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Sample records for heavy baryons heavy

  1. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  2. Heavy Baryons and QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, O I

    1996-01-01

    We discuss an application of QCD sum rules to the heavy baryons $\\Lambda_Q$ and $\\Sigma_Q$. The predictions for the masses of heavy baryons, residues and Isgur-Wise function are presented. The new results on two loop anomalous dimensions of baryonic currents and QCD radiative corrections (two- and three- loop contributions) to the first two Wilson coefficients in OPE are explicitly presented.

  3. Hadronic molecules in the heavy baryon spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entem, D. R.; Ortega, P. G.; Fernández, F.

    2016-01-01

    We study possible baryon molecules in the non-strange heavy baryon spectrum. We include configurations with a heavy-meson and a light baryon. We find several structures, in particular we can understand the Λc(2940) as a D*N molecule with JP = 3/2- quantum numbers. We also find D(*)Δ candidates for the recently discovered Xc(3250) resonance.

  4. Propagation of heavy baryons in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santosh K.; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Tolos, Laura; Minissale, Vincenzo; Scardina, Francesco; Greco, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy baryons (Λc and Λb ) in the hadronic phase created in the latter stage of the heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies have been evaluated recently. In this work we compute some experimental observables, such as the nuclear suppression factor RA A and the elliptic flow v2 of heavy baryons at RHIC and LHC energies, highlighting the role of the hadronic phase contribution to these observables, which are going to be measured at Run 3 of LHC. For the time evolution of the heavy quarks in the quark and gluon plasma (QGP) and heavy baryons in the hadronic phase, we use the Langevin dynamics. For the hadronization of the heavy quarks to heavy baryons we employ Peterson fragmentation functions. We observe a strong suppression of both the Λc and Λb . We find that the hadronic medium has a sizable impact on the heavy-baryon elliptic flow whereas the impact of hadronic medium rescattering is almost unnoticeable on the nuclear suppression factor. We evaluate the Λc/D ratio at RHIC and LHC. We find that the Λc/D ratio remains unaffected due to the hadronic phase rescattering which enables it as a nobel probe of QGP phase dynamics along with its hadronization.

  5. Pion mean fields and heavy baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ghil-Seok; Polyakov, Maxim V; Praszałowicz, Michał

    2016-01-01

    We show that the masses of the lowest-lying heavy baryons can be very well described in a pion mean-field approach. We consider a heavy baryon as a system consisting of the $N_c-1$ light quarks that induce the pion mean field, and a heavy quark as a static color source under the influence of this mean field. In this approach we derive a number of \\textit{model-independent} relations and calculate the heavy baryon masses using those of the lowest-lying light baryons as input. The results are in remarkable agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the mass of the $\\Omega_b^*$ baryon is predicted.

  6. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  7. Heavy Baryons in a Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Roberts; Muslema Pervin

    2007-11-14

    A quark model is applied to the spectrum of baryons containing heavy quarks. The model gives masses for the known heavy baryons that are in agreement with experiment, but for the doubly-charmed baryon $\\Xi_{cc}$, the model prediction is too heavy. Mixing between the $\\Xi_Q$ and $\\Xi_Q^\\prime$ states is examined and is found to be small for the lowest lying states. In contrast with this, mixing between the $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bc}^\\prime$ states is found to be large, and the implication of this mixing for properties of these states is briefly discussed. We also examine heavy-quark spin-symmetry multiplets, and find that many states in the model can be placed in such multiplets.

  8. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin Patel; Ajay Kumar Rai; P C Vinodkumar

    2008-05-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index . The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, $J^{P} = \\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ baryons are computed for different power indices, starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index = 1.0.

  9. Heavy baryon spectroscopy from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, K.C.; Kenway, R.D.; Oliveira, O.; Richards, D.G.; Ueberholz, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (Scotland); Lellouch, L.; Nieves, J.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Stella, N.; Wittig, H. [Physics Department, The University, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The results of an exploratory lattice study of heavy baryon spectroscopy are presented. We have computed the full spectrum of the eight baryons containing a single heavy quark, on a 24{sup 3}{times}48 lattice at {beta}=6.2, using an {ital O}({ital a})-improved fermion action. We discuss the lattice baryon operators and give a method for isolating the contributions of the spin doublets ({Sigma},{Sigma}{sup {asterisk}}), ({Xi}{sup {prime}},{Xi}{sup {asterisk}}), and ({Omega},{Omega}{sup {asterisk}}) to the correlation function of the relevant operator. We compare our results with the available experimental data and find good agreement in both the charm and the {ital b}-quark sectors, despite the long extrapolation in the heavy quark mass needed in the latter case. We also predict the masses of several undiscovered baryons. We compute the {Lambda}-pseudoscalar meson and {Sigma}-{Lambda} mass splittings. Our results, which have errors in the range 10{endash}30{percent}, are in good agreement with the experimental numbers. For the {Sigma}{sup {asterisk}}-{Sigma} mass splitting, we find results considerably smaller than the experimental values for both the charm and the {ital b}-flavored baryons, although in the latter case the experimental results are still preliminary. This is also the case for the lattice results for the hyperfine splitting for the heavy mesons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Heavy Flavor Baryons at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhr, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 have filled many empty spots in the spectrum of heavy baryons over the last few years. The most recent results are described in this article: The first direct observation of the {Xi}{sub b}{sup 0}, improved measurements of {Sigma}{sub b} properties, a new measurement of the {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda} branching ratio, and a high-statistics study of charm baryons.

  11. A Heavy Quark Symmetry Approach to Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertus, C. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Amaro, J.E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Nieves, J. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2005-06-13

    We evaluate different properties of baryons with a heavy c or b quark. The use of Heavy Quark Symmetry (HQS) provides with an important simplification of the non relativistic three body problem which can be solved by means of a simple variational approach. This scheme is able to reproduce previous results obtained with more involved Faddeev calculations. The resulting wave functions are parametrized in a simple manner, and can be used to calculate further observables.

  12. Heavy Baryon Production and Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard

    1998-01-01

    The branching ratio B(Lambda_c -> p K- pi+) normalizes the production and decay of charmed and bottom baryons. At present, this crucial branching ratio is extracted dominantly from B.bar -> baryons analyses. This note questions several of the underlying assumptions and predicts sizable B.bar -> D(*) N N'.bar X transitions, which were traditionally neglected. It predicts B(Lambda_c -> p K- pi+) to be significantly larger (0.07 +/- 0.02) than the world average. Some consequences are briefly mentioned. Several techniques to measure B(Lambda_c -> p K- pi+) are outlined with existing or soon available data samples. By equating two recent CLEO results, an appendix obtains B(D0 -> K- pi+)= 0.035 +/- 0.002, which is somewhat smaller than the current world average.

  13. Heavy baryons in the large Nc limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albertus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in the large Nc limit heavy baryon masses can be estimated quantitatively in a 1/Nc expansion using the Hartree approximation. The results are compared with available lattice calculations for different values of the ratio between the square root of the string tension and the heavy quark mass σ/mQ. These estimates implement important 1/Nc corrections and assume a string tension independent of Nc. Using a potential adjusted to agree with the one obtained in lattice QCD, a variational analysis of the ground state spin averaged baryon mass is performed using Gaussian Hartree wave functions. Relativistic corrections through the quark kinetic energy are included. The results provide good estimates for the first sub-leading in 1/Nc corrections.

  14. Fragmentation Functions for Heavy Baryons in the Recombination Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭茹

    2011-01-01

    Using the shower parton distributions determined by the recombination model, we predict the fragmentation functions for heavy baryons. Then we obtain the completed fragmentation functions of heavy quarks (c and b) splitting into their hadrons (mesons and baryons containing one heavy valence quark). The calculated process shows that the fragmentation functions for mesons and baryons are not independent if the hadronization of the shower partons is taken into account.%Using the shower parton distributions determined by the recombination model,we predict the fragmentation functions for heavy baryons.Then we obtain the completed fragmentation functions of heavy quarks(c and b)splitting into their hadrons(mesons and baryons containing one heavy valence quark).The calculated process shows that the fragmentation functions for mesons and baryons are not independent if the hadronization of the shower partons is taken into account.

  15. Magnetic Moments of Baryons with a Heavy Quark

    CERN Document Server

    Weigel, H

    2003-01-01

    We compute magnetic moments of baryons with a heavy quark in the bound state approach for heavy baryons. In this approach the heavy baryon is considered as a heavy meson bound to a light baryon. The latter is represented as a soliton excitation of light meson fields. We obtain the magnetic moments by sandwiching pertinent components of the electromagnetic current operator between the bound state wave--functions. We extract this current operator from the coupling to the photon field after extending the action to be gauge invariant.

  16. Doubly heavy baryon spectra guided by lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Garcilazo, H; Vijande, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides results for the ground state and excited spectra of three-flavored doubly heavy baryons, $bcn$ and $bcs$. We take advantage of the spin-independent interaction recently obtained to reconcile the lattice SU(3) QCD static potential and the results of nonperturbative lattice QCD for the triply heavy baryon spectra. We show that the spin-dependent potential might be constrained on the basis of nonperturbative lattice QCD results for the spin splittings of three-flavored doubly heavy baryons. Our results may also represent a challenge for future lattice QCD work, because a smaller lattice error could help in distinguishing between different prescriptions for the spin-dependent part of the interaction. Thus, by comparing with the reported baryon spectra obtained with parameters estimated from lattice QCD, one can challenge the precision of lattice calculations. The present work supports a coherent description of singly, doubly and triply heavy baryons with the same Cornell-like interacting poten...

  17. Spectrum of heavy baryons in the quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Tetsuya; Hosaka, Atsushi; Oka, Makoto; Sadato, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Single- and double- heavy baryons are studied in the constituent quark model. The model Hamiltonian is chosen as a standard one with two exceptions : (1) The color-Coulomb term depend on quark masses, and (2) an antisymmetric $LS$ force is introduced. Model parameters are fixed by the strange baryon spectra, $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma$ baryons. The masses of the observed charmed and bottomed baryons are, then, fairly well reproduced. Our focus is on the low-lying negative-parity states, in which the heavy baryons show specific excitation modes reflecting the mass differences of heavy and light quarks. By changing quark masses from the SU(3) limit to the strange quark mass, further to the charm and bottom quark masses, we demonstrate that the spectra change from the SU(3) symmetry patterns to the heavy quark symmetry ones.

  18. Heavy baryons as polarimeters at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanti, Mario [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester,Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Giammanco, Andrea [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Université catholique de Louvain,B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Grossman, Yuval [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Kats, Yevgeny; Stamou, Emmanuel [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Zupan, Jure [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    In new-physics processes that produce b or c jets, a measurement of the initial b or c-quark polarization could provide crucial information about the structure of the new physics. In the heavy-quark limit, the b and c-quark polarizations are preserved in the lightest baryons they hadronize into, Λ{sub b} and Λ{sub c}, respectively. We revisit the prediction for the polarization retention after the hadronization process and extend it to the case of transverse polarization. We show how ATLAS and CMS can measure the b-quark polarization using semileptonic Λ{sub b} decays, and the c-quark polarization using Λ{sub c}{sup +}→pK{sup −}π{sup +} decays. For calibrating both measurements we suggest to use tt̄ samples in which these polarizations can be measured with precision of order 10% using 100 fb{sup −1} of data in Run 2 of the LHC. Measurements of the transverse polarization in QCD events at ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are motivated as well. The proposed measurements give access to nonperturbative QCD parameters relevant to the dynamics of the hadronization process.

  19. Heavy baryons as polarimeters at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Galanti, Mario; Grossman, Yuval; Kats, Yevgeny; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-01

    In new-physics processes that produce b or c jets, a measurement of the initial b or c-quark polarization could provide crucial information about the structure of new physics. In the heavy-quark limit, the b and c-quark polarizations are preserved in the lightest baryons they hadronize into, Lambda_b and Lambda_c, respectively. We revisit the prediction for the polarization retention after the hadronization process and extend it to the case of transverse polarization. We show how ATLAS and CMS can measure the b-quark polarization using semileptonic Lambda_b decays, and the c-quark polarization using Lambda_c+ -> p K- pi+ decays. For calibrating both measurements we suggest to use ttbar samples in which the polarizations can be measured with a precision of order 10% using 100/fb of data in Run 2 of the LHC. LHCb measurements of the transverse polarization in QCD events are motivated as well. An existing LHCb analysis can be significantly improved for this purpose.

  20. Study of Doubly Heavy Baryon Spectrum via QCD Sum Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liang; YUAN Xu-Hao; QIAO Cong-Feng; LI Xue-Qian

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we calculate the mass spectrum of doubly heavy baryons with the diquaxk model in terms of the QCD sum rules. The interpolating currents are composed of a heavy diquaxk field and a light quark field. Contributions of the operators up to dimension six are taken into account in the operator product expansion. Within a reasonable error tolerance, our numerical results axe compatible with other theoretical predictions. This indicates that the diquaxk picture reflects the reality and is applicable to the study of doubly heavy baryons.

  1. Excited state mass spectra of doubly heavy Ξ baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Zalak; Rai, Ajay Kumar [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, the mass spectra are obtained for doubly heavy Ξ baryons, namely, Ξ{sub cc}{sup +}, Ξ{sub cc}{sup ++}, Ξ{sub bb}{sup -}, Ξ{sub bb}{sup 0}, Ξ{sub bc}{sup 0} and Ξ{sub bc}{sup +}. These baryons consist of two heavy quarks (cc, bb, and bc) with a light (d or u) quark. The ground, radial, and orbital states are calculated in the framework of the hypercentral constituent quark model with Coulomb plus linear potential. Our results are also compared with other predictions, thus, the average possible range of excited states masses of these Ξ baryons can be determined. The study of the Regge trajectories is performed in (n, M{sup 2}) and (J, M{sup 2}) planes and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Lastly, the ground state magnetic moments of these doubly heavy baryons are also calculated. (orig.)

  2. Baryons and baryonic matter in the large Nc and heavy quark limits

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Thomas D; Ndousse, Kamal K

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores properties of baryons and finite density baryonic matter in an artificial world in which Nc, the number of colors, is large and the quarks of all species are degenerate and much larger than {\\Lambda}_QCD. It has long been known that in large Nc QCD, baryons composed entirely of heavy quarks are accurately described in the mean-field approximation. However, the detailed properties of baryons in the combined large Nc and heavy quark limits have not been fully explored. Here some basic properties of baryons are computed using a variational approach. At leading order in both the large Nc and heavy quark expansions the baryon mass is computed explicitly as is the baryon form factor. Baryonic matter, the analog of nuclear matter in this artificial world, should also be well described in the mean-field approximation. In the special case where all baryons have an identical spin flavor structure, it is shown that in the formal heavy quark and large Nc limit interactions between baryons are strictly...

  3. Transition magnetic moments between negative parity heavy baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, T M; Savci, M

    2015-01-01

    The transition magnetic moments between negative parity, spin-1/2 heavy baryons are studied in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. By constructing the sum rules for different Lorentz structures, the unwanted contributions coming from negative (positive) to positive (negative) parity transitions are removed. It is found that the magnetic moments between neutral negative parity heavy $\\Xi_Q^{\\prime 0}$ and $\\Xi_Q^0$ baryons are very small. Magnetic moments of the $\\Sigma_Q \\to \\Lambda_Q$ and $ \\Xi_Q^{\\prime \\pm} \\to \\Xi_Q^\\pm$ transitions are quite large and can be measured in further experiments.

  4. Variational Study of Weakly Coupled Triply Heavy Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Y

    2006-01-01

    Baryons made of three heavy quarks become weakly coupled, when all the quarks are sufficiently heavy such that the typical momentum transfer is much larger than Lambda_QCD. We use variational method to estimate masses of the lowest-lying bcc, ccc, bbb and bbc states by assuming they are Coulomb bound states. Our predictions for these states are systematically lower than those made long ago by Bjorken.

  5. Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor baryons and single heavy hyperon polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, G R

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. $\\Lambda_b$ , $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are calculated and, where possible, compared with experiment. A different approach, also relying on a heavy quark-diquark model, is proposed for the small momentum transfer inclusive production of polarized heavy flavor hyperons. The predicted $\\Lambda_c$ polarization is roughly in agreement with experiment.

  6. Magnetic Moments of Baryons containing all heavy quarks in Quark-Diquark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thakkar, Kaushal; Vinodkumar, P C

    2016-01-01

    The triply heavy flavour baryons are studied using the Quark-diquark description of the three-body system. The confinement potential for present study of triply heavy flavour baryons is assumed as coulomb plus power potential with power index $\

  7. Magnetic moments of heavy baryons in the relativistic three-quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, A; Ivanov, M A; Körner, J G; Lyubovitskij, V E; Nicmorus, D; Pumsa-ard, K; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic moments of ground state single, double and triple heavy baryons containing charm or bottom quarks are calculated in a relativistic three-quark model, which, in the heavy quark limit, is consistent with Heavy Quark Effective Theory and Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory. The internal quark structure of baryons is modeled by baryonic three-quark currents with a spin-flavor structure patterned according to standard covariant baryonic wave functions and currents used in QCD sum rule calculations.

  8. Two-loop anomalous dimensions of heavy baryon currents in heavy quark effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Groote, S; Yakovlev, O I

    1996-01-01

    We present results on the two-loop anomalous dimensions of the heavy baryon HQET currents J=(q^TC\\Gamma\\tau q)\\Gamma'Q with arbitrary Dirac matrices \\Gamma and \\Gamma'. From our general result we obtain the two-loop anomalous dimensions for currents with quantum numbers of the ground state heavy baryons \\Lambda_Q, \\Sigma_Q and \\Sigma_Q^*. As a by-product of our calculation and as an additional check we rederive the known two-loop anomalous dimensions of mesonic scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial vector and tensor currents (J=\\bar q\\Gamma q) in massless QCD as well as in HQET.

  9. Study of heavy exotic baryon resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yubing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible production of the neutral Pc(4380 and Pc(4450 in the J-PARC experiment is discussed. Different spin-parity assignments of the Pc states are considered and differential cross sections of π−p → J/ψp are calculated. Moreover, the strong decays of Pc → J/ψp are estimated based on a ΣcD̄* molecular scenario. Our results disfavor all the P − wave ΣcD̄* assignments, while favor the S − wave ΣcD̄* picture of the two Pc states comparing to the experimental data. In addition, we also analyze the possible JP =3/2− state in Σc*D̄ and Σc*D̄* pictures with heavy quark limit.

  10. Factorization of heavy-to-light baryonic transitions in SCET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei

    2011-12-15

    In the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory, we demonstrate that the leading-power heavy-to-light baryonic form factors at large recoil obey the heavy quark and large energy symmetries. Symmetry breaking effects have several origins but all of them are suppressed by {lambda}/m{sub b} or {lambda}/E, where {lambda} is the hadronic scale, m{sub b} is the b quark mass and E{proportional_to}m{sub b} is the energy of light baryon in the final state. Including the energy release dependence, we derive the scaling law for form factors {xi}{sub {lambda}}{sub ,p}{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup 2} /E{sup 2}, which is in accordance with the implication from the experimental measurement on the branching ratio of {lambda}{sub b} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}. At leading order in {alpha}{sub s}, the leading-power baryonic form factors can factorize into the soft and collinear matrix elements without encountering any divergence. A leading-power factorization formula for nonleptonic b-baryon decays is also established. (orig.)

  11. Factorization of heavy-to-light baryonic transitions in SCET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei

    2011-12-15

    In the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory, we demonstrate that the leading-power heavy-to-light baryonic form factors at large recoil obey the heavy quark and large energy symmetries. Symmetry breaking effects have several origins but all of them are suppressed by {lambda}/m{sub b} or {lambda}/E, where {lambda} is the hadronic scale, m{sub b} is the b quark mass and E{proportional_to}m{sub b} is the energy of light baryon in the final state. Including the energy release dependence, we derive the scaling law for form factors {xi}{sub {lambda}}{sub ,p}{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup 2} /E{sup 2}, which is in accordance with the implication from the experimental measurement on the branching ratio of {lambda}{sub b} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}. At leading order in {alpha}{sub s}, the leading-power baryonic form factors can factorize into the soft and collinear matrix elements without encountering any divergence. A leading-power factorization formula for nonleptonic b-baryon decays is also established. (orig.)

  12. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Omega Baryons in a Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Pervin, M; Capstick, S; Pervin, Muslema

    2006-01-01

    The semileptonic decays of $\\Omega_c$ and $\\Omega_b$ are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model developed in a previous paper on the semileptonic decays of heavy $\\Lambda$ baryons. Analytic results for the form factors for the decays to ground states and a number of excited states are evaluated. For $\\Omega_b$ to $\\Omega_c$ the form factors obtained are shown to satisfy the relations predicted at leading order in the heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point. A modified fit of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians generates configuration-mixed baryon wave functions from the known masses and the measured $\\lcle$ rate, with wave functions expanded in both harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. Decay rates of $\\ob$ to pairs of ground and excited $\\omc$ states related by heavy-quark symmetry calculated using these configuration-mixed wave functions are in the ratios expected from heavy-quark effective theory, to a good approximation. Our predictions for the semileptonic elas...

  13. The Spin Symmetry of Heavy Baryons in the Framework of the Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jian-Ying; JIN Hong-Ying; WU Ji-Min

    2001-01-01

    We study the baryons containing a heavy quark in the framework of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation. The most general forms of the BS wavefunctions are given. In the heavy-quark limit we simplify the BS equations and we show clearly that the spin symmetry exists in heavy baryon states.``

  14. Phenomenology of the Heavy Flavored spin 3/2 Baryons in Light Cone QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, T M; Özpineci, A

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the results of the recent experimental discoveries for charm and bottom baryons, the masses and magnetic moments of the heavy baryons with $J^P=3/2^+$ containing a single heavy quark are studied within light cone QCD sum rules method. Our results on the masses of heavy baryons are in good agreement with predictions of other approaches, as well as with the existing experimental data.

  15. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Omega Baryons in a Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslema Pervin; Winston Roberts; Simon Capstick

    2006-03-24

    The semileptonic decays of {Omega}{sub c} and {Omega}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model developed in a previous paper on the semileptonic decays of heavy {Lambda} baryons. Analytic results for the form factors for the decays to ground states and a number of excited states are evaluated. For {Omega}{sub b} to {Omega}{sub c} the form factors obtained are shown to satisfy the relations predicted at leading order in the heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point. A modified fit of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians generates configuration-mixed baryon wave functions from the known masses and the measured {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}e{sup +}{nu} rate, with wave functions expanded in both harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. Decay rates of {Omega}{sub b} to pairs of ground and excited {Omega}{sub c} states related by heavy-quark symmetry calculated using these configuration-mixed wave functions are in the ratios expected from heavy-quark effective theory, to a good approximation. Our predictions for the semileptonic elastic branching fraction of {Omega}{sub Q} vary minimally within the models we use. We obtain an average value of (84 {+-} 2%) for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Xi}{sup (*)} decays to ground states, and 91% for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Omega}{sup (*)} decays to the ground state {Omega}. The elastic fraction of {Omega}{sub b} {yields} {Omega}{sub c} ranges from about 50% calculated with the two harmonic-oscillator models, to about 67% calculated with the two Sturmian models.

  16. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Lambda Baryons in a Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Roberts; Muslema Pervin; Simon Capstick

    2005-03-01

    The semileptonic decays of {Lambda}{sub c} and {Lambda}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model. Both nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians are used to obtain the baryon wave functions from a fit to the spectra, and the wave functions are expanded in both the harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. The latter basis leads to form factors in which the kinematic dependence on q{sup 2} is in the form of multipoles, and the resulting form factors fall faster as a function of q{sup 2} in the available kinematic ranges. As a result, decay rates obtained in the two models using the Sturmian basis are significantly smaller than those obtained using the harmonic oscillator basis. In the case of the {Lambda}{sub c}, decay rates calculated using the Sturmian basis are closer to the experimentally reported rates. However, we find a semileptonic branching fraction for the {Lambda}{sub c} to decay to excited {Lambda}* states of 11% to 19%, in contradiction with what is assumed in available experimental analyses. Our prediction for the {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decays is that decays to the ground state {Lambda}{sub c} provide a little less than 70% of the total semileptonic decay rate. For the decays {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}, the analytic form factors we obtain satisfy the relations expected from heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point, at leading and next-to-leading orders in the heavy-quark expansion. In addition, some features of the heavy-quark limit are shown to naturally persist as the mass of the heavy quark in the daughter baryon is decreased.

  17. Entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter from heavy neutrino decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Schmitz, K.; Vertongen, G.

    2011-04-15

    The origin of the hot phase of the early universe remains so far an unsolved puzzle. A viable option is entropy production through the decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos whose lifetimes determine the initial temperature. We show that baryogenesis and the production of dark matter are natural by-products of this mechanism. As is well known, the cosmological baryon asymmetry can be accounted for by lepto- genesis for characteristic neutrino mass parameters. We nd that thermal gravitino production then automatically yields the observed amount of dark matter, for the gravitino as the lightest superparticle and typical gluino masses. As an example, we consider the production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the course of tachyonic preheating associated with spontaneous B-L breaking. A quantitative analysis leads to contraints on the superparticle masses in terms of neutrino masses: For a light neutrino mass of 10{sup -5} eV the gravitino mass can be as small as 200 MeV, whereas a lower neutrino mass bound of 0.01 eV implies a lower bound of 9 GeV on the gravitino mass. The measurement of a light neutrino mass of 0.1 eV would rule out heavy neutrino decays as the origin of entropy, visible and dark matter. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of the Triply Heavy Baryon States with QCD Sum Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study the (1/2)± and (3/2)± triply heavy baryon states in a systematic way by subtracting the contributions from the corresponding (1/2) and (3/2) triply heavy baryon states with the QCD sum rules, and make reasonable predictions for their masses.

  19. Entropy, Baryon Asymmetry and Dark Matter from Heavy Neutrino Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmuller, W; Vertongen, G

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the hot phase of the early universe remains so far an unsolved puzzle. A viable option is entropy production through the decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos whose lifetimes determine the initial temperature. We show that baryogenesis and the production of dark matter are natural by-products of this mechanism. As is well known, the cosmological baryon asymmetry can be accounted for by leptogenesis for characteristic neutrino mass parameters. We find that thermal gravitino production then automatically yields the observed amount of dark matter, for the gravitino as the lightest superparticle and typical gluino masses. As an example, we consider the production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the course of tachyonic preheating associated with spontaneous B-L breaking. A quantitative analysis leads to contraints on the superparticle masses in terms of neutrino masses: For a light neutrino mass of 10^{-5} eV the gravitino mass can be as small as 200 MeV, whereas a lower neutrino mass bound of 0.01 eV im...

  20. Ground state heavy baryon production in a relativistic quark-diquark model

    CERN Document Server

    Nobary, M A Gomshi

    2007-01-01

    We use current-current interaction to calculate the fragmentation functions to describe the production of spin-1/2, spin-1/2$'$ and spin-3/2 baryons with massive constituents in a relativistic quark-diquark model. Our results are in their analytic forms and are applicable for singly, doubly and triply heavy baryons. We discuss the production of $\\Omega_{bbc}$, $\\Omega_{bcc}$ and $\\Omega_{ccc}$ baryons in some detail. The results are satisfactorily compared with those obtained for triply heavy baryons calculated in a perturbative regime within reasonable values of the parameters involved.

  1. Propagation of heavy baryons in heavy-ion collisions. Part I: $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$ transport coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Tolos, Laura; Das, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$ in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain non-relativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$ in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion ...

  2. Doubly heavy baryons in a quark model with AdS/QCD inspired potential

    CERN Document Server

    Giannuzzi, Floriana

    2009-01-01

    The spectrum of doubly heavy baryons, hadrons made up of two heavy quarks and one light quark, is computed through a potential model with relativistic kinematics. The expression for the $Q\\bar Q$ potential comes from the AdS/QCD correspondence.

  3. Net baryon density in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S A; Srivastava, D K; Bass, Steffen A.; Müller, Berndt; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the net baryon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the framework of the Parton Cascade Model (PCM). Parton rescattering and fragmentation leads to a substantial increase in the net baryon density at mid-rapidity over the density produced by initial primary parton-parton scatterings. The PCM is able to describe the measured net baryon density at RHIC.

  4. Topics on heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory in the large N_c limit

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-Mendieta, R

    2002-01-01

    We compute nonanalytical pion-loop corrections to baryon masses in a combined expansion in chiral symmetry breaking and 1/N_c, where N_c is the number of colors. Specifically, we compute flavor-27 baryon mass splittings at leading order in chiral perturbation theory. Our results, at the physical value N_c=3, are compared with the expressions obtained in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with no 1/N_c expansion.

  5. Two-loop anomalous dimensions for currents of baryons with two heavy quarks in NRQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    1998-01-01

    We present analytical results on the two-loop anomalous dimensions of currents for baryons, containing two heavy quarks $J = [Q^{iT}C\\Gamma\\tau Q^j]\\Gamma' q^k\\epsilon_{ijk}$ with arbitrary Dirac matrices $\\Gamma$ and velocity of heavy quarks and the inverse heavy quark mass. It is shown, that in this approximation the anomalous dimensions do not depend on the Dirac structure of the current under consideration.

  6. Form Factors and Strong Couplings of Heavy Baryons from QCD Light-Cone Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Khodjamirian, A; Mannel, Th; Wang, Y -M

    2011-01-01

    We derive QCD light-cone sum rules for the hadronic matrix elements of the heavy baryon transitions to nucleon. In the correlation functions the $\\Lambda_c,\\Sigma_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$ -baryons are interpolated by three-quark currents and the nucleon distribution amplitudes are used. To eliminate the contributions of negative parity heavy baryons, we combine the sum rules obtained from different kinematical structures. The results are then less sensitive to the choice of the interpolating current. We predict the $\\Lambda_{b}\\to p$ form factor and calculate the widths of the $\\Lambda_{b}\\to p\\ell\

  7. Mass and magnetic dipole moment of negative-parity heavy baryons with spin-3/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the mass and residue of the heavy spin-3/2 negative-parity baryons with single heavy bottom or charm quark by use of a two-point correlation function. We use the obtained results to investigate the diagonal radiative transitions among the baryons under consideration. In particular, we compute corresponding transition form factors via light cone QCD sum rules, which are then used to obtain the magnetic dipole moments of the heavy spin-3/2 negative-parity baryons. We remove the pollutions coming from the positive-parity spin-3/2 and positive/negative-parity spin-1/2 baryons by constructing sum rules for different Lorentz structures. We compare the results obtained with the existing theoretical predictions.

  8. Radiative corrections to all charge assignments of heavy quark baryon semileptonic decays

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, A; García, A; Flores-Mendieta, R; Flores-Mendieta, Ruben

    2002-01-01

    In semileptonic decays of spin-1/2 baryons containing heavy quarks up to six charge assignments for the baryons and lepton are possible. We show that the radiative corrections to four of these possibilities can be directly obtained from the final results of the two possibilities previously studied. There is no need to recalculate integrals over virtual or real photon momentum or any traces.

  9. Baryons and Low-Density Baryonic Matter in 1+1 Dimensional Large N_c QCD with Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Prabal; Jamgochian, Arec; Kumar, Nilay

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies baryons and baryonic matter in the combined large N_c and heavy quark mass limits of QCD in 1+1 dimension. In this non-relativistic limit, baryons are composed of N_c quarks that interact, at leading order in N_c, through a color Coulomb potential. Using variational techniques, very accurate calculations of single baryon masses and interaction energies of low-density baryon crystal are performed. These results are used to cross-check a general numerical approach applicable for arbitrary quark masses and baryon densities recently proposed by Bringoltz, which is based on a lattice in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. The Bringoltz method differs from a previous approach of Salcedo, et al. in its treatment of a finite box effect - namely gauge configurations that wind around the box. One might expect these effects to be small for large enough boxes, in which the baryon density approaches zero to high accuracy at the edges. However, the effects of these windings appear to be quite...

  10. Electromagnetic properties of light and heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicmorus Marinescu, Diana

    2007-06-14

    One of the main challenges of nowadays low-energy physics remains the description of the internal structure of hadrons, strongly connected to the electromagnetic properties of matter. In this vein, the success of the relativistic quark model in the analysis of the hadron structure constitutes a solid motivation for the study carried out throughout this work. The relativistic quark model is extended to the investigation of static electromagnetic properties of both heavy and light baryons. The bare contributions to the magnetic moments of the single-, double- and triple-heavy baryons are calculated. Moreover, the relativistic quark model allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the light baryon octet incorporating meson cloud contributions in a perturbative manner. The long disputed values of the multipole ratios E2/M1 and C2/M1 and the electromagnetic form factors of the N{yields}{delta}{gamma} transition are successfully reproduced. The relativistic quark model can be viewed as a quantum field theory approach based on a phenomenological Lagrangian coupling light and heavy baryons to their constituent quarks. In our approach the baryon is a composite object of three constituent quarks, at least in leading order. The effective interaction Lagrangian is written in terms of baryon and constituent quark fields. The effective action preserves Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance. The main ingredients of the model are already introduced at the level of the interaction Lagrangian: the three-quark baryon currents, the Gaussian distribution of the constituent quarks inside the baryon and the compositeness condition which sets an upper limit for the baryon-quark vertex. The S-matrix elements are expressed by a set of Feynman quark-diagrams. The model contains only few parameters, namely, the cut-off parameter of the Gaussian quark distribution and the free quark propagator, which are unambiguously determined from the best fit to the data. The heavy quark limit

  11. Heavy Baryon Transitions in a Relativistic Three-Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M A; Kroll, P; Lyubovitskij, V E

    1997-01-01

    Exclusive semileptonic decays of bottom and charm baryons are considered within a relativistic three-quark model with a Gaussian shape for the baryon-three-quark vertex and standard quark propagators. We calculate the baryonic Isgur-Wise functions, decay rates and asymmetry parameters.

  12. Semileptonic bc to cc Baryon Decay and Heavy Quark Spin Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Jonathan M

    2007-01-01

    We study the semileptonic decays of the lowest-lying bc baryons to the lowest-lying cc baryons (Xi_{bc}^{(\\prime*)}--> Xi_{cc}^{(*)} and Omega_{bc}^{(\\prime*)}--> Omega_{cc}^{(*)}), in the limit m_b, m_c >> Lambda_{QCD} and close to the zero recoil point. The separate heavy quark spin symmetries make it possible to describe all these decays using a single form factor. We recover results derived previously by White and Savage in a manner which we think is more straightforward and parallels the method applied later to study Bc semileptonic decays. We further discuss the resemblence between the bc baryon decays and those of Bc mesons to eta_c and J/\\psi mesons and comment on the relation between the slopes of the single functions describing each set of decays. Our results can straightforwardly be applied to the decays of bb baryons to bc baryons.

  13. Effective field theories for baryons with two- and three-heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Baryons made of two or three heavy quarks can be described in the modern language of non-relativistic effective field theories. These, besides allowing a rigorous treatment of the systems, provide new insight in the nature of the three-body interaction in QCD.

  14. Masses and magnetic moments of triple heavy flavour baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin Patel; Ajay Majethiya; P C Vinodkumar

    2009-04-01

    Triple heavy flavour baryons are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body system. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index . The ground state ($J^{P} = \\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$) masses of heavy flavour baryons are computed for different power index, starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value with respect to variation in p beyond the power index > 1.0. Using the spin-flavour structure of the constituting quarks and by defining effective mass of the confined quarks within the baryons, the magnetic moments are computed with no additional free parameters.

  15. Diagonal and transition magnetic moments of negative parity heavy baryons in QCD sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, T M; Barakat, T; Savcı, M

    2015-01-01

    Diagonal and transition magnetic moments of the negative parity, spin-1/2 heavy baryons are studied in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. By constructing the sum rules for different Lorentz structures, the unwanted contributions coming from negative (positive) to positive (negative) parity transitions are removed. It is obtained that the magnetic moments of all baryons, except $\\Lambda_b^0$, $\\Sigma_c^+$ and $\\Xi_c^{\\prime +}$, are quite large. It is also found that the transition magnetic moments between neutral negative parity heavy $\\Xi_Q^{\\prime 0}$ and $\\Xi_Q^0$ baryons are very small. Magnetic moments of the $\\Sigma_Q \\to \\Lambda_Q$ and $ \\Xi_Q^{\\prime \\pm} \\to \\Xi_Q^\\pm$ transitions are quite large and can be measured in further experiments.

  16. Excited state mass spectra of doubly heavy baryons {Ω _{cc}}, {Ω _{bb}}, and {Ω _{bc}}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zalak; Thakkar, Kaushal; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the mass spectrum of Ω baryon with two heavy quarks and one light quark ( ccs, bbs, and bcs). The main goal of the paper is to calculate the ground state masses and after that, the positive and negative parity excited states masses are also obtained within a hypercentral constituent quark model, using Coulomb plus linear potential framework. We also added a first order correction to the potential. The mass spectra up to 5S for radial excited states and 1P-5P, 1D-4D, and 1F-2F states for orbital excited states are computed for Ω _{cc}, Ω _{bb}, and Ω _{bc} baryons. Our obtained results are compared with other theoretical predictions, which could be a useful complementary tool for the interpretation of experimentally unknown heavy baryon spectra. The Regge trajectory is constructed in both the (n_r, M2) and the ( J, M2) planes for Ω _{cc}, Ω _{bb}, and Ω _{bc} baryons and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Magnetic moments of doubly heavy Ω 's are also calculated.

  17. Radiative decays of negative parity heavy baryons in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Agamaliev, A K; Savcı, M

    2016-01-01

    The transition form factors responsible for the radiative $\\Sigma_Q \\to \\Lambda_Q \\gamma$ and $\\Xi_Q^\\prime \\to \\Xi \\gamma$ decays of the negative parity baryons are examined within light cone QCD sum rules. The decay widths of the radiative transitions are calculated using the obtained results of the form factors.

  18. Excited State Contributions to the Heavy Baryon Fragmentation Functions in a Quark-Diquark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adamov, A D; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. The resulting $\\Lambda_b$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are in agreement with experiment. The $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ functions are also obtained. The spin independent $f_1(z)$ is compared to data. The integrated values for production rates agree with the data.

  19. Observation of the Heavy Baryons Sigma b and Sigma b*.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; 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Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-11-16

    We report an observation of new bottom baryons produced in pp collisions at the Tevatron. Using 1.1 fb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector, we observe four Lambda b 0 pi+/- resonances in the fully reconstructed decay mode Lambda b 0-->Lambda c + pi-, where Lambda c+-->pK* pi+. We interpret these states as the Sigma b(*)+/- baryons and measure the following masses: m Sigma b+=5807.8 -2.2 +2.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, m Sigma b- =5815.2+/-1.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, and m(Sigma b*)-m(Sigma b)=21.2-1.9 +2.0(stat.)-0.3+0.4(syst.) MeV/c2.

  20. Possible Deuteron-like Molecular States Composed of Heavy Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ning; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the possible loosely bound states composed of two charmed baryons or a charmed baryon and an anti-charmed baryon within the framework of the one boson exchange (OBE) model. We consider not only the $\\pi$ exchange but also the $\\eta$, $\\rho$, $\\omega$, $\\phi$ and $\\sigma$ exchanges. The $S-D$ mixing effects for the spin-triplets are also taken into account. With the derived effective potentials, we calculate the binding energies and root-mean-square (RMS) radii for the systems $\\Lambda_c\\Lambda_c(\\bar{\\Lambda}_c)$, $\\Xi_c\\Xi_c(\\bar{\\Xi}_c)$, $\\Sigma_c\\Sigma_c(\\bar{\\Sigma}_c)$, $\\Xi_c^\\prime\\Xi_c^\\prime(\\bar{\\Xi}_c^\\prime)$ and $\\Omega_c\\Omega_c(\\bar{\\Omega}_c)$. Our numerical results indicate that: (1) the H-dibaryon-like state $\\Lambda_c\\Lambda_c$ does not exist; (2) there may exist four loosely bound deuteron-like states $\\Xi_c\\Xi_c$ and $\\Xi_c^\\prime\\Xi_c^\\prime$ with small binding energies and large RMS radii.

  1. Cumulative production of pions by heavy baryonic resonances in proton-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motornenko, A.; Gorenstein, M. I.

    2017-02-01

    Pion production in proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions outside the kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon (p+N) reactions and the so-called cumulative effect are studied. Restrictions from energy-momentum conservation of the energy of pions emitted in the backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is assumed that the cumulative pions are produced in p+A reactions by heavy baryonic resonances. The baryonic resonances are first created in p+N reactions. Due to successive collisions with nuclear nucleons, the masses of these resonances may then increase and, simultaneously, their longitudinal velocities decrease. We also use the ultra relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model to reveal the key role of successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons for cumulative pion production in p+A reactions. Further experimental studies of cumulative hadron production in p+A reactions at high collision energies are needed to search for heavy hadron-like objects and investigate their properties.

  2. The mass spectrum of double heavy baryons in new potential quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to study the mass spectrum of double heavy baryons (QQ′q containing strange and charmed quarks is proposed. It is based on the separation of variables in the Schrodinger equation in the prolate spheroidal coordinates. Two nonrelativistic potential models are considered. In the first model, the interaction potential of the quarks is the sum of the Coulomb and non-spherically symmetrical linear confinement potential. In the second model it is assumed that the quark confinement provided by a spherically symmetric harmonic oscillator potential. In both models the mass spectrum is calculated, and a comparison with previous results from other models is performed.

  3. Elastic Pion-Nucleon Scattering to $O(p^{3})$ in Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mojzis, M

    1997-01-01

    The elastic pi-N scattering amplitude in the isospin limit is calculated in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, up to the third order. Threshold parameters like scattering lengths, volumes, effective ranges, etc. are compared with data. All relevant low energy constants are fixed from the available pion-nucleon data. A clear improvement in the description of data is observed, when going from the first two orders in the chiral expansion to the third one. The importance of even higher orders is suggested by the result.

  4. Improved Unitarized Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory for $\\pi N $ Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Nicola, A G; Peláez, J R; Ruiz-Arriola, E

    2000-01-01

    We show how the unitarized description of pion nucleon scattering within Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory can be considerably improved, by a suitable reordering of the expansion over the nucleon mass. Within this framework, the $\\Delta$ resonance and its associated pole can be recovered from the chiral parameters obtained from low-energy determinations. In addition, we can obtain a good description of the six $S$ and $P$ wave phase shifts in terms of chiral parameters with a natural size and compatible with the Resonance Saturation Hypothesis.

  5. Scalar and vector self-energies of heavy baryons in nuclear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K.; Er, N.; Sundu, H.

    2017-04-01

    The in-medium sum rules are employed to calculate the shifts in the mass and residue as well as the scalar and vector self-energies of the heavy ΛQ ,ΣQ and ΞQ baryons, with Q being b or c quark. The maximum shift in mass due to nuclear matter belongs to the Σc baryon and it is found to be ΔmΣc = - 936 MeV. In the case of residue, it is obtained that the residue of Σb baryon is maximally affected by the nuclear medium with the shift ΔλΣb = - 0.014 GeV3. The scalar and vector self-energies are found to be ΣΛbS = 653 MeV, ΣΣbS = - 614 MeV, ΣΞbS = - 17 MeV, ΣΛcS = 272 MeV, ΣΣcS = - 936 MeV, ΣΞcS = - 5 MeV and ΣΛbν = 436 ± 148 MeV, ΣΣbν = 382 ± 129 MeV, ΣΞbν = 15 ± 5 MeV, ΣΛcν = 151 ± 45 MeV, ΣΣcν = 486 ± 144 MeV and ΣΞcν = 1.391 ± 0.529 MeV.

  6. High baryon densities in heavy ion collisions at energies attainable at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Kapusta, Joseph I.

    2017-01-01

    In very high-energy collisions nuclei are practically transparent to each other but produce very hot nearly baryon-free matter in the so-called central rapidity region. The energy in the central rapidity region comes from the kinetic energy of the colliding nuclei. We calculate the energy and rapidity loss of the nuclei using the color glass condensate model. This model also predicts the excitation energy of the nuclear fragments. Using a space-time picture of the collision we calculate the baryon and energy densities of the receding baryonic fireballs. For central collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energy attainable at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, for example, we find baryon densities more than ten times that of atomic nuclei over a large volume.

  7. High Baryon Densities in Heavy Ion Collisions at Energies Attainable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In very high energy collisions nuclei are practically tranparent to each other but produce very hot, nearly baryon-free, matter in the so-called central rapidity region. The energy in the central rapidity region comes from the kinetic energy of the colliding nuclei. We calculate the energy and rapidity loss of the nuclei using the color glass condensate model. This model also predicts the excitation energy of the nuclear fragments. Using a space-time picture of the collision we calculate the baryon and energy densities of the receding baryonic fireballs. For central collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energy attainable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, for example, we find baryon densities more than ten times that of atomic nuclei over a large volume.

  8. Upper Energy Limit of Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory in Neutral Pion Photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C

    2013-01-01

    We assess the energy limit up to which Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory can be accurately applied to the process of neutral pion photoproduction from the proton by analyzing the latest data from the A2 and CB-TAPS collaborations at Mainz. We find that, within the current experimental status, the theory works up to $\\sim$170 MeV. Above this energy the data call for further improvement in the theory such as the explicit inclusion of the $\\Delta$(1232). We also find that data and multipoles can be well described up to $\\sim$185 MeV with Taylor expansions in the partial waves up to first order in pion energy.

  9. New lessons from the nucleon mass, lattice QCD and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Walker-Loud, A

    2008-01-01

    I will review heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory for the nucleon delta degrees of freedom and then examine the recent dynamical lattice calculations of the nucleon mass from the BMW, ETM, JLQCD, LHP, MILC, NPLQCD, PACS-CS, QCDSF/UKQCD and RBC/UKQCD Collaborations. Performing the chiral extrapolations of these results, one finds remarkable agreement with the physical nucleon mass, from each lattice data set. However, a careful examination of the lattice data and the resulting extrapolation functions reveals some unexpected results, serving to highlight the significant challenges in performing chiral extrapolations of baryon quantities. All the N_f=2+1 dynamical results can be quantitatively described by theoretically unmotivated fit function linear in the pion mass with m_pi ~ 750 -190 MeV. When extrapolated to the physical point, the results are in striking agreement with the physical nucleon mass. I will argue that knowledge of each lattice datum of the nucleon mass is required at the 1-2% level, includ...

  10. Excited State Mass spectra of doubly heavy baryons $\\Omega_{cc}$, $\\Omega_{bb}$ and $\\Omega_{bc}$

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Zalak; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the mass spectrum of $\\Omega$ baryon with two heavy quarks and one light quark (\\textit{ccs, bbs and bcs}). The main goal of the paper is to calculate the ground state masses and after that, the positive and negative parity excited states masses are also obtained within a Hypercentral Constituent quark model, using coulomb plus linear potential framework. We also added first order correction to the potential. The mass spectra upto 5S for radial excited states and 1P-5P, 1D-4D and 1F-2F states for orbital excited states are computed for $\\Omega_{cc}$, $\\Omega_{bb}$ and $\\Omega_{bc}$ baryons. Our obtained results are compared with other theoretical predictions which could be a useful complementary tool for the interpretation of experimentaly unknown heavy baryon spectra. The Regge trajectory is constructed in both ($n_r$, $M^{2}$) and ($J$, $M^{2}$) planes for $\\Omega_{cc}$,$\\Omega_{bb}$ and $\\Omega_{bc}$ baryons and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Magnetic moments of doubly heavy $\\...

  11. Production of the Doubly Heavy Baryons, $B_c$ meson and the Tetra-c-quark at the Fixed-target Experiment at the LHC with double intrinsic heavy approach

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarev, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    In the paper we discuss production of the $B_c$ meson, the doubly heavy baryons and the tetra-c-quark at the future fixed-target experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC) with the doubly intrinsic heavy mechanism. The production cross sections are present.

  12. Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, C.W.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states {eta}{sub b} N, {Upsilon};N, B {Lambda}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Lambda}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to B {Sigma}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} and B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, decaying mostly into {eta}{sub b} N and {Upsilon}N and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2, and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2. The B {Sigma}{sub b} state appears in J = 1/2, the B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} in J = 3/2, the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2 and the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound. (orig.)

  13. Femtoscopic analysis of baryon correlations in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions registered by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00361630

    Heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies give a unique possibility to create and to analyse the Quark-Gluon Plasma predicted by the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. The research on the properties of such state of matter is crucial for understanding the features of the strongly interacting system. Experimental results reveal the collective behaviour of matter created in the heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. The existence of this effect can be verified by the measurement of the transverse mass dependence of the source size extracted using different particle species. Such characteristics can be determined using the analysis technique called femtoscopy. This method is based on the correlations of particles with small relative momenta which originate from the effects of Quantum Statistics as well as the strong and Coulomb Final State Interactions. A recent analysis of the particle production at the highest available collision energies of heavy-ion collisions reveals the puzzling res...

  14. Heavy Hadrons in Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tolos, Laura; Hidalgo-Duque, Carlos; Nieves, Juan; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    We study the behavior of dynamically-generated baryon resonances with heavy-quark content within a unitarized coupled-channel theory in matter that fulfills heavy-quark spin symmetry constraints. We analyze the implications for the formation of charmed mesic nuclei and the propagation of heavy mesons in heavy-ion collisions from RHIC to FAIR.

  15. Intriguing aspects in baryon production at relativistic heavy-ion collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huan Zhong Huang

    2003-05-01

    We review experimental results on baryon production at mid-rapidity in nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC. Outstanding physics issues include the mechanism for baryon–anti-baryon production from thermally equilibrated partons, the dynamics of baryon number transport and the evolution dynamics of baryons during hadronic expansion before the final freeze-out. We highlight recent measurements on the production of protons, lambdas and their anti-particles in terms of these physics issues. We propose a physical mechanism of topological baryon formation through gluon junction hadronization and future measurements, which can test this hypothesis experimentally.

  16. Gluon Saturation Model with Geometric Scaling for Net-Baryon Distributions in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双; 冯笙琴

    2012-01-01

    The net-baryon number is essentially transported by valence quarks that probe the saturation regime in the target by multiple scattering. The net-baryon distributions, nuclear stopping power and gluon saturation features in the SPS and RHIC energy regions are investigated by taking advantage of the gluon saturation model with geometric scaling. Predications are made for the net-baryon rapidity distributions, mean rapidity loss and gluon saturation features in central Pb + Pb collisions at LHC.

  17. Higher moments of nucleon spin structure functions in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and in a resonance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Kao; D. Drechsel; S. Kamalov; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2003-11-01

    The third moment d{sub 2} of the twist-3 part of the nucleon spin structure function g{sub 2} is generalized to arbitrary momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and is evaluated in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to order {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) and in a unitary isobar model (MAID). We show how to link d{sub 2} as well as higher moments of the nucleon spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} to nucleon spin polarizabilities. We compare our results with the most recent experimental data, and find a good description of these available data within the unitary isobar model. We proceed to extract the twist-4 matrix element f{sub 2} which appears in the 1/Q{sup 2} suppressed term in the twist expansion of the spin structure function g{sub 1} for proton and neutron.

  18. Heavy quark symmetry and weak decays of the b baryons in pentaquarks with a c c xAF component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Aslam, M. Jamil; Rehman, Abdur

    2016-09-01

    The discovery of the baryonic states Pc+(4380 ) and Pc+(4450 ) by the LHCb collaboration in the process p p →b b ¯→Λb0X , followed by the decay Λb0→J /ψ p K- has evoked a lot of theoretical interest. These states have the minimal quark content c c ¯u u d , as suggested by their discovery mode J /ψ p , and the preferred JP assignments are 5/2+ for the Pc+(4450 ) and 3/2- for the Pc+(4380 ). In the compact pentaquark hypothesis, in which they are interpreted as hidden charm diquark-diquark-antiquark baryons, the assigned spin and angular momentum quantum numbers are Pc+(4380 )={c ¯ [c u ]s =1[u d ]s =1;LP=0 ,JP=3/2-} and Pc+(4450 )={c ¯[c u ]s=1[u d ]s=0;LP=1 ,JP=5/2+}. The subscripts denote the spin of the diquarks and LP=0 , 1 are the orbital angular momentum quantum numbers of the pentaquarks. We point out that in the heavy quark limit, the spin of the light diquark in heavy baryons becomes a good quantum number, which has consequences for the decay Λb0→J /ψ p K-. With the quantum numbers assigned above for the two pentaquarks, this would allow only the higher mass pentaquark state Pc+(4450 ) having [u d ]s=0 to be produced in Λb0 decays, whereas the lower mass state Pc+(4380 ) having [u d ]s=1 is disfavored, requiring a different interpretation. Pentaquark spectrum is rich enough to accommodate a JP=3/2- state, which has the correct light diquark spin {c ¯[c u ]s=1[u d ]s=0;LP=0 ,JP=3/2-} to be produced in Λb0 decays. Assuming that the mass difference between the charmed pentaquarks which differ in the orbital angular momentum L by one unit is similar to the corresponding mass difference in the charmed baryons, m [Λc+(2625 );JP=3/2-]-m [Λc+(2286 );JP=1/2+]≃341 MeV , we estimate the mass of the lower pentaquark JP=3 /2- state to be about 4110 MeV and suggest to reanalyze the LHCb data to search for this third state. Extending these considerations to the pentaquark states having a c c ¯ pair and three light quarks (u , d , s ) in their

  19. Heavy quark symmetry and weak decays of the b-baryons in pentaquarks with a c anti c component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Rehman, Abdur [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). National Centre for Physics; Aslam, M. Jamil [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Physics Dept.

    2016-06-15

    The discovery of the baryonic states P{sup +}{sub c}(4380) and P{sup +}{sub c}(4450) by the LHCb collaboration in the process pp→b anti b→Λ{sup 0}{sub b}X, followed by the decay Λ{sup 0}{sub b}→J/ψpK{sup -} has evoked a lot of theoretical interest. These states have the minimal quark content c anti cuud, as suggested by their discovery mode J/ψ p, and the preferred J{sup P} assignments are (5)/(2){sup +} for the P{sup +}{sub c}(4450) and (3)/(2){sup -} for the P{sup +}{sub c}(4380). In the compact pentaquark hypothesis, in which they are interpreted as hidden charm diquark-diquark-antiquark baryons, the assigned spin and angular momentum quantum numbers are P{sup +}{sub c}(4380)={ anti c[cu]_s_=_1[ud]_s_=_1; L_P=0, J"P=(3)/(2)"-} and P{sup +}{sub c}(4450)={ anti c[cu]_s_=_1[ud]_s_=_0; L_P=1, J"P=(5)/(2)"+}. The subscripts denote the spin of the diquarks and L{sub P}=0,1 are the orbital angular momentum quantum numbers of the pentaquarks. We point out that heavy quark limit, the spin of the light diquark in heavy baryons becomes a good quantum number, which has consequences for the decay Λ{sup 0}{sub b}→J/ψpK{sup -}. With the quantum numbers assigned above for the two pentaquarks, this would allow only the higher mass pentaquark state P{sup +}{sub c}(4450) having [ud]{sub s=0} to be produced in Λ{sup 0}{sub b} decays, whereas the lower mass state P{sup +}{sub c}(4380) having [ud]{sub s=1} is disfavored, requiring a different interpretation. Pentaquark spectrum is rich enough to accommodate a J{sup P}=(3)/(2){sup -} state, which has the correct light diquark spin { anti c[cu]_s_=_1[ud]_s_=_0; L_P=0, J"P=(3)/(2)"-} to be produced in Λ{sup 0}{sub b} decays. Assuming that the mass difference between the charmed pentaquarks which differ in the orbital angular momentum L by one unit is similar to the corresponding mass difference in the charmed baryons, m[Λ{sup +}{sub c}(2625); J{sup P}=(3)/(2){sup -}]-m[Λ{sup +}{sub c}(2286); J{sup P}=(1)/(2){sup +}]

  20. Heavy quark symmetry and weak decays of the $b$-baryons in pentaquarks with a $c\\bar{c}$ component

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed; Aslam, M Jamil; Rehman, Abdur

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the baryonic states $P_c^+(4380)$ and $P_c^+(4450)$ by the LHCb collaboration has evoked a lot of theoretical interest. These states have the minimal quark content $c \\bar{c} u u d$. Interpreted as hidden charm diquark-diquark-antiquark baryons, the assigned spin and angular momentum quantum numbers are $P_c^+(4380)= \\{\\bar{c} [cu]_{s=1} [ud]_{s=1}; L_{\\mathcal{P}}=0, J^{\\rm P}=\\frac{3}{2}^- \\}$ and $P_c^+(4450)= \\{\\bar{c} [cu]_{s=1} [ud]_{s=0}; L_{\\mathcal{P}}=1, J^{\\rm P}=\\frac{5}{2}^+ \\}$, where $s=0,1$ are the spins of the diquarks and $L_{\\mathcal{P}}=0,1$ are the orbital angular momentum quantum numbers of the pentaquarks. We point out that heavy quark symmetry allows only the higher mass pentaquark state $P_c^+(4450)$ having $[ud]_{s=0}$ to be produced in $\\Lambda_b^0$ decays, whereas the lower mass state $P_c^+(4380)$ having $[ud]_{s=1}$ is disfavored. Pentaquark spectrum is rich enough to accommodate a $J^P=\\frac{3}{2}^-$ state, which has the correct light diquark spin $\\{\\bar{c} [cu...

  1. Search for baryon and lepton number violation in heavy baryon decays and the background studies for exotic searches

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    The thesis describes searches for baryon and lepton number violation in $X_{b} \\rightarrow K^{-} \\mu^{+} (X_{b} = \\Lambda^0_{b}, \\Xi_{b}^{0})$ decays. The study is performed in the \\mbox{LHC\\textit{b}} experiment using data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0 fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of $7$TeV $8$TeV, collected in 2011 (2012), respectively. No statistically significant signal of the decays in question has been found. As a result, the upper limits have been set: $\\cal B ( \\Lambda^0_{b} \\rightarrow K^{-} \\mu^{+} ) < 3.6 \\times 10^{-9}$ and $\\cal B (\\Xi_{b}^{0} \\rightarrow K^{-} \\mu^{+} ) < 1.8 \\times 10^{-8}$ at the $95\\%$ confidence level. The second part of the thesis presents the background studies for exotic searches. The measurement of $\\sigma(b\\overline b)$ and $\\sigma(c\\overline c)$ production cross-sections with $b- (c-)$ hadron inclusive final states has been performed with data collected by the \\mbox{LHC\\textit{b}} experiment in 20...

  2. Excited state mass spectra of doubly heavy baryons Ω{sub cc}, Ω{sub bb} and Ω{sub bc}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Zalak; Rai, Ajay Kumar [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Surat, Gujarat (India); Thakkar, Kaushal [GIDC Degree Engineering college, Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Abrama, Navsari (India)

    2016-10-15

    We discuss the mass spectrum of Ω baryon with two heavy quarks and one light quark (ccs, bbs, and bcs). The main goal of the paper is to calculate the ground state masses and after that, the positive and negative parity excited states masses are also obtained within a hypercentral constituent quark model, using Coulomb plus linear potential framework. We also added a first order correction to the potential. The mass spectra up to 5S for radial excited states and 1P-5P, 1D-4D, and 1F-2F states for orbital excited states are computed for Ω{sub cc}, Ω{sub bb} and Ω{sub bc} baryons. Our obtained results are compared with other theoretical predictions, which could be a useful complementary tool for the interpretation of experimentally unknown heavy baryon spectra. The Regge trajectory is constructed in both the (n{sub r}, M{sup 2}) and the (J, M{sup 2}) planes for Ω{sub cc}, Ω{sub bb} and Ω{sub bc} baryons and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Magnetic moments of doubly heavy Ω{sup '}s are also calculated. (orig.) 8.

  3. Probing the symmetry energy at high baryon density with heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, V; Di Toro, M; Wolter, H H

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy at densities above saturation density ($\\rho_0\\sim 0.16 fm^{-3}$) is poorly constrained theoretically and very few relevant experimental data exist. Its study is possible through Heavy Ion Collisions (HIC) at energies $E/A> 200$ MeV, particularly with beams of neutron-rich radioactive nuclei. The energy range implies that the momentum dependence of the isospin fields, i.e. the difference of the effective masses on protons and neutrons, also has to be investigated before a safe constraint on $\\esy(\\rho)$ is possible. We discuss the several observables which have been suggested, like $n/p$ emission and their collective flows and the ratio of meson yields with different isospin projection, $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ and $K^0/K^+$. We point out several physical mechanisms that should be included in the theoretical models to allow a direct comparison to the more precise experiments which will be able to distinguish the isospin projection of the detected particles: CSR/Lanzhou, FAIR/GSI, RIBF/RIKEN, ...

  4. Spinodal instabilities of baryon-rich quark matter in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Using the test-particle method to solve the transport equation derived from the Nambu-Jona-Lasino (NJL) model, we study how phase separation occurs in an expanding quark matter like that in a heavy ion collision. To test our method, we first investigate the growth rates of unstable modes of quark matter in a static cubic box and find them to agree with the analytical results that were previously obtained using the linear response theory. In this case, we also find the higher-order scaled density moments to increase with time and saturate at values significantly larger than one, which corresponds to a uniform density distribution, after the phase separation. The skewness of the quark number event-by-event distribution in a small sub-volume of the system is also found to increase, but this feature disappears if the sub-volume is large. For the expanding quark matter, two cases are considered with one using a blast-wave model for the initial conditions and the other using initial conditions from a mulple-phase t...

  5. Exotic baryons as a hadronic molecule in the heavy quark region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the hadronic molecules formed by the coupled-channel system of D̄(*Λc and D̄(*Σc(*, inspired by the two hidden-charm pentaquark states observed by LHCb collaborations in 2015. In these molecules, the coupled channels of D̄(*Σc(* are important because the thresholds of these channels are approximately degenerated by the heavy quark spin symmetry. In addition, we consider the coupling to the D̄(*Λc channel whose thresholds are close to the D̄(*Σc(* thresholds, and the coupling to the state with ℓ ≠ 0 mixed by the tensor force. By solving the coupled-channel Schrödinger equations with the one meson exchange potentials, we study the hidden-charm hadronic molecules with I(JP = 1/2(3/2± and 1/2(5/2±. We conclude that the JP assignment of the observed pentaquarks is 3/2+ for P+c (4380 and 5/2− for P+c (4450, which is agreement with the results of the LHCb analysis. In addition, we give predictions for other JP = 3/2± states.

  6. GENXICC2.0: An Upgraded Version of the Generator for Hadronic Production of Double Heavy Baryons $\\Xi_{cc}$, $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bb}$

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2009-01-01

    An upgraded (second) version of the package GENXICC ({\\bf A Generator for Hadronic Production of the Double Heavy Baryons $\\Xi_{cc}$, $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bb}$ by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu,} [its first version: in Comput. Phys. Commun. {\\bf 177} (2007) 467-478]) is presented. Users, with this version being implemented in PYTHIA and a GNU C compiler, may simulate full events of the production in various experimental environments conveniently. In comparison with the previous version, in order to implement it in PYTHIA properly, a subprogram for the fragmentation of the produced double heavy diquark to the relevant baryon is complemented and the interphase of the generator to PYTHIA is changed accordingly. In the subprogram, with explanation, certain necessary assumptions (approximations) are made so as to conserve the momenta and the QCD `color' flow for the fragmentation.

  7. Bethe-Salpeter Approach for the $P_{33}$ Elastic Pion-Nucleon Scattering in Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J

    2001-01-01

    Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory (HBChPT) to leading order provides a kernel to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the $P_{33}$ ($\\Delta(1232)$-channel) $\\pi-N$ system, in the infinite nucleon mass limit. Crossed Born terms include, when iterated within the Bethe-Salpeter equation, both {\\it all} one- and {\\it some} two-pion intermediate states, hence preserving elastic unitarity below the two-pion production threshold. This suggests searching for a solution with the help of dispersion relations and suitable subtraction constants, when all in-elasticities are explicitly neglected. The solution allows for a successful description of the experimental phase shift from threshold up to $\\sqrt{s}=1500$ MeV in terms of four subtraction constants. Next-to-leading order HBChPT calculations are also used to estimate the unknown subtraction constants which appear in the solution. Large discrepancies are encountered which can be traced to the slow convergence rate of HBChPT.

  8. On the form factors of semileptonic baryon decays in Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jugeau, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    We study consequences of the non-forward amplitude for the semileptonic baryon decay Lambda_b into Lambda_c which will be measured in detail at LHCb. We obtain a sum rule for the subleading elastic Isgur-Wise (IW) function A(w) that originates from the kinetic part of the O(1/mQ) effective Lagrangian perturbation. In the sum rule appear only the intermediate states J^P=1/2+, the same that contribute to the O(1/mQ)^2 correction to the axial-vector form factor G1(w) involved in the differential decay rate at zero recoil w=1. This allows us to obtain a lower bound on the correction -delta^(G1)_(1/mQ^2) in terms of A(w) and the shape of the leading elastic IW function xi(w). Another theoretical implication is that A'(1) must vanish in the limit where the slope of the xi(w) saturates its lower bound. A strong correlation between the leading IW function and the subleading one A(w) is thus established in the case of the baryons.

  9. First Observation of Heavy Baryons \\Sigma_b and \\Sigma_b^*

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Da Ronco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martinez-Ballarin, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; Van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-01-01

    We report an observation of new bottom baryons produced in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. Using 1.1 fb^{-1} of data collected by the CDF II detector, we observe four \\Lambda_b^0\\pi^{\\pm} resonances in the fully reconstructed decay mode \\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda_c^+ \\pi^-, where \\Lambda_c^+ \\to p K^- \\pi^+. We interpret these states as the \\Sigma_b^{(*)\\pm} baryons and measure their masses to be: m_{\\Sigma_b^+} = 5807.8^{+2.0}_{-2.2} (stat.) \\pm 1.7 (syst.) MeV/c^2 m_{\\Sigma_b^-} = 5815.2 \\pm 1.0 (stat.) \\pm 1.7 (syst.) MeV/c^2 m_{\\Sigma_b^{*+}} = 5829.0^{+1.6}_{-1.8} (stat.) ^{+1.7}_{-1.8} (syst.) MeV/c^2 m_{\\Sigma_b^{*-}} = 5836.4 \\pm 2.0 (stat.) ^{+1.8}_{-1.7} (syst.) MeV/c^2

  10. Baryon stopping in heavy-ion collisions at Elab = 2A-200A GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yu. B.; Blaschke, D.

    2016-08-01

    It is argued that an irregularity in the baryon stopping is a natural consequence of the onset of deconfinement occurring in the compression stage of a nuclear collision. It is an effect of the softest point inherent in an equation of state (EoS) with a deconfinement transition. In order to illustrate this effect, calculations within the three-fluid model were performed with three different EoSs: a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with a first-order phase transition and a third one with a smooth crossover transition. It is demonstrated that this irregularity is a very robust signal of the first-order phase transition that survives under acceptance conditions of the NICA MPD experiment.

  11. Heavy hadron spectrum and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, D

    1996-01-01

    Starting from the approximate symmetries of QCD, namely chiral symmetry for light quarks and spin and flavor symmetry for heavy quarks, we investigate the low-energy properties of heavy hadrons. For this purpose we construct a consistent picture of quark-antiquark and quark-diquark interactions as a low-energy approximation to the flavor dynamics in heavy mesons and heavy baryons, respectively. Using standard functional integration tools, we derive an effective Lagrangian in terms of heavy hadron fields and discuss several properties, like the mass spectrum, coupling and decay constants, Isgur-Wise form factors.

  12. Heavy meson fragmentation at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gomshi Nobary

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available   Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will provide excellent opportunity to study the production and decay of heavy mesons and baryons with high statistics. We aim at the heavy mesons in this work and calculate their fragmentation functions consistent with this machine and present their total fragmentation probabilities and average fragmentation parameters.

  13. ' HEAVY METALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish. ... The outcome effect 15 impairment of carbohydrate metabolism, which caused fish ..... of pesticides, heavy metal, detergent and petroleum.

  14. GENXICC2.0: An upgraded version of the generator for hadronic production of double heavy baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2010-06-01

    An upgraded (second) version of the package GENXICC (A Generator for Hadronic Production of the Double Heavy Baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu [its first version in: Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 467]) is presented. Users, with this version being implemented in PYTHIA and a GNU C compiler, may simulate full events of these processes in various experimental environments conveniently. In comparison with the previous version, in order to implement it in PYTHIA properly, a subprogram for the fragmentation of the produced double heavy diquark to the relevant baryon is supplied and the interface of the generator to PYTHIA is changed accordingly. In the subprogram, with explanation, certain necessary assumptions (approximations) are made in order to conserve the momenta and the QCD 'color' flow for the fragmentation. Program summaryProgram title: GENXICC2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADZJ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZJ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 102 482 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 469 519 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77/90 Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating system: Linux RAM: About 2.0 MByte Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADZJ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 467 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No Nature of problem: Hadronic production of double heavy baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ Solution method: The code is based on NRQCD framework. With proper options, it can generate weighted and un-weighted events of hadronic double heavy baryon production. When the hadronizations of the produced

  15. Menorrhagia (Heavy Menstrual Bleeding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) By Mayo Clinic Staff Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy ...

  16. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  17. Unified description of hadrons and heavy hadron decays

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, N

    1993-01-01

    We construct an effective Lagrangian which describes interactions of heavy and light hadrons utilizing the chiral flavor symmetry for light quarks and heavy quark symmetry. For both light and heavy sector we include pseudo scalars, vectors and baryons in the Lagrangian. Heavy hadron decays are discussed as application of our formalism. The $D_s$ decay constant and the coupling constant among heavy meson, heavy vector meson and light meson are fitted from the experimental data of $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- e^+\

  18. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  19. Heavy Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia ($J/\\psi$, $\\Upsilon$), heavy-light mesons ($D$/$\\bar{D}$, $\\bar{B}$/$B$) and heavy baryons ($\\Lambda_{c}$, $\\Lambda_{b}$). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in nuclear matter with infinite volume, but also in atomic nuclei with finite bary...

  20. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  1. Ground State Masses and Biding Energies of the Nucleon, Hyperon and Heavy Baryons in a Light-Front Model

    CERN Document Server

    Suisso, E F; Frederico, T

    2003-01-01

    The ground state masses and binding energies of the nucleon, $\\Lambda^0$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, $\\Lambda^0_b$ are studied within a constituent quark QCD-inspired light-front model. The light-front Faddeev equations for the $Qqq$ composite spin 1/2 baryons, are derived and solved numerically. The experimental data for the masses are qualitatively described by a flavor independent effective interaction.

  2. Baryon stopping in heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab} = 2A-200A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu.B. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute, (NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' ), Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Blaschke, D. [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); JINR Dubna, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    It is argued that an irregularity in the baryon stopping is a natural consequence of the onset of deconfinement occurring in the compression stage of a nuclear collision. It is an effect of the softest point inherent in an equation of state (EoS) with a deconfinement transition. In order to illustrate this effect, calculations within the three-fluid model were performed with three different EoSs: a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with a first-order phase transition and a third one with a smooth crossover transition. It is demonstrated that this irregularity is a very robust signal of the first-order phase transition that survives under acceptance conditions of the NICA MPD experiment. (orig.)

  3. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  4. Heavy hadron decays with conserved heavy flavour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the decays of heavy hadrons where the heavy quark acts as a spectator and the light quark decays in a weak transition. For these s → u or d → u decays we show that the decay rates can be reliably computed.

  5. Physics of heavy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gluza, J

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental situation in physics of heavy neutrinos (M_N>M_Z) is briefly presented. Various experimental bounds on heavy neutrino masses and mixings are shortly reviewed. Special attention is paid to possibility of detecting heavy neutrinos in future lepton linear colliders.

  6. Heavy Stars Thrive among Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    , with a sprinkling of the light element lithium. At our epoch, the visible ("baryonic") matter in the Universe still mostly consists of hydrogen and helium. However, progressively heavier elements have been built up via fusion processes in the interior of stars ever since the Big Bang. Some of the heaviest elements are also produced when massive stars die in gigantic stellar explosions, observed as "supernovae". This gradual process, referred to as "chemical evolution" , occurs with different speeds in different regions of the Universe, being fastest in those regions where star formation is most intense. In the relatively "quiet" region of the Milky Way galaxy where our Solar System was born some 4,600 million years ago, it took nearly 10,000 million years to produce all the heavy elements now found in our neighbourhood . Contrarily, in the innermost regions ( the "nuclei" ) of normal galaxies and especially in so-called "active galaxies", the same or even higher heavy-element "enrichment" levels were reached in much shorter time, less than about 1,000 to 2,000 million years. This is the result of observations of particularly active galaxy nuclei ("quasars") in the distant (i.e., early) Universe. Star formation in highly enriched environments Little is presently known about such highly enriched environments. Since astronomers refer to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium as "metals" , they talk about "metal-rich" regions . This is readily observable from the presence of strong lines from heavier elements in the spectra of the interstellar gas in such regions. A central, still unresolved question is whether under such special conditions, stars can still form with the same diversity of masses, as this happens in other, less extreme areas of the Universe . Indeed, some current theories of star formation and certain indirect observations appear to indicate that very heavy stars - with masses more than 20 - 30 times that of our Sun - could not possibly form in metal

  7. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  8. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  9. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, Hans Gunter [Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); de Teramond, Guy F. [Univ. de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca (Costa Rica); Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  10. Production of heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  11. Heavy spin-2 Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Raidal, Martti; Schmidt-May, Angnis; Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi; von Strauss, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the require...

  12. Leptogenesis from Oscillations of Heavy Neutrinos with Large Mixing Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Drewes, Marco; Gueter, Dario; Klaric, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The extension of the Standard Model by heavy right-handed neutrinos can simultaneously explain the observed neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. If the mass of the heavy neutrinos is below the electroweak scale, they may be found at LHCb, BELLE II, the proposed SHiP experiment or a future high-energy collider. In this mass range, the baryon asymmetry is generated via $CP$-violating oscillations of the heavy neutrinos during their production. We study the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in this scenario from first principles of non-equilibrium quantum field theory, including spectator processes and feedback effects. We eliminate several uncertainties from previous calculations and find that the baryon asymmetry of the Universe can be explained with larger heavy neutrino mixing angles, increasing the chance for an experimental discovery. For the limiting cases of fast and strongly overdamped oscillations of right-handed neutrinos,...

  13. Heavy Diquark Symmetry Constraints for Strong Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Eakins, B

    2012-01-01

    The Heavy Diquark Symmetry (HDS) of Doubly Heavy Baryons (DHBs) provides new insights into the spectroscopy of these hadrons. We derive the consequences of this symmetry for the mass spectra and the decay widths of DHBs. We compare these symmetry constraints to results from a nonrelativistic quark model for the mass spectra and results from the $^3P_0$ model for strong decays. The quark model we implement was not constructed with these symmetries and contains interactions which explicitly break HDS, nevertheless these symmetries emerge. We argue that the $^3P_0$ model and any other model for strong transitions which employs a spectator assumption explicitly respects HDS. We also explore the possibility of treating the strange quark as a heavy quark and apply these ideas to $\\Xi$, $\\Xi_c$, and $\\Xi_b$ baryons.

  14. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P C Vinodkumar

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the hadron molecular states etc., also will be reviewed. Various issues and challenges in understanding the physics and dynamics of the quarks at the hadronic dimensions are highlighted. Looking into the present and future experimental prospects at different heavy flavour laboratories like BES-III, CLEO-c, BaBar, Belle, LHC etc., the scope for theoretical extensions of the present knowledge of heavy flavour physics would be very demanding. In this context, many relevant contributions from the forthcoming PANDA Facility are expected. Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour sector in view of the future experimental facilities are highlighted.

  15. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  16. Oscillating propagators in heavy-dense QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar; Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2016-10-11

    Using Monte Carlo simulations and extended mean field theory calculations we show that the $3$-dimensional $\\mathbb{Z}_3$ spin model with complex external fields has non-monotonic correlators in some regions of its parameter space. This model serves as a proxy for heavy-dense QCD in $(3+1)$ dimensions. Non-monotonic correlators are intrinsically related to a complex mass spectrum and a liquid-like (or crystalline) behavior. A liquid phase could have implications for heavy-ion experiments, where it could leave detectable signals in the spatial correlations of baryons.

  17. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  18. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    i 2N E ihhhhh1112h MEmhhhhEEEohhhhE I.’....momo 111111111’-20 LA ’Ll2. AFWL-TR-86-37 AFWL-TR- 86-37 oT C ,l C ’-’ N HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 0nI...Secwrit CkasmfcationJ HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Reisfield, Renata; and Eyal, Mrek 13. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114...glasses containing about 50 mole% of ZrF4 [which can be replaced by HfF 4 or TIF 4 (Refs. 1-3) or heavy metal fluorides based on PbF2 and on 3d-group

  19. Heavy flavour production and spectroscopy at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258787

    2012-01-01

    At the Moriond QCD conference LHCb has presented results on heavy flavour production and spectroscopy. Here the latest results are discussed, which include the first observation and measurement of the branching fraction of the hadronic decay $B^+_e \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$, the mass measurement of the excited B mesons and the mass measurement of the $\\Xi_b$ and $\\Omega_b$ baryons.

  20. Heavy Exotic Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general strictures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. The bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ to be observed.

  1. Heavy exotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  2. Aquathermolysis of heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyne, J.B.; Clark, P.D.; Clarke, R.A.; Koo, J.; Greidanus, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    The use of steam injection as a recovery method is based mainly on the physical effect of transferring the energy of the steam to enhance the flow properties of heavy oils. Other physical effects, such as emulsification, also may take place but little attention has been given to the possibility of a chemical reaction between the steam and some of the heavy oil components. This work addresses the question of such a chemical reaction to which the name, Aquathermolysis, has been given. The results of gas analyses to simulate field conditions of steam injection are presented. Two samples were used. Means to enhance the flow properties during the aquathermolysis process also were determined.

  3. Heavy spin-2 Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, Eugeny [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Schmidt-May, Angnis [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Strauss, Mikael von [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-09-12

    We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the requirement of stability constrains the spin-2 mass to be in the 1 to 100 TeV range.

  4. Phenomenology of Heavy Flavors in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Isayev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Some recent experimental results obtained in collisions of heavy nuclei ($\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV) at BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are discussed. The probes of dense matter created in heavy-ion collision by quarkonia, $D$ and $B$ mesons containing heavy charm and beauty quarks are considered. The centrality, rapidity and transverse momentum dependences of the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow coefficient are presented and their possible theoretical interpretation is provided.

  5. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  6. Heavy quarkonium effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mannel, T

    1995-01-01

    We formulate a QCD-based effective theory approach to heavy quarkonia-like systems as \\bar{c} c and \\bar{b} b resonances and B_c states. We apply the method to inclusive decays, working out a few examples in detail.

  7. Dolly For Heavy Towbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed lightweight dolly enables operator to cart heavy towbar to remote site over unpaved roads or rough terrain. Acts as simple, lightweight towed vehicle to support rear of towbar. Removed quickly at point of use. Saves labor, and eliminates need for truck and forklift.

  8. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer....

  9. Production of heavy elements in inhomogeneous cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Thomas; Applegate, James H.; Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    1994-07-01

    Baryon density inhomogeneities during big bang nucleosynthesis can result from a variety of possible causes (e.g., quantum chromodynamic and electroweak phase transitions; cosmic strings). We present here the consequences of such inhomogeneities with special emphasis on the production of heavy elements in a parameter study, varying the global baryon-to-photon ratio eta (which is related to the baryon density and the Hubble constant via eta10 = 64.94 Omegab(H0/50)2 and the length scale of the density inhomogeneities. The production of heavy elements beyond Fe can only occur in neutron-rich environments; thus, we limit our study to neutron-rich zones, originating from neutron diffusion into low-density regions. In this first calculation including elements heavier than Si, we prove an earlier hypothesis that under such conditions r-process elements can be produced, strongly enhanced by the process of fission cycling. Primordial r-process abundances are, however, very sensitive to the choice of eta. Significant amounts, comparable to or larger than the (permitted) floor of heavy-element abundances found in low-metallicity stars at the onset of galactic evolution, can only be obtained for values in excess of eta10 = 133 (i.e., Omegab(h50)2 = 2.0; e.g., Omegab = 1, H0 = 71, or Omegab = 0.5, H0 = 100) and large length scales of inhomogeneities, which minimize the back-diffusion of neutrons into proton-rich regions. Recent investigations analyzing the primordial abundances of light elements seem to set tighter limits, eta10 less than 26 to 39 (Omega b)(h50)2 less than 0.4 to 0.6, from He-4 and apparently considerably lower values based on Li, Be, and B. Under such conditions the predicted abundances of heavy elements are a factor of 105 or more below presently observable limits.

  10. Distributed Private Heavy Hitters

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Justin; Roth, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give efficient algorithms and lower bounds for solving the heavy hitters problem while preserving differential privacy in the fully distributed local model. In this model, there are n parties, each of which possesses a single element from a universe of size N. The heavy hitters problem is to find the identity of the most common element shared amongst the n parties. In the local model, there is no trusted database administrator, and so the algorithm must interact with each of the $n$ parties separately, using a differentially private protocol. We give tight information-theoretic upper and lower bounds on the accuracy to which this problem can be solved in the local model (giving a separation between the local model and the more common centralized model of privacy), as well as computationally efficient algorithms even in the case where the data universe N may be exponentially large.

  11. [Heavy particle radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozares, S; Mañeru, F; Pellejero, S

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of radiation formed by heavy particles make it a highly useful tool for therapeutic use. Protons, helium nuclei or carbon ions are being successfully employed in radiotherapy installations throughout the world. This article sets out the physical and technological foundations that make these radiation particles suitable for attacking white volume, as well as the different ways of administering treatment. Next, the main clinical applications are described, which show the therapeutic advantages in some of the pathologies most widely employed in proton and hadron therapy centres at present. Under continuous study, the clinical use of heavy particles appears to be an enormously promising path of advance in comparison with classical technologies, both in tumour coverage and in reducing dosages in surrounding tissue.

  12. Towards the heavy-ion program at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chujo, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Gunji, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Harada, H. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kaneta, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kinsho, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Liu, Y. [J-PARC Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nagamiya, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); J-PARC Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishio, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ozawa, K. [J-PARC Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Saha, P.K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakaguchi, T. [Broohaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sato, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tamura, J. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A future heavy-ion program at J-PARC has been discussed. The QCD phase structure in high baryon density regime will be explored with heavy ions at the beam momenta of around 10 A GeV/c at the beam rate of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} Hz. For this quest, a large acceptance spectrometer is designed to measure electrons and muons, and rare probes such as multi-strangeness and charmed hadrons/nuclei. A heavy-ion acceleration scheme is under study with a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring, which accelerate and inject beams into the existing Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron and Main Ring synchrotron. An overview of the heavy-ion program and an accelerator design, as well as physics goals and a conceptual design of the heavy-ion experiment are discussed.

  13. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  15. Transformable Heavy Lift Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    the 500 group include climate control, freshwater/seawater systems, mechanical handling, and special purpose systems. Due to the large troop...compliment carried on the JHSS, large amounts of climate control and ventilation were required. The transformable heavy lift ship has only a single... Treeline Connector Innovation Cell Naval Research Enterprise Intern Program Final Report, NSWCCD-20-TR-2005/05 August 2005 "Saturn." Nijhuis

  16. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  17. Role of net baryon density on rapidity width of identified particles from the lowest energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to those at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb

    2017-08-01

    Widths of the rapidity distributions of various identified hadrons generated with the UrQMD-3.4 event generator at all the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies have been presented and compared with the existing experimental results. An increase in the width of the rapidity distribution of Λ could be seen with both Monte Carlo (MC) and experimental data for the studied energies. Using MC data, the study has been extended to Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. A similar jump, as observed in the plot of rapidity width versus rest mass at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and all SPS energies, persists even at RHIC and LHC energies, confirming its universal nature from AGS to the highest LHC energies. Such observation indicates that pair production may not be the only mechanism of particle production at the highest LHC energies. However, with MC data, the separate mass scaling for mesons and baryons is found to exist even at the top LHC energy.

  18. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiss, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  19. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmold, William; Lin, C-J David; Meinel, Stefan

    2012-04-27

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeVheavy-light mesons and pions and g(2,3) are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g(3), and constraining 1/m(Q) corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for Σ(c)(*) decays, we obtain Γ[Σ(b)(*)→Λ(b)π(±)]=4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the Σ(b)(+), Σ(b)(-), Σ(b)(*+), Σ(b)(*-) initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the Ξ(b)(I(*)) baryons.

  20. Reply to 'Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis''

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, Shunji; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    This is a reply report to astro-ph/0604264. We studied heavy element production in high baryon density region in early universe astro-ph/0507439. However it is claimed in astro-ph/0604264 that small scale but high baryon density region contradicts observations for the light element abundance or in order not to contradict to observations high density region must be so small that it cannot affect the present heavy element abundance. In this paper we study big bang nucleosynthesis in high baryon density region and show that in certain parameter spaces it is possible to produce enough amount of heavy element without contradiction to CMB and light element observations.

  1. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  2. Light is Heavy

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, M.B. van der; Hooft, G. W. 't

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspect...

  3. Heavy Metal Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  4. Heavy fermion superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brison, Jean-Pascal; Glémot, Loı̈c; Suderow, Hermann; Huxley, Andrew; Kambe, Shinsaku; Flouquet, Jacques

    2000-05-01

    The quest for a precise identification of the symmetry of the order parameter in heavy fermion systems has really started with the discovery of the complex superconducting phase diagram in UPt 3. About 10 years latter, despite numerous experiments and theoretical efforts, this is still not achieved, and we will quickly review the present status of knowledge and the main open question. Actually, the more forsaken issue of the nature of the pairing mechanism has been recently tackled by different groups with macroscopic or microscopic measurement, and significant progress have been obtained. We will discuss the results emerging from these recent studies which all support non-phonon-mediated mechanisms.

  5. Light is Heavy

    CERN Document Server

    van der Mark, M B

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspective on the above paradox is given.

  6. Heavy ion storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  7. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  8. Recent CDF results on heavy and exotic baryons in p-pbar collisions at s**(1/2)=1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curbis, F.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2005-01-01

    Since March 2001 a new period of CDF data taking (called Run II) began at the p{bar p} Tevatron collider. The upgrade of Collider Detector at Fermilab improved the tracking system: the vertexing, triggering and particle identification capabilities. This has allowed a further development of B physics, because the B{sub s} and {Lambda}{sub b} are produced in hadronic collisions. Here measurements of the mass and lifetime of {Lambda}{sub b} in two decay channels are presented. Using particle identification (PID) information from the time of flight and the dE/dx, CDF performed pentaquark searches for {Theta}{sup +}, {Xi}{sub 3/2}{sup --,0} and {Theta}{sub c}{sup 0}, following the recent interest in exotic baryon spectroscopy.

  9. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  10. Bucharest heavy ion accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceausescu, V.; Dobrescu, S.; Duma, M.; Indreas, G.; Ivascu, M.; Papureanu, S.; Pascovici, G.; Semenescu, G.

    1986-02-15

    The heavy ion accelerator facility of the Heavy Ion Physics Department at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest is described. The Tandem accelerator development and the operation of the first stage of the heavy ion postaccelerating system are discussed. Details are given concerning the resonance cavities, the pulsing system matching the dc beam to the RF cavities and the computer control system.

  11. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  12. CKM favored semileptonic decays of heavy hadrons at zero recoil

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, T M; Yu, H L; Yan, Tung Mow; Cheng, Hai Yang

    1996-01-01

    We study the properties of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) favored semileptonic decays of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark at the point of no recoil. We first use a diagrammatic analysis to rederive the result observed by earlier authors that at this kinematic point the B meson decays via b\\to c transitions can only produce a D or D^* meson. The result is generalized to include photon emissions which violate heavy quark flavor symmetry. We show that photons emitted by the heavy quarks and the charged lepton are the only light particles that can decorate the decays \\bar{B}\\to D(D^*) + \\ell\

  13. Cosmology with a heavy Polonyi field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harigaya, Keisuke [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hayakawa, Taku [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-06-08

    We consider a cosmologically consistent scenario with a heavy Polonyi field. The Polonyi field with a mass of O(100) TeV decays before the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and avoids the severe constraint from the BBN. However, the abundance of the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) produced from the decay often exceeds the observed dark matter density. In our scenario, the dark matter density is obtained by the LSP abundance with an aid of entropy production, and baryon asymmetry is generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism. We show that the observed baryon-to-dark matter ratio of O(0.1−1) is naturally explained in sequestering models with a QCD axion.

  14. Using heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons to determine QCD parameters and test heavy quark symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the use of heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons for testing the heavy quark effective theory through comparison of the measured fragmentation parameters of the c and b quarks. Our analysis is entirely model independent. We interpret the known perturbative evolution in a way useful for exploiting heavy quark symmetry at low energy. We first show consistency with perturbative QCD scaling for measurements done solely with c quarks. We then apply the perturbative analysis and the heavy quark expansion to relate measurements from ARGUS and LEP. We place bounds on a nonperturbative quark mass suppressed parameter, and compare the values for the b and c quarks. We find consistency with the heavy quark expansion but fairly sizable QCD uncertainties. We also suggest that one might reduce the systematic uncertainty in the result by not extrapolating to low z.

  15. Heavy Quarks and Heavy Quarkonia as Tests of Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Nagle, J L

    2006-01-01

    We present here a brief summary of new results on heavy quarks and heavy quarkonia from the PHENIX experiment as presented at the "Quark Gluon Plasma Thermalization" Workshop in Vienna, Austria in August 2005, directly following the International Quark Matter Conference in Hungary.

  16. Moments of charge fluctuations, pseudo-critical temperatures and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    We discuss universal properties of higher order cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations and point out their relevance for the analysis of freeze-out and critical conditions in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC.

  17. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  18. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  19. Heavy flavours: working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gladilin, Leonid [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tonelli, Diego [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The talks presented in the working group ''Heavy flavours'' of the DIS 2009 workshop are summarised. New and recently updated results from theory, proton antiproton and heavy ion colliders, as well from HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  1. Disorders of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  2. Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, Riccardo; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2008-02-22

    Although the Standard Model of elementary particles is well established, strong interactions are not yet fully under control. We believe QCD is the field theory capable of describing them, but we are not yet capable, in most of the cases, to make exact predictions. Systems that include heavy quark-antiquark pairs (quarkonia) are ideal and unique laboratories to probe both the high energy regimes of QCD, where an expansion in terms of the coupling constant is possible, and the low energy regimes, where non-perturbative effects dominate. In the last years this field is experiencing a rapid expansion with a wealth of new data coming in from diverse sources: data on quarkonium formation from dedicated experiments (BES at BEPC, KEDR at VEPP-4M CLEO-c at CESR), clear samples produced by high luminosity B-factories (PEP and KEKB), and very large samples produced from gluon-gluon fusion in p{bar p} annihilations at Tevatron (CDF and D0 experiments). In this review I will first summarize recent developments in the understanding of heavy quarkonium states which have a well established quark content. Next, the core of the paper will be spent to review the experimental evidences of new states that might be aggregations of more than just a quark-antiquark pair. Although the possibility to have bound states of two quarks and two antiquarks or of quark-antiquark pairs and gluons has been predicted since the very start of the quark model [2], no observed state has yet been attributed to one of them: achieving such an attribution would be a major step in the understanding of the strong interactions.

  3. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  4. Heavy Flavour Production at LHC: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Bruno Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of experimental results on the production of heavy flavour (charm and bottom hadrons at LHC is presented. Both the open and hidden heavy flavour sectors are covered, with an emphasis on heavy ion collisions.

  5. Chemical and dynamics properties of heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies by the measurement of the production of the doubly strange baryons in the STAR experiment; Proprietes chimiques et dynamiques des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies du RHIC par la mesure de la production des baryons doublement etranges dans l'experience STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estienne, M

    2005-04-15

    Lattice QCD calculations predict, at {mu}{sub B} {approx} 0, a crossover from ordinary hadronic matter to a Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy ion collisions have been proposed to recreate it in the laboratory and to study its properties. The Au+Au, d+Au collisions at {radical}(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV and the Au+Au ones at 62.4 GeV delivered at RHIC have been probed by the measurement of the {xi} particles in the STAR experiment. Their yield evolution with collision energy and system size gives size to the chemical properties of the reaction in the framework of hadronic and statistical models. The {xi} R{sub CP} shows: (1) a meson/baryon dependence for 2 < {sub pT} < 5 GeV/c well reproduced by quark coalescence and recombination models, (2) the formation of a dense matter signed by a R{sub CP} suppression at {sub pT} > 3 GeV/c, (3) strong interactions between constituents suggesting the existence of strong collectivity in the medium. The {xi} transverse flow seems to be interesting to probe the early stage the collision with presumably partonic degrees of freedom. (author)

  6. Heavy-flavour and quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of heavy-flavour hadron production in proton-proton, proton-Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC offers the opportunity to investigate the properties of the high-density colour-deconfined state of strongly-interacting matter (Quark Gluon Plasma, QGP that is expected to be formed in high-energy collisions of heavy nuclei. A review of the main quarkonium and open heavy-flavour results obtained by the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments is presented.

  7. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m_\\pi < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a=0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm)^3. Our results for the axial couplings are g_1=0.449(51), g_2=0.84(20), and g_3=0.71(13), where g_1 governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g_{2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g_3, and constraining 1/m_Q corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for \\Sigma_c^{(*)} decays, we obtain \\Gamma[\\Sigma_b^{(*)} \\to \\Lambda_b \\pi^\\pm] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the \\Si...

  8. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Theisen, C

    2003-01-01

    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei.

  9. Heavy quarkonium production and polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Sterman, George

    2011-01-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum $p_T$ at collider energies, which includes both the leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the $m_Q^2/p_T^2$ expansion for heavy quark mass $m_Q$. We estimate fragmentation functions in the non-relativistic QCD formalism, and reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit NLO calculations in the color singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization.

  10. Observable Heavy Higgs Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Keus, Venus; Moretti, Stefano; Sokolowska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM), arising from an Inert Higgs Doublet, may either be light, below the $W$ mass, or heavy, above about 525 GeV. While the light region may soon be excluded, the heavy region is known to be very difficult to probe with either Direct Detection (DD) experiments or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that adding a second Inert Higgs Doublet helps to make the heavy DM region accessible to both DD and the LHC, by either increasing its couplings to the observed Higgs boson, or lowering its mass to $360 \\gev \\lesssim m_{DM}$, or both.

  11. Observable heavy Higgs dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keus, Venus [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Moretti, Stefano [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sokolowska, Dorota [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5,02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-11-04

    Dark Matter (DM), arising from an Inert Higgs Doublet, may either be light, below the W mass, or heavy, above about 525 GeV. While the light region may soon be excluded, the heavy region is known to be very difficult to probe with either Direct Detection (DD) experiments or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that adding a second Inert Higgs Doublet helps to make the heavy DM region accessible to both DD and the LHC, by either increasing its couplings to the observed Higgs boson, or lowering its mass to 360 GeV≲m{sub DM}, or both.

  12. Heavy Hybrids: decay to and mixing with Heavy Quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Oncala, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    We report on a recent QCD based research on hybrid mesons containing $c\\bar c$ or $b\\bar b$ quarks. We present results for the spectrum, the decay widths to heavy quarkonium, and the role of mixing with the latter. We point out that mixing with heavy quarkonium provides a potentially large source of spin symmetry breaking. We identify candidates to hybrid mesons among the so called XYZ states in the charmonium and bottomonium spectrum.

  13. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  14. Heavy fields and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of heavy fields on 4D spacetimes with flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. At low energies, matter generates specific, calculable higher derivative corrections to the GR action which perturbatively alter the Schwarzschild-( A) dS family of solutions. The effects of massive scalars, Dirac spinors and gauge fields are each considered. The six-derivative operators they produce, such as ˜ R 3 terms, generate the leading corrections. The induced changes to horizon radii, Hawking temperatures and entropies are found. Modifications to the energy of large AdS black holes are derived by imposing the first law. An explicit demonstration of the replica trick is provided, as it is used to derive black hole and cosmological horizon entropies. Considering entropy bounds, it's found that scalars and fermions increase the entropy one can store inside a region bounded by a sphere of fixed size, but vectors lead to a decrease, oddly. We also demonstrate, however, that many of the corrections fall below the resolving power of the effective field theory and are therefore untrustworthy. Defining properties of black holes, such as the horizon area and Hawking temperature, prove to be remarkably robust against higher derivative gravitational corrections.

  15. Decays of heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, T G

    1979-01-01

    The weak decay of heavy b and t quarks is discussed using the mixing angles obtained in Fritzsch's model (1978). The author finds that the decay b to c dominates over b to u for 7

  16. Heavy Fields and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Goon, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of heavy fields on 4D spacetimes with flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. At low energies, matter generates specific, calculable higher derivative corrections to the GR action which perturbatively alter the Schwarzschild-$(A)dS$ family of solutions. The effects of massive scalars, Dirac spinors and gauge fields are each considered. The six-derivative operators they produce, such as $\\sim R^{3}$ terms, generate the leading corrections. The induced changes to horizon radii, Hawking temperatures and entropies are found. Modifications to the energy of large $AdS$ black holes are derived by imposing the first law. An explicit demonstration of the replica trick is provided, as it is used to derive black hole and cosmological horizon entropies. Considering entropy bounds, it's found that scalars and fermions increase the entropy one can store inside a region bounded by a sphere of fixed size, but vectors lead to a decrease, oddly. We also demonstrate, however, that many of the correc...

  17. Heavy Flavor Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Heavy flavor production are of great interest in heavy ion collisions. In the produced medium, the binding potential between a quark and antiquark in quarkonium is screened by surrounding light quarks and antiquarks. Thus, the various quarkonium states are expected to be melt at different temperatures depending on their binding energies, which allows us to characterize the QCD phase transition. In addition, open heavy flavor production are relevant for flavor-dependence of the in-medium parton energy loss. In QCD, gluons are expected to lose more energy compared to quarks when passing through the QGP due to the larger color charge. Compared to light quarks, heavy quarks are expected to lose less radiative energy because gluon radiation is suppressed at angles smaller than the ratio of the quark mass to its energy. This dead cone effect (and its disappearance at high transverse momentum) can be studied using open heavy flavor mesons and heavy flavor tagged jets. With CMS detector, quarkonia, open he...

  18. Heavy flavour production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Barsuk, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The present write-up reports recent LHCb results on production of quarkonium and open flavour states, as well as selected results on associated production, central exclusive production and pro- duction in heavy ion collisions.

  19. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum...

  20. Viscoelastic properties of heavy oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Luces, Maria Alejandra

    Rheological low frequency measurements were carried out to analyze the viscoelastic properties of four heavy oil samples. At room conditions, the heavy oil samples exhibit non-Newtonian or viscoelastic behavior since they have a viscous component and an elastic component. The latter becomes very important for temperatures below 30°C, and for seismic to ultrasonic frequencies. Above this temperature, the viscous component increases significantly in comparison to the elastic component, and for seismic frequencies heavy oils can be considered as Newtonian fluids. A new viscosity model based on the concept of activation energy was derived to predict viscosity in terms of frequency and temperature for temperatures below 60°C. A new frequency-temperature dispersion model was derived to address the variation of the complex shear modulus (G*) with frequency and temperature for the heavy oil samples. This model fits the data well for seismic and sonic frequencies but it overpredicts G* at ultrasonic frequencies.

  1. Status of Heavy Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wynne, Benjamin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations raises the possibility that there exist additional, undiscovered high-mass neutrinos, giving mass to Standard Model neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. By pushing the collider energy frontier at the LHC, the possibility arises that these heavy neutrinos may be produced and identified. We summarise the latest LHC results of searches for heavy neutrinos in a variety of final states.

  2. Heavy flavour results from ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell P. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A selection of heavy-flavour physics results from the ATLAS experiment is presented, based on data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC during 2010. Differential cross-sections for the production of heavy flavours, charmonium and bottomonium states and D-mesons are presented and compared to various theoretical models. Results of B-hadron lifetime measurements are also reported.

  3. Phenomenology of heavy quark systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

  4. Heavy smoking and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2006-01-01

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache,fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation

  5. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike

    2017-09-01

    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  6. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Suppression and Two-Particle Correlations of Heavy Mesons in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the medium modification of heavy quarks produced in heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks inside the QGP is described using a modified Langevin framework that simultaneously incorporates their collisional and radiative energy loss. Within this framework, we provide good descriptions of the heavy meson suppression and predictions for the two-particle correlation functions of heavy meson pairs.

  8. Heavy quarkonium photoproduction in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gong-Ming; Cai, Yang-Bing; Li, Yun-De; Wang, Jian-Song

    2017-01-01

    Based on the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD), we calculate the production cross section for the charmonium [J /ψ , ψ (2 S ) , χc J, ηc, and hc] and the bottomonium [Υ (n S ) , χb J, ηb, and hb] produced by the hard photoproduction processes and fragmentation processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is shown that the existing experimental data on heavy quarkonium production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be described in the framework of the NRQCD formalism, and the phenomenological values of matrix elements for color-singlet and color-octet components give the main contribution. The numerical results of photoproduction processes and fragmentation processes for the heavy quarkonium production become prominent in p -p collisions and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies.

  9. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  10. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.

    1982-09-01

    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  11. Light-Cone Distribution Amplitudes for Heavy-Quark Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Guido; Wang, Yu-Ming; Yip, Matthew W Y

    2013-01-01

    We construct parametrizations of light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) for B-mesons and Lambda_b-baryons that obey various theoretical constraints, and which are simple to use in factorization theorems relevant for phenomenological applications in heavy-flavour physics. In particular, we find the eigenfunctions of the Lange-Neubert renormalization kernel, which allow for a systematic implementation of renormalization-group evolution effects for both B-meson and \\Lambda_b-baryon decays. We also present a new strategy to construct LCDA models from momentum-space projectors, which can be used to implement Wandzura-Wilczek--like relations, and which allow for a comparison with theoretical approaches that go beyond the collinear limit for the light-quark momenta in energetic heavy-hadron decays.

  12. Relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhalerao, Rajeev S

    2014-01-01

    The field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is introduced to the high-energy physics students with no prior knowledge in this area. The emphasis is on the two most important observables, namely the azimuthal collective flow and jet quenching, and on the role fluid dynamics plays in the interpretation of the data. Other important observables described briefly are constituent quark number scaling, ratios of particle abundances, strangeness enhancement, and sequential melting of heavy quarkonia. Comparison is made of some of the basic heavy-ion results obtained at LHC with those obtained at RHIC. Initial findings at LHC which seem to be in apparent conflict with the accumulated RHIC data are highlighted.

  13. Timescales in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lisa, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The study of high energy collisions between heavy nuclei is a field unto itself, distinct from nuclear and particle physics. A defining aspect of heavy ion physics is the importance of a bulk, self-interacting system with a rich space-time substructure. I focus on the issue of timescales in heavy ion collisions, starting with proof from low-energy collisions that femtoscopy can, indeed, measure very long timescales. I then discuss the relativistic case, where detailed measurements over three orders of magnitude in energy reveal a timescale increase that might be due to a first-order phase transition. I discuss also consistency in evolution timescales as determined from traditional longitudinal sizes and a novel analysis using shape information.

  14. Does climate have heavy tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

  15. Aspects of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolschin, G. [Institut für Theoretische Physik der Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    Three aspects of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are considered in this article: (1) Stopping and baryon transport in a QCD-based approach, (2) charged-hadron production in a nonequilibrium-statistical relativistic diffusion model (RDM), and (3) quarkonia suppression and in particular, Υ suppression in PbPb at the current LHC energy of √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76TeV.

  16. Heavy flavour production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Three recent results in heavy flavour production at the CMS experiment are addressed in this report. Measurements of the differential production cross sections of B hadron and quarkonium states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV are presented. These are important tools to investigate heavy-quark production mechanisms in QCD. The dependences on transverse momentum and rapidity are investigated and comparisons with theory expectations and among different collision energies are provided. Also the new observation of $\\Upsilon(1S)\\Upsilon(1S)$ production is reported.

  17. Spontaneous emission of heavy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Central Inst. of Physics, Bucharest (Romania)); Sandulescu, A. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)); Greiner, W. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-08-01

    The lifetimes of some heavy nuclei relative to the spontaneous emission of various clusters heavier than the alpha particle are estimated with a model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay, showing that this phenomenon is a new manifestation of the nuclear shell structure. A greater probability is obtained for parent-heavy-cluster combinations leading to a magic or almost magic daughter nucleus. The analytical formula obtained allows the handling of a large number of cases to search for new kinds of radioactivities.

  18. Open Heavy Flavor Measurements in Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of heavy flavor production is a powerful tool to study the properties of the high-density QCD medium created in heavy-ion collisions as heavy quarks are sensitive to the transport properties of the medium and may interact with the matter differently than light quarks. Heavy flavor jets, non-prompt J / ψ (J / ψ from B-hadron decay) and fully reconstructed B mesons have been studied in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS. Recently, the nuclear modification factor of prompt D0 mesons has been measured in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV with CMS as a function of both transverse momentum and collision centrality. These studies show that prompt D0 production is suppressed in semi-central to central PbPb collisions and the suppression is smaller at high pT. A comparison with the RAA of charged particle and non-prompt J / ψ hints a hierarchy of suppression as a function of flavor.

  19. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern

    2010-12-13

    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab}=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s{sub NN}){sup 1/2}=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  20. Heavy flavour production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnera Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review, recent experimental results from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations on heavy flavour production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction regimes are summarized. The results cover charm fragmentation fractions, charm and beauty cross sections, F2cc̄ and F2bb̄ proton structure functions and the running charm- and beauty-quark masses.

  1. Heavy and light meson wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xing-Gang

    2013-01-01

    We present a short review on the properties of heavy and light mesons' light-cone wavefunctions (LCWFs), and their distribution amplitudes (DAs). The B meson LCWFs can be treated by taking the heavy quark limit ($m_b\\to\\infty$) and by using the heavy quark effective theory (HQET). Using the relations between 2- and 3- particle WFs derived from the QCD equations of motion and constraints from the heavy quark symmetry, one can obtain their transverse momentum dependence up to next-to-leading order in Fock state expansion. Furthermore, we propose a simple model for B meson WFs with 3-particle Fock states' contributions, whose behaviors are controlled by two parameters $\\bar\\Lambda$ and $\\delta$. Using such model, the form factors $F^{B\\to\\pi}_{+,0,T}$ and $F^{B\\to K}_{+,0,T}$ in large recoil region are studied up to ${\\cal O}(1/m_b^2)$ within the $k_T$ factorization approach. When $\\bar\\Lambda\\in [0.50,0.55]$ and $\\delta\\in[0.25,0.30]$, the results of $F^{B\\to\\pi}_{+,0,T}(Q^2)$ and $F^{B\\to K}_{+,0,T}(Q^2)$ are ...

  2. Heavy quark spectroscopy at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00165164

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of $3.0 fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector has yielded a broad range of results in spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons with heavy quark(s) inside. We review the LHCb results which have been obtained over the last year.

  3. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Acute toxicity of heavy metals is a rare phenomenon in nature but the intake of sub-‐lethal doses over an extended ... protein (14-40 %), potassium, iron, calcium, sodium .... Lead and chromium were not ..... combined treatments of nickel and.

  4. Heavy Neutrinos at Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, P S Bhupal

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the current status and future prospects of heavy neutrino searches at the energy frontier, which might play an important role in vindicating the simplest seesaw paradigm as the new physics responsible for neutrino mass generation. After summarizing the current search limits and potential improvements at hadron colliders, we highlight the unparalleled sensitivities achievable in the clean environment of future lepton colliders.

  5. Heavy-Quark QCD Exotica

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F; Swanson, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the remarkable progress in the field of heavy-quark exotic hadrons over the past 15 years. It seeks to be pedagogical rather than exhaustive, summarizing both the progress and specific results of experimental discoveries, and the variety of theoretical approaches designed to explain these new states.

  6. Workshop on heavy hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The recent developments in heavy hadron spectroscopy at LHCb have shown that LHCb has a unique potential in the field, combining hadronic production mechanisms to a powerful identification system. In this short workshop we focus on the recent results from LHCb and theoretical developments with attention to the future perspectives, in the context of the potential of current and future experiments.

  7. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...

  8. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  9. Heavy quark physics from LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornan, P.J. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    A review of some of the latest results on heavy flavor physics from the LEP Collaborations is presented. The emphasis is on B physics, particularly new results and those where discrepancies is given of the many techniques which have been developed to permit these analyses.

  10. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  11. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  12. Baryon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the form factors of the baryon octet in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculated charge radius of the show that kaon loop effects can play a significant role in the neutron electric form factor. Furthermore. we derive generalized Caldi-Pagels relations between various charge radii which are free of chiral loop effects.

  13. How to Lift a Heavy Object?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁凤丽

    2007-01-01

    <正>Many people hurt their backs when they try to lift heavy things from the floor. It is easy to hurt your back muscles when you pick up a heavy object. However, there is a correct way to lift things from the floor. If you pick up big or heavy objects correctly, you probably will not hurt your back.

  14. 21 CFR 131.150 - Heavy cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy cream. 131.150 Section 131.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.150 Heavy cream. (a) Description. Heavy cream is cream which contains not less than 36 percent milkfat. It is pasteurized or...

  15. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  16. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven, E-mail: faller@physik.uni-siegen.de; Mannel, Thomas, E-mail: mannel@physik.uni-siegen.de

    2015-11-12

    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  17. Light-Quark Decays in Heavy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. Theses decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays are interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  18. Recent progress in heavy ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of the progress during the last several years in the technology of sources of high charge state positive heavy ions and negative heavy ions. Subjects covered include recent results in ECR and EBIS source development and comparison of various source types for high charge state heavy ions.

  19. ``Heavy-water Lattice and Heavy-Quark''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    Refer to Birgitt Roettger-Roessler: ``Feelings at the Margins'', 2014 retrieved the Vienna, 2006 UNIDO Research Programme: Combating Marginalization and Poverty through Industrial Development/COMPID. Also from Vienna, on Feb 18-22, 1963 reported Technical Report Series 20 about ``Heavy Water Lattice''. Failed to relates scale-invariant properties of public-Debt growth to convergence in perturbation theory, sought JH Field: ``Convergence & Gauge Dependence Properties:..''. Furthers, in GP Lepage: ``On the Viabilities of Lattice Perturbation Theory'', 1992 stated: ``in terms of physical quantities, like the heavy-quark potential, greatly enhanced the predictive power of lattice perturbation theory''. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  20. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonia Kabana

    2012-10-01

    We review selected highlights from the experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) exploring the QCD phase diagram. A wealth of new results appeared recently from RHIC due to major recent upgrades, like for example the $\\Upsilon$ suppression in central nucleus-nucleus collisions which has been discovered recently in both RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, we discuss RHIC results from the beam energy scan (BES) program aiming to search for a possible critical point and to map out the QCD phase diagram.

  1. Heavy-heavy-light-light correlators in Liouville theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; Craps, B.; De Jonckheere, T.; Galli, F.

    2017-08-01

    We compute four-point functions of two heavy and two "perturbatively heavy" operators in the semiclassical limit of Liouville theory on the sphere. We obtain these "Heavy-Heavy-Light-Light" (HHLL) correlators to leading order in the conformal weights of the light insertions in two ways: (a) via a path integral approach, combining different methods to evaluate correlation functions from complex solutions for the Liouville field, and (b) via the conformal block expansion. This latter approach identifies an integral over the continuum of normalizable states and a sum over an infinite tower of lighter discrete states, whose contribution we extract by analytically continuing standard results to our HHLL setting. The sum over this tower reproduces the sum over those complex saddlepoints of the path integral that contribute to the correlator. Our path integral computations reveal that when the two light operators are inserted at equal time in radial quantization, the leading-order HHLL correlator is independent of their separation, and more generally that at this order there is no short-distance singularity as the two light operators approach each other. The conformal block expansion likewise shows that in the discrete sum short-distance singularities are indeed absent for all intermediate states that contribute. In particular, the Virasoro vacuum block, which would have been singular at short distances, is not exchanged. The separation-independence of equal-time correlators is due to cancelations between the discrete contributions. These features lead to a Lorentzian singularity that, in conformal theories with anti-de Sitter (AdS) duals, would be associated to locality below the AdS scale.

  2. Heavy flavour production at CMS in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We review recent results relating to beauty production in heavy-ion collisions, in both the closed and open heavy flavor sectors, from the CMS experiment at the LHC. The sequential suppression of the ° states in PbPb collisions is thought to be evidence of the dissociation of quarkonia bound states in deconfined matter. Data from pPb collisions demonstrate that while cold nuclear effects appear to be subdominant in minimum bias collisions, there exists a non-trivial dependence on collision multiplicity that remains to be understood. The suppression of high p T particles in heavy-ion collisions, relative to the expectation from pp collisions, is typically interpreted in terms of energy loss of hard scattered parton in the dense nuclear medium. The flavor dependence of the energy loss may be accessed via measurements of b hadrons and b-tagged jets. Measurement of B mesons, via non-prompt J = y , at relatively low p T indicate a smaller suppression factor than D meson or inclusive charged hadrons. Data on b jet...

  3. Study of heavy flavored particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, Bijan

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  4. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  5. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Preis, Florian

    2017-03-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  6. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  7. QCD Radiation off Heavy Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Norrbin, E

    2001-01-01

    We study QCD radiation in decay processes involving heavy particles. As input, the first-order gluon emission rate is calculated in a number of reactions, and comparisons of the energy flow patterns show a non-negligible process dependence. To proceed further, the QCD parton shower language offers a convenient approach to include multi-gluon emission effects, and to describe exclusive event properties. An existing shower algorithm is extended to take into account the process-dependent mass, spin and parity effects, as given by the matrix element calculations. This allows an improved description of multiple gluon emission effects off b and t quarks, and also off nonstandard particles like squarks and gluinos. Phenomenological applications are presented for bottom production at LEP, Higgs particle decay to heavy flavours, top production and decay at linear colliders, and some simple supersymmetric processes.

  8. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  9. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  10. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  11. Heavy Ion Physics in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, G; Chatrchyan, Serguei; Contardo, Didier; Damgov, Jordan; De Min, Alberto; Denegri, Daniel; Drapier, Olivier; Geist, Walter; Genchev, Vladimir; Haroutunian, Roger; Hayrapetyan, M G; Hencken, K; Jenkovszky, L L; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Kharlov, Yuri; Kodolova, Olga; Kotlinski, Danek; Kruglov, Nikolai A; Kva, R

    2000-01-01

    This note summarizes the CMS potential for Heavy Ions Collisions studies. The main physics topic is the study of Y to muon pair decays in view of Y family supression studies, with a detailed discussion of muon reconstruction efficiencies and purities in conditions of central Pb-Pb collisions. We also discuss energy flow and impact parameter measurements, the observability of continuum muon pairs and of Z to mu + mu decays, and of jets and hard direct photons as a means to study jet quenching. We also discuss pA interactions as well as gamma-gamma physics. The instrumental specificities of CMS for heavy ion running are discussed, including trigger and data acquisition aspects.

  12. Central collisions of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  13. Developing Chinese Heavy Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strong economic recovery=Great opportunity in heavy trucks Based on the four trillion investment expansionary fiscal policy and the loose monetary policy,China's economy is stimulated.Meanwhile,the CITIC Securities Research Dept.estimated that the economic growth will be better than expected in 2009 and 2010.Macro-economic expectations continue to improve and the fix-asset investment growth rate hit a new high level of the recent five years.

  14. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R

    2005-07-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  15. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T

    2002-01-17

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  16. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  17. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  18. Hadron Production in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu, Nu

    2009-05-19

    Heavy ion collisions are an ideal tool to explore the QCD phase diagram. The goal is to study the equation of state (EOS) and to search for possible in-medium modifications of hadrons. By varying the collision energy a variety of regimes with their specific physics interest can be studied. At energies of a few GeV per nucleon, the regime where experiments were performed first at the Berkeley Bevalac and later at the Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at GSI in Darmstadt, we study the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and try to identify in-medium modifications of hadrons. Towards higher energies, the regime of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the Super-Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, we expect to produce a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The physics goal is to identify the QGP and to study its properties. By varying the energy, different forms of matter are produced. At low energies we study dense nuclear matter, similar to the type of matter neutron stars are made of. As the energy is increased the main constituents of the matter will change. Baryon excitations will become more prevalent (resonance matter). Eventually we produce deconfined partonic matter that is thought to be in the core of neutron stars and that existed in the early universe. At low energies a great variety of collective effects is observed and a rather good understanding of the particle production has been achieved, especially that of the most abundantly produced pions and kaons. Many observations can be interpreted as time-ordered emission of various particle species. It is possible to determine, albeit model dependent, the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also have seen indications, that the kaon mass, especially the mass of the K{sup +}, might be modified by the medium created in heavy ion collisions. At AGS energies and above, emphasis shifts towards

  19. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  20. Alpha radioactivity in heavy and super heavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P. [P G Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)], E-mail: drkpsanthosh@gmail.com; Sahadevan, Sabina; Biju, R.K. [P G Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)

    2009-07-01

    The alpha decay half lives and other characteristics of 190 even-even super heavy elements in the range 100{<=}Z{<=}120 has been determined within the Coulomb and Proximity Potential Model (CPPM). The computed Q values and log{sub 10}(T{sub 1/2}) values plotted against neutron number of parent nuclei were studied and it was found that neutron shell closures in the super heavy region occur at N=162 and N=184. The alpha decay half lives for parent nuclei with atomic number Z=106 onwards were compared with experimental data and are found to be in good agreement with each other. A semi-empirical formula for alpha decay half lives has been formulated by making least squares fit to the available experimental data. The new semi-empirical formula was used for calculating half lives of isotopes of nuclei in the chosen range 100{<=}Z{<=}120. These results when compared with the corresponding experimental half life values and the values calculated using GLDM and Viola-Seaborg systematics showed good agreement.

  1. Heavy metals in plants and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiping

    2003-01-01

    In some cases, soil, water and food are heavily polluted by heavy metals in China. To use plants to remediate heavy metal pollution would be an effective technique in pollution control. The accumulation of heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in removing pollutants should be understood in order to implement phytoremediation, which makes use of plants to extract, transfer and stabilize heavy metals from soil and water. The information has been compiled from Chinese publications stemming mostly from the last decade, to show the research results on heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in controlling heavy metal pollution, and to provide a general outlook of phytoremediation in China. Related references from scientific journals and university journals are searched and summarized in sections concerning the accumulation of heavy metals in plants, plants for heavy metal purification and phytoremediation techniques. Plants can take up heavy metals by their roots, or even via their stems and leaves, and accumulate them in their organs. Plants take up elements selectively. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the plant depends on the plant species, element species, chemical and bioavailiability, redox, pH, cation exchange capacity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and secretion of roots. Plants are employed in the decontamination of heavy metals from polluted water and have demonstrated high performances in treating mineral tailing water and industrial effluents. The purification capacity of heavy metals by plants are affected by several factors, such as the concentration of the heavy metals, species of elements, plant species, exposure duration, temperature and pH. Phytoremediation, which makes use of vegetation to remove, detoxify, or stabilize persistent pollutants, is a green and environmentally-friendly tool for cleaning polluted soil and water. The advantage of high biomass productive and easy disposal makes plants most useful to remediate

  2. HEAVY FLAVOUR PRODUCTION AT ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sivoklokov, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The production of heavy flavours at LHC provides an opportunity for new insight into QCD. ATLAS detector provides data at higher transverse momenta and wider rapidity ranges than have previously been studied. Both Charmonia and Bottomonia production cross-section have been measured in proton-proton collisions at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV as a function of transverse momemtum and rapidity. Exclusive B and D meson states have been also reconstructed. Results are compared to theoretical predictions of various QCD models.

  3. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...... with a more comprehensive approach towards drinking. In this paper focus is on the younger edgeworkers and post-edgeworkers, to which alcohol seems to play lesser role and is often mixed with other drugs as part of a wider scope of seeking excitement from risky behaviour....

  4. The Toledo heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, R.R. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Beideck, D.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Curtis, L.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Kvale, T.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Sen, A. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Schectman, R.M. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Stevens, H.W. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The recently installed 330 kV electrostatic positive ion accelerator at the University of Toledo is described. Experiments have been performed using ions ranging from H[sup +] to Hg[sup 2+] and exotic molecules such as HeH[sup +]. Most of these experiments involve the beam-foil studies of the lifetimes of excited atomic states and the apparatus used for these experiments is also described. Another beamline is available for ion-implantation. The Toledo heavy ion accelerator facility welcomes outside users. (orig.)

  5. Discovery of Interstellar Heavy Water

    OpenAIRE

    Butner, H. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Rodgers, S.D.; Pardo Carrión, Juan Ramón; Parise, B.; Cernicharo, José; Davis, G. R.

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of doubly deuterated water (D2O, heavy water) in the interstellar medium. Using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10 m telescope, we detected the 1_10–1_01 transition of para-D2O at 316.7998 GHz in both absorption and emission toward the protostellar binary system IRAS 16293-2422. Assuming that the D2O exists primarily in the warm regions where water ices have been evaporated (i.e., in a "hot corino" environment), we determi...

  6. Spectroscopy of heavy fissionable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Tandel

    2015-09-01

    Structural studies of heavy nuclei are quite challenging due to increased competition from fission, particularly at high spins. Nuclei in the actinide region exhibit a variety of interesting phenomena. Recent advances in instrumentation and analysis techniques have made feasible sensitive measurements of nuclei populated with quite low cross-sections. These include isomers and rotational band structures in isotopes of Pu ( = 94) to Rf ( = 104), and octupole correlations in the Th ( = 90) region. The obtained experimental data have provided insights on various aspects like moments of inertia and nucleon alignments at high spins, quasiparticle energies and evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity, among others. An overview of some of these results is presented.

  7. Biomolecules for removal of heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-02-23

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to review research work and patents related to adsorption through biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, lignin etc. and bio-sorption by biological material that are used for heavy metal removal. Biomolecules are cost effective and there have been significant progresses in the remediation of heavy metals but, still there are some problems that need to be rectified for its application at industrial processes.

  8. Matching the Heavy Vector Meson Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Talavera, P

    1998-01-01

    We show how to obtain a ``heavy'' meson effective lagrangian for the case where the number of heavy particles is not conserved. We apply the method in a simple example at tree level and perform then the reduction for the case of vector mesons in Chiral Perturbation Theory in a manifestly chiral invariant fashion. Some examples showing that ``heavy'' meson effective theory also works at the one-loop level are included.

  9. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Faller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  10. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  11. Dynamical heavy-quark recombination and the non-photonic single electron puzzle at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Montano, Luis Manuel; Sanchez, G Toledo

    2009-01-01

    We show that the single, non-photonic electron nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}^e$ is affected by the thermal enhancement of the heavy-baryon to heavy-meson ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with respect to proton-proton collisions. We make use of the dynamical quark recombination model to compute such ratio and show that this produces a sizable suppression factor for $R_{AA}^e$ at intermediate transverse momenta. We argue that such suppression factor needs to be considered, in addition to the energy loss contribution, in calculations of $R_{AA}^e$

  12. Heavy ion physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schükraft, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The field of ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics, which started some 15 years ago at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS with fixed target experiments, is entering today a new era with the recent start-up of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC and preparations well under way for a new large heavy ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating in particular on physics topics that are different or unique compared to current facilities.

  13. Production of heavy hadrons in hard processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimov, Ya.I.; Dokshitser, Yu.L.; Troyan, S.I.; Khoze, V.A. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1984-09-01

    Spectra of heavy hadrons and of leptons produced via decays of the hadrons are treated in the framework of QCD. The distribution of heavy quarks Dsub(Q)(xsub(Q)) is discussed and a single approximation formula for its description is given. The relationship between the spectra of quarks and those of heavy hadrons produced by quarks is considered. The spectra of inclusive leptons resulting from the heavy quarks decay are considered. Possible ways are discussed which allow to compare the data and the theory in such a manner that the phenomenological assumptions do not strongly affect the result.

  14. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  15. Heavy Flavour Electron Elliptic Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto

    Due to the large mass of the Charm and Beauty quarks, they are c reated in the very first moments of the ultra-high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions taking place at the CERN LHC, therefore, they should be unaware of the geome try of the colli- sion system and carry no azimuthal anisotropies. Similarly , the energy loss via gluon radiation for these massive quarks should be suppressed, th e so-called dead cone ef- fect. Although the observation of elliptic flow in the electro ns produced through the semileptonic decay of these heavy mesons is an indirect meas urement, throughout this thesis it will be shown that a strong correlation exists between the momentum anisotropy of the mother and daughter particles. In the low t ransverse momentum region such measurement would establish whether or not the s ystem reaches local thermal equilibrium. While at large transverse momentum, t he observation of collec- tivity for the heavy flavours can be understood only if the col lisional and radiative in-medium interaction...

  16. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  17. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  18. Observing -violation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajarshi Ray

    2003-05-01

    Under certain situations, partons formed in heavy-ion collision experiments may expand out forming a shell-like structure. The partons in the outer shell subsequently hadronize, leaving a bubble of pure deconfined vacuum for a first-order quark–hadron phase transition. The bubble collapses and may eventually decay into particles which may thermalize to temperatures exceeding the electroweak transition temperature (∼ 100 GeV) at LHC. This will lead to the possibility of unsuppressed electroweak baryon number violating processes.

  19. Open heavy-flavor production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nahrgang, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-flavor observables are valuable probes of the quark-gluon plasma, which is expected to be produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. These experiments offer the unique opportunity to study strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities in the laboratory. In this overview talk I will summarize the current theoretical status of heavy-flavor production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions and discuss open challenges.

  20. Reconstruction and study of the multi-strange baryons in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV, with the Star experiment at RHIC; Reconstruction et etude des baryons multi-etranges dans les collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes a {radical}S{sub NN} = 200 GeV avec l'experience STAR au RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faivre, J

    2004-10-15

    The study of strangeness production is essential for the understanding of processes occurring in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Strangeness production is directly linked to the phase of deconfined partons that followed these collisions: the quark and gluon plasma. STAR, one of the 4 experiments at RHIC collider, is a perfect tool for studying the multi-strange {xi} and {omega} particles. We have devised a {xi} and {omega} reconstruction program using signals from the STAR time projection chamber. We have worked out a multi-variable selection method for extracting the signals from the combinative background: the linear discriminant analysis. We have applied it to Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV (in the center of mass frame) to improve the accuracy of previous results. The {omega} and anti-{omega} production rates have been obtained for 3 ranges of centrality as well as their radial flow and their kinetic uncoupling temperatures. The gain on the relative uncertainty is between 15 and 30% according to the variable. The average speed of the radial flow is 0.50 {+-} 0.02 and the kinetic uncoupling temperature is 132 {+-} 20 MeV which indicates that multi-strange baryons uncouple in hadronic medium earlier that lighter particles like pions, kaons and protons. However, uncertainty intervals remain too broad to draw strong conclusions. (A.C.)

  1. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c-quark to split into S-wave D{sup 0} -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO. (orig.)

  2. Campground marketing: the heavy-half strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1969-01-01

    When we arrayed camping frequencies in order from the lowest to the highest number of days spent camping per year we found that half of the campers do much more than half of the camping. Campers in this heavy half consistently camp more, year after year, and are increasing their annual participation as well. Heavy-half campers have larger investments in camping...

  3. Heavy work investment, personality and organizational climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the relative importance of personality and organizational climate for two forms of heavy work investment; workaholism, a “bad” and work engagement, which represents a “good” kind of heavy work investment. More specifically, it is hypothesized that wor

  4. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  5. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Itzhak Tserruya

    2003-04-01

    The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  6. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  7. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention was paid

  8. Lattice studies of hadrons with heavy flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Aubin

    2009-07-01

    I will discuss recent developments in lattice studies of hadrons composed of heavy quarks. I will mostly cover topics which are at a state of direct comparison with experiment, but will also discuss new ideas and promising techniques to aid future studies of lattice heavy quark physics.

  9. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  10. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  11. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  12. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  13. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  14. Probing QED Vacuum with Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Müller, Berndt; Reinhardt, Joachim; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We recall how nearly half a century ago the proposal was made to explore the structure of the quantum vacuum using slow heavy-ion collisions. Pursuing this topic we review the foundational concept of spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by observable positron emission in heavy-ion collisions and describe the related theoretical developments in strong fields QED.

  15. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  16. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruuskanen, P.V. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  17. Recent heavy flavor results from STAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent heavy flavor measurements from the STAR experiment at RHIC[1]. The measured charm cross section in heavy-ion collisions scales with the number of binary collisions, which is an indication for exclusive charm production in the initial state of the collision. The observed strong su

  18. Former heavy drinkers’ multiple narratives of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Anne-Sofie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM – This article explores the multiplicity of former heavy drinkers’ narratives. The focus lies on turning points from heavy drinking among people who have recovered through self-change and among those who recovered by participating in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings.

  19. Heavy fuel and LPG; Fioul et GPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippon, A. [Chambre Syndicale du raffinage, UFIP, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the impact of new French combustion and environment regulations on the market of heavy fuels and on refining. The economical context of the petroleum and heavy fuels market is recalled first and then the future evolution of this market and the future impact of new pollution regulations on the refining industry are briefly analyzed. (J.S.)

  20. Lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wagenbach, Björn; Wagner, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We report on a lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions and of tetraquark candidates with two very heavy quarks. These two quarks are treated in the static limit, while the other two are up, down, strange or charm quarks of finite mass. Various isospin, spin and parity quantum numbers are considered.

  1. Lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbach, Björn; Bicudo, Pedro; Wagner, Marc

    2015-04-01

    We report on a lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions and of tetraquark candidates with two very heavy quarks. These two quarks are treated in the static limit, while the other two are up, down, strange or charm quarks of finite mass. Various isospin, spin and parity quantum numbers are considered.

  2. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  3. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  4. Hard rock, heavy metal, metal

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Le terme générique metal désigne une multitude de genres et de sous-genres musicaux issus de l’appariement du hard rock et du heavy metal. Il résulte d’une agrégation sémantique consécutive de l’érosion et de l’interpénétration de ces termes au cours des années 1980. Leurs modèles canoniques, respectivement représentés par les groupes Led Zeppelin et Black Sabbath, se sont progressivement dilués sous l’effet d’une filiation particulièrement effervescente et féconde : black, thrash, doom, prog...

  5. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  6. Paleoproxies: Heavy Stable Isotope Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, T. F.; Hippler, D.; Siebert, C.; Kramers, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Recent advances in isotope ratio mass spectrometry, namely multiple collector ICP-MS and refined TIMS techniques, will significantly enhance the ability to measure heavy stable isotope fractionation, which will lead to the development of a wide array of process-identifying (bio)-geochemical tools. Thus far research in this area is not easily assessable to scientists outside the isotope field. This is due to the fact that analyzing heavy stable isotopes does not provide routine numbers which are per se true (the preciser the truer) but is still a highly experimental field. On the other hand resolving earth science problems requires specialists familiar with the environment being studied. So what is in there for paleoceanographers? In a first order approach, relating isotope variations to physical processes is straightforward. A prominent example are oxygen isotope variations with temperature. The total geological signal is of course far more complicated. At low temperatures, heavy stable isotopes variations have been reported for e.g. Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo and Tl. Fractionation mechanisms and physical parameters responsible for the observed variations are not yet resolved for most elements. Significant equilibrium isotope fractionation is expected from redox reactions of transition metals. However a difference in coordination number between two coexisting speciations of an element in the same oxidation state can also cause fractionation. Protonation of dissolved Mo is one case currently discussed. For paleoceanography studies, a principal distinction between transition metals essential for life (V to Zn plus Mo) or not will be helpful. In case of the former group, distinction between biogenic and abiogenic isotope fractionation will remain an important issue. For example, abiotic Fe redox reactions result in isotope fractionations indistinguishable in direction and magnitude from microbial effects. Only a combination of different stable isotope systems bears the

  7. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  8. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  9. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2 is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle along with the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quarks in the medium. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which induces a sizable heavy quark directed flow, v 1(y), that can be measurable at LHC.

  10. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Santosh K; Plumari, Salvatore; Greco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$ is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible to address a large part of such a puzzle along with the the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quark. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which develops a sizable heavy quark directed flow, $v_1(y)$, can be measurable at LHC.

  11. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  12. Heavy Quark Physics on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C

    2001-01-01

    I review the current status of lattice calculations of the properties of bound states containing one or more heavy quarks. Many of my remarks focus on the heavy-light leptonic decay constants, such as $f_B$, for which the systematic errors have by now been quite well studied. I also discuss $B$-parameters, semileptonic form factors, and the heavy-light and heavy-heavy spectra. Some of my ``world averages'' are: $f_B=200(30) MeV$, $f_B\\sqrt{\\hat B_{B_d}}= 230(40) MeV$, $f_{B_s}/f_B=1.16(4)$ and $f_{B_s}\\sqrt{\\hat B_{B_s}}/f_B\\sqrt{\\hat B_{B_d}}=1.16(5)$.

  13. Screening of heavy quarks and hadrons at finite temperature and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, M.

    2006-09-22

    Heavy quarks and hadrons placed in a strongly interacting thermal and baryon chemical quantum field are screened by the medium. I calculate the free energies of heavy quarks and anti-quarks and hadron correlation functions on a 16{sup 3} x 4 lattice in 2-flavour QCD with a bare quark mass of m/T=0.4. The dependence on the interparticle distance determines the screening masses as a function of temperature and density. The Taylor expansion method is used for the baryon chemical potential. The heavy quark screening masses turn out to be in good agreement with perturbation theory for temperatures T>2T{sub c}. The hadron screening masses are consistent with the free quark propagation in the large temperature regime. (orig.)

  14. Heavy meson masses and decay constants from relativistic heavy quarks in full lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    McNeile, C; Follana, E; Hornbostel, K; Lepage, G P

    2012-01-01

    We determine masses and decay constants of heavy-heavy and heavy-charm pseudoscalar mesons as a function of heavy quark mass using a fully relativistic formalism known as Highly Improved Staggered Quarks for the heavy quark. We are able to cover the region from the charm quark mass to the bottom quark mass using MILC ensembles with lattice spacing values from 0.15 fm down to 0.044 fm. We obtain f_{B_c} = 0.427(6) GeV; m_{B_c} = 6.285(10) GeV and f_{\\eta_b} = 0.667(6) GeV. Our value for f_{\\eta_b} is within a few percent of f_{\\Upsilon} confirming that spin effects are surprisingly small for heavyonium decay constants. Our value for f_{B_c} is significantly lower than potential model values being used to estimate production rates at the LHC. We discuss the changing physical heavy-quark mass dependence of decay constants from heavy-heavy through heavy-charm to heavy-strange mesons. A comparison between the three different systems confirms that the B_c system behaves in some ways more like a heavy-light system t...

  15. Helicity probabilities for heavy quark fragmentation into heavy-light excited mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, T C

    1995-01-01

    After a brief review on how heavy quark symmetry constraints the helicity fragmentation probabilities for a heavy quark hadronizes into heavy-light hadrons, we present a heavy quark fragmentation model to extract the value for the Falk-Peskin probability w_{3/2} describing the fragmentation of a heavy quark into a heavy-light meson whose light degrees of freedom have angular momentum {3 \\over 2}. We point out that this probability depends on the longitudinal momentum fraction z of the meson and on its transverse momentum p_\\bot relative to the jet axis. In this model, the light degrees of freedom prefer to have their angular momentum aligned transverse to, rather than along, the jet axis. Implications for the production of excited heavy mesons, like D^{**} and B^{**}, are briefly discussed.

  16. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... inorganic products, generating heat as a metabolic waste product. Heavy metal ..... Potencial Bioremediation Agent in Compost Material Contaminated with Heavy .... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals and their salts in ...

  17. Heavy Flavor and Electroweak Theory - Proceedings of the International Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Huang, Chao-Shang

    1996-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Organizing Committee * Acknowledgement * Foreword * List of Participants * Optimal Renormalization Scales and Commensurate Scale Relations * Top Quark Production Dynamics in QCD * QCD Sum Rule Analysis to SU(3) Symmetry Breaking on Heavy Mesons * Renormalons and Perturbative Fixed Points * Hadronic Form Factors of Semileptonic Ml3 Decays * Gluon Fragmentation to Aligned Quarkonium * The Bc Meson and the Double Heavy Baryons * Hyperfine Splittings in Heavy Quarkonia from a New Improved Spin-Dependent Potential * bar {B} - B Mixing in the Nc Expansion * Soft Interactions of Heavy Fermions * Spacelike Penguin Effects in Charmless B Meson Decays and CP Violation * On the Definition of CP and P in General Gauge Theories * Semileptonic-Inclusive Decays and the Structure of B Mesons * Nonfactorization in B and D Decays * The 1/MQ Expansion in the B-S Formalism * Applications of Current Algebra or Chiral Symmetry to Tau Hadronic Decays * An Unified Effective Theory of Mesons and Its Implications on Meson Phenomenology * Precision Tests of the Electroweak Sector of the Standard Model * Is There an Exact S2 Symmetry in Quark Mass Matrices? * Equivalence Theorem and Its Application to Studying the Sensitivity of Probing the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Mechanism at the LHC * Direct Tests of Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking * Critical Review of the Electroweak Precision Tests * Tau Tests for New Physics * Some Remarks on Superstring Phenomenology * Top Quark Pair Production: Sensitivity to New Physics * One Loop Effects of Supersymmetry of Top Production at Tevatron * Some Phenomenology of the Top Quark with Non-Standard Couplings * Summary of the International Symposium on Heavy Flavor and Electroweak Theory

  18. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Experimental Search for a Heavy Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, C. D.; Elias, J. E.; Friedman, J. I.; Hartmann, G. C.; Kendall, H. W.; Kirk, P.N.; Sogard, M. R.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.; de Pagter, J. K.

    1967-09-01

    A search for a heavy electron of the type considered by Low and Blackmon has been made by studying the inelastic scattering of 5 BeV electrons from hydrogen. The search was made over a range of values of the mass of the heavy electron from 100 t0 1300 MeV. No evidence for such a particle was observed. Upper limits on the production cross sections were determined and employed to deducelimits on the values of the electron-photon-heavy electron coupling constant in Low and Blackmon=s theory.

  20. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  1. Is Heavy Quark Axion Necessarily Hadronic Axion?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sanghyeon; Kim, Jihn E.

    1993-01-01

    We show that heavy quark axion is not necessarily a hadronic axion, which manifests in the quark and lepton seesaw mechanism. We introduce a heavy $SU(2)$ singlet fermion for each known fermion in order to unify the axion scale and the seesaw scale. The light quarks and leptons gain their masses by the seesaw mechanism. Even though our axion model gives a kind of heavy quark axion, the axion has tree level lepton--axion coupling suppressed by $F_a$, contrary to a widely known belief that heav...

  2. Benchmarking of Heavy Ion Transport Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Ronningen, Reginald M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Heilbronn, Lawrence [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in designing and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  3. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  4. Heavy Flavor Production in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, T

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS prepares a program for measurements of production cross sections both of b-hadrons and quarkonia in central proton-proton collisions at a new center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV at the LHC. Dedicated triggers based on muon, di-muon or electron signatures are designed to accommodate large statistics already in the first several months. Starting from semi-inclusive measurements at the very early stage, exclusive channels will soon dominate the measurements, allowing for tests of QCD in the Heavy Flavor sector already with 10 pb−1 of data. With larger statistics, polarization measurements are being prepared for J/psi and Lambda_b. It is expected, that 30 fb−1 of data collected at a luminosity of 10^33 cm−2s−1 will allow specific measurements not accessible with the statistics collected at the Tevatron. In particular, a Lambda_b polarization measurement will be achieved using Lambda_b -> J/psi Lambda decays. For J/psi, a polarization measurement will allow to confirm or exclude model predictions within ...

  5. Heavy duty complete extension slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, José Ignacio; Vázquez, Javier

    2001-09-01

    The selection from available commercial market of a set of slides to be used in an habitable pressurised module in space, to draw a 660 mm box out of a rack, up to a completely extracted position in a safely supported configuration, seems in principle not to be a complicated task. That was the first approach taken in the design process of the telescopic guides of the Crew Work Bench (CWB) included in the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), part of "ESA Microgravity Facilities for Columbus" within the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Nevertheless, common space compatible requirements such as materials, specific environmental loads, available envelope, total weight, etc., can make the selection of telescopic slides from commercial market unfeasible. A specific development to design space compatible telescopic slides for the CWB was undertaken. A set of heavy duty space compatible telescopic slides were designed, manufactured and tested. They should be operative in both, 1-g environment and in orbit, and additionally should withstand an inadvertent astronaut kick or bump of 556 N in any direction.

  6. Has Tc been measured by heavy ion experiments?

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the role of cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations in the analysis of critical behavior in QCD and the study of freeze-out conditions in heavy ion experiments. Through the comparison of the current set of measurements of higher order cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations with lattice QCD calculations and results from hadron resonance gas model we can learn to what extent freeze-out as, determined by such cumulants, occurs close to the QCD transition temperature and thus can probe critical behavior at small values of the baryon chemical potential. Understanding how the relation between freeze-out conditions and the QCD crossover transition is reflected in properties of the experimentally determined cumulants is an important prerequisite to search for the QCD critical point. We point out that even if perfect continuum extrapolated lattice QCD results would be available, it would be inappropriate to use these observables to extract the value of the QCD transition temperature at vanishing ba...

  7. HTL heavy oil upgrading a key solution for heavy oil upstream and midstream operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, M.A.; Pavel, S. K.; Hillderman, M. D. [Ivanhoe Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, heavy oil has become a strategic resource due to the decline of light crude oil reserves and the rising energy demand. Many challenges have to be overcome during heavy oil development and Ivanhoe Energy has developed a new process to address these issues. The heavy to light (HTL) upgrading process converts heavy crude oil into lighter and more valuable synthetic oil. This process can be used upstream, midstream or near the well head. The aim of this paper is to present the history of HTL's development, the technology itself and its performance and advantages. HTL captures the majority of the market value difference between heavy and light oil while eliminating diluent requirement; in addition this technology is economic at small scales. The HTL upgrading process presented herein is a simple and efficient solution for exploiting heavy oil and bitumen reserves.

  8. Heavy neutrino searches from MeV to TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Graverini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) describes particle physics with great precision. However, it does not account for the generation of neutrino masses, whose nature we do not understand. Both a Dirac and a Majorana mass term could intervene, leading to the existence of heavy partners of the SM neutrinos, presumably more massive and nearly sterile. For suitable choices of parameters, heavy neutrinos can also provide dark matter candidates, and generate the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe. Heavy neutrinos can be searched for at beam dump facilities such as the proposed SHiP experiment if their mass is of the order of few GeV, or at high energy lepton colliders, such as the Future $e^+e^-$ Circular Collider, FCC-ee, presently under study at CERN, for higher masses. This contribution presents a review of the sensitivities for heavy neutrino searches at SHiP and FCC-ee.

  9. Double Heavy Flavour Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding summarises the latest LHCb results on associated heavy flavour productions, including double charm production and associated bottomonia and charm production. This article belongs to the Topical Collection “New Observables in Quarkonium Production”.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF SEDIMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Fosu lagoon, Heavy metal, Enrichment, Pollution ... Both anthropogenic pressures and natural processes account for degradation in surface water ... only play an important role in river water pollution but can also provide a ...

  11. The theory of heavy flavour production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R.K.

    1989-08-09

    The theory of heavy quark production in hadronic reactions is reviewed. Rates for the production of charm, bottom and top quarks at energies of current interest are presented. 34 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. 202 197 Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: The heavy metal and microbial contaminants levels were evaluated in a commercial polyherbal product ... fungal toxins such as aflatoxins, pesticides and synthetic ... natural products is that 'natural' equals safe.

  13. An Early History of Heavy Water

    CERN Document Server

    Waltham, C

    2002-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has had a nuclear power industry based on reactor design which uses natural uranium and heavy water. The tortuous and improbable sequence of events which led to this situation is examined.

  14. Heavy Dynamical Fermions in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Hasenfratz, Anna; Grand, Thomas A. De

    1994-01-01

    It is expected that the only effect of heavy dynamical fermions in QCD is to renormalize the gauge coupling. We derive a simple expression for the shift in the gauge coupling induced by $N_f$ flavors of heavy fermions. We compare this formula to the shift in the gauge coupling at which the confinement-deconfinement phase transition occurs (at fixed lattice size) from numerical simulations as a function of quark mass and $N_f$. We find remarkable agreement with our expression down to a fairly light quark mass. However, simulations with eight heavy flavors and two light flavors show that the eight flavors do more than just shift the gauge coupling. We observe confinement-deconfinement transitions at $\\beta=0$ induced by a large number of heavy quarks. We comment on the relevance of our results to contemporary simulations of QCD which include dynamical fermions.

  15. Heavy Ion Acceleration in Impulsive Solar Flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德焴

    2002-01-01

    The abundance enhancements of heavy ions Ne, Mg, Si and Fe in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) eventsare explained by a plasma acceleration mechanism. In consideration of the fact that the coronal plasma is mainlycomposed of hydrogen and helium ions, we think that theion-ion hybrid wave and quasi-perpendicular wave can.be excited by the energetic electron beam in impulsive solar flares. These waves may resonantly be absorbed byheavy ions when the frequencies of these waves are close to the second-harmonic gyrofrequencies of these heavyions. This requires the coronal plasma temperature to be located in the range ofT ~ (5 - 9) × 106 K in impulsivesolar flares and makes the average ionic charge state of these heavy ions in impulsive SEP events higher than theaverage ionic charge state of these heavy ions in gradual SEP events. These pre-heated and enhanced heavy ionsin impulsive SEP events.

  16. THE IMPACT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temitope

    Toxicity levels of heavy metals depend on the type, its ... sectors (food and processing sector) accounted for nearly ... Groundwater accounts for about 98% of the world's ... footpaths and a few major roads, with an uneven distribution of ...

  17. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. ... in intensive research aiming at understanding metal interactions in soil and their removal in an efficient way. ... This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal ...

  18. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  19. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF LAKE VICTORIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam,. P. O. Box ... parameters. The study ..... chemical wastes containing heavy metals and organochlorides. During ... In Mwanza South, samples were collected near a fish processing industry,.

  20. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  1. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Steinhauser, Matthias [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  2. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Marquard, Peter; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  3. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  4. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  5. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  6. Spin dependence of heavy quark fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, Fernando [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Anadaluz de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: cornet@ugr.es; Garcia Canal, Carlos A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, La Plata (1900) (Argentina)

    2008-05-01

    We propose that the non-perturbative part of the fragmentation function describing the transition from a heavy quark to a heavy meson is proportional to the square of the produced meson wave function at the origin, taking into account hyperfine interactions. We analyze the effects of this proposal on the number of pseudoscalar mesons compared to the number of vector mesons produced and find a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss further experimental checks for our hypothesis.

  7. Revisiting Uraltsev's BPS limit for Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Heinonen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental data of the values of the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters, in particular the spin-orbit and Darwin terms, we argue that nature actually may be close to a limit of QCD which has been suggested by Uraltsev more than ten years ago. Assuming that this limit is not accidental, we derive the relations among the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters that occur up to the order 1/mb^5.

  8. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  9. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  10. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  11. Analysis of spatial autocorrelation patterns of heavy and super-heavy rainfall in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Iman; Doostkamian, Mehdi; Haghighi, Esmaeil; Ghafarian Malamiri, Hamid Reza; Yarahmadi, Parvane

    2017-09-01

    Rainfall is a highly variable climatic element, and rainfall-related changes occur in spatial and temporal dimensions within a regional climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial autocorrelation changes of Iran's heavy and super-heavy rainfall over the past 40 years. For this purpose, the daily rainfall data of 664 meteorological stations between 1971 and 2011 are used. To analyze the changes in rainfall within a decade, geostatistical techniques like spatial autocorrelation analysis of hot spots, based on the Getis-Ord G i statistic, are employed. Furthermore, programming features in MATLAB, Surfer, and GIS are used. The results indicate that the Caspian coast, the northwest and west of the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, the inner regions of Iran, and southern parts of Southeast and Northeast Iran, have the highest likelihood of heavy and super-heavy rainfall. The spatial pattern of heavy rainfall shows that, despite its oscillation in different periods, the maximum positive spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall includes areas of the west, northwest and west coast of the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, a negative spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall is observed in central Iran and parts of the east, particularly in Zabul. Finally, it is found that patterns of super-heavy rainfall are similar to those of heavy rainfall.

  12. Maximizing heavy oil value while minimizing environmental impact with HTL upgrading of heavy to light oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshka, E. [Ivanhoe Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described Ivanhoe Energy Inc.'s proprietary HTL upgrading technology which was designed to process heavy oil in the field to cost effectively produce an upgraded synthetic oil that meets pipeline requirements. Steam and electricity are generated from the energy produced during the process. HTL improves the economics of heavy oil production by reducing the need for natural gas and diluent, and by capturing most of the heavy to light oil price differential. Integrated HTL heavy oil production also provides many environmental benefits regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The HTL upgrading process is ready for full scale application. tabs., figs.

  13. Holographic Heavy-Light Chiral Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a variant of the $D4$-$D8$ construction to describe the low energy effective theory of heavy-light mesons, interacting with the lowest lying pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The heavy degrees of freedom are identified with the $D8_L$-$D8_H$ string low energy modes, and are approximated near the world volume of $N_f-1$ light $D8_L$ branes, by fundamental vector field valued in $U(N_f-1)$. The effective action follows from the reduction of the bulk D-brane Born-Infeld (DBI) and Chern-Simons (CS) actions, and is shown to exhibit both chiral and heavy-quark symmetry. The action interpolates continuously between the $U(N_f)$ case with massless mesons, and the $U(N_f-1)$ case with heavy-light mesons. The heavy-light meson radial spectrum is Regge-like. The one-pion and two-pion couplings to the heavy-light multiplets are evaluated. The partial widths for the charged decays $G\\rightarrow H+\\pi$ are shown to be comparable to the recently reported full widths for both the charm and bottom mesons.

  14. Do heavy and medium oil waterfloods differ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, G. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Waterflooding is a common and important method of enhanced oil recovery. However, little is known about how waterflooding heavy oils differs from waterflooding lighter oils. There is a substantial body of work on designing, monitoring, and managing waterfloods. However, the problems specific to producing heavy oil by waterflooding are rarely addressed. This paper presented the results of a statistical study of 44 heavy oil waterfloods and 39 medium oil waterfloods in western Canadian waterfloods. The purpose of the study was to identify the parameters which impact heavy oil waterflood success. Each waterflood was assigned a numerical value according to the success of each waterflood operation and examined the importance of various reservoir and operating parameters to that success. Waterfloods were classified as either heavy or medium. Separate multivariate analysis models were developed for each set. It was concluded that the most important reservoir parameters to the success of medium oil waterfloods were permeability and heterogeneity. This validated the conventional knowledge of waterflooding, but were not significant to the success of heavy oil waterfloods. 30 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  16. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  17. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    over a wider energy range for many more reactions is desired for accurate determination of PCN> and more insight into the dynamics of fusion in the heavy mass region.

  18. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  19. Heavy flavor Production and Interactions in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the CMS measurements of quarkonia and open heavy flavor production in \\pp, \\pPb, and \\PbPb collisions at \\sqrtsnn = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. A brief outlook of the near-future CMS heavy flavor physics analyses is provided at the end.

  20. Heavy flavor production and interactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions in CMS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the CMS measurements of quarkonia and open heavy flavor production in \\pp, \\pPb, and \\PbPb collisions at \\sqrtsnn = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. A brief outlook of the near-future CMS heavy flavor physics analyses is provided at the end.

  1. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal so

  2. Energy loss, hadronization and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A

    2015-01-01

    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasi-elastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball is described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk QGP are fed into the hadron cascade UrQMD model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high $p_\\mathrm{T}$; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate $p_\\mathrm{T}$; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the $D$ meson $R_\\mathrm{AA}$ at large $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and e...

  3. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste : modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of mun

  4. QCD string in excited heavy-light mesons and heavy-quark hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashnikova, Yu S

    2016-01-01

    The QCD string model is employed to evaluate the masses of orbitally and radially excited heavy-light mesons and lightest hybrids in the spectrum of charmonium and bottomonium. The number of parameters of the model is reduced to only seven which are the string tension, the two values of the strong coupling constant (one for heavy-light and $\\bar{c}c$ mesons and one for $\\bar{b}b$ mesons), and the four overall spectrum shift constants which depend on the quark contents of the particular meson or hybrid family. A few well-established states in the spectrum of heavy-light and heavy-heavy mesons are used to fix these parameters, and then the masses of other mesons and hybrids come out as predictions of the model which are confronted with the existing experimental data, and a few suggestions are made concerning yet not measured quantum numbers of some states in the spectrum of charmonium and bottomonium.

  5. Wellhead application of new heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process in heavy crude upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh, Jamshid; Samimi, A. Kh. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, the decline of light crude oil reserves and the price differential between intermediate and heavy oils have made upgrading processes attractive. A new nano catalytic process, the heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH), which converts heavy residue to light product has been developed. HRH is flexible as to feed type and catalyst is mainly recovered and recycled in the process. This study aimed at examining the feasibility of HRH to produce syncrude from heavy crude oil. Three cases of stand-alone HRH plants were investigated: a 20,000 bbl/d plant producing hydrogen from natural gas, another producing hydrogen from residue and a third with a high capacity of 30,000 bbl/d. Results showed that in all three cases the stand-alone HRH plant was economically feasible. This study demonstrated that stand-alone HRH plants are a good alternative for producing syncrude from heavy crude oils.

  6. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  7. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  8. Experimental summary for heavy flavor production

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Rongrong

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavor production in heavy-ion collisions have played an important role in understanding the properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in such collision. Due to their large masses, heavy flavor quarks present unique sensitivity to the kinematics as well as the dynamics of the hot and dense medium. In this article, a selection of recent measurements on heavy flavor production in p+p, p+A and A+A collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies will be presented. The measurements in p+p collisions serve as benchmarks to fundamental theories, and as references to similar studies in A+A collisions where the hot medium effects are present. On the other hand, the measurements in p+A collisions can help to quantify the cold nuclear matter effects which are also in effect in A+A collisions and thus need to be taken into account when interpreting the measurements in heavy-ion collisions. The experimental results from A+A collisions are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations, which can shed...

  9. How equity markets view heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janisch, M.L. [BMO Nesbitt Burns, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A review of heavy oil economics was presented in this power point presentation with particular focus on investor motivation, the importance of heavy oil, and an outlook on commodity price for oil and natural gas. Heavy oil from oil sands is playing a major role on the Canadian domestic production front as well as globally. Almost all senior Canadian producers have a major heavy oil project in the works. Oil prices are forecasted to remain strong, but a more bullish outlook is expected for natural gas prices for both the short and long term. Natural gas drilling has increased, but the number of natural gas wells as a percentage of total wells has decreased. Recent Canadian drilling activity has placed more emphasis on crude oil production which has contributed to the lower overall natural gas drilling success rate. It was shown that infrastructure issues regarding tankers, refining capacity (at or near capacity) will be the major factor affecting the availability of crude products to market. It was also shown that heavy oil differentials have increased substantially, which could be a potential issue if oil prices begin to weaken. 1 tab., 12 figs.

  10. Error Estimation for Moments Analysis in Heavy Ion Collision Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Higher moments of conserved quantities are predicted to be sensitive to the correlation length and connected to the thermodynamic susceptibility. Thus, higher moments of net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness have been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally to explore phase structure and bulk properties of QCD matters created in heavy ion collision experiment. As the higher moments analysis is statistics hungry study, the error estimation is crucial to extract physics information from the limited experimental data. In this paper, we will derive the limit distributions and error formula based on Delta theorem in statistics for various order moments used in the experimental data analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation is also applied to test the error formula.

  11. (Anti-)strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Pierre; Ko, Che-Ming; Cassing, Wolfgang; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The production and dynamics of strange and antistrange hadrons in heavy-ion reactions from $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\approx$ 3 GeV to 200 GeV is analyzed within the Parton-Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD) transport model. The PHSD results for strange baryon and antibaryon production are roughly consistent with the experimental data starting from upper SPS energies. Nevertheless, hadronic final state flavor-exchange reactions are important for the actual abundances, in particular at large rapidities where hadronic dynamics, parton fragmentation and string decay dominate. A striking disagreement between the PHSD results and the available data persists, however, for bombarding energies below $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\approx$ 8 GeV where the strangeness production is significantly underestimated as in earlier HSD studies. This finding implies that the strangeness enhancement seen experimentally at FAIR/NICA energies cannot be attributed to a deconfinement phase transition or crossover but probably involves the approximate restoration o...

  12. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  13. The thermodynamics of heavy light hadrons at freezeout

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sayantan

    2014-01-01

    In the discussion of hadronization at or close to the freeze-out curve statistical (hadron resonance gas) models play an important role. In particular, in the charmonium sector, regeneration models are considered which rely on the fact that charmonium states can form again already at temperatures well above the QCD transition or hadronization temperature. An important ingredient in these considerations is the regeneration or hadronization of open charm states. In this talk we report on a lattice QCD analysis of correlations of open strange and charm with other conserved quantum numbers like the net baryon number and electric charge. We analyze the temperature range in which an uncorrelated hadron resonance gas (HRG) provides an adequate description of such correlations. This limits the range of validity of HRG based thermodynamics in open flavor channels and provides an estimate for the melting temperature of heavy-light hadrons.

  14. Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aaron; Park, Woosung; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with isospin I =1/2 . We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible S U (3 ) flavor states. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using the variational method in a constituent quark model with a confining and hyperfine potential. We find that, for all configurations with spin S =0 , 1, 2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there is no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.

  15. Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Aaron; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with $I=\\frac{1}{2}$. We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible SU(3) flavor state. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks, and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using variational method in a constituent quark model with confining and hyperfine potential. We find that for all configurations with S=0,1,2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there are no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.

  16. Dendroremediation of heavy metal polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Oreja, J A; Rozas, M A; Alkorta, I; Garbisu, C

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common and harmful pollutants reaching the soil ecosystem all over the world. Phytoextraction is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, highly promising phytotechnology for the remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. To overcome the so-called 'Achilles' heel' of phytoextraction, namely, the long time needed for effective remediation, this phytotechnology should be combined with other profit-making activities such as forestry or bioenergy production. Dendroremediation, or the use of trees to clean up polluted soil and water, appears of great potential for metal phytoextraction, especially when using fast-growing tree species, for example, willows (Salix sp. pl.) and poplars (Populus sp. pl.). Most important, the ecologic and environmental risks of dispersing heavy metals into the ecosystems by dendroremediation strategies should be minimized by selecting the right tree species, properly managing/disposing the polluted plant material, or a combination of both options.

  17. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  18. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  19. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  20. Probing heavy neutrinos in the COMET experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Asaka, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the COMET experiment --- a dedicated experiment for the $\\mu$-$e$ conversion search --- can be a powerful facility to search for heavy neutrinos in the mass range $1\\,{\\rm MeV} \\lesssim M \\lesssim 100\\,{\\rm MeV}$. The stopped muons captured by the target nuclei or decaying in orbit are efficiently produce heavy neutrinos via the active-sterile mixing. The produced heavy neutrinos then decay to electron-positron pair (plus an active neutrino), which events are clearly seen by the cylindrical drift chamber surrounding the target. The expected sensitivity is comparable to the PS191 bound when the COMET experiment achieves $\\sim 10^{17}$ stopping muons in the target.

  1. Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rama; Rai, J P N

    2010-03-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymatically synthesized peptides known to involve in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation, which have been measured in plants grown at high heavy metal concentrations, but few studies have examined the response of plants even at lower environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species enabling molecular biological studies to untangle the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis and its regulation. The present paper embodies review on recent advances in structure of PCs, their biosynthetic regulation, roles in heavy metal detoxification and/or accumulation, and PC synthase gene expression for better understanding of mechanism involved and to improve phytoremediation efficiency of plants for wider application.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  3. Heavy ions at the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Dainese, A; Armesto, N; d'Enterria, D; Jowett, J M; Lansberg, J -P; Milhano, J G; Salgado, C A; Schaumann, M; van Leeuwen, M; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonioli, P; Apolinario, L; Bass, S; Beraudo, A; Bilandzic, A; Borsanyi, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Chen, Z; Mendez, L Cunqueiro; Denicol, G S; Eskola, K J; Floerchinger, S; Fujii, H; Giubellino, P; Greiner, C; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Ko, C -M; Kotko, P; Krajczar, K; Kutak, K; Laine, M; Liu, Y; Lombardo, M P; Luzum, M; Marquet, C; Masciocchi, S; Okorokov, V; Paquet, J -F; Paukkunen, H; Petreska, E; Pierog, T; Ploskon, M; Ratti, C; Rezaeian, A H; Riegler, W; Rojo, J; Roland, C; Rossi, A; Salam, G P; Sapeta, S; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Stachel, J; Uphoff, J; van Hameren, A; Watanabe, K; Xiao, B -W; Yuan, F; Zaslavsky, D; Zhou, K; Zhuang, P

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. This is a report by the working group on heavy-ion physics of the FCC Study. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, of gluon saturation, of photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with other fields of high-energy physics.

  4. Measuring heavy neutrino couplings at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A

    2012-01-01

    The existence of heavy neutrinos mediating neutrino masses via a type-I seesaw can be directly probed at the LHC, or indirectly in rare lepton flavor-violating processes. The synergy between these two approaches requires a direct measurement of the heavy neutrino couplings. We discuss a strategy to perform such measurements at the LHC in the context of left-right symmetric models, which is also applicable to other models implementing a type-I or type-III seesaw. We demonstrate that the ambiguities in the determination of the heavy neutrino mixing parameters can be resolved by performing an exclusive analysis of dilepton final states, discriminated by flavor and missing energy.

  5. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  6. Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mehen

    2012-10-09

    The research supported by this OJI award is in the area of heavy quark and quarkonium production, especially the application Soft-Collinear E ective Theory (SCET) to the hadronic production of quarkonia. SCET is an e ffective theory which allows one to derive factorization theorems and perform all order resummations for QCD processes. Factorization theorems allow one to separate the various scales entering a QCD process, and in particular, separate perturbative scales from nonperturbative scales. The perturbative physics can then be calculated using QCD perturbation theory. Universal functions with precise fi eld theoretic de nitions describe the nonperturbative physics. In addition, higher order perturbative QCD corrections that are enhanced by large logarithms can be resummed using the renormalization group equations of SCET. The applies SCET to the physics of heavy quarks, heavy quarkonium, and similar particles.

  7. Disappearing Inflaton Potential via Heavy Field Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kitajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    We propose a possibility that the inflaton potential is significantly modified after inflation due to heavy field dynamics. During inflation there may be a heavy scalar field stabilized at a value deviated from the low-energy minimum. As the heavy field moves to the low-energy minimum, the inflaton potential could be significantly modified. In extreme cases, the inflaton potential vanishes and the inflaton becomes almost massless at some time after inflation. Such transition of the inflaton potential has interesting implications for primordial density perturbations, reheating, creation of unwanted relics, dark radiation, and experimental search for light degrees of freedom. To be concrete, we consider a chaotic inflation in supergravity where the inflaton mass parameter is promoted to a modulus field, finding that the inflaton becomes stable after the transition and contributes to dark matter. Another example is the new inflation by the MSSM Higgs field which acquires a large expectation value just after infl...

  8. Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-11-15

    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)

  9. Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally

  10. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case which is expected from perturbative weakly coupled plasma. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium.

  11. Heavy-flavour production in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shingo

    2014-06-15

    We present measurements of heavy-flavour production in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV and in p–Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. A strong suppression of heavy-flavour production at high p{sub T} is observed in central Pb–Pb collisions, while non-zero elliptic flow is seen at low p{sub T} in semi-central collisions. The cold nuclear matter effects on the measurements in Pb–Pb collisions have been investigated in p–Pb collisions, and no large effects have been observed.

  12. Radiative decay of light and heavy mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N. (Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India)); Dash, P.C. (Department of Physics, P. N. College, Khurda, Orissa (India))

    1994-01-01

    The [ital M]1 transition among the vector ([ital V]) and pseudoscalar ([ital P]) mesons in the light and heavy flavor sectors has been investigated in a potential model of independent quarks. Going beyond the static approximation, to add some momentum dependence due to the recoil effect in a more realistic calculation, we find an improvement in the results for the radiative decay of light flavored mesons. However, our prediction on the decay rates for the mesons ([ital D][sup *] and [ital B][sup *]) in the heavy flavor sector remains unaffected and compares well with those of other model calculations.

  13. The Electronic Structure of Heavy Element Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursten, Bruce E.

    2000-07-25

    The area of study is the bonding in heavy element complexes, and the application of more sophisticated electronic structure theories. Progress is recounted in several areas: (a) technological advances and current methodologies - Relativistic effects are extremely important in gaining an understanding of the electronic structure of compounds of the actinides, transactinides, and other heavy elements. Therefore, a major part of the continual benchmarking was the proper inclusion of the appropriate relativistic effects for the properties under study. (b) specific applications - These include organoactinide sandwich complexes, CO activation by actinide atoms, and theoretical studies of molecules of the transactinide elements. Finally, specific directions in proposed research are described.

  14. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth′s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

  15. Experimental Verification of Heavy Ion Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe investigation of radiation damage induced by high dose neutrons and/or protons is a currently interesting topic in nuclear power, ADS etc., The lack of high dose neutron and proton sources hampers this investigation. The advent of heavy ion accelerators opens up a way to study radiation damage caused by high dose neutron and/or proton irradiation[1]. The displacement rate of heavy ions is much higher than that of neutrons and protons. Higher displacement rate leads to short irradiation time. An irradiation dose of -20 dpa takes about a year in a reactor, while only a few minutes or hours by

  16. Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  17. European heavy ion ICF driver development

    CERN Document Server

    Plass, Günther

    1996-01-01

    Approaches in Europe to heavy ion induced Inertial Confinement Fusion are oriented toward the linac-plus- storage ring technique. Despite the very limited support of this work, technical pro gress was achieved in some important areas. For the immediate future, a substantial intensity upgrade of the GSI accelerator facilities at Darmstadt is being implemented, leading to specific energy depositions of the order of 100 kJ/g and plasma temperatures of 10 to 20 eV. For the longer term, a conceptual design study of a heavy ion based Ignition Facility is being initiated.

  18. Heavy Oil Development Technology of Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Oilfield, the largest heavy oil production base in China, features in various reservoir types, deep burial, and wide range of crude oil viscosity. For many years, a series of technologies have been developed for different oil products and reservoir types of the oilfield, of which water flooding, foam slug drive, steam stimulation, steam drive,and SAGD are the main technologies. After continuous improvement, they have been further developed and played an important role in the development of heavy oil in the oilfield.

  19. Search for heavy neutrinos at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Liventsev, D; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Bay, A; Belous, K; Bhuyan, B; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Browder, T E; Chang, P; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Julius, T; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kiesling, C; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J B; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Li, Y; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Muramatsu, N; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nellikunnummel, N; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Prothmann, K; Ritter, M; Rohrken, M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Staric, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vorobyev, V; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zupanc, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on a search for heavy neutrinos in B-meson decays. The results are obtained using a data sample that contains 772x10^6 BB-bar pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. No signal is observed and upper limits are set on mixing of heavy neutrinos with left-handed neutrinos of the Standard Model in the mass range 0.5 - 5.0 GeV/c^2.

  20. Baryogenesis through mixing of heavy Majorana neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    1999-01-01

    We review the scenario of baryogenesis through leptogenesis induced by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy neutrinos. We pay special attention to the resonant phenomenon of CP violation through mixing of two nearly degenerate heavy Majorana neutrinos and show how unitarity and CPT invariance is maintained within the resummation approach. An important consequence of this is that the leptogenesis scale may be as low as 1 TeV, even for models with universal Yukawa couplings. We briefly discuss the impact of finite temperature effects and low-energy constraints to the afore-mentioned mechanism of CP violation.

  1. Heavy Flavour Production and Decay at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, RWL; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is taking advantage of its large integrated luminosity band sophisticated muon and dimuon triggers to make competitive measurements of heavy flavour production and decay. Inclusive production and heavy flavour jet production is discussed before turning to charm and onium production. The production and decay of individual B hadron species is then addressed, including the current best measurement of the Λb lifetime. A much improved analysis of CP related quantities in Bs decays is presented, before turning to recent results and prospects for rare B decays.

  2. Summary of the Heavy Flavor Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, Michael; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Mankel, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    During the last year many important results have been achieved in heavy flavour physics: New measurements of charm and beauty production have been performed at HERA and the Tevatron. A wealth of new spectroscopy data with several new, unexpected states in the charmonium and the D_s systems has been collected and b to d gamma transitions have been established. The oscillation frequency in the B_s Bbar_s is now measured, and mixing in the D0 D0bar system has been observed. Theoretical progress in the areas of open heavy flavour production, quarkonium production and decays, and multiquark spectroscopy has been presented at this workshop.

  3. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  4. The flow of heavy flavor in hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Taesoo; Lee, Su Houng

    2011-01-01

    The flow of charm is calculated in 2+1 ideal hydrodynamics by introducing the charge of $c\\bar{c}$ pair assuming that the number of $c\\bar{c}$ pairs is conserved in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It is found that the mean radial flow velocity of charm quarks is smaller than that of bulk matter by 10$\\sim$15 \\% and the measured $v_2$ of heavy-flavor electrons is reproduced up to $p_T^e=$ 1.5 GeV/c in Au+Au collision at RHIC. The same flow is applied to regenerated $J/\\psi$ and its $v_2$ is discussed.

  5. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  6. Heavy quark colorimetry of QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dokshitzer, Yu L; Dokshitzer, Yu.L.

    2001-01-01

    We consider propagation of heavy quarks in QCD matter. Because of large quark mass, the radiative quark energy loss appears to be qualitatively different from that of light quarks at all energies of practical importance. Finite quark mass effects lead to an in-medium enhancement of the heavy-to-light D/\\pi ratio at moderately large (5--10 GeV) transverse momenta. For hot QCD matter a large enhancement is expected, whose magnitude and shape are exponentially sensitive to the density of colour charges in the medium.

  7. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

    2007-01-01

    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  8. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-05-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  9. New lattice action for heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktay, Mehmet B.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2008-03-01

    We extend the Fermilab method for heavy quarks to include interactions of dimension six and seven in the action. There are, in general, many new interactions, but we carry out the calculations needed to match the lattice action to continuum QCD at the tree level, finding six non-zero couplings. Using the heavy-quark theory of cutoff effects, we estimate how large the remaining discretization errors are. We find that our tree-level matching, augmented with one-loop matching of the dimension-five interactions, can bring these errors below 1%, at currently available lattice spacings.

  10. An Experimental Review on Heavy-Flavor v2 in Heavy-Ion Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade now, the primary purpose of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has been to study the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions—high temperature and high density. The heavy-ion experiments at both RHIC and LHC have recorded a wealth of data in p+p, p+Pb, d+Au, Cu+Cu, Cu+Au, Au+Au, Pb+Pb, and U+U collisions at energies ranging from sNN=7.7 GeV to 7 TeV. Heavy quarks are considered good probe to study the QCD matter created in relativistic collisions due to their very large mass and other unique properties. A precise measurement of various properties of heavy-flavor hadrons provides an insight into the fundamental properties of the hot and dense medium created in these nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as transport coefficient and thermalization and hadronization mechanisms. The main focus of this paper is to present a review on the measurements of azimuthal anisotropy of heavy-flavor hadrons and to outline the scientific opportunities in this sector due to future detector upgrade. We will mainly discuss the elliptic flow of open charmed meson (D-meson, J/ψ, and leptons from heavy-flavor decay at RHIC and LHC energy.

  11. Search for QCD Hawking Radiation in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Laura; Murray, Michael

    2008-04-01

    A wide variety of measurements at RHIC, for example v2 and energy loss, suggest that the partonic matter created in heavy collisions thermalizes early. One possible mechanism for this is the creation of the QCD analogue to gravitational black holes [1]. Such objects have no memory of their creation and radiate with a characteristic temperature, T, that can depend only on their energy, charge, and angular momentum. This hypothesis is consistent with the growth of multiplicity with s in e+e- collisions and thermal temperature observed at LEP. For central heavy ion collisions the angular momentum of the system is approximately zero and the model predicts a universal dependence of the chemical freezeout temperature on the ratios of charge to transverse energy. To test this prediction against BRAHMS data, We have fitted data on π, K, p and p from central Au + Au collisions at several rapidities and energies, using the THERMUS code. The experimental dependence of the temperature on the ratio of charge to transverse energy will be compared to the Hawking radiation predictions. By comparing data sets at different energy, centrality and rapidity we can select systems with the same ratio of baryon number to energy but different rapidities. This may allow us to test for any effect of angular momentum on temperature. [1] P. Castorina, D. Kharzeev and H. Satz, Eur. Phys. J. C 52, 187 (2007)

  12. Equation of state for cold and dense heavy QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesaaen, Jonas; Neuman, Mathias; Philipsen, Owe [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, Frankfurt am Main, 60438 (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    A previously derived three-dimensional effective lattice theory describing the thermodynamics of QCD with heavy quarks in the cold and dense region is extended through order ∼u{sup 5}κ{sup 8} in the combined character and hopping expansion of the original four-dimensional Wilson action. The systematics of the effective theory is investigated to determine its range of validity in parameter space. We demonstrate the severe cut-off effects due to lattice saturation, which afflict any lattice results at finite baryon density independent of the sign problem or the quality of effective theories, and which have to be removed by continuum extrapolation. We then show how the effective theory can be solved analytically by means of a linked cluster expansion, which is completely unaffected by the sign problem, in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations. As an application, we compute the cold nuclear equation of state of heavy QCD. Our continuum extrapolated result is consistent with a polytropic equation of state for non-relativistic fermions.

  13. Specific Features of Heavy Quark Production. LPHD approach to heavy particle spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Dokshitzer, Yu. L.; Khoze, V. A.; Troyan, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Perturbative QCD formula for inclusive energy spectra of heavy quarks from heavy quark initiated jets which takes into account collinear and/or soft logarithms in all orders, the exact first order result and two-loop effects is applied to distributions of heavy flavoured hadrons in the framework of the LPHD concept. Fits to experimentally measured charm and bottom mean energy losses result in $\\alpha_{\\MSbar}(M_Z)=0.125\\pm 0.003\\pm 0.004$ and $(2\\GeV)^{-1}\\int_0^{2\\GeV} dk \\alpha_s^{eff}(k)= ...

  14. Heavy meson spectra for heavy quark potential in quantum chromodynamics with dilaton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪; 杨兴华; 姜焕清

    2002-01-01

    For heavy meson systems, we study the heavy quark potential, which emerges from the effective dilaton-gluoncoupling inspired from the superstring theory. We put emphasis on the new confinement generating mechanism of thispotential through the investigation of the spin-averaged energy levels of the heavy meson systems. By using a unifiedapproach to the solutions of the Schrodinger and the spinless Salpeter equations, we can examine in a realistic waythe effects of using a relativistic kinetic energy. The obtained results agree favourably with other predictions, and therelativistic equation can better account for the observed energy levels.

  15. Effective Field Theories for heavy probes in a hot QCD plasma and in the early universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobedo Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many interesting problems in heavy-ion collisions and in cosmology that involve the interaction of a heavy particle with a medium. An example is the dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions. This was believed to be due to the screening of chromoelectric fields that prevents the heavy quarks from binding, however in the last years several perturbative and lattice computations have pointed out to the possibility that dissociation is due to the finite lifetime of a quarkonium state inside the medium. Regarding cosmology, the study of the behavior of heavy Majorana neutrinos in a hot medium is important to understand if this model can explain the origin of dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. A very convenient way of studying these problems is with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. In this proceedings I will review the most important results obtained by applying the EFT formalism to the study of quarkonium suppression and Majorana neutrinos, I will also discuss how combining an EFT called potential non-relativistic QCD (pNRQCD with concepts coming from the field of open quantum systems it is possible to understand how the population of the different quarkonium states evolve with time inside a thermal medium.

  16. The Mesozoic Era of relativistic heavy ion physics and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    In order to understand how matter 15 billion years ago in the form of quarks, gluons and leptons at a temperature of 2 {times} 10{sup 12} {degrees}K evolved to become today`s Universe, the goal of relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics is to understand the equation of state of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. This quest is of cross-disciplinary interest. The phase transition from partonic matter to hadronic matter tens of micro-seconds after the beginning of the universe is of interest to cosmology. Fluctuations during this phase transition would influence nucleosynthesis and the understanding of baryonic inhomogeneities in the universe. The nuclear matter equation of state, which describes the incompressibility of nuclear matter, governs neutron star stability. It determines the possible existence of strange quark matter stars and the dynamics of supernova expansion in astrophysics. The existence of collective nuclear phenomena in nuclear physics is also determined by the nuclear equation of state. In relativistic heavy ion collisions collective nuclear flow has been observed and is being studied extensively to obtain a better understanding of the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In high energy nuclear and particle physics, production and excitations of hadronic final states have been studied in detail and are important to an overall understanding of the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperature. The possibility in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions to create and study highly excited hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom provides a unique opportunity for understanding the behavior of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. Study of the QCD vacuum, of particular interest in particle physics, would provide a better understanding of symmetry-breaking mechanisms and the origins of the masses of the various quarks and particles.

  17. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)

    2000-04-01

    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  18. Quenched heavy-light decay constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, R.M.; Booth, S.P.; Bowler, K.C.; Collins, S.; Henty, D.S.; Kenway, R.D.; Richards, D.G.; Shanahan, H.P.; Simone, J.N.; Simpson, A.D.; Wilkes, B.E. (Department of Physics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)); Ewing, A.K.; Lellouch, L.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Wittig, H. (Physics Department, The University, Southampton SO9 5NH (United Kingdom)); (UKQCD Collaboration)

    1994-02-01

    We present results for heavy-light decay constants, using both propagating quarks and the static approximation, in [ital O]([ital a])-improved, quenched lattice QCD. At [beta]=6.2 on a 24[sup 3][times]48 lattice we find [ital f][sub [ital D

  19. Auto Mechanics. Heavy Equipment. Small Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy

    Developed for use in auto mechanics, Heavy Equipment Repair and Operation (HERO), and small engines programs, these study guides and supplemental worksheets cover operating principles, lubrication, cooling system, ignition circuit and electrical system, and fuel system. The worksheets and guide questions are phrased to emphasize key points…

  20. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo, Miguel Ángel [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    The dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomena that allows to extract information of the produced thermal medium. This was believed to be due to the screening of the static potential but recently perturbative computations and some lattice studies have pointed out the possibility of having an imaginary part of the potential that would also contribute to dissociation. In recent years a program to study heavy quarkonium with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) has been started, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. However until now these studies have been done assuming thermal equilibrium. In this work we will discuss what happens in the EFT formalism when heavy quarkonium is in a medium that is not in thermal equilibrium and what is the expected suppression when a medium with a time dependent effective temperature that follows Bjorken evolution is considered. This will be done adapting previous results from different temperature regimes.

  1. Non-perturbative Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Simma, Hubert;

    2015-01-01

    We review a lattice strategy how to non-perturbatively determine the coefficients in the HQET expansion of all components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents, including 1/m_h-corrections. We also discuss recent preliminary results on the form factors parameterizing semi-leptonic B-decays...

  2. Non-perturbative Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Simma, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    We review a lattice strategy how to non-perturbatively determine the coefficients in the HQET expansion of all components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents, including 1/m_h-corrections. We also discuss recent preliminary results on the form factors parameterizing semi-leptonic B-decays...

  3. Heavy ion isotope resolution with polymer detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Quadras Roca, Alejo; Ortega Girón, Manuel; Fernández Moreno, Francisco; Font Garcia, Josep Lluís; Casas Ametller, Montserrat; Baixeras Divar, Carmen; Gonzalo Cestero, Miguel

    1984-01-01

    The heavy ion mass resolution power of polymer detectors Lexan and cellulose nitrate is systematically studied both for accelerator and for cosmic ions. It is concluded that a satisfactory isotopic discrimination, better than 1 u, is hardly attainable with these detectors. Peer Reviewed

  4. Heavy drinking and health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettner, Susan L; French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that individuals who consume relatively large amounts of alcohol are more likely to use expensive acute medical care and less likely to use preventive or ambulatory services than other individuals. The few studies that investigated the associations between heavy drinking and health promotion activities did not try to address omitted-variable biases that may confound the relationships. To fill this void in the literature, we examined the effects of heavy alcohol use on three health promotion activities (routine physical exam, flu shot, regular seatbelt use) using the US 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Although specification tests indicated that omitted variable bias was not present in the majority of the single-equation probit models, we cautiously interpret our findings as evidence of strong associations rather than causal effects. Among both men and women, heavy alcohol use is negatively and significantly associated with each of our three outcomes. These findings suggest that heavy drinkers may be investing less in health promotion activities relative to abstainers and other drinkers. Policy options to address the associated externalities may be warranted.

  5. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Kun Guo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(ΛQCD/mQ, with ΛQCD the scale of QCD and mQ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860 into the χbJω (J=0,1,2, which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860 a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860. Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860→χb0ω/Γ(ϒ(10860→χb2ω is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects.

  6. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamier, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals in air, soil, and water are global problems that are a growing threat to the environment. Trace metal determination is currently done by expensive separation techniques which include inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and cold vapor...

  7. Positron production in collision of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Khriplovich, I B

    2016-01-01

    We consider the electromagnetic production of positron in collision of slow heavy nuclei, with the simultaneously produced electron captured by one of the nuclei. The cross-section of the discussed process exceeds essentially the cross-section of $e^+e^-$ production.

  8. The quarkonium saga in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tserruya, Itzhak

    2013-01-01

    J/psi suppression was proposed more than 25 years ago as an unambiguous signature for the formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions. After intensive efforts, both experimental and theoretical, the quarkonium saga remains exciting, producing surprising results and not fully understood. This talk focuses on recent results on quarkonium production at RHIC and the LHC.

  9. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FORAGE GRASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Łukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimation of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd in forage grasses from the area of Podlasie Province based on the bioaccumulation factor. In the soil samples the pH, organic carbon content and CEC were determined. Determination of heavy metals contents in plant and soil material was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils were characterized mainly by acidic reaction, high cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. The content of heavy metals in studied forage grasses did not exceed the polish regulations related to plant usage for feeding purposes, except the lead content in seven samples. Coefficients of variation for particular heavy metals content in studied forage grasses were as follows: Pb - 37%, Ni - 63%, Cu - 30%, Zn - 34%, Cd - 48%. The highest bioaccumulation factor was found for nickel and grass from the village Remieńkiń (11.54, while the lowest for cadmium and grass from the village Jemieliste (0.04.

  10. "Super" Cocktails for Heavy Ion Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael B; Johnson, Michael B.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Galloway, Michelle; Leitner, Daniela; Morel, James R.; Gimpel, ThomasL.; Ninemire, Brien F.; Siero, Reba; Thatcher, Raymond K.

    2007-07-21

    The 4.5 MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail at the 88-Inch Cyclotron has been expanded by incorporating beams from solid material to fill in the linear energy transfer curve. This supercocktail is available by special request and is useful when only normal incidence between the beam and the device under test is possible or desirable.

  11. On the Elastic Scattering of Heavy Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, J. S.; Park, S. C.; Turner, J. E.

    1960-01-01

    A program is presented for determining the differential cross-section for the elastic scattering of heavy nuclei. It utilizes the unitary property of the S-matrix and a less drastic L-dependence of the absorption than the sharp cut-off model of Blair. it is shown that experimental data can be fitted quite well. (auth)

  12. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  13. Heavy-Ion Physics in a Nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano Tetsufumi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The physics of quark gluon plasma (QGP and heavy ion collisions at the collider energies is briefly reviewed. We first discuss about the discovery of a nearly perfect fluidity of the QGP. We also highlights recent topics on responses of the QGP to initial deformation and propagation of a jet.

  14. Quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi Roberta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of quarkonium states plays a crucial role among the probes to investigate the formation of the plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP in heavy-ion collisions. A review of the charmonium and bottomonium production, mainly focussing on the latest results from the LHC experiments, is presented.

  15. Heavy-flavour meson production at RHIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, A.

    2010-01-01

    Collisions of heavy atomic nuclei at very high beam energies allow to create and study hot QCD matter under laboratory-controlled conditions. Measurements at the SPS and RHIC facilities have yielded compelling evidence for the formation of this novel state of matter, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma

  16. Physics of heavy flavor at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Stefano; /Siena U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-06-01

    Results on physics of heavy flavor at CDF are reported. Selected measurements of Branching Ratios and CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}, lifetime difference of B{sub s}{sup 0} CP eigenstates and a precise measurement of the B{sub c} mass are presented.

  17. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS: A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.

    2004-03-28

    This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.

  19. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  20. "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Share Tweet ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

  1. Heavy quarkonium hybrids: Spectrum, decay, and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncala, Ruben; Soto, Joan

    2017-07-01

    We present a largely model-independent analysis of the lighter heavy quarkonium hybrids based on the strong coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD. We calculate the spectrum at leading order, including the mixing of static hybrid states. We use potentials that fulfill the required short and long distance theoretical constraints and fit well the available lattice data. We argue that the decay width to the lower lying heavy quarkonia can be reliably estimated in some cases and provide results for a selected set of decays. We also consider the mixing with heavy quarkonium states. We establish the form of the mixing potential at O (1 /mQ) , mQ being the mass of the heavy quarks, and work out its short and long distance constraints. The weak coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD and the effective string theory of QCD are used for that goal. We show that the mixing effects may indeed be important and produce large spin symmetry violations. Most of the isospin zero XYZ states fit well in our spectrum, either as a hybrid or standard quarkonium candidate.

  2. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  3. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  4. Entropic destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Ma, Chong; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium due to the entropice force in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory and a confining YM theory. It is shown that in both theories increasing the angular velocity leads to decreasing the entropic force. This result implies that the rotating quarkonium dissociates harder than the static case.

  5. Experimental Overview of Open Heavy Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Schweda, Kai

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the experimental overview of the production of open heavy flavor at the international conference Strangeness in Quark Matter 2016. Instead of a comprehensive overview, I focus on a few topics which the reader might find particularly interesting.

  6. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  7. Holographic Picture of Heavy Vector Meson Melting

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, Nelson R F; Diles, Saulo

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one fla...

  8. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, RJ

    1998-01-01

    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state phy

  9. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  10. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. ... of the plants. A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been compiled to provide a wide applicability of ...

  11. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  12. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  13. Systemic causes of heavy menstrual bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in fertile women. In addition to local factors, such as a polyp or a uterine fibroid, systemic causes may lead to HMB. These systemic causes are discussed in this thesis. For years, women with HMB were tested underlying thyroid disorder, but our res

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of heavy atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.G.

    1979-07-01

    The importance of relativistic interactions in the photoionization of heavy atoms and molecules has been investigated by the technique of photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, experiments are reported which illustrate the effects of the spin-orbit interaction in the neutral ground state, final ionic states and continuum states of the photoionization target.

  15. Weak chaos in the asymmetric heavy top

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos, M; Ranada, A F

    1995-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the slightly asymmetric heavy top, a non-integrable system obtained from the Lagrange top by breaking the symmetry of its inertia tensor. It shows signs of weak chaos, which we study numerically. We argue that it is a good example for introducing students to non-integrability and chaos. (author)

  16. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  17. Recent advances in heavy quark theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Some recent developments in heavy quark theory are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing a b quark. The isospin violating hadronic decay D{sub s}* {yields} D{sub s}{sup pi}{sup 0} is also discussed.

  18. Solubility of deposited airborne heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Sibel C.; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-09-01

    Toxic effects of heavy metals in water and soil environments are important. Quantifying the heavy metal concentrations and their solubilities in dry and wet deposition samples is part of atmospheric research. Soluble fractions of the deposited air pollutants are important in food chain mechanisms as heavy metals may cause ecotoxic impacts. In this study, the solubilities of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni were investigated in deposition samples for total, dissolved, and suspended fractions after collection in a surrogate, water-surface sampler in Izmir, Turkey, during October 2003 to June 2004. To find overall solubility of each metal in dry and wet deposition samples, concentrations in soluble and suspended phases of aqueous solutions were analyzed separately. Ratios between total and dissolved forms and the metals in the same forms were analyzed and evaluated statistically. It was found that the deposited metal fluxes were significantly correlated in wet deposition with the highest correlation between Cd and Pb in the soluble and total forms. Comparatively smaller correlations were found between these metal fluxes in dry deposition samples. Results of this study showed the importance of metal pollution, especially ecotoxic properties of heavy metals in wet deposition far more than dry deposition.

  19. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  20. Heavy Mesons in Nuclear Matter and Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Tolos, Laura; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Heavy mesons in nuclear matter and nuclei are analyzed within different frameworks, paying a special attention to unitarized coupled-channel approaches. Possible experimental signatures of the properties of these mesons in matter are addressed, in particular in connection with the future FAIR facility at GSI.

  1. Heavy quark pair production in high energy pA collisions: Open heavy flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Hirotsugu

    2013-01-01

    We study open heavy flavor meson production in proton-nucleus (pA) collisions at RHIC and LHC energies within the Color Glass Condensate framework. We use the unintegrated gluon distribution at small Bjorken's x in the proton obtained by solving the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling correction and constrained by global fitting of HERA data. We change the initial saturation scale of the gluon distribution for the heavy nucleus. The gluon distribution with McLerran-Venugopalan model initial condition is also used for comparison. We present transverse momentum spectra of single D and B productions in pA collisions, and the so-called nuclear modification factor. The azimuthal angle correlation of open heavy flavor meson pair is also computed to study the modification due to the gluon saturation in the heavy nucleus at the LHC.

  2. Investigation on radiation shielding parameters of ordinary, heavy and super heavy concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vishwaanath P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shielding of a reactor is required for protection of people and environment during normal operation and accidental situations. In the present paper we investigated the shielding parameters viz. mass attenuation coefficients, linear attenuation coefficients, tenth-value layer, effective atomic numbers, kerma relative to air and exposure buildup factors for gamma-ray for ordinary, heavy, and super heavy concretes. Macroscopic effective removal cross-sections for fast neutron had also been calculated. Ordinary concrete is economically suitable for mixture high energy gamma-ray and neutron as it has large weight fraction of low-Z as compared with super heavy concretes to slow down the neutron. Super heavy concretes are superior shielding for both reactor operation and accident situations. The study is useful for optimizing for shielding design and radiation protection in the reactors.

  3. On the Role of One Pion Exchange and Heavy Quark Spin Symmetry in Heavy Meson Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavón Valderrama M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we consider the theoretical description of heavy mesonantimeson molecules from the effective field theory perspective. We are interested in the role of one pion exchange and heavy quark spin symmetry in the low energy description of the molecular states. We find that pion exchanges are weaker than naively expected. As a consequence, at lowest order in the effective expansion, the heavy meson-antimeson dynamics are driven by contact range interactions that are in turn heavily constrained by heavy quark spin symmetry. We find that if the X(3872 DD¯*${m{Dar D*}}$ is a bound state with quantum numbers JPC = 1++, we should expect the existence of a 2++ DD¯*${m{Dar D*}}$ molecule with a mass of 4012 MeV. If we also assume the X(3915 resonance to be molecular, we end up deriving the location of three new states with masses of 3710, 3820 and 3855 MeV.

  4. Heavy Quarkonium Dissociation Cross Sections in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.-Y. Wong; Eric Swanson; Ted Barnes

    2001-12-01

    Many of the hadron-hadron cross sections required for the study of the dynamics of matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be calculated using the quark-interchange model. Here we evaluate the low-energy dissociation cross sections of J/{psi}, {psi}', {chi}, {Upsilon}, and {Upsilon}' in collision with {pi}, {rho}, and K, which are important for the interpretation of heavy-quarkonium suppression as a signature for the quark gluon plasma. These comover dissociation processes also contribute to heavy-quarkonium suppression, and must be understood and incorporated in simulations of heavy-ion collisions before QGP formation can be established through this signature.

  5. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear systems formed in heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj K Sharma; Gurvinder Kaur

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical description of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclei formed in heavy-ion collisions is worked out using the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), with reference to various effects such as deformation and orientation, temperature, angular momentum etc. Based on the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), DCM has been applied to understand the decay mechanism of a large number of nuclei formed in low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Various features related to the dynamics of competing decay modes of nuclear systems are explored by addressing the experimental data of a number of reactions in light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy mass regions. The DCM, being a non-statistical description for the decay of a compound nucleus, treats light particles (LPs) or equivalently evaporation residues (ERs), intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) and fission fragments on equal footing and hence, provides an alternative to the available statistical model approaches to address fusion–fission and related phenomena.

  6. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei; Des noyaux lourds aux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, Ch

    2003-01-01

    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 29.2437 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... tolerance. B3M Good Mixed Color Heavy Leaf. Medium to heavy body, mature, firm, oily, semielastic, normal...

  8. Use of Sapropel for Removal of Heavy Metals from Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rūta Birgėlaitė; Vaidotas Valskys; Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2016-01-01

    ... composition of sapropel research is very few. The article deals with silicon sapropel as a sorbent is able to absorb heavy metals from the solution depending on the time and the concentration of heavy metals in the solution...

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Heavy metal contamination, roadside soils, enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution load index ... The objectives of the present work were to: (1) Assess heavy metal ..... the basis of Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser.

  10. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    of sphene, zircon, staurolite, kyanite, tourmaline etc. indicating mixed igneous and metamorphic source. The grain size studies indicate positive correlation between concentration of heavies and high sorting values, as well as concentration of heavies...

  11. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    significant negative impact on the water quality. Key words: Heavy ... fish, and for such in-stream uses as recreation, ... adverse effects of pollutants such as heavy metals is ... through Kebbi State and flows through to the Atlantic Ocean. The.

  12. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  13. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  14. Recent results on heavy quark quenching in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Bluhm, Marcus; Gousset, Thierry; Nahrgang, Marlene; Vogel, Sascha; Werner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we present some predictions for the production of D and B mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies and confront them with experimental results obtained so far by the STAR, PHENIX, ALICE and CMS collaborations. We next discuss some preliminary results obtained with an improved description of the medium based on EPOS initial conditions, and its possible implications on the nuclear modification factor and on the elliptic flow of heavy quarks.

  15. Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, Esa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores melodic and harmonic features of heavy metal, and while doing so, explores various methods of music analysis; their applicability and limitations regarding the study of heavy metal music. The study is built on three general hypotheses according to which 1) acoustic characteristics play a significant role for chord constructing in heavy metal, 2) heavy metal has strong ties and similarities with other Western musical styles, and 3) theories and analytical methods of Wester...

  16. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Amouei A.1 PhD,; Tashakkorian H.1 PhD,; Naghipour D.2 PhD,; Mohammadi P.3 MSc

    2015-01-01

    Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild a...

  17. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  18. Open heavy flavor and quarkonia measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielcik Jaroslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter produced at RHIC in heavy-ion collisions can be investigated in multiple ways by heavy flavor production. The STAR and PHENIX experiments have excellent capability to study both open heavy flavor and quarkonia. Heavy quarks are produced in early stage of the collisions and the mechanisms of their interaction with nuclear matter are not yet well understood. The open heavy flavor hadrons can be studied using electrons from their semileptonic decays or via direct reconstruction through their hadronic decay channels. The heavy quarkonia production is expected to be sequentially suppressed depending on the temperature of the produced nuclear matter. However, cold nuclear matter effects play an important role and have to be well understood. In this paper we report recent results from the RHIC heavyion program on non-photonic electrons, direct reconstruction of charm mesons, J/ψ as well as ϒ in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV.

  19. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb). They are natural ... Heavy metals poisoning could result for instance, from drinking water contamination ... The high level of pollution caused by heavy metals and their .... measures need to be taken in order to prevent future heavy metal pollution. References.

  20. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  1. Some properties of the central heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wazir, Z; Khan, E U; Haseeb, Mahnaz Q; Ajaz, M; Khan, K H

    2009-01-01

    Some experimental results are discussed in connection with the properties of the central heavy ion collisions. These experiments indicate the regime changes and saturation at some values of the centrality. This phenomenon is considered to be a signal of the percolation cluster formation in heavy ion collisions at high energies. Keywords: heavy ion collisions, theoretical models, centrality, phase transition.

  2. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  3. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  4. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  5. Reservoir Screening Criteria for Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery in Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yuqiu; Zhang Yali

    2009-01-01

    @@ Characteristics of heavy oil reservoirsin Liaohe Oilfield Liaohe Oilfield is rich in heavy oil and is the largest base of heavy oil recovery in China. Its heavy oil reservoirs have following characteristics:

  6. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  7. Masses and magnetic moments of ground-state baryons in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vicente-Vacas, M J

    2012-01-01

    We report on some recent developments in our understanding of the light-quark mass dependence and the SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking corrections to the magnetic moments of the ground-state baryons in a covariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory, the so-called EOMS formulation. We show that this covariant ChPT exhibits some promising features compared to its heavy-baryon and infrared counterparts.

  8. Nonperturbative Heavy-Quark Interactions in the QGP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Ralf; Riek, Felix [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, College Station, TX, 77843-3666 (United States); Hees, Hendrik van [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Greco, Vincenzo [INFN-LNS, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); Mannarelli, Massimo [IEEC/CSIC, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2009-11-01

    We adopt a T-matrix approach to study quarkonium properties and heavy-quark transport in a Quark-Gluon Plasma. The T-matrix approach is well suited to implement potential scattering and thus provides a common framework for low-momentum transfer interactions in heavy-heavy and heavy-light quark systems. We assume that the underlying potentials can be estimated from the heavy-quark free energy computed in lattice QCD. We discuss constraints from vacuum spectroscopy, uncertainties arising from different choices of the potential, and the role of elastic and inelastic widths which are naturally accounted for in the T-matrix formalism.

  9. Heavy-Light Mesons in Chiral AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a minimal holographic model for the description of heavy-light and light mesons with chiral symmetry, defined in a slab of AdS space. The model consists of a pair of chiral Yang-Mills and tachyon fields with specific boundary conditions that break spontaneously chiral symmetry in the infrared. The heavy-light spectrum and decay constants are evaluated explicitly. In the heavy mass limit the model exhibits both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry and allows for the explicit derivation of the one-pion axial couplings to the heavy-light mesons.

  10. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  11. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  12. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jan-E Alam; K Assamagan; S Chattopadhyay; R Gavai; Sourendu Gupta; B Layek; S Mukherjee; R Ray; Pradip K Roy; A Srivastava

    2004-12-01

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5–16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III during the workshop (see also [1] for completeness). The activities of group III were focused to understand the collective behaviours of the system formed after the collisions of two nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies from the interactions of the elementary degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons, governed by non-abelian gauge theory, i.e. QCD. This was initiated by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and lattice QCD and several working group talks and discussions.

  13. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1989-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  14. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, N; Heltsley, B K; Vogt, R; Bodwin, G T; Eichten, E; Frawley, A D; Meyer, A B; Mitchell, R E; Papadimitriou, V; Petreczky, P; Petrov, A A; Robbe, P; Vairo, A; Andronic, A; Arnaldi, R; Artoisenet, P; Bali, G; Bertolin, A; Bettoni, D; Brodzicka, J; Bruno, G E; Caldwell, A; Catmore, J; Chang, C H; Chao, K T; Chudakov, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, P; Drutskoy, A; Ellwanger, U; Faccioli, P; Gabareen Mokhtar, A; Garcia i Tormo, X; Hanhart, C; Harris, F A; Kaplan, D M; Klein, S R; Kowalski, H; Lansberg, J P; Levichev, E; Lombardo, V; Lourenco, C; Maltoni, F; Mocsy, A; Mussa, R; Navarra, F S; Negrini, M; Nielsen, M; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Peters, K; Polosa, A D; Qian, W; Qiu, J W; Rong, G; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Scomparin, E; Senger, P; Simon, F; Stracka, S; Sumino, Y; Voloshin, M; Weiss, C; Wohri, H K; Yuan, C Z

    2011-01-01

    A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA, JLab, and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing ...

  15. Deep-inelastic production of heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Laenen, Eric; Harris, B W; Matiounine, Y; Migneron, R; Riemersma, S; Smith, J; van Neerven, W L

    1996-01-01

    Deep-inelastic production of heavy quarks at HERA, especially charm, is an excellent signal to measure the gluon distribution in the proton at small $x$ values. By measuring various differential distributions of the heavy quarks this reaction permits additional more incisive QCD analyses due to the many scales present. Furthermore, the relatively small mass of the charm quark, compared to the typical momentum transfer $Q$, allows one to study whether and when to treat this quark as a parton. This reaction therefore sheds light on some of the most fundamental aspects of perturbative QCD. We discuss the above issues and review the feasibility of their experimental investigation in the light of a large integrated luminosity.

  16. The heavy top quark and supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-05-08

    Three aspects of supersymmetric theories are discussed: electroweak symmetry breaking, the issues of flavor, and gauge unification. The heavy top quark plays an important, sometimes dominant, role in each case. Additional symmetries lead to extensions of the standard model which can provide an understanding for many of the outstanding problems of particle physics. A broken supersymmetric extension of spacetime allows electroweak symmetry breaking to follow from the dynamics of the heavy top quark; an extension of isospin provides a constrained framework for understanding the pattern of quark and lepton masses; and a grand unified extension of the standard model gauge group provides an elegant understanding of the gauge quantum numbers of the components of a generation. Experimental signatures for each of these additional symmetries are discussed.

  17. Recent results on relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munhoz, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions is a very important tool in order to understand the strong interaction described by QCD. The formation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma and the study of its properties is a very challenging quest. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) generates ultra-relativistic Pb + Pb collisions at the TeV scale inaugurating a new era for such studies. Three experiments, ATLAS, CMS and ALICE are able to measure the products of such collisions. In special, the ALICE experiment was designed specifically for the study of heavy ion collisions. In this presentation, I'll discuss the latest results that shed light in the QGP understanding. (author)

  18. Heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mavrakis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to investigate the possible temporal correlation between heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays' activity, on various time scales. Cosmic rays measurements are sparse and cover less extended periods than those of precipitation. Precipitation is largely influenced by local climatic and even physiographic conditions, while cosmic rays' distribution is far more uniform over an area. Thus, in an effort to cover a larger range of climatic characteristics, each cosmic rays station was correlated with several nearby precipitation stations. Selected statistical methods were employed for the data processing. The analysis was preformed on annual, seasonal, monthly and daily basis whenever possible. Wet and dry regions and/or seasons seem to present a different response of precipitation to cosmic rays variations. Also Forbush decreases in most cases will not lead to heavy precipitation, yet this might be sensitive to precipitable water availability.

  19. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  20. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  1. Heavy meson spectroscopy under strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Spectra of the neutral heavy mesons, $\\eta_c(1S,2S)$, $J/psi$, $\\psi(2S)$, $\\eta_b(1S,2S,3S)$, $\\Upsilon(1S,2S,3S)$, $D$, $D^\\ast$, $B$, $B^\\ast$, $B_s$ and $B_s^\\ast$, in a homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed in a potential model of constituent quarks. To obtain anisotropic wave functions and the corresponding eigenvalues, the cylindrical Gaussian expansion method is applied, where the wave functions for transverse and longitudinal directions in the cylindrical coordinate are expanded by the Gaussian bases separately. Energy level structures in the wide range of magnetic field are obtained and the deformation of the wave functions is shown, which reflects effects of the spin mixing, the Zeeman splitting and quark Landau levels. The contribution from the magnetic catalysis in heavy-light mesons is discussed as a change of the light constituent quark mass.

  2. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2010-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact...... ("ultraperipheral collisions"). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2γ times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25γ....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...

  3. Diffraction radiation from relativistic heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyna, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the relativistic heavy ion beams at new accelerator facilities are allowed to obtain some new interesting results (see, for instance, Datz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (18) (1997) 3355; Ladyrin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 404 (1998) 129). The problem of non-destructive heavy ion beam diagnostics at these accelerators is highly pressing. The authors of the papers (Rule et al., Proceedings of the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne IL, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 390, NY, 1997; Castellano, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 394 (1997) 275) suggested to use diffraction radiation (DR) appearing when a charge moves close to a conducting surface (Bolotovskii and Voskresenskii, Sov. Phys. Usp. 9 (1966) 73) for non-destructive electron beam diagnostics. The DR characteristics are defined by both Lorentz-factor and the particle charge, and do not depend on its mass. The estimation of feasibility of using DR for relativistic ion beam diagnostics is undoubtedly interesting.

  4. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, N; Heltsley, B K; Vogt, R; Bodwin, G T; Eichten, E; Frawley, A D; Meyer, A B; Mitchell, R E; Papadimitriou, V; Petreczky, P; Petrov, A A; Robbe, P; Vairo, A; Andronic, A; Arnaldi, R; Artoisenet, P; Bali, G; Bertolin, A; Bettoni, D; Brodzicka, J; Bruno, G E; Caldwell, A; Catmore, J; Chang, C H; Chao, K T; Chudakov, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, P; Drutskoy, A; Ellwanger, U; Faccioli, P; Gabareen Mokhtar, A; Garcia i Tormo, X; Hanhart, C; Harris, F A; Kaplan, D M; Klein, S R; Kowalski, H; Lansberg, J P; Levichev, E; Lombardo, V; Lourenco, C; Maltoni, F; Mocsy, A; Mussa, R; Navarra, F S; Negrini, M; Nielsen, M; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Peters, K; Polosa, A D; Qian, W; Qiu, J W; Rong, G; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Scomparin, E; Senger, P; Simon, F; Stracka, S; Sumino, Y; Voloshin, M; Weiss, C; Wohri, H K; Yuan, C Z

    2011-01-01

    A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA, JLab, and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing ...

  5. Heavy Ion results from RHIC-BNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esumi Shinlchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from heavy ion collision experiments from RHIC at BNL are presented and discussed in terms of Quark Gluon Plasm properties, such as partonic collectivity and partonic energy loss. The experimental results with direct photons and heavy quarks have given important additional insights of the plasma on top of what has been known with light hadrons. Higher order event anisotropies and the related results have provided the geometrical, temporal and dynamical information of the plasma. The beam energy dependence of the various measurements could reveal the structure of QCD phase diagram and possibly the critical point in the diagram, where the properties of phase transition are expected to change drastically.

  6. Identifying multiquark hadrons from heavy ion collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2011-05-27

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  7. Global Constraints on a Heavy Neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    de Gouvêa, André

    2015-01-01

    We estimate constraints on the existence of a heavy, mostly sterile neutrino with mass between 10 eV and 1 TeV. We improve upon previous analyses by performing a global combination and expanding the experimental inputs to simultaneously include tests for lepton universality, lepton flavor violating processes, electroweak precision data, dipole moments, and neutrinoless double beta decay. Assuming the heavy neutrino and its decay products are invisible to detection, we further include, in a self-consistent manner, constraints from direct kinematic searches, the kinematics of muon decay, cosmology, and neutrino oscillations, in order to estimate constraints on the values of $|U_{e4}|^2$, $|U_{\\mu4}|^2$, and $|U_{\\tau4}|^2$.

  8. Searches for heavy resonances with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Lean, Christine Angela

    2016-01-01

    We present a set of searches for new heavy resonances with the CMS detector at the LHC. Proton-proton collision data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is used. Specifically, we consider searches for a $W$ boson decaying to a lepton and a neutrino, a $Z$ boson decaying to a pair of taus, and a heavy particle ($Z$ boson or Randall Sundrum Kaluza Klein gluon) decaying to a pair of top quarks. The searches are performed by measuring the mass distributions of the final state particles and testing for deviations from the expected Standard Model background. In the high mass ranges accessible by the Run II LHC, the final state particles are expected to be produced with high transverse momenta. This leads to dijet event topologies, and the latest reconstruction techniques are employed to separate these signatures from backgrounds. The results are presented in terms of upper limits on the model cross sections.

  9. Mosquito flight failure in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Telljohann, Luke; Thornton, Lee-Ellen; Moyer, Caitlin; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. We previously found that mosquitoes are successful fliers through rainfall. Heavy fog, consisting of drops three orders of magnitude smaller in mass than raindrops, presents an environment in which mosquitoes cannot maintain flight. Through high-speed videography, we observe mosquitoes reduce wingbeat frequency in heavy fog, but retain the ability to generate sufficient force to lift their bodies, even after significant dew deposition. They are unable, however, to maintain an upright position required for sustainable flight. A mosquito's primary flight control mechanism is its halteres, small knobbed structures evolved from the hind wings, which flap anti-phase with the wings and provide gyroscopic feedback through Coriolis forces. Though the halteres are hydrophobic, repeated collisions with 10-micron fog particles hinders flight control, leading to flight failure.

  10. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  11. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. It is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields $|\\vec{\\bf B}|\\sim m_\\pi^2$ are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. In this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.

  12. Production and Hadronization of Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Norrbin, E

    2000-01-01

    Heavy long-lived quarks, i.e. charm and bottom, are frequently studied both as tests of QCD and as probes for other physics aspects within and beyond the standard model. The long life-time implies that charm and bottom hadrons are formed and observed. This hadronization process cannot be studied in isolation, but depends on the production environment. Within the framework of the string model, a major effect is the drag from the other end of the string that the c/b quark belongs to. In extreme cases, a small-mass string can collapse to a single hadron, thereby giving a non-universal flavour composition to the produced hadrons. We here develop and present a detailed model for the charm/bottom hadronization process, involving the various aspects of string fragmentation and collapse, and put it in the context of several heavy-flavour production sources. Applications are presented from fixed-target to LHC energies.

  13. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  14. New system facilitates handling heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senties, A.

    1970-11-01

    Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has found a new way to produce heavy oil from pumping wells. The key component is a bottom-hole stuffing box which reduces the friction of the pumping string during the downstroke. The relatively simple system has already proven successful in the Ebano-Panuco area of Mexico, where Pemex produces highly viscous oil (10/sup 0/ to 14/sup 0/ API). Basically, the Pemex method consists of a special downhole stuffing box and polished rod anchored at the end of the pumping string. The isolated tubing is filled with water to minimize friction, and the heavy oil is produced through the annular space located between tubing and casing strings.

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  16. The heavy top quark and supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Three aspects of supersymmetric theories are discussed: electroweak symmetry breaking, the issues of flavor, and gauge unification. The heavy top quark plays an important, sometimes dominant, role in each case. Additional symmetries lead to extensions of the Standard Model which can provide an understanding for many of the outstanding problems of particle physics. A broken supersymmetric extension of spacetime allows electroweak symmetry breaking to follow from the dynamics of the heavy top quark; an extension of isospin provides a constrained framework for understanding the pattern of quark and lepton masses; and a grand unified extension of the Standard Model gauge group provides an elegant understanding of the gauge quantum numbers of the components of a generation. Experimental signatures for each of these additional symmetries are discussed.

  17. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-07-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs.

  18. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  19. Optical Faraday Cup for Heavy Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, Frank; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    We have been using alumina scintillators for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions [1]. The scintillator has a limited lifetime under bombardment by the heavy ion beams. As a possible replacement for the scintillator, we are studying the technique of imaging the beam on a gas cloud. A gas cloud for imaging the beam may be created on a solid hole plate placed in the path of the beam, or by a localized gas jet. It is possible to image the beam using certain fast-quenching optical lines that closely follow beam current density and are independent of gas density. We describe this technique and show preliminary experimental data. This approach has promise to be a new fast beam current diagnostic on a nanosecond time scale.

  20. Dynamically-generated baryon resonances with heavy flavor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanets, Olena

    2014-01-01

    De studie van zware hadronen is een belangrijk onderwerp in de deeltjesfysica. In tegenstelling tot deeltjes die opgebouwd zijn uit lichte quarks,zijn toestanden met zware quarks (bijvoorbeeld charm of bottom quarks) moeilijk te beschrijven, omdat er geen goed model is. De ontwikkeling van nieuwe ex