-880 0 C with an activation energy of 78+-8 kcal mol -1 . (Auth.)

  11. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)

    1990-01-01

    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  12. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  13. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs

  14. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  15. Systems and methods for enhancing isolation of high-temperature reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2017-09-26

    A high-temperature containment-isolation system for transferring heat from a nuclear reactor containment to a high-pressure heat exchanger is presented. The system uses a high-temperature, low-volatility liquid coolant such as a molten salt or a liquid metal, where the coolant flow path provides liquid free surfaces a short distance from the containment penetrations for the reactor hot-leg and the cold-leg, where these liquid free surfaces have a cover gas maintained at a nearly constant pressure and thus prevent high-pressures from being transmitted into the reactor containment, and where the reactor vessel is suspended within a reactor cavity with a plurality of refractory insulator blocks disposed between an actively cooled inner cavity liner and the reactor vessel.

  16. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  17. Liquid metal cooled reactors: Experience in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    on key fast reactor technology aspects in an integrative sense useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors. This publication has been prepared to contribute toward the IAEA activity to preserve the knowledge gained in the liquid metal cooled fast reactor (LMFR) technology development. This technology development and experience include aspects addressing not only experimental and demonstration reactors, but also all activities from reactor construction to decommissioning. This publication provides a survey of worldwide experience gained over the past five decades in LMFR development, design, operation and decommissioning, which has been accumulated through the IAEA programmes carried out within the framework of the TWG-FR and the Agency's INIS and NKMS

  18. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  19. Survey of high-temperature nuclear heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirch, N.; Schaefer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear heat application at high temperatures can be divided into two areas - use of high-temperature steam up to 550 deg. C and use of high-temperature helium up to about 950 deg. C. Techniques of high-temperature steam and heat production and application are being developed in several IAEA Member States. In all these countries the use of steam for other than electricity production is still in a project definition phase. Plans are being discussed about using steam in chemical industries, oil refineries and for new synfuel producing plants. The use of nuclear generated steam for oil recovery from sands and shale is also being considered. High-temperature nuclear process heat production gives new possibilities for the application of nuclear energy - hard coals, lignites, heavy oils, fuels with problems concerning transport, handling and pollution can be converted into gaseous or liquid energy carriers with no loss of their energy contents. The main methods for this conversion are hydrogasification with hydrogen generated by nuclear heated steam reformers and steam gasification. These techniques will allow countries with large coal resources to replace an important part of their natural gas and oil consumption. Even countries with no fossil fuels can benefit from high-temperature nuclear heat - hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting, nuclear steel making, ammonia production and the chemical heat-pipe system are examples in this direction. (author)

  20. Development of NONSTA code for the design and analysis of LMR high temperature structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, H. Y.; Yoo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Liquid metal reactor(LMR) operates at high temperature (500-550 dg C) and structural materials undergo complex deformation behavior like diffusion, dislocation glide, and dislocation climb due to high temperature environment. And the material life reduces rapidly due to the interaction of cavities created inside structural materials and high temperature fatigue cracks. Thus the establishment of high temperature structure analysis techniques is necessary for the reliability and safety evaluation of such structures. The objectives of this study are to develop NONSTA code as the subprogram of ABAQUS code adopting constitutive equations which can predict high temperature material behavior precisely and to build the systematic analysis procedures. The developed program was applied to the example problems such as the tensile analysis using exponential creep model and the repetitive tensile-compression analysis using Chaboche unified viscoplastic model. In addition, the problem of a plate with a center hole subjected to tensile load was solved to show the applicability of the program to multiaxial problem and the time dependent stress redistribution was observed. (Author). 40 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  1. Measuring electric conductivity in liquid metals by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, S.P.; Ostrovskij, O.I.; Grigoryan, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique permitting to apply the method of vertiginous currents for investigation of electric conductivity of metal melts in the high temperature range is presented. Interferences affecting accuracy of measurements are specified and ways of their removing are pointed out. Scheme of measuring and design of the facility are described. Results of measuring electric resistance of liquid Fe, Co, Ni obtained for the first time by this method are presented. The data obtained agree with the results of measurements conducted by the method of the rotating magnetic field. Difference in absolute values of electric resistance in parallel experiments for each metal does not exceed 4%

  2. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D.; Decreton, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  3. Biomedical implementation of liquid metal ink as drawable ECG electrode and skin circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional ways of making bio-electrodes are generally complicated, expensive and unconformable. Here we describe for the first time the method of applying Ga-based liquid metal ink as drawable electrocardiogram (ECG electrodes. Such material owns unique merits in both liquid phase conformability and high electrical conductivity, which provides flexible ways for making electrical circuits on skin surface and a prospective substitution of conventional rigid printed circuit boards (PCBs. METHODS: Fundamental measurements of impedance and polarization voltage of the liquid metal ink were carried out to evaluate its basic electrical properties. Conceptual experiments were performed to draw the alloy as bio-electrodes to acquire ECG signals from both rabbit and human via a wireless module developed on the mobile phone. Further, a typical electrical circuit was drawn in the palm with the ink to demonstrate its potential of implementing more sophisticated skin circuits. RESULTS: With an oxide concentration of 0.34%, the resistivity of the liquid metal ink was measured as 44.1 µΩ·cm with quite low reactance in the form of straight line. Its peak polarization voltage with the physiological saline was detected as -0.73 V. The quality of ECG wave detected from the liquid metal electrodes was found as good as that of conventional electrodes, from both rabbit and human experiments. In addition, the circuit drawn with the liquid metal ink in the palm also runs efficiently. When the loop was switched on, all the light emitting diodes (LEDs were lit and emitted colorful lights. CONCLUSIONS: The liquid metal ink promises unique printable electrical properties as both bio-electrodes and electrical wires. The implemented ECG measurement on biological surface and the successfully run skin circuit demonstrated the conformability and attachment of the liquid metal. The present method is expected to innovate future physiological measurement and

  4. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D. [SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Decreton, M. [Ghent Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  5. High temperature superconductor current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimetz, B.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The use of superconductors in high electrical current applications (magnets, transformers, generators etc.) usually requires cooling with liquid Helium, which is very expensive. The superconductor itself produces no heat, and the design of Helium dewars is very advanced. Therefore most of the heat loss, i.e. Helium consumption, comes from the current lead which connects the superconductor with its power source at room temperature. The current lead usually consists of a pair of thick copper wires. The discovery of the High Temperature Superconductors makes it possible to replace a part of the copper with superconducting material. This drastically reduces the heat losses because a) the superconductor generates no resistive heat and b) it is a very poor thermal conductor compared with the copper. In this work silver-sheathed superconducting tapes are used as current lead components. The work comprises both the production of the tapes and the overall design of the leads, in order to a) maximize the current capacity ('critical current') of the superconductor, b) minimize the thermal conductivity of the silver clad, and c) optimize the cooling conditions

  6. Container floor at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.; Klapperich, H.J.; Mueller-Frank, U.

    1978-01-01

    The invention describes a floor for container which is stressed at high, changing temperatures and is intended for use in gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Due to the downward cooling gas flow in these types of reactor, the reactor floor is subjected to considerable dimensional changes during switching on and off. In the heating stage, the whole graphite structure of the reactor core and floor expands. In order to avoid arising constraining forces, sufficiently large expansion spaces must be allowed for furthermore restoring forces must be present to close the gaps again in the cooling phase. These restoring forces must be permanently present to prevent loosening of the core cuits amongst one another and thus uncontrollable relative movement. Spring elements are not suitable due to fast fatigue as a result of high temperatures and radiation exposure. It is suggested to have the floor elements supported on rollers whose rolling planes are downwards inclined to a fixed point for support. The construction is described in detail by means of drawings. (GL) [de

  7. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc

    2016-11-10

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  8. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  9. High-temperature axion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowrick, N.J.; McDougall, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of new terms in the high-temperature axion potential arising from the dynamical nature of the axion field and from higher-order corrections to the θ dependence in the free energy of the quark-gluon plasma. We find that the dynamical nature of the axion field does not affect the potential but that the higher-order effects lead to new terms in the potential which are larger than the term previously considered. However, neither the magnitude nor the sign of the potential can be calculated by a perturbative expansion of the free energy since the coupling is too large. We show that a change in the magnitude of the potential does not significantly affect the bound on the axion decay constant but that the sign of the potential is of crucial importance. By investigating the formal properties of the functional integral within the instanton dilute-gas approximation, we find that the sign of the potential does not change and that the minimum remains at θ=0. We conclude that the standard calculation of the axion energy today is not significantly modified by this investigation

  10. Creep of high temperature composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadananda, K.; Feng, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature creep deformation of composites is examined. Creep of composites depends on the interplay of many factors. One of the basic issues in the design of the creep resistant composites is the ability to predict their creep behavior from the knowledge of the creep behavior of the individual components. In this report, the existing theoretical models based on continuum mechanics principles are reviewed. These models are evaluated using extensive experimental data on molydisilicide-silicon carbide composites obtained by the authors. The analysis shows that the rule of mixture based on isostrain and isostress provides two limiting bounds wherein all other theoretical predictions fall. For molydisilicide composites, the creep is predominantly governed by the creep of the majority phase, i.e. the matrix with fibers deforming elastically. The role of back stresses both on creep rates and activation energies are shown to be minimum. Kinetics of creep in MoSi 2 is shown to be controlled by the process of dislocation glide with climb involving the diffusion of Mo atoms

  11. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  12. Kinetic properties of solid yttrium at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivliev, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of results of experimental investigation into temperature-diffusivity, specific electroresistance and heat conductivity of yttrium is carried out. Peculiarities of variation of its kinetic characteristics under high temperatures are shown to result from two-band character of energy spectrum of collectivized electrons. In particular, growth of heat conductivity results from reduction of density of heavy electron states under heating. The suggested model describes kinetic characteristics of lutetium, as well. Usage of this model for the rest heavy rare-earth metals enables to make conclusion about reduction of magnetic scattering effcieincy in the rare-earth metals in proportion to approximation to melting temperature

  13. High temperature turbine engine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, W.D.; Boyd, G.L.

    1993-07-20

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic gas turbine is described comprising; a housing defining an inlet, an outlet, and a flow path communicating the inlet with the outlet for conveying a flow of fluid through the housing, a rotor member journaled by the housing in the flow path, the rotor member including a compressor rotor portion rotatively inducting ambient air via the inlet and delivering this air pressurized to the flow path downstream of the compressor rotor, a combustor disposed in the flow path downstream of the compressor receiving the pressurized air along with a supply of fuel to maintain combustion providing a flow of high temperature pressurized combustion products in the flow path downstream thereof, the rotor member including a turbine rotor portion disposed in the flow path downstream of the combustor and rotatively expanding the combustion products toward ambient for flow from the turbine engine via the outlet, the turbine rotor portion providing shaft power driving the compressor rotor portion and an output shaft portion of the rotor member, a disk-like metallic housing portion journaling the rotor member to define a rotational axis therefore, and a disk-like annular ceramic turbine shroud member bounding the flow path downstream of the combustor and circumscribing the turbine rotor portion to define a running clearance therewith, the disk-like ceramic turbine shroud member having a reference axis coaxial with the rotational axis and being spaced axially from the metallic housing portion in mutually parallel concentric relation therewith and a plurality of spacers disposed between ceramic disk-like shroud member and the metallic disk-like housing portion and circumferentially spaced apart, each of the spacers having a first and second end portion having an end surface adjacent the shroud member and the housing portion respectively, the end surfaces having a cylindrical curvature extending transversely relative to the shroud member and the housing portion.

  14. First Studies for the Development of Computational Tools for the Design of Liquid Metal Electromagnetic Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Maidana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquid alloy systems have a high degree of thermal conductivity, far superior to ordinary nonmetallic liquids and inherent high densities and electrical conductivities. This results in the use of these materials for specific heat conducting and dissipation applications for the nuclear and space sectors. Uniquely, they can be used to conduct heat and electricity between nonmetallic and metallic surfaces. The motion of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields generally induces electric currents, which, while interacting with the magnetic field, produce electromagnetic forces. Electromagnetic pumps exploit the fact that liquid metals are conducting fluids capable of carrying currents, which is a source of electromagnetic fields useful for pumping and diagnostics. The coupling between the electromagnetics and thermo-fluid mechanical phenomena and the determination of its geometry and electrical configuration, gives rise to complex engineering magnetohydrodynamics problems. The development of tools to model, characterize, design, and build liquid metal thermo-magnetic systems for space, nuclear, and industrial applications are of primordial importance and represent a cross-cutting technology that can provide unique design and development capabilities as well as a better understanding of the physics behind the magneto-hydrodynamics of liquid metals. First studies for the development of computational tools for the design of liquid metal electromagnetic pumps are discussed.

  15. A conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade are reviewed from the perspective of formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. The basis for the design strategy is set by enumerating both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber. Past concepts are then reviewed to identify conceptual design approaches and physical configurations that enhance the positive aspects and minimize the negative aspects. A detailed description of the engineering considerations is given, including such topics as the selection of a liquid metal, control of radiation damage, selection of structural material, control of tritium breeding and extraction, control of wall stress, and designing for a given rep-rate. Finally, a design strategy is formulated which accomodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate. (orig.)

  16. Modeling of liquid-metal corrosion/deposition in a fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    A model has been developed for the investigation of the liquid-metal corrosion and the corrosion product transport in a liquid-metal-cooled fusion reactor blanket. The model describes the two-dimensional transport of wall material in the liquid-metal flow and is based on the following assumptions: (1) parallel flow in a straight circular tube; (2) transport of wall material perpendicular to the flow direction by diffusion and turbulent exchange; in flow direction by the flow motion only; (3) magnetic field causes uniform velocity profile with thin boundary layer and suppresses turbulent mass exchange; and (4) liquid metal at the interface is saturated with wall material. A computer code based on this model has been used to analyze the corrosion of ferritic steel by lithium lead and the deposition of wall material in the cooler part of a loop. Three cases have been investigated: (1) ANL forced convection corrosion experiment (without magnetic field); (2) corrosion in the MARS liquid-metal-cooled blanket (with magnetic field); and (3) deposition of wall material in the corrosion product cleanup system of the MARS blanket loop

  17. Liquid-metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-01-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins. The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop: fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed

  18. First studies for the development of computational tools for the design of liquid metal electromagnetic pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidana, Carlos O.; Nieminen, Juha E. [Maidana Research, Grandville (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Liquid alloy systems have a high degree of thermal conductivity, far superior to ordinary nonmetallic liquids and inherent high densities and electrical conductivities. This results in the use of these materials for specific heat conducting and dissipation applications for the nuclear and space sectors. Uniquely, they can be used to conduct heat and electricity between nonmetallic and metallic surfaces. The motion of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields generally induces electric currents, which, while interacting with the magnetic field, produce electromagnetic forces. Electromagnetic pumps exploit the fact that liquid metals are conducting fluids capable of carrying currents, which is a source of electromagnetic fields useful for pumping and diagnostics. The coupling between the electromagnetics and thermo-fluid mechanical phenomena and the determination of its geometry and electrical configuration, gives rise to complex engineering magnetohydrodynamics problems. The development of tools to model, characterize, design, and build liquid metal thermo-magnetic systems for space, nuclear, and industrial applications are of primordial importance and represent a cross-cutting technology that can provide unique design and development capabilities as well as a better understanding of the physics behind the magneto-hydrodynamics of liquid metals. First studies for the development of computational tools for the design of liquid metal electromagnetic pumps are discussed.

  19. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J c in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J c at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  20. Nuclear shell effects at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, N.J.; Miller, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    In discussing the disappearance of nuclear shell effects at high temperatures, it is important to distinguish between the ''smearing out'' of the single-particle spectrum with increasing temperature and the vanishing of shell related structures in many-body quantities such as the excitation energy per nucleon. We propose a semiempirical method to obtain an upper bound on the temperature required to smooth the single-particle spectrum, and point out that shell effects in many-body parameters may persist above this temperature. We find that the temperature required to smear out the single-particle spectrum is approximately 1 MeV for heavy nuclei (A approx-gt 150) and about 3--4 MeV for light nuclei (A approx-lt 50), in reasonable agreement with the estimate of 41/πA 1/3 obtained from calculations with harmonic oscillator potentials. These temperatures correspond to many-body excitation energies of approximately 20 and 60 MeV, respectively

  1. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR design technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Y I; Kim, Y G; Kim, E K; Song, H; Chung, H T; Sim, Y S; Min, B T; Kim, Y S; Wi, M H; Yoo, B; Lee, J H; Lee, H Y; Kim, J B; Koo, G H; Hahn, D H; Na, B C; Hwang, W; Nam, C; Ryu, W S; Lim, G S; Kim, D H; Kim, J D; Gil, C S

    1997-07-01

    This project was performed in five parts, the scope and contents of which are as follows: The nuclear data processing system was established and the KFS group constant library was improved and verified. Basic computation system was constructed by either developing or adding its function. Input/output (I/O) interface processing was developed to establish an integrated calculation system for LMR core nuclear rand thermal-hydraulic design and analysis. An experimental data analysis was performed to validate the constructed core neutronic calculation system. Using the established core calculation system and design technology, preliminary core design and performance analysis on the domestic LMR core design concept were carried out. To develop the basic technology of the LMR system analysis, LMR system behavior characteristics evaluation, thermal -fluid system analysis in the reactor pool, preliminary overall plant analysis and computer codes development have been performed. A porous model and simple one-dimensional model have been evaluated for the reactor pool analysis. The evaluation of the residual heat removal system on different design concepts has been also conducted. For the development of high temperature structural analysis, the heat transfer and thermal stress analyses were performed using finite element program with user subroutine that has been developed with an implementation of the Chaboche constitutive model for inelastic analysis capability, and the evaluation of creep-fatigue and ratcheting behavior of high temperature structure was carried out using this program. for development of the seismic isolation system and to predict the shear behavior for the laminated rubber bearing were established. And the behavior tests of isolation bearing and rubber specimens were carried out, and the seismic response tests for the isolation model structure were performed using the 30 ton shaking table. (author). 369 refs., 119 tabs., 320 figs.

  2. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, E. K.; Song, H.; Chung, H. T.; Sim, Y. S.; Min, B. T.; Kim, Y. S.; Wi, M. H.; Yoo, B.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Koo, G. H.; Hahn, D. H.; Na, B. C.; Hwang, W.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lim, G. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. D.; Gil, C. S.

    1997-07-01

    This project was performed in five parts, the scope and contents of which are as follows: The nuclear data processing system was established and the KFS group constant library was improved and verified. Basic computation system was constructed by either developing or adding its function. Input/output (I/O) interface processing was developed to establish an integrated calculation system for LMR core nuclear rand thermal-hydraulic design and analysis. An experimental data analysis was performed to validate the constructed core neutronic calculation system. Using the established core calculation system and design technology, preliminary core design and performance analysis on the domestic LMR core design concept were carried out. To develop the basic technology of the LMR system analysis, LMR system behavior characteristics evaluation, thermal -fluid system analysis in the reactor pool, preliminary overall plant analysis and computer codes development have been performed. A porous model and simple one-dimensional model have been evaluated for the reactor pool analysis. The evaluation of the residual heat removal system on different design concepts has been also conducted. For the development of high temperature structural analysis, the heat transfer and thermal stress analyses were performed using finite element program with user subroutine that has been developed with an implementation of the Chaboche constitutive model for inelastic analysis capability, and the evaluation of creep-fatigue and ratcheting behavior of high temperature structure was carried out using this program. for development of the seismic isolation system and to predict the shear behavior for the laminated rubber bearing were established. And the behavior tests of isolation bearing and rubber specimens were carried out, and the seismic response tests for the isolation model structure were performed using the 30 ton shaking table. (author). 369 refs., 119 tabs., 320 figs

  3. Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internals of Liquid Metal Reactor by using Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Kim, Seok Hun; Lee, Jae Han

    2006-02-01

    The primary components such as a reactor core, heat exchangers, pumps and internal structures of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection and continuous monitoring as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures. Reactor core and internal structures of LMR can not be visually examined due to an opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing and remote inspection techniques by using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of reactor internals. The remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic wave have been developed and applied for the visualization and ISI of reactor internals. The under sodium viewing technique has a limitation for the application of LMR due to the high temperature and irradiation environment. In this study, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium viewing and remote inspection. The Lamb wave propagation of a waveguide sensor has been analyzed and the zero-order antisymmetric A 0 plate wave was selected as the application mode of the sensor. The A 0 plate wave can be propagated in the dispersive low frequency range by using a liquid wedge clamped to the waveguide. A new technique is presented which is capable of steering the radiation beam angle of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the sensor assembly. The steering function of the ultrasonic radiation beam can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive range of the A 0 mode. The technique provides an opportunity to overcome the scanning limitation of a waveguide sensor. The beam steering function has been evaluated by an experimental verification. The ultrasonic C-scanning experiments are performed in water and the feasibility of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been verified. The various remote inspection

  4. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  5. Seismic test of high temperature piping for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobatake, Kiyokazu; Midoriyama, Shigeru; Ooka, Yuzi; Suzuki, Michiaki; Katsuki, Taketsugu

    1983-01-01

    Since the high temperature pipings for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor contain helium gas at 1000 deg C and 40 kgf/cm 2 , the double-walled pipe type consisting of the external pipe serving as the pressure boundary and the internal pipe with heat insulating structure was adopted. Accordingly, their aseismatic design is one of the important subjects. Recently, for the purpose of grasping the vibration characteristics of these high temperature pipings and obtaining the data required for the aseismatic design, two specimens, that is, a double-walled pipe model and a heat-insulating structure, were made, and the vibration test was carried out on them, using a 30 ton vibration table of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. In the high temperature pipings of the primary cooling system for the multi-purpose, high temperature gas-cooled experimental reactor, the external pipes of 32 B bore as the pressure boundary and the internal pipes of 26 B bore with internal heat insulation consisting of double layers of fiber and laminated metal insulators as the temperature boundary were adopted. The testing method and the results are reported. As the spring constant of spacers is larger and clearance is smaller, the earthquake wave response of double-walled pipes is smaller, and it is more advantageous. The aseismatic property of the heat insulation structure is sufficient. (Kako, I.)

  6. Investigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement of Materials for use in Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Jaworski, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metals can provide a continually replenished material for the first wall and extraction blankets of fusion reactors. However, research has shown that solid metal surfaces will experience embrittlement when exposed to liquid metals under stress. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes in structural strength of the solid metal materials and test different surface treatments that can limit embrittlement. Research was conducted to design and build an apparatus for exposing solid metal samples to liquid metal under high stress and temperature. The apparatus design, results of tensile testing, and surface imaging of fractured samples will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  7. Assessment of Electromagnetic Stirrer Agitated Liquid Metal Flows by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Sarma, Mārtiņš; Vontobel, Peter; Trtik, Pavel; Thomsen, Knud; Jakovičs, Andris; Beinerts, Toms

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents qualitative and quantitative characterization of two-phase liquid metal flows agitated by the stirrer on rotating permanent magnets. The stirrer was designed to fulfill various eddy flows, which may have different rates of solid particle entrapment from the liquid surface and their homogenization. The flow was characterized by visualization of the tailored tracer particles by means of dynamic neutron radiography, an experimental method well suited for liquid metal flows due to low opacity of some metals for neutrons. The rather high temporal resolution of the image acquisition (32 Hz image acquisition rate) allows for the quantitative investigation of the flows up to 30 cm/s using neutron particle image velocimetry. In situ visualization of the two-phase liquid metal flow is also demonstrated.

  8. Measurement of Liquid-Metal Two-Phase Flow with a Dynamic Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, J. E.; Lim, I. C.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, C. M.; Nam, H. Y.; Saito, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic neutron radiography(DNR) has complementary characteristics to X-ray radiography and is suitable to visualization and measurement of a multi-phase flow research in a metallic duct and liquid metal flow. The flow-field information of liquid metal system is very important for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactor and the design of the spallation target of accelerator driven system. A DNR technique was applied to visualize the flow field in the gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with the HANARO-beam facility. The lead bismuth eutectic and the nitrogen gas were used to construct the two-phase flow field in the natural circulation U-channel. The two-phase flow images in the riser were taken at various combinations of the liquid flow and gas flow with high frame-rate neutron radiography at 1000 fps

  9. Model of liquid-metal splashing in the cathode spot of a vacuum arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.; Mesyats, G. A.; Uimanov, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of microjets is studied during the extrusion of a melted metal by the plasma pressure from craters formed on a cathode in a burning vacuum arc. An analytic model of liquid-metal splashing that includes two stages is proposed. At the first stage, the liquid motion has the axial symmetry and a liquid-metal wall surrounding the crater is formed. At the second stage, the axial symmetry is broken due to the development of the Plateau–Rayleigh instability in the upper part of the wall. The wall breakup process is shown to have a threshold. The minimal plasma pressure and the minimal electric current flowing through the crater required for obtaining the liquid-metal splashing regime are found. The basic spatial and temporal characteristics of the jet formation process are found using the analytic model.

  10. Analytical modelling of a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-07-07

    A cylindrical thin liquid metal layer is submitted to a uniform ac magnetic field. When the intensity of the electromagnetic field exceeds a critical value, an opening in the liquid is shaped from outside to inside. At a given intensity of the electromagnetic field, this opening is in a frozen state, that is, the liquid metal layer reaches a new equilibrium shape. In this paper, we show that this equilibrium corresponds to a minimum of the total energy of the system. This total energy is equal to the sum of the magnetic energy and the mechanical energy. The magnetic energy is computed by assuming that the induced eddy current flowing through the liquid metal layer is concentrated in the cross-section S{sub c} equal to the product of the skin depth and the thickness of the layer. This assumption leads us to study an equivalent electrical circuit. The mechanical energy is composed of the potential energy and the surface energy.

  11. Analytical modelling of a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S

    2006-01-01

    A cylindrical thin liquid metal layer is submitted to a uniform ac magnetic field. When the intensity of the electromagnetic field exceeds a critical value, an opening in the liquid is shaped from outside to inside. At a given intensity of the electromagnetic field, this opening is in a frozen state, that is, the liquid metal layer reaches a new equilibrium shape. In this paper, we show that this equilibrium corresponds to a minimum of the total energy of the system. This total energy is equal to the sum of the magnetic energy and the mechanical energy. The magnetic energy is computed by assuming that the induced eddy current flowing through the liquid metal layer is concentrated in the cross-section S c equal to the product of the skin depth and the thickness of the layer. This assumption leads us to study an equivalent electrical circuit. The mechanical energy is composed of the potential energy and the surface energy

  12. Electromagnetic device for confining a liquid metal and regulating the flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Marcel; Moreau, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a device for confining a liquid metal jet, characterized in that it comprises in combination, at the jet outlet nozzle, (a) means for producing a high pressure in the jet composed of a coil around the nozzle and located on its outlet, in combination with facilities for passing a high frequency alternating current through the coil and (b) means for suppressing this high pressure. It is stated that this device has many uses, particularly for allowing the use of a relatively large diameter orifice, hence not subject to the risk of clogging, in order to produce a jet with a relatively small diameter. This invention particularly concerns the application of this device for regulating a flow of liquid metal at an outlet orifice located at the lower end of a receptacle containing this liquid metal [fr

  13. The mechanism of liquid metal jet formation in the cathode spot of vacuum arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M.; Mesyats, G. A.; Uimanov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically studied the dynamics of molten metal during crater formation in the cathode spot of vacuum arc discharge. At the initial stage, a liquid-metal ridge is formed around the crater. This process has been numerically simulated in the framework of the two-dimensional axisymmetric heat and mass transfer problem in the approximation of viscous incompressible liquid. At a more developed stage, the motion of liquid metal loses axial symmetry, which corresponds to a tendency toward jet formation. The development of azimuthal instabilities of the ridge is analyzed in terms of dispersion relations for surface waves. It is shown that maximum increments correspond to instability of the Rayleigh-Plateau type. Estimations of the time of formation of liquid metal jets and their probable number are obtained.

  14. Liquid metal reactor head designs in the USA - heat and mass transfer considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Development of liquid metal reactor plants in the United States over the past 30 years has resulted in an evolution of reactor head designs as reflected in the SRE, Hallam, EBR-II and FFTF plants. This evolution has probably been affected to some extent by the fact that, in contrast to most other countries, there is no single organization in the United States which has been responsible for the design of liquid metal reactor plants. The current U.S. LMR design efforts involve two innovative design consortiums (guided by the US Department of Energy) and a joint industry venture on the Large Scale Prototype Breeder. It is therefore somewhat difficult to provide a statement on the philosophy of the reactor head design in the U.S. This paper however briefly describes the existing and proposed U.S. liquid metal reactor head designs and in the process, attempt to provide some insight on the basis for those designs

  15. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, Philip

    1987-06-01

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69 Ga + , Ga ++ and Ga 2 + ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  16. Normal spectral emissivity of selected liquid metals and improved thermophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottlacher, G.; Seifter, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Emissivity measurements on several liquid metals up to temperatures of 6000 K have been successfully established by linking a laser polarimetry technique to our well-known method for performing high speed measurements of thermophysical properties on liquid metal samples during microsecond pulse-heating experiments. Thermophysical properties measured with our experimental setup include temperature dependencies of heat capacity, enthalpy, electrical resistivity, density, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity up to the end of the stable liquid phase. During grant P12775-PHY additionally to the above listened properties the measurement of the change of the polarization of laser light reflected from the surface during pulse heating was enabled and thus now the temperature dependence of spectral emissivity at 684.5 nm by methods of ellipsometry is derived also. Several liquid metals and alloys have been investigated within this grant and a review of the data obtained will be given here. (author)

  17. US/DOE Man-Machine Integration program for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Zmura, A.P.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Man-Machine Integration program was started in 1980 as an addition to the existing Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor safety base technology program. The overall goal of the DOE program is to enhance the operational safety of liquid metal reactors by optimum integration of humans and machines in the overall reactor plant system and by application of the principles of human-factors engineering to the design of equipment, subsystems, facilities, operational aids, procedures and environments. In the four years since its inception the program has concentrated on understanding the control process for Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) and on applying advanced computer concepts to this process. This paper describes the products that have been developed in this program, present computer-related programs, and plans for the future

  18. The questions of liquid metal two-phase flow modelling in the FBR core channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martsiniouk, D.Ye.; Sorokin, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The two-fluid model representation for calculations of two-phase flow characteristics in the FBR fuel pin bundles with liquid metal cooling is presented and analysed. Two conservation equations systems of the mass, momentum and energy have been written for each phase. Components accounted the mass-, momentum- and heat transfer throughout the interface occur in the macro-field equations after the averaging procedure realisation. The pattern map and correlations for two-fluid model in vertical liquid metal flows are presented. The description of processes interphase mass- and heat exchange and interphase friction is determined by the two-phase flow regime. The opportunity of the liquid metal two-phase flow regime definition is analysed. (author)

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 10: Liquid-metal MHD systems. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

  20. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Liquid metal reactor concept: core design and structural materials” was to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials. Main results arising from national and international R&D programmes and projects in the field were reviewed, and new activities to be carried out under the IAEA aegis were identified on the basis of the analysis of current research and technology gaps

  1. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  2. Structural effects on fusion reactor blankets due to liquid metals in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The transient stress distribution caused in the blanket structure when the plasma current suddenly switches off in a time short compared to the L/R decay time of the liquid metal blanket was studied. Poloidal field of the plasma will induce a current to flow in the liquid metal and blanket walls. Since the resistance of the liquid lithium will be much less than that of the metal walls, the current can be considered as flowing around the blanket near the cross section perimeter, but in the lithium

  3. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  4. Thermal convection in a toroidal duct of a liquid metal blanket. Part II. Effect of axial mean flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuan, E-mail: xuanz@umich.edu; Zikanov, Oleg

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • 2D convection flow develops with internal heating and strong axial magnetic field. • The flow is strongly modified by the buoyancy force associated with growing T{sub m}. • Thermal convection is suppressed at high Gr. • High temperature difference between top and bottom walls is expected at high Gr. - Abstract: The work continues the exploration of the effect of thermal convection on flows in toroidal ducts of a liquid metal blanket. This time we consider the effect of the mean flow along the duct and of the associated heat transfer diverting the heat deposited by captured neutrons. Numerical simulations are conducted for a model system with two-dimensional (streamwise-uniform) fully developed flow, purely toroidal magnetic field, and perfectly electrically and thermally insulating walls. Realistically high Grashof (up to 10{sup 11}) and Reynolds (up to 10{sup 6}) numbers are used. It is found that the flow develops thermal convection in the transverse plane at moderate Grashof numbers. At large Grashof numbers, the flow is dominated by the top-bottom asymmetry of the streamwise velocity and stable stratification of temperature, which are caused by the buoyancy force due to the mean temperature growing along the duct. This leads to suppression of thermal convection, weak mixing, and substantial gradients of wall temperature. Further analysis based on more realistic models is suggested.

  5. Study on liquid-metal MHD power generation system with two-phase natural circulation. Applicability to fast reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki

    2001-03-01

    Feasibility study of the liquid-metal MHD power generation system combined with the high-density two-phase natural circulation has been performed for the applicability to the simple, autonomic energy conversion system of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. The present system has many promising aspects not only in the energy conversion process, but also in safety and economical improvements of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. In the previous report, as the first step of the feasibility study, the cycle analyses were performed to examine the effects of the main system parameters on the fundamental characteristics of the system. It was found that the cycle efficiency of the present system is enough competitive with that of the conventional steam turbine system. It was also found that the cycle efficiency depends strongly on the gas-liquid slip ratio in the two-phase flow channel. However, it is very difficult to estimate the gas-liquid slip ratio theoretically, especially in the heavy liquid metal two-phase natural circulation. For example, the effects of MHD load on the two-phase flow characteristics, such as the void fraction and gas-liquid slip ratio are not known well. In the present study, therefore, as the second step of the feasibility study, a series of the experiments were performed to investigate, especially, the effect of MHD load at the single-phase shown-comer flow channel on the characteristics of the two-phase natural circulation. In the first series of the experiments, Woods-metal (Density: 9517 Kg/m 3 ) and nitrogen gas were chosen as the two-phase working fluids. The MHD pressure drop was simulated by the ball valve. The experiments with water and nitrogen gas were also performed to check the effects of the physical properties. From the present experiments, it is found that the average void fraction in the two-phase flow channel is determined by the force balance between the MHD pressure drop, frictional and pressure losses in the tube, and

  6. Compensation of equipment housing elements of reactor units with heavy liquid metal coolant vessel temperature deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedevich, V.; Ahmetshin, M.; Mendes, D.; Kaveshnikov, S.; Vinogradov, A.

    2015-01-01

    In Russia a lot of different versions of fast reactors (FRs) are investigated and one of these is FR cooled by liquid lead and liquid lead-bismuth alloy. In this poster we are interested by FR with concrete vessel; its components are placed in cavities inside the vessel, and connected by a channel system. During the installation the equipment components are placed in several equipment housings. Between these housings there are cavities with coolant. The alignment of the housings should be provided. It can be broken by irregular concrete vessel heating during FR starting or other transition regimes. Our goal is to suggest a list of designing steps to compensate temperature deformations of equipment housing elements. A simplified model of equipment housing was suggested. It consists of two cylinders - tunnels in the concrete vessel, separated by a cavity filled by coolant and inert gas. The bottom part was considered as heated to 420 C. degrees while in the top part temperature decreased to 45 C. degrees (on the concrete surface). According to this data, results show that temperature gradient leads to a concrete layer dislocation of about 12.5 mm, which can lead to damage and breaking alignment. We propose the following solution to compensate for temperature deformation: -) to chisel out part of the upper top of the insulating concrete; -) to install an adequate misalignment of equipment housing elements preliminary; and -) to use a torsion system like a piston-type device for providing additional strength in order to compensate deformation and vibrations

  7. Mixed convection and stratification phenomena in a heavy liquid metal pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantino, Mariano, E-mail: mariano.tarantino@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone (Italy); Martelli, Daniele; Barone, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 1-56100 Pisa Italy (Italy); Di Piazza, Ivan [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 1-56100 Pisa Italy (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Results related to experiments reproducing PLOHS + LOF accident in CIRCE pool facility. • Vertical thermal stratification in large HLM pool. • Transition from forced to natural circulation in HLM pool under DHR conditions. • Heat transfer coefficient measurement in HLM pin bundle. • Nusselt numbers calculations and comparison with correlations. - Abstract: This work deals with an analysis of the first experimental series of tests performed to investigate mixed convection and stratification phenomena in CIRCE HLM large pool. In particular, the tests concern the transition from nominal flow to natural circulation regime, typical of decay heat removal (DHR) regime. To this purpose the CIRCE pool facility has been updated to host a suitable test section in order to reproduce the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of a HLM pool-type reactor. The test section basically consists of an electrical bundle (FPS) made up of 37 pins arranged in a hexagonal wrapped lattice with a pitch diameter ratio of 1.8. Along the FPS active length, three sections were instrumented to monitor the heat transfer coefficient along the bundle as well as the cladding temperatures at different ranks of the sub-channels. This paper reports the experimental data as well as a preliminary analysis and discussion of the results, focusing on the most relevant tests of the campaign, namely Test I (48 h) and Test II (97 h). Temperatures along three sections of the FPS and at inlet and outlet sections of the main components were reported and the Nusselt number in the FPS sub-channels was investigated together with the void fraction in the riser. Concerning the investigation of in-pool thermal stratification phenomena, the temperatures in the whole LBE pool were monitored at different elevations and radial locations. The analysis of experimental data obtained from Tests I and II underline the occurrence of thermal stratification phenomena in the region placed between the outlet sections of the HX and the DHR, respectively. After the transition to natural circulation, for both tests, this region with temperature stratification moves downwards starting at the exit section of the DHR-system, while upper and lower vessel regions show a uniform temperature.

  8. Tribological coatings for liquid metal and irradiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Several metallurgical coatings have been developed that provide good tribological performances in high-temperature liquid sodium and that are relatively unaffected by neutron fluences to 6 X 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The coatings that have consistently provided the best tribological performance have been the nickel aluminide diffusion coatings created by the pack cementation process, chromium carbide or Tribaloy 700 trade mark (a nickel-base hardfacing alloy) applied by the detonation-gun process, and chromium carbide and other hardfacing alloy) applied by the detonation-gun process, and chromium carbide and other hardfacing materials applied by the electro-spark deposition process. The latter process is a relatively recent development for nuclear applications and is expected to find wide usage. Other coating processes, such as plasma-spray coating, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition, were candidates for use on various components, but the coatings did not pass the required qualification tests or were not economically competitive. The advantages and limitations of the three selected processes are discussed, the tribological performance of the coatings is reviewed, and representative applications and their performance requirements are described

  9. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  10. Component and Technology Development for Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The following report details the significant developments to Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technologies made throughout the course of this funding. This report will begin with an overview of the sodium loop and the improvements made over the course of this research to make it a more advanced and capable facility. These improvements have much to do with oxygen control and diagnostics. Thus a detailed report of advancements with respect to the cold trap, plugging meter, vanadium equilibration loop, and electrochemical oxygen sensor is included. Further analysis of the university’s moving magnet pump was performed and included in a section of this report. A continuous electrical resistance based level sensor was built and tested in the sodium with favorable results. Materials testing was done on diffusion bonded samples of metal and the results are presented here as well. A significant portion of this work went into the development of optical fiber temperature sensors which could be deployed in an SFR environment. Thus, a section of this report presents the work done to develop an encapsulation method for these fibers inside of a stainless steel capillary tube. High temperature testing was then done on the optical fiber ex situ in a furnace. Thermal response time was also explored with the optical fiber temperature sensors. Finally these optical fibers were deployed successfully in a sodium environment for data acquisition. As a test of the sodium deployable optical fiber temperature sensors they were installed in a sub-loop of the sodium facility which was constructed to promote the thermal striping effect in sodium. The optical fibers performed exceptionally well, yielding unprecedented 2 dimensional temperature profiles with good temporal resolution. Finally, this thermal striping loop was used to perform cross correlation velocimetry successfully over a wide range of flow rates.

  11. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  12. Development of High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Rabi

    1999-01-01

    ... environment. To test this approach, UES and Cleveland State University have conducted experiments to form cesium oxythiotungstate, a high temperature lubricant, on Inconel 718 surface from composite coatings...

  13. Advances in high temperature chemistry 1

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 1 describes the complexities and special and changing characteristics of high temperature chemistry. After providing a brief definition of high temperature chemistry, this nine-chapter book goes on describing the experiments and calculations of diatomic transition metal molecules, as well as the advances in applied wave mechanics that may contribute to an understanding of the bonding, structure, and spectra of the molecules of high temperature interest. The next chapter provides a summary of gaseous ternary compounds of the alkali metals used in

  14. High temperature mechanical properties of iron aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D. G.; Munoz-Morris, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the iron aluminide family of intermetallics over the past years since they offer considerable potential as engineering materials for intermediate to high temperature applications, particularly in cases where extreme oxidation or corrosion resistance is required. Despite efforts at alloy development, however, high temperature strength remains low and creep resistance poor. Reasons for the poor high-temperature strength of iron aluminides will be discussed, based on the ordered crystal structure, the dislocation structure found in the materials, and the mechanisms of dislocation pinning operating. Alternative ways of improving high temperature strength by microstructural modification and the inclusion of second phase particles will also be considered. (Author)

  15. High temperature equation of state of metallic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, V. T.

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state of liquid metallic hydrogen is solved numerically. Investigations are carried out at temperatures from 3000 to 20 000 K and densities from 0.2 to 3 mol/cm 3 , which correspond both to the experimental conditions under which metallic hydrogen is produced on earth and the conditions in the cores of giant planets of the solar system such as Jupiter and Saturn. It is assumed that hydrogen is in an atomic state and all its electrons are collectivized. Perturbation theory in the electron-proton interaction is applied to determine the thermodynamic potentials of metallic hydrogen. The electron subsystem is considered in the randomphase approximation with regard to the exchange interaction and the correlation of electrons in the local-field approximation. The proton-proton interaction is taken into account in the hard-spheres approximation. The thermodynamic characteristics of metallic hydrogen are calculated with regard to the zero-, second-, and third-order perturbation theory terms. The third-order term proves to be rather essential at moderately high temperatures and densities, although it is much smaller than the second-order term. The thermodynamic potentials of metallic hydrogen are monotonically increasing functions of density and temperature. The values of pressure for the temperatures and pressures that are characteristic of the conditions under which metallic hydrogen is produced on earth coincide with the corresponding values reported by the discoverers of metallic hydrogen to a high degree of accuracy. The temperature and density ranges are found in which there exists a liquid phase of metallic hydrogen

  16. Liquid metal extraction of Nd from NdFeB magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanchen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-12-10

    This research involves using molten magnesium (Mg) to remove neodymium (Nd) from NdFeB magnet scrap by diffusion. The results show that liquid metal extraction of Nd may be a viable and inexpensive method for recovering the expensive rare earth element Nd for use in Mg castings.

  17. Compilation of data and descriptions for United States and foreign liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, E.R.

    1975-08-01

    This document is a compilation of design and engineering information pertaining to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors which have operated, are operating, or are currently under construction, in the United States and abroad. All data has been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books

  18. Application of the model of micro inhomogeneous structure of liquid metals to calculation of their viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilin, I.V.; Ershov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the dynamic viscosity coefficient of liquid metals based on the assumption of the microinhomogeneity of their structure. The functions eta=f(T) were calculated accordingly using computers both for the refractory (Fe, Ni, Co, Cu) and the readily melting (Al, An, Cd) metals. The experimental and the calculated values eta=f(T) agreed satisfactorily

  19. Induction apparatus monitoring structural strains in liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.A.; Evans, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of monitoring induced torsional and linear strains in the internal structures of liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors is described. An electrical induction apparatus indicates the variation of magnetic coupling caused by a ferromagnetic member of the apparatus being subjected to such strains. (U.K.)

  20. Interfacial transport phenomena and stability in liquid-metal/water systems: scaling considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.; Cho, D.

    2001-01-01

    One concept being considered for steam generation in innovative nuclear reactor applications, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. The vigorous agitation of the two fluids, the direct liquid-liquid contact and the consequent large interfacial area give rise to very high heat transfer coefficients and rapid steam generation. For an optimum design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. In this paper we describe current results from the first year of this research that studies the transport phenomena involved with the injection of water into molten metals (e.g., lead alloys). In particular, this work discusses scaling considerations related to direct contact heat exchange, our experimental plans for investigation and a test plan for the important experimental parameters; i.e., the water and liquid metal mass flow rates, the liquid metal pool temperature and the ambient pressure of the direct contact heat exchanger. Past experimental work and initial scaling results suggest that our experiments can directly represent the proper liquid metal pool temperature and the water subcooling. The experimental variation in water and liquid metal flow rates and system pressure (1-10 bar), although smaller than the current conceptual system designs, is sufficient to verify the expected scale effects to demonstrate the phenomena. (authors)

  1. Effect of electromagnetic coupling on MHD flow in the manifold of fusion liquid metal blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Meng, Zi; Feng, Jingchao; He, Qingyun

    2014-10-15

    In fusion liquid metal (LM) blanket, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects will dominate the flow patterns and the heat transfer characteristics of the liquid metal flow. Manifold is a key component in LM blanket in charge of distributing or collecting the liquid metal coolant. In this region, the complex three dimensional MHD phenomena will be occurred, and the velocity, pressure and flow rate distributions may be dramatically influenced. One important aspect is the electromagnetic coupling effect resulting from an exchange of electric currents between two neighboring fluid domains that can lead to modifications of flow distribution and pressure drop compared to that in electrical separated channels. Understanding the electromagnetic coupling effect in manifold is necessary to optimize the liquid metal blanket design. In this work, a numerical study was carried out to investigate the effect of electromagnetic coupling on MHD flow in a manifold region. The typical manifold geometry in LM blanket was considered, a rectangular supply duct entering a rectangular expansion area, finally feeding into 3 rectangular parallel channels. This paper investigated the effect of electromagnetic coupling on MHD flow in a manifold region. Different electromagnetic coupling modes with different combinations of electrical conductivity of walls were studied numerically. The flow distribution and pressure drop of these modes have been evaluated.

  2. Nusselt number for turbulent flow of liquid metal in circular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1982-07-01

    The forced convection heat transfer in turbulent flow of liquid metals in ducts, is analyzed. An analogy between moment and heat at wall surface, is developed for determining one heat transfer coeficient in friction of friction coeficient. (E.G.) [pt

  3. The magnetohydrodynamic force experienced by spherical iron particles in liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Jakovičs, Andris

    2016-01-01

    The paper contains a theoretical investigation of magnetohydrodynamic force experienced by iron particles (well-conducting and ferromagnetic) in well-conducting liquid. The investigation is performed by extending the Leenov and Kolin's theory to take into account the second-order effect. Therefore, the limits of the parent model are taken over to the present results. It is found that the effective conductivity of iron particles in liquid metal, which is important for practical application of the theoretically obtained force, is approximately equal to 1.5·10"6 S/m. The last result is obtained using a quasi-empirical approach – a comparison of experimental results with the results of the numerical simulation that was performed for various conductivities of the iron particles. - Highlights: • We found the expression of an MHD force experienced by a spherical iron particle in a liquid metal taking into account the second order effect additionally to Leenov & Kolin’s theoretical solution. • We found the effective conductivity of an iron particle in a liquid metal in quasi-empirical way equal to 1.5·10"6 S/m. • It is important to use the expression of an MHD force, which takes into account the second-order effect, as well as the correction for effective conductivity of a particle, to describe behaviour of iron particles in liquid metal flows, which are under influence or induced by the Lorentz force.

  4. An overview of IPPE research on liquid metal fast reactor thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A. P.; Efanov, A. D.; Zhukov, A. V.; Bogoslovskaia, G. P.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents brief information on the most significant researches in the fields of liquid metal hydrodynamics and heat transfer performed in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation 'Institute for Physics and Power Engineering' named after A.I.Leypunski applied to sodium-cooled fast reactors. Experimental methods for studying liquid metal thermohydraulics and applied measurement techniques are overviewed briefly in the paper. Some results of fundamental thermohydraulic investigations, such as quasi-universal character of velocity and temperature profile in liquid metals, if considered normally to the channel wall etc. are presented. Specific features of heat transfer in liquid metal cooled fuel subassembly are mentioned, among them there are: high level of coolant temperature; significant influence of an interchannel exchange on velocity and temperature distribution; an availability of contact thermal resistance; large azimuthal non-uniformity of velocity and temperature; 'conjugate' problem of heat transfer in combined geometry of fuel pin; an absence of stabilization of heat transfer in non-standard channels; an influence of non-uniform heat generation. Special attention is given to the temperature fields in fuel subassembly subjected to deformation because of radioactive swelling and creeping, as well as in case of blockage of a part of subassembly cross section. Some results of thermohydraulic investigation are demonstrated for intermediate heat exchangers, pressurized head collectors. Also the developed methods and codes of thermohydraulic calculations applied to fast reactor core are considered: subchannel approach, porous body model

  5. On the applicability of nearly free electron model for resistivity calculations in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, J.; Popielawski, J.

    1982-09-01

    The calculations of resistivity based on the nearly free electron model are presented for many noble and transition liquid metals. The triple ion correlation is included in resistivity formula according to SCQCA approximation. Two different methods for describing the conduction band are used. The problem of applicability of the nearly free electron model for different metals is discussed. (author)

  6. Simplified computational simulation of liquid metal behaviour in turbulent flow with heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.B. da.

    1992-09-01

    The present work selected the available bibliography equations and empirical relationships to the development of a computer code to obtain the turbulent velocity and temperature profiles in liquid metal tube flow with heat generation. The computer code is applied to a standard problem and the results are considered satisfactory, at least from the viewpoint of qualitative behaviour. (author). 50 refs, 21 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience

  8. Thermophysical properties of simple liquid metals: A brief review of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, David

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current theory of the thermophysical properties of simple liquid metals. The emphasis is on thermodynamic properties, but we also briefly discuss the nonequilibrium properties of liquid metals. We begin by defining a 'simple liquid metal' as one in which the valence electrons interact only weakly with the ionic cores, so that the interaction can be treated by perturbation theory. We then write down the equilibrium Hamiltonian of a liquid metal as a sum of five terms: the bare ion-ion interaction, the electron-electron interaction, the bare electron-ion interaction, and the kinetic energies of electrons and ions. Since the electron-ion interaction can be treated by perturbation, the electronic part contributes in two ways to the Helmholtz free energy: it gives a density-dependent term which is independent of the arrangement of ions, and it acts to screen the ion-ion interaction, giving rise to effective ion-ion pair potentials which are density-dependent, in general. After sketching the form of a typical pair potential, we briefly enumerate some methods for calculating the ionic distribution function and hence the Helmholtz free energy of the liquid: monte Carlo simulations, molecular dynamics simulations, and thermodynamic perturbation theory. The final result is a general expression for the Helmholtz free energy of the liquid metal. It can be used to calculate a wide range of thermodynamic properties of simple metal liquids, which we enumerate. They include not only a range of thermodynamic coefficients of both metals and alloys, but also many aspects of the phase diagram, including freezing curves of pure elements and phase diagrams of liquid alloys (including liquidus and solidus curves). We briefly mention some key discoveries resulting from previous applications of this method, and point out that the same methods work for other materials not normally considered to be liquid metals (such as colloidal suspensions, in which the

  9. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Mattas, R.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R ampersand D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns

  10. Numerical simulation on single bubble rising behavior in liquid metal using moving particle semi-implicit method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Juanli; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Chen Ronghua; Su Guanghui

    2011-01-01

    The gas-lift pump in liquid metal cooling fast reactor (LMFR) is an innovational conceptual design to enhance the natural circulation ability of reactor core. The two-phase flow character of gas-liquid metal makes significant improvement of the natural circulation capacity and reactor safety. In present basic study, the rising behavior of a single nitrogen bubble in five kinds of liquid metals (lead bismuth alloy, liquid kalium, sodium, potassium sodium alloy and lithium lead alloy) was numerically simulated using moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. The whole growing process of single nitrogen bubble in liquid metal was captured. The bubble shape and rising speed of single nitrogen bubble in each liquid metal were compared. The comparison between simulation results using MPS method and Grace graphical correlation shows a good agreement. (authors)

  11. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  12. Development of liquid metal type TBM technology for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, Y. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    were developed. Since He cooling technology with such a high temperature and pressure conditions (500 .deg. C and 8 MPa) has been developed in the Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) field. Since pressure drop by MHD effect is one of most important problem in liquid type TBM, this problem was evaluated with the CFX code and its EM module, which was newly adopted. In order to validate this module, a benchmarking problem was selected and the input data for the KO HCML TBM was prepared. In order to develop the Li technology, the test loop was designed schematically and design parameters were obtained. Main components such as EM pump and sump tank were designed specifically and fabricated.

  13. Development of liquid metal type TBM technology for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, Y.

    2008-03-01

    were developed. Since He cooling technology with such a high temperature and pressure conditions (500 .deg. C and 8 MPa) has been developed in the Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) field. Since pressure drop by MHD effect is one of most important problem in liquid type TBM, this problem was evaluated with the CFX code and its EM module, which was newly adopted. In order to validate this module, a benchmarking problem was selected and the input data for the KO HCML TBM was prepared. In order to develop the Li technology, the test loop was designed schematically and design parameters were obtained. Main components such as EM pump and sump tank were designed specifically and fabricated

  14. Report on generation IV technical working group 3 : liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M. J.; Rosen, S. L.; Sagayama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the first round of R and D roadmap activities of the Generation IV (Gen IV) Technical Working Group (TWG) 3, on liquid metal-cooled reactors. Liquid metal coolants give rise to fast spectrum systems, and thus the reactor systems considered in this TWG are all fast reactors. Gas-cooled fast reactors are considered in the context of TWG 2. As is noted in other Gen IV papers, this first round activity is termed ''screening for potential'', and includes collecting the most complete set of liquid metal reactor/fuel cycle system concepts possible and evaluating the concepts against the Gen IV principles and goals. Those concepts or concept groups that meet the Gen IV principles and which are deemed to have reasonable potential to meet the Gen IV goals will pass to the next round of evaluation. Although we sometimes use the terms ''reactor'' or ''reactor system'' by themselves, the scope of the investigation by TWG 3 includes not only the reactor systems, but very importantly the closed fuel recycle system inevitably required by fast reactors. The response to the DOE Request for Information (RFI) on liquid metal reactor/fuel cycle systems from principal investigators, laboratories, corporations, and other institutions, was robust and gratifying. Thirty three liquid metal concept descriptions, from eight different countries, were ultimately received. The variation in the scope, depth, and completeness of the responses created a significant challenge for the group, but the TWG made a very significant effort not to screen out concepts early in the process

  15. International workshop on measuring techniques for liquid metal flows (MTLM). Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, G; Eckert, S [eds.

    1999-11-01

    The international workshop on 'Measuring techniques in liquid metal flows' (MTLM workshop) was organised in frame of the Dresden 'Innovationskolleg Magnetofluiddynamik'. The subject of the MTLM workshop was limited to methods to determine physical flow quantities such as velocity, pressure, void fraction, inclusion properties, crystallisation fronts etc. The present proceedings contain abstracts and viewgraphs of the oral presentations. During the last decades numerical simulations have become an important tool in industry and research to study the structure of flows and the properties of heat and mass transfer. However, in case of liquid metal flows there exists a significant problem to validate the codes with experimental data due to the lack of available measuring techniques. Due to the material properties (opaque, hot, chemical aggressive) the measurement of flow quantities is much more delicate in liquid metals compared to ordinary water flows. The generalisation of results obtained by means of water models to real liquid metal flows has often to be considered as difficult due to the problems to meet the actual values of n0n-dimensional flow parameters (Re, Pr, Gr, Ha, etc.). Moreover, a strong need has to be noted to make measuring techniques available tomonitor and to control flow processes in real industrial facilities. The objectives of the MTLM workshop were to: Review of existing information on a available techniques and experiences about the use in liquid metal flows, initiate a discussion between developers and potential users with respect to the actual need of information about the flow structure as well as the capabilities of existing and developing measuring techniques. Explore opportunities for co-operative R and D projects to expedite new developments and results, to share expertise and resources. (orig.)

  16. International workshop on measuring techniques for liquid metal flows (MTLM). Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    The international workshop on 'Measuring techniques in liquid metal flows' (MTLM workshop) was organised in frame of the Dresden 'Innovationskolleg Magnetofluiddynamik'. The subject of the MTLM workshop was limited to methods to determine physical flow quantities such as velocity, pressure, void fraction, inclusion properties, crystallisation fronts etc. The present proceedings contain abstracts and viewgraphs of the oral presentations. During the last decades numerical simulations have become an important tool in industry and research to study the structure of flows and the properties of heat and mass transfer. However, in case of liquid metal flows there exists a significant problem to validate the codes with experimental data due to the lack of available measuring techniques. Due to the material properties (opaque, hot, chemical aggressive) the measurement of flow quantities is much more delicate in liquid metals compared to ordinary water flows. The generalisation of results obtained by means of water models to real liquid metal flows has often to be considered as difficult due to the problems to meet the actual values of n0n-dimensional flow parameters (Re, Pr, Gr, Ha, etc.). Moreover, a strong need has to be noted to make measuring techniques available tomonitor and to control flow processes in real industrial facilities. The objectives of the MTLM workshop were to: Review of existing information on a available techniques and experiences about the use in liquid metal flows, initiate a discussion between developers and potential users with respect to the actual need of information about the flow structure as well as the capabilities of existing and developing measuring techniques. Explore opportunities for co-operative R and D projects to expedite new developments and results, to share expertise and resources. (orig.)

  17. Transient performance of a thermal energy storage-based heat sink using a liquid metal as the phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Li-Wu; Wu, Yu-Yue; Xiao, Yu-Qi; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Yi-Ling; Yu, Zi-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A liquid metal is adopted as the PCM in a thermal energy storage-based heat sink. • Transient performance of the heat sink is tested in comparison to an organic PCM. • The liquid metal has a similar volumetric latent heat of fusion to the organic PCM. • Outperformance of the liquid metal is found due to its higher thermal conductivity. • Liquid metals are preferred when the system weight is less important than volume. - Abstract: In this Technical Note, the use of a liquid metal, i.e., a low melting point Pb–Sn–In–Bi alloy, as the phase change material (PCM) in thermal energy storage-based heat sinks is tested in comparison to an organic PCM (1-octadecanol) having a similar melting point of ∼60 °C. The thermophysical properties of the two types of PCM are characterized, revealing that the liquid metal is much more conductive while both have nearly identical volumetric latent heat of fusion (∼215 MJ/m"3). By using at the same volume of 80 mL, i.e., the same energy storage capacity, the liquid metal is shown to outperform significantly over the organic PCM under the various heating powers up to 105.3 W/cm"2. During the heating period, the use of the liquid metal leads to a remarkable extension of the effective protection time to nearly twice longer as well as a reduction of the highest overheating temperature by up to 50 °C. The cool-down period can also be shortened significantly by taking advantage of the much higher thermal conductivity of the liquid metal. These findings suggest that liquid metals could serve as a promising PCM candidate for particular applications where the volume limit is very rigorous and the penalty in weight increment is acceptable.

  18. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.

  19. Quantum electrodynamics at high temperature. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The photon sector of QED in d = 3 spatial dimensions is analyzed at high temperature thereby generalizing nontrivially a previous study for d = 1. The imaginary time formalism and an improved renormalized perturbation theory which incorporates second order Debye screening are used. General results are presented for the leading high temperature contributions to all renormalized connected photon Green's functions for fixed external momenta (much smaller than the temperature) to all orders in the improved perturbation theory. Those leading contributions are ultraviolet finite, infrared convergent and gauge invariant, and display an interesting form of dimensional reduction at high temperature. A new path integral representations is given for the high temperature partition function with an external photon source, which is shown to generate all leading high temperature Green's functions mentioned above, and, so, it displays neatly the kind of dimensional reduction which makes QED to become simpler at high temperature. This limiting partition function corresponds to an imaginary time dependent electron positron field interacting with an electromagnetic field at zero imaginary time, and it depends on the renormalized electron mass and electric charge, the second order contribution to the usual renormalization constant Z 3 and a new mass term, which is associated to the photon field with vanishing Lorentz index. The new mass term corresponds to a finite number of diagrams in the high temperature improved perturbation theory and carriers ultraviolet divergences which are compensated for by other contributions (so that the leading high temperature Green's functions referred to above are ultraviolet finite). The dominant high temperature contributions to the renormalized thermodynamic potential to all perturbative orders: i) are given in terms of the above leading high-temperature contributions to the photon Green's functions (except for a few diagrams of low order in the

  20. THORS: a high-temperature sodium test facility rated at 2.0 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnadt, P.A.; Anderson, A.H.; Clapp, N.E.; Montgomery, B.H.; Collins, C.W.; Stulting, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The Thermal--Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility at Oak Ridge Naitonal Laboratory (ORNL) is a high-temperature sodium test facility operated for the United States Breeder Reactor Safety Program. The facility is primarily used for testing large simulated Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel subassemblies. The facility has recently been upgraded to provide a 2.0-MW test bundle power input and heat removal capability. A new test section, which will be capable of operating at 980 0 C and which will accommodate a 217-pin bundle, has also been added. A 61-pin bundle is currently under test in the facility. A description of the test facility is presented, along with a brief summary of the 8-year operating history of this safety-related test facility